Security threats

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					Cyber Security
       Presented by:
      Shingo Chiyoya
       David Dodgen
        Norvin Faltir
    Courtney Musgrove
              Computer Viruses
•   Program that infects files with a copy of itself
•   Seeks to infect every file on the computer
•   Infected files are contagious
•   Must be run by the user
•   First virus: 1982, Elk Cloner (Apple II)
•   Displayed a poem on every 50th boot
              Computer Worms
•   Worm can exist on its town
•   Multiplies itself by exploiting security flaws
•   First worm: Creeper
•   First “in the wild” worm: Morris
•   Attempt to gauge the size of the Internet
•   Asked if it had already been installed
                Trojan Horses
•   A program that has a hidden agenda
•   Contains code beyond the program’s function
•   Carries a payload: worms, viruses, backdoors
•   Not necessarily malicious
• Software covertly installed
• Gathers and sends sensitive information back
  to the controller
• Most spyware runs in the background
• Adware
•   Tricks users into revealing sensitive info
•   Uses a fake website or solicitous email
•   Acquired info is used in identity theft
•   Can be defeated through careful observation
    – Spelling errors
    – Do not follow links
    – Use different passwords
    – Look for “Https://” in the address
          Denial of Service Attack
•   Commonly Abbreviated DoS
•   Slows services by consuming resources
•   Crashing is possible
•   Often uses a zombie net
    – Network of infected, connected computers
• Examples:
    – Ping of Death
    – DDoS (Distributed Denial of Services)
Ping of Death
• Hacker
  – Old name for a skilled computer programmer
• Cracker
  – A programmer who uses skills to “crack” systems
• Script Kiddy
  – Uses tools written by more skilled programmers
      Standard Methods of Attack
•   Development Key (root , debug)
•   Unsecured Programs
•   E-Personation
•   Analytic Software
    – Dictionary attacks
    – Brute-force attack
                Security Hole
•   Error in programming or implementation
•   Allows intruders access
•   Can be patched
•   “Patch Tuesday”
•   Privilege escalation
               Cyber Terror
• Attacks essential computer systems
• Government, National Defense
• Private companies (financial, power, water,
  flight, etc)
• Stuxnet, Iran, Seimens
       Advantages of Cyber Terror
•   Anonymity
•   Low Cost
•   No Geographic Restriction
•   No Time Restriction
•   Tools used by root on Linux/UNIX
•   Windows: Tools installed to get control
•   May be installed before/after backdoor
•   Hidden from normal users
•   Gives the installer system-level control
•   Program to control computer without consent
•   Installed as the payload of worms, Trojans
•   Not visible to normal user
•   Slows computer performance
•   Often used with zombie nets
             Security Software
•   Programs to secure a computer system
•   Antivirus
•   Firewall
•   Antispyware
             Antivirus Software
•   Uses various identification methods
•   Signature-based
•   Heuristics (pattern-detection)
•   May use a virtual machine to test suspects
•   Free and commercial options
• Examples: AVG, Avast!, BitDefender, Kaspersky,
  McAfee, Symantec, ESET, Vipre
            Issues of Concern
• Some negatives of antivirus programs
  – Unexpected renewal costs
  – Rogue security applications
  – False positives
  – System and inoperability issues
  – Effectiveness
     •     None provide 100% protection.
     •     All produce false positives.
•   Not an actual wall
•   Controls Internet access to and from system
•   Packet filter
•   Application gateway
•   Circuit-level gateway
•   Proxy server
              Wireless Security
•   Encryption to deny intruders network access
•   WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy; broken
•   FBI: broke a WEP network in 3 hours
•   WPA1, WPA2: stronger than WEP
•   Many routers also use hardware-level security
• Malware
  – Viruses, Worms, Trojans, Spyware, Adware
• Users
  – Hackers, Crackers, Script Kiddies, Phishing
• Security Software
  – Antivirus programs, Firewalls, Wireless