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					           CHAPTER 12:
  SATELLITE ATM NETWORKS
              I. F. Akyildiz

   Broadband & Wireless Networking Laboratory
   School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
           Georgia Institute of Technology
       Tel: 404-894-5141; Fax: 404-894-7883
              Email: ian@ece.gatech.edu
Web: http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn
           Why Satellite ATM Networks?
   Wide geographical area coverage
   From kbps to Gbps communication everywhere
   Faster deployment than terrestrial infrastructures
   Bypass clogged terrestrial networks and are oblivious to
    terrestrial disasters
   Supporting both symmetrical and asymmetrical architectures
   Seamless integration capability with terrestrial networks
   Very flexible bandwidth-on-demand capabilities
   Flexible in terms of network configuration and capacity
    allocation
   Broadcast, Point-to-Point and Multicast capabilities
   Scalable



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             Orbits

Defining the altitude where the satellite will
 operate.

Determining the right orbit depends on
 proposed service characteristics such as
 coverage, applications, delay.


  IFA’2005                                    3
                      ECE6609
                       Orbits (cont.)
                                                   GEO (33786 km)

GEO: Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
                                             Outer Van Allen Belt (13000-20000 km)
MEO: Medium Earth Orbit
LEO: Low Earth Orbit
                                                           MEO ( < 13K km)




                                    
                                                   LEO ( < 2K km)

                                            Inner Van Allen Belt (1500-5000 km)




     IFA’2005                                                               4
                                  ECE6609
                       Types of Satellites
                                             GEO: 33786 km
 Geostationary/Geosynchronous Earth
  Orbit Satellites (GSOs)
  (Propagation Delay: 250-280 ms)

 Medium Earth Orbit Satellites (MEOs)                             LEO: < 2K km
  (Propagation Delay: 110-130 ms)                            (Globalstar, Iridium, Teledesic)


 Highly Elliptical Satellites (HEOs)
  (Propagation Delay: Variable)

 Low Earth Orbit Satellite (LEOs)
                                               
  (Propagation Delay: 20-25 ms)

                                               MEO: < 13K km (Odyssey, Inmarsat-P)




        IFA’2005                                                                            5
                                         ECE6609
      Geostationary/Geosynchronous Earth
      Orbit Satellites (GSOs)

 33786 km equatorial orbit
 Rotation speed equals Earth rotation speed
   (Satellite seems fixed in the horizon)
 Wide coverage area
 Applications (Broadcast/Fixed Satellites,
  Direct Broadcast, Mobile Services)




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           Advantages of GSOs

 Wide coverage
 High quality and Wideband communications
 Economic Efficiency
 Tracking process is easier because of its
  synchronization to Earth




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           Disadvantages of GSOs

 Long propagation delays (250-280 ms).
  (e.g., Typical Intern. Tel. Call  540 ms round-trip delay.
  Echo cancelers needed. Expensive!)
  (e.g., Delay may cause errors in data;
  Error correction /detection techniques are needed.)
 Large propagation loss. Requirement for high
  power level.
  (e.g., Future hand-held mobile terminals have limited power
  supply.)
  Currently: smallest terminal for a GSO is as large as an A4 paper
  and as heavy as 2.5 Kg.

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                              ECE6609
       Disadvantages of GSOs (cont.)

 Lack of coverage at Northern and Southern
  latitudes.
 High cost of launching a satellite.
 Enough spacing betw een the satellites to avoid
  collisions.
 Existence of hundreds of GSOs belonging to
  different countries.
 Available frequency spectrum assigned to GSOs
  is limited.

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                     ECE6609
       Medium Earth Orbit Satellites (MEOs)


Positioned in 10-13K km range.
Delay is 110-130 ms.
Will orbit the Earth at less than 1 km/s.
Applications
    – Mobile Services/Voice (Intermediate Circular
      Orbit (ICO) Project)
    – Fixed Multimedia (Expressway)


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                       ECE6609
     Highly Elliptical Orbit Satellites (HEOs)


From a few hundreds of km to 10s of
 thousands  allows to maximize the
 coverage of specific Earth regions.
Variable field of view and delay.
Examples: MOLNIYA, ARCHIMEDES
 (Direct Audio Broadcast), ELLIPSO.


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                    ECE6609
           Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOs)


 Usually less than 2000 km (780-1400 km are favored).
 Few ms of delay (20-25 ms).
 They must move quickly to avoid falling into Earth
   LEOs circle Earth in 100 minutes at 24K km/hour.
  (5-10 km per second).
 Examples:
   – Earth resource management ( Landsat, Spot, Radarsat)
   – Paging (Orbcomm)
   – Mobile (Iridium)
   – Fixed broadband (Teledesic, Celestri, Skybridge )

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                         ECE6609
      Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOs)
      (cont.)

 Little LEOs: 800 MHz range
 Big LEOs: > 2 GHz
 Mega LEOs: 20-30 GHz




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                    ECE6609
      Comparison of Different Satellite
      Systems




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                    ECE6609
      Comparison of Satellite Systems
      According to their Altitudes (cont.)




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           Why Hybrids?
 GSO + LEO
   – GSO for broadcast and management
     information
   – LEO for real-time, interactive
 LEO or GSO + Terrestrial Infrastructure
   – Take advantage of the ground
     infrastructure

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                   ECE6609
           Frequency Bands
NarrowBand Systems
 L-Band  1.535-1.56 GHz DL;
           1.635-1.66 GHz UL
 S-Band  2.5-2.54 GHz DL;
           2.65-2.69 GHz UL
 C-Band  3.7-4.2 GHz DL;
           5.9-6.4 GHz UL
 X-Band  7.25-7.75 GHz DL;
           7.9-8.4 GHz UL

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                   ECE6609
      Frequency Bands (cont.)
WideBand/Broadband Systems
 Ku-Band  10-13 GHz DL;
             14-17 GHz UL
  (36 MHz of channel bandw idth; enough for
  typical 50-60 Mbps applications)
 Ka-Band  18-20 GHz DL;
             27-31 GHz UL
  (500 MHz of channel bandw idth; enough for
  Gigabit applications)

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                    ECE6609
             Next Generation Systems:
             Mostly Ka-band

 Ka band usage driven by:
   – Higher bit rates - 2Mbps to 155 Mbps
   – Lack of existing slots in the Ku band
 Features
   – Spot beams and smaller terminals
   – Switching capabilities on certain systems
   – Bandwidth-on-demand
 Drawbacks
   – Higher fading
   – Manufacturing and availability of Ka band devices
   – Little heritage from existing systems (except ACTS and Italsat)


    IFA’2005                                                           19
                                    ECE6609
      Frequency Bands (cont.)
New Open Bands (not licensed yet)
GHz of bandwidth
 Q-Band  in the 40 GHz
 V-Band  60 GHz DL;
         50 GHz UL



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                  ECE6609
      Space Environment Issues

Harsh  hard on materials and
 electronics (faster aging)
Radiation is high (Solar flares and other
 solar events; Van Allen Belts)
Reduction of lifes of space systems
 (12-15 years maximum).


IFA’2005                                     21
                  ECE6609
           Space Environment Issues (cont.)

 Debris (specially for LEO systems)
  (At 7 Km/s impact damage can be important.
  Debris is going to be regulated).
 Atomic oxygen can be a threat to materials
  and electronics at LEO orbits.
 Gravitation pulls the satellite tow ards earth.
 Limited propulsion to maintain orbit (Limits
  the life of satellites; Drags an issue for LEOs).
 Thermal Environment again limits material
  and electronics life.
IFA’2005                                              22
                           ECE6609
               Basic Architecture



        LAN                                                   Wireless
                                                             Terrestrial
                                      Ring                    Network
   Mobile
   Network

  Internet       Ring                Internet              Public
                                                           Network
                          MAN
    Ethernet                                    Ethernet

               SIU- Satellite Interworking
               SIU - Satellite Interface Unit Unit
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                                    ECE6609
                ATM-Satellite Configuration
         SONET/            Satellite
        PDH/PLCP          Interface


                   ASIU          Modem             Satellite

Multi-Service
Workstation


         SONET/            Satellite
        PDH/PLCP          Interface


                   ASIU          Modem

Multi-Service
Workstation



  IFA’2005                                                     24
                                         ECE6609
      3.2. ATM Satellite Interworking
      Unit (ASIU)




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                  ECE6609
           Payload Concepts

Bent Pipe Processing
Onboard Processing
Onboard Switching




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                 ECE6609
           Bent Pipe Processing
 Amplifies (repeats) the received signals
 Does not require demodulation/modulation of signals
 Simple payload (but little flexibility)




IFA’2005                                                27
                        ECE6609
       Bent-Pipe Protocol Stack
       (IP over ATM)
                          Satellite     Physical
     Applications                                   Applications

    TCP           UDP                               TCP           UDP

            IP                                              IP

           AAL                                            AAL

           ATM                                            ATM
    Medium Access Control                           Medium Access Control
      Data Link Control                               Data Link Control


       Physical                                        Physical

  User Terminal                                    User Terminal
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                                      ECE6609
           3.5 Onboard Processing
           (Transparent)
   Regenerates the received frequencies (3 dB gain)
   Requires demodulation/modulation of signals
   Digital payload (can be multibeam)
   Used mostly for mobile systems




IFA’2005                                               29
                          ECE6609
           Onboard Processing
           Protocol Stack (IP over ATM)
                              Medium Access Control

                  Satellite     Data Link Control

     Applications                 Physical             Applications

    TCP           UDP                                  TCP           UDP

            IP                                                 IP

           AAL                                               AAL

           ATM                                               ATM
    Medium Access Control                              Medium Access Control
      Data Link Control                                  Data Link Control


       Physical                                           Physical


  User Terminal                                       User Terminal
IFA’2005                                                                       30
                               ECE6609
           Onboard Switching
 Regenerates the received frequencies (3 dB gain)
 Digital baseband switching multibeam payload
 Baseline for most future satellite systems




IFA’2005                                             31
                        ECE6609
           Onboard Switching Protocol
           Stack (IP over ATM)
                               Network
                            Medium Access Control
                Satellite     Data Link Control
    Applications               Physical              Applications
    TCP           UDP                                TCP           UDP
             IP                                               IP
           AAL                                             AAL
          ATM                                              ATM
    Medium Access Control                            Medium Access Control
      Data Link Control                                Data Link Control

       Physical                                         Physical

  User Terminal                                     User Terminal
IFA’2005                                                                     32
                               ECE6609
              LAN/MAN Interconnection
 ATM
Network      AIU   ACDU                      ASIU
 Token
 Ring
             TIU   ACMU     Existing
                             ASIU      SIU
  FDDI       FIU           Functions

Ethernet           LMAPC
             EIU                             Satellite Modem
IEEE 802.6
  MAN
             MIU

 ATM
Network      AIU   ACDU                      ASIU
 Token
 Ring
             TIU   ACMU     Existing                           Communication
                             ASIU      SIU                        Satellite
 FDDI        FIU           Functions

Ethernet           LMAPC
             EIU
                                             Satellite Modem
IEEE 802.6
           MIU
  IFA’2005
  MAN
                                                                          33
                                  ECE6609
                       LAN/MAN Internetworking
                         Protocol Architecture
                                                                                             USER
      USER

                                                                                           Applications
     Applicat-                                                                              & Higher
      ions &                            Communication Satellite                              Layers
      Higher
4
      Layers
                                                                                            TCP/ UDP
     TCP/UDP

3       IP                                                                                     IP

2b                     LMAPC                                              LMAPC
      LLC        LLC              LLC                               LLC            LLC        LLC
    MAC.           MAC         AAL                                    AAL        MAC          MAC
2a (IEEE          (IEEE                                                         (IEEE        (IEEE
   802 3,5,6     802.3,5,6     ATM                                    ATM      802.3,5,6    802.3,5,6

1    Physical    Physical     Satellite   Physical      Physical     Satellite Physical     Physical
                             Modem I/F                              Modem I/F
                                           Satellite    Satellite
                        ASIU               Modem        Modem               ASIU

     IFA’2005                                                                                       34
                                                   ECE6609
           A NEW PROTOCOL SUITE FOR
           SATELLITE NETWORKS

                             Applications
             Quality-Critical             Time-Critical
                                        RCS
              TCP-PEACH
                                               RTCP/UDP
                             IPv4/IPv6
                 AAL5                         AAL2x
                               ATM
                              AFEC
                         MAC (WISPER-2)
                             Physical

            IP-ATM-Satellite Configuration
IFA’2005                                                  35
                             ECE6609
             TCP Problems in Satellite
             Networks

 Long Propagation Delays
  - Long duration of the Slow Start phase -> TCP
  sender does not use the available bandw idth
  - cw nd < rwnd.
 The transmission rate of the sender is bounded.
  The higher RTT the low er is the bound on the
  transmission rate for the sender.


  IFA’2005                                      36
                         ECE6609
             TCP Problems in Satellite
             Networks
 High link error rates
  - The TCP protocol was initially designed to
  work in networks with low link error rates,
  i.e., all segment losses were mostly due to
  network congestion. As a result the TCP
  sender decreases its transmission rate
  -> causes unnecessary throughput
  degradation if segment losses occur due to
  link errors

  IFA’2005                                  37
                         ECE6609
             TCP Problems in Satellite
             Networks

 Asymmetric Bandw idth:
  - ACK packets may congest the reverse channel,
  and be delayed or lost -> Traffic burstiness
  increases and Throughput decreases




  IFA’2005                                     38
                         ECE6609
            Duration of the Slow Start for LEO,
                MEO and GEO Satellites



Satellite   RTT    TSlowStart       TSlowStart     TSlowStart
Type        msec   (B=1Mb/sec)      (B=10Mb/sec)   (B=155Mb/sec)
LEO         50     0.18 sec         0.35 sec       0.55 sec
MEO         250    1.49 sec         2.32 sec       3.31 sec
GEO         550    3.91 sec         5.73 sec       7.91 sec




 IFA’2005                                                          39
                                 ECE6609
           TCP Peach: A New Congestion
           Scheme for Satellite Networks

Sudden Start (*)
Congestion Avoidance
Fast Retransmit
Rapid Recovery (*)


 * I. F. Akyildiz, G. Morabito, S. Palazzo,”TCP Peach: A New
 Flow Control Scheme for Satellite Networks”. IEEE/ACM
 Transactions on Networking, June 2001.

IFA’2005                                                       40
                             ECE6609
           TCP-Peach Scheme




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                  ECE6609
      Comparison Between the Sudden Start
      and the Slow Start




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             What is Handover?

 Leo Satellites
  circulate the Earth at
  a constant speed.
 Coverage area of a
  LEO satellite
  changes
  continuously.
 Handover is
  necessary between
  end-satellites.


  IFA’2005                           43
                           ECE6609
           Types of Handover




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           Footprint and Orbit Periods




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                     ECE6609
      Handover Management Through
      Re-routing
      Uzunalioglu, H., Akyildiz, I.F., Yesha, Y., and Yen W., "Footprint Handover
      Rerouting Protocol for LEO Satellite Networks," ACM-Baltzer Journal of
      Wireless Networks (WINET), Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 327-337, November 1999.




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           Footprint Re-routing (FR)




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                Routing Algorithms for
                Satellite Networks
                                             Satellites organized in planes
                                             User Data Links (UDL)
                                             Inter-Satellite Links (ISL)
                                             Short roundtrip delays
                                             Very dynamic yet predictable
                                              network topology
                                               – Satellite positions
                                               – Link availability
                                           Changing visibility from the
                                            Earth

http://www.teledesic.com/tech/mGall.htm

   IFA’2005                                                               48
                                              ECE6609
                          LEO’s at Polar Orbits
                                                       Seam
                                                           – Border between
                                                             counter-rotating
                                                             satellite planes
                                                       Polar Regions
                                                           – Regions where the
                                                             inter-plane ISLs are
                                                             turned off
       E. Ekici, I. F. Akyildiz, M. Bender, “The Datagram Routing Algorithm for Satellite IP Networks” ,
                            IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, April 2001.

       E. Ekici, I. F. Akyildiz, M. Bender, “A New Multicast Routing Algorithm for Satellite IP Networks”,
                            IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, April 2002.
           IFA’2005                                                                                 49
                                                   ECE6609
      IP-Based Routing in LEO
          Satellite Networks

                           Datagram Routing
                            – Darting
                              Algorithm
                            – Geographic-
                              Based
                           Multicast Routing
                            – No scheme
                              available

IFA’2005                                    50
                ECE6609
      Routing in Multi-Layered
         Satellite Networks




IFA’2005                         51
                 ECE6609
      Multi-Layered Satellite Routing
      I.F. Akyildiz, E. Ekici and M.D. Bender, “MLSR: A Novel Routing Algorithm for Multi-
      Layered Satellite IP Networks,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, June 2002.




                                        Satellite Architecture
                                            – Consists of multiple
                                              layers (here 3)
                                            – UDL/ISL/IOL
                                            – Terrestrial gateways
                                              connected to at least
                                              one satellite




IFA’2005                                                                           52
                                   ECE6609
           Iridium Network




IFA’2005                      53
                    ECE6609
           Iridium Network (cont.)




IFA’2005                             54
                    ECE6609
           Iridium Network (cont.)
   6 orbits
   11 satellites/orbit
   48 spotbeams/satellite
   Spotbeam diameter = 700 km
   Footprint diameter = 4021km
   59 beams to cover United States
   Satellite speed = 26,000 km/h = 7 km/s
   Satellite visibility = 9 - 10 min
   Spotbeam visibility < 1 minute
 System period = 100 minutes

IFA’2005                                     55
                      ECE6609
           Iridium Network (cont.)
   4.8 kbps voice, 2.4 Kbps data
   TDMA
   80 channels /beam
   3168 beams globally (2150 active beams)
   Dual mode user handset
   User-Satellite Link = L-Band
   Gateway-Satellite Link = Ka-Band
   Inter-Satellite Link = Ka-Band


IFA’2005                                      56
                      ECE6609
           Operational Systems




IFA’2005                         57
                     ECE6609
           Operational Systems (cont.)
           Little LEOs




IFA’2005                                 58
                      ECE6609
                 Proposed and Operational
                 Systems
1.   ICO Global Communications (New ICO)
           Number of Satellites:                           10
           Planes:                                                   2
           Satellites/Plane:                               5
           Altitude:                                       10,350 km
           Orbital Inclination:                            45°
           Remarks:
              Service: Voice @ 4.8 kbps, data @ 2.4 kbps and higher
              Operation anticipated in 2003
              System taken over by private investors due to financial difficulties
              Estimated cost: $4,000,000,000
              163 spot beams/satellite, 950,000 km2 coverage area/beam,
               28 channels/beam
              Service link:   1.98-2.01 GHz (downlink), 2.17-2.2 GHz (uplink); (TDMA)
              Feeder link:    3.6 GHz band (downlink), 6.5 GHz band (uplink)
         IFA’2005                                                                        59
                                             ECE6609
              Proposed and Operational
              Systems (cont.)
2. Globalstar
        Number of Satellites:                          48
        Planes:                                         8
        Satellites/Plane:                               6
        Altitude:                                    1,414 km
        Orbital Inclination:                           52°
        Remarks:
           Service: Voice @ 4.8 kbps, data @ 7.2 kbps
           Operation started in 1999
           Early financial difficulties
           Estimated cost: $2,600,000,000
           16 spot beams/satellite, 2,900,000 km2 coverage area/beam,
            175 channels/beam
           Service link:   1.61-1.63 GHz (downlink), 2.48-2.5 GHz (uplink); (CDMA)
           Feeder link:    6.7-7.08 GHz (downlink), 5.09-5.25 GHz (uplink)
      IFA’2005                                                                        60
                                          ECE6609
           Proposed and Operational
           Systems (cont.)
3. ORBCOM
      Number of Satellites:                         36
      Planes:                                       4                  2
      Satellites/Plane:                             2                  2
      Altitude:                                     775 km             775 km
      Orbital Inclination:                          45°                70°
      Remarks:
         Near real-time service
         Operation started in 1998 (first in market)
         Cost: $350,000,000
         Service link:  137-138 MHz (downlink), 148-149 MHz (uplink)
         Spacecraft mass: 40 kg



     IFA’2005                                                                    61
                                       ECE6609
           Proposed and Operational
           Systems (cont.)
4. Starsys
     Number of Satellites:                            24
     Planes:                                           6
     Satellites/Plane:                                 4
     Altitude:                                  1,000 km
     Orbital Inclination:                             53°
     Remarks:
         Service: Messaging and positioning
         Global coverage
         Service link: 137-138 MHz (downlink), 148-149 MHz (uplink)
         Spacecraft mass: 150 kg

   IFA’2005                                                            62
                                    ECE6609
            Proposed and Operational
            Systems (cont.)
5. Teledesic (original proposal)
       Number of Satellites:                           840 (original)
       Planes:                                           21
       Satellites/Plane:                                 40
       Altitude:                                        700 km
       Orbital Inclination:                             98.2°
       Remarks:
          Service: FSS, provision for mobile service
                     (16 kbps – 2.048 Mbps, including video) for 2,000,000 users
          Sun-synchronous orbit, earth-fixed cells
          System cost: $9,000,000,000 ($2000 for terminals)
          Service link:    18.8-19.3 GHz (downlink), 28.6-29.1 GHz (uplink) (Ka band)
          ISL: 60 GHz
          Spacecraft mass: 795 kg
      IFA’2005                                                                           63
                                         ECE6609
            Proposed and Operational
            Systems (cont.)
6. Teledesic (final proposal)
       Number of Satellites:                            288 (scaled down)
       Planes:                                           12
       Satellites/Plane:                                24
       Altitude:                                        700 km
       Remarks:
          Service: FSS, provision for mobile service
                     (16 kbps – 2.048 Mbps, including video) for 2,000,000 users
          Sun-synchronous orbit, earth-fixed cells
          System cost: $9,000,000,000 ($2000 for terminals)
          Service link:    18.8-19.3 GHz (downlink), 28.6-29.1 GHz (uplink) (Ka band)
          ISL: 60 GHz
          Spacecraft mass: 795 kg


      IFA’2005                                                                           64
                                         ECE6609
          HALOTM Netw ork : A Wireless Broadband
          Metropolitan Area Netw ork
                   To Satellites            15 - 150 Gbps Throughput Capacity
                                               (5,000 to 50,000 T1 Equivalents)
                 1 to 15
            TM
     HALO        Gateway Beams
                                                          100 to 1000
Frequency Options - 28 or 38                              Subscriber
           GHz                                              Beams       Coverage
    Service Availability                                                  Cells




                                     Urban Area

                                   Suburban & Rural
                                       Areas


                                       50 - 75
                                       miles
 IFA’2005                                                                          65
                                       ECE6609
            HALOTM Network (cont.)
                                                HALO™
                                                Network
Communication Payload                            Hub
 (Payload & Switching
         Node)
                                                                 Business
       Network                                         BPE        Premise
      Operations                           HALO                 Equipment
        Center                            Gateway
   Consumer
                         CPE
     Premise
   Equipment
                                                              To Remote
                                             Public          Metropolitan
                       Internet
                                           Switched            Centers
                   Service Provider
                                           Telephone
                    (ISP), Content
                                            Network
                       Producer
                                            (PSTN)

 IFA’2005                                                                   66
                                      ECE6609
           HALOTM Network (cont.):
           Mobility Model




IFA’2005                             67
                      ECE6609
           A Stratospheric
           Communications Layer
                                     GEO Satellites
                                      22,300 miles
     LEO
   Satellites
   400 miles
      High Altitude Long              HALO Aircraft
          Operation                     10 miles



                                          Terrestrial
                                           < 200 ft


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                           ECE6609
           Interconnection of HALOTM
           Networks




   100 Sites
  Serve 72% of
   Population
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                      ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)


1. Survey Paper
  •     Akyildiz, I.F. and Jeong, S., "Satellite ATM Networks: A
        Survey," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 35, No. 7,
        pp.30-44, July 1997.




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                               ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

2. Transport Layer
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Morabito, G., and Palazzo, S., "TCP Peach for Satellite
        Networks: Analytical Model and Performance Evaluation,''
        International Journal of Satellite Communications, Vol. 19, pp. 429-
        442, October 2001.
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Morabito, G., Palazzo, S., "TCP Peach: A New
        Congestion Control Scheme for Satellite IP Networks,'' IEEE/ACM
        Transactions on Networking, Vol. 9, No. 3, June 2001.
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Morabito, G., Palazzo, S., “Research Issues for Transport
        Protocols in Satellite IP Networks,'' IEEE PCS (Personal
        Communications Systems) Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 44-48, June
        2001.
  •     Morabito, G., Tang, J., Akyildiz, I.F., and Johnson, M., “A New Rate
        Control Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in Satellite IP Networks,'' IEEE
        Infocom'01, April 2001, Alaska.
      IFA’2005                                                              71
                                     ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

2. Transport Layer (cont.)
  •     Morabito, G., Akyildiz, I.F., Palazzo S., "Design and Modeling of a New
        Flow Control Scheme (TCP Peach) for Satellite Networks" IFIP-TC6/
        European Union: Networking 2000 Conference: Broadband Satellite
        Workshop, Paris, France, May 2000.
  •     Morabito G., Akyildiz, I.F., Palazzo, S., "ABR Traffic Control for
        Satellite ATM Networks," IEEE Globecom'99 Conference, Rio De
        Janeiro, December 1999.
3. Handover Management
  •     Cho, S., Akyildiz I. F., Bender M. D., and Uzunalioglu H., "A New Connection
        Admission Control for Spotbeam Handover in LEO Satellite Networks," to
        appear in ACM-Kluwer Wireless Networks Journal, 2002.
  •     Cho, S.R., Akyildiz, I.F., Bender, M.D., and Uzunalioglu, H., “A New Spotbeam
        Handover Management Technique for LEO Satellite Networks,'' Proc. of IEEE
        GLOBECOM 2000, San Francisco, CA, November 2000.
      IFA’2005                                                                  72
                                      ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

3. Handover Management (cont.)
  •     Cho, S., “Adaptive Dynamic Channel Allocation Scheme for Spotbeam
        Handover in LEO Satellite Networks,'' to appear in the IEEE Vehicular
        Technology Conference (IEEE VTC) 2000, Boston, MA, September,
        2000.
  •     McNair, J., “Location Registration in Mobile Satellite Systems'', Proc. of
        the 5th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC
        2000), July 2000.
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Uzunalioglu, H., and Bender, M.D., "Handover
        Management in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite Networks," ACM-
        Baltzer Journal of Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET), Vol. 4,
        No. 4, pp. 301-310, December 1999.
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., Akyildiz, I.F., Yesha, Y., and Yen W., "Footprint
        Handover Rerouting Protocol for LEO Satellite Networks," ACM-
        Baltzer Journal of Wireless Networks (WINET), Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 327-
        337, November 1999.
      IFA’2005                                                              73
                                     ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

3. Handover Management (cont.)
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., Evans, J.W., and Gowens, J., ”A Connection
        Admission Control Algorithm for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite
        Networks,'' Proc. of IEEE ICC'99, pp. 1074 - 1078, Vancouver,
        Canada, June 1999.
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., and Yen W., “Managing Connection Handover
        in Satellite Networks,'' Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM '97, pp. 1606-
        1610, Phoenix, Arizona, Dec. 1997.
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., Yen W., and Akyildiz, I.F., "Handover
        Management in LEO Satellite ATM Networks," Proc. of the
        ACM/IEEE MobiCom'97, pp. 204-214, October 1997.


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                                ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

4. Routing
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Ekici, E., and Bender, M.D., "MLSR: A Novel Routing Algorithm
        for Multi-Layered Satellite IP Networks", April 2001; Revised in September
        2001.
  •     Ekici, E., Akyildiz, I.F., and Bender, M., “A Multicast Routing Algorithm for
        LEO Satellite IP Networks,'' to appear in IEEE/ACM Transactions on
        Networking, April 2002.
  •     Ekici, E., Akyildiz, I.F., Bender, M., "A Distributed Routing Algorithm for
        Datagram Traffic in LEO Satellite Networks," IEEE/ACM Transactions on
        Networking, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 137-148, April 2001.
  •     Ekici, E., Akyildiz, I.F., and Bender, M.D., "Network Layer Integration of
        Terrestrial and Satellite IP Networks over BGP-S" Proceedings of GLOBECOM
        2001, San Antonio, TX, Nov. 25-29, 2001.
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., Akyildiz, I.F., and Bender, M.D., “A Routing Algorithm for
        LEO Satellite Networks with Dynamic Connectivity,'' ACM-Baltzer Journal of
        Wireless Networks (WINET), Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 181-190, June 2000.
      IFA’2005                                                                  75
                                      ECE6609
            References Published in BWN Lab
            (http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/)

4. Routing (cont.)
  •     Ekici, E., Akyildiz, I.F., Bender, M.D., "Datagram Routing Algorithm
        for LEO Satellite Networks'' IEEE INFOCOM'2000, Israel, March 2000.
  •     Uzunalioglu, H., “Probabilistic Routing Protocol for Low Earth Orbit
        Satellite Networks,'' Proc. of the IEEE ICC'98, Atlanta, pp. 89-93, June
        1998.
5. HALO Network
  •     Colella, N.J., Martin, J., and Akyildiz, I.F., "The HALO Network,'' IEEE
        Communications Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 142-148, June 2000.
  •     Akyildiz, I.F., Wang, X., and Colella, N., "HALO (High Altitude Long
        Operation): A Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Network,'' IEEE
        MoMuC'99 (Mobile Multimedia Communication Conference), San
        Diego, November 1999.

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