Performance Analysis of The RAOA Protocol With Three Routing Protocols For Various Routing Metrics by ijcsiseditor



Lt. Dr. S Santhosh Baboo, Reader                                                       V J Chakravarthy
P.G. Research Dept of Com. Science                                                       Research Scholar
D G Vaishnav College,                                                                 Dravidian University
Arumbakkam, Chennai – 106.                                              

   In this paper, we have proposed a new RAOA                 supporting structure limits the adaptability of
   protocol (Right Angle or Ant Search). It is a              wireless systems. Wireless networks can
   reactive (on-demand) routing protocol. This is             generally be classified as wireless fixed
   done in route reply (RREP) method. During                  networks and wireless           ad-hoc networks.
   route reply when more than one route replies               Wireless LANs and cellular network can be
   are about to reach to source there are high                considered as infrastructure aided wireless fixed
   chances that they create congestion at the last            network. Mobile Ad-hoc network can be
   point. This congestion is a cause for possible             considered as a special type of wireless ad hoc
   collisions. We tried to reduce this possibility of         network formed without any infrastructure or
   collisions. We propose to include delay in                 any standard services. The multi-hop support in
   RREP when RREP is one hop away from the                    ad-hoc networks make it possible to
   source. We compared the performance of the                 communicate between nodes outside direct
   our proposed protocol RAOA with three                      radio range of one another, which makes it
   prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc              different from wireless LANs.
   networks, namely Ad hoc On Demand
   Distance vector (AODV), Ad hoc On-demand                   INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE AD-HOC
   Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) and                      NETWORKS (MANET)
   Destination Sequenced Distance Vector                      A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a
   (DSDV). We have chosen four performance                    collection of wireless nodes that can
   metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet                     dynamically be set up anywhere and anytime
   Delivery     Ratio,    Routing     Load,      and          without using any pre-existing network
   Throughput. The performance simulations are                infrastructure. It is defined as an autonomous
   carried out on NS-2. The performance                       system of mobiles nodes. Mobile hosts
   differentials are analyzed using varying                   connected to wireless links are free to move
   network size and simulation times. The                     randomly and often act as routers at the same
   simulation result confirms that RAOA                       time. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are emerging as
   performs well in terms of Average Delay,                   the next generation of networks. Mobiles nodes
   Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and                   are capable of transmitting the packets to the
   Throughput.                                                nodes which are in proximity. If a mobile node
                                                              has packet to send to other mobile nodes, which
   KEYWORDS                                                   are out of its range, then the nodes within its
   Ad-hoc Networks, Collision, Congestion,                    range forwards packets to the next node(s) until
   Average Delay, Performance Analysis, Routing               packet reaches the specified destination. This is
   protocols, Simulation.                                     why MANETs are also called mobile multihop
                                                              wireless networks. MANETs can be setup
   INTRODUCTION                                               between few nodes or can be extended by
   There has been rapidly increase in the number              connecting to fixed network. The system may
   of users of the wireless communications, from              operate in isolation, or interface with a fixed
   the satellite communication to the home                    network. MANET nodes are equipped with
   wireless personal area network, over the last few          wireless transmitters and receivers using
   years. Wireless communication has gained such              antennas which may be omni directional
   popularity because of the ability of the wireless          (broadcast), highly-directional (point-to-point),
   node to communicate with the rest of the world             or some combination thereof. At a given point
   while being mobile. But the presence of a fixed            in time, depending on the nodes positions and
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their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns,            Node-to-Node Packet Scatter (NNPS) is
transmission power levels and co-channel                     also a mechanism but aim to transmit packets to
interference levels, a wireless connectivity in              longer term congestion, when BPNS fails.
the form of a random, multihop graph or Ad-hoc
network exists between the nodes. This Ad-hoc                       The performance of the above two
topology may change with time as the nodes                   mechanism had been evaluated in term RAOA
move or adjust their transmission and reception              by using a high-level simulator, a packet-level
parameters. The nodes may be located in or                   simulator (NS-2). The results show that
airplanes, ships, trucks, cars, perhaps even on              RABGR is a practical and efficient multipath
people or very small devices, and there may be               routing algorithm. We have evaluated BNPS
multiple hosts per router.                                   and NNPS using NS2.

OBJECTIVE & OVERVIEW OF THE                                  2. Right Angled Biased Geographical
PROPOSED PROTOCOL                                            Routing or ANT SEARCH (RAOA)
A. Objectives                                                The requirements of the RAOA algorithm are
                                                             as follows. In addition, we present simulation
In this paper, we propose to design a Multi-Path             results that show that BGR achieves good
Routing Protocol, which sends the packets in                 performance with a low overhead.
alternative path, which has the following
objectives:                                                  Design goals
                                                             Wireless network with coordinate based routing.
Initially, we present a high efficient solution that         To have sensor networks, we require stringent
seeks to utilize idle or under-loaded nodes to               energy and computational constraints, which
reduce the effects of congestion. To work out                characterize these networks.
this, we highly enhanced the geographical
routing to allow a source to select different
paths to make the packet to reach the
                                                             The requirements of the geographic
destination. First, we propose multi-path                    routing protocol:
solutions for geographic routing which has less
effective results, at the end, we likely to propose          1. Low communication overhead –
right angled biased geographical routing                     packets sent by the sensor nodes are very small
technique        (RAOA),        a      lightweight,          e.g. the maximum packet size is 29 bytes.
stateless, Geographical forwarding algorithm, as
cost-effective complement to greedy routing.
The above RAOA protocol routes packets in                    2. Simplicity – The routing algorithm must
straight path i.e. 90° from the source, instead the          have low computational overhead e.g. 4 kB of
shortest path, towards the destination.                      RAM.

       To reduce the congestion during
                                                             3. Low state – nodes much maintains a
transmission of packets; we propose two more
                                                             minimal amount of state i.e. no per-flow or per-
congestion control mechanisms that highly
                                                             path state in network. In addition, to avoid the
enhance RAOA protocol.
                                                             hotspots in the considered wireless networks, a
                                                             multi-path algorithm should be there, that must
Biased Node Packet Scatter (BNPS) is a                       be able to provide a large number of path i.e.,
very light weight method mechanism that                      90°, with few common hops without increasing
partially aims to transient congestion by locally            routing failures, as compared to the single-path
splitting the traffic along multiple paths to avoid          greedy routing.
congested hotspots.

                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           With networks congestion is mostly situated at
Explanation of the Right Angled                            the border of the network, with point to point
                                                           communication congestion usually builds in the
Biased Geographical Routing (RAOA)
                                                           center. So avoid the congestion in the wireless
                                                           networks, the way should be followed, i.e., we
        The main idea in our solution is to                allow packets to route on alternate paths. This
reduce the congestion during the transmission of           type of routing avoid the congestion is busy area
packets form source to destination, for that we            in the wireless networks.
inserted a “BIAS” i.e. the angle in each packet,
which determines the straight line path from the
                                                           BNPS – Biased Node Packet Scatter
source so that the packets move towards the
destination. Here the term bias is a measure
                                                           BNPS splits flows close to the congestion point.
angle of which the packets take from the source
                                                           Each node monitors the congested status of all
from greedy route and also indicates the side of
                                                           its neighbours and splits the flows that are going
deviation. In our discussion, the term bias is
                                                           towards a congested neighbour, if the node itself
treated at each hop as an angle i.e., 90°. Instead
                                                           is congestion. The scattered packets contain bias
of routing greedily towards the destination. Out
                                                           of 90°, such that the modified paths quickly
proposed protocol “RAOA” routes greedily
                                                           move away from the original path.
towards the point P2 (target point) situated at a
predefined distance from the current node point
P1 such that the angle between the lines P1and             NNPS – Node – to – Node Packet
P2 is equal to the bias i.e angle 90° and finally          Scatter
the P3 node receives the packets. If the sending
node doesn’t find any node at 90º, instantly it            If BPNS cannot successfully support the
will search (Ant Search) for the node which is             aggregate traffic, it will only scatter packets to a
very near to that node. Once it finds the very             wider area or amplifying the effects of
nearest node, it will send the packets                     congestion collapse due to its longer paths.
continuously. Then that node finds the other
node at 90° and sends the packets.                         Evaluation of BNPS and NNPS
                                                                   In this section we present simulation
                                                           results obtained through NS-2 simulations. We
                                                           use three main metrics for out measurements:
                                                           throughput increase, packet delivery ratio and
                                                           delay among flow.

                                                                   We ran tests on a network of 20 nodes,
                                  P6                       distributed uniformly on a grid in a square are of
                                                           1000m x 1000m. We assume events occur
                                                           uniformly at random in a geographical area; the
                                                           node closest to the event triggers a
                                                           communication burst to a uniformly selected
                                                           destination. To emulate this model we select a
      Figure 1: RAOA Forwarding                            one set of random source-destination pair and
                                                           run 20 second synchronous communications
Minimising Congestion in Wireless                          among the selected pair. The data we present is
Networks                                                   averaged over hundreds of such iterations. The
       In wireless networks, Congestion occurs             parameters are summarized in Table 1.
when the wireless area around them is busy.

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Table 1.                                                 send (S)      time (t) and Receive (R) Time (T)
                                                         and average it.
                                                         ii. Packet Loss: It is a measure of the number of
 Parameter   Value     Parameter       Value             packets by the routers due to various reasons.
                       Link Layer                        The reason we have considered for evaluation
Number of
              20      Transmission     2 Mbps            are Collisions, Time outs, Looping, Errors.
                                                         iii. Throughput: It is the number of packets
 Area Size     x       RTS / CTS        No
             1000m                                       received successfully. In communication
                      Retransmission                     networks, such as Ethernet or packet radio,
  MAC        802.11                     No
                       Count (ARQ)                       throughput or network throughput is the average
  Radio                  Interface                       rate of successful message delivery over a
             100m                       No
  Range                   Queue                          communication channel. This data may be
             250 m     Packet Size     100B              delivered over a physical or logical link, or pass
 Average                                                 through a certain network node. The throughput
                          Packet                         is usually measured in bits per second (bit/s or
  Node        90                        40/s
 Degree                                                  bps), and sometimes in data packets per second
                                                         or data packets per time slot.
                                                         Simulation Results
In this section, the network simulation is
implemented using NS-2. The Network
Simulator NS-2 is a discrete event simulator,
which means it simulates such events as
sending, receiving forwarding and dropping
packets. For simulation Scenario and network
topology creation its used OTCL (Object Tool
Command Language). To create new objects,
protocols and routing algorithm or to modify
then in NS-2, C++ source code has been
changed. The simulator supports wired and
wireless and satellite networks. The simulations
were conducted on Celeron processor at speed
1.0 GHz, 256 MB RAM running Linux.


While comparing our proposed protocol with
other three protocols, we focused on four
performance measurements such as Average
Delay, Packet Loss and Through Put.

i. Average End to End Delay of Data Packets:
The average time from the beginning of a packet
transmission at a source node until packet
delivery to a destination. This includes delays
caused by buffering of data packets during rout
discovery, queuing at the interface queue,
retransmission delays at a MAC, and
propagation and transfer times. Calculate the
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Conclusion                                                 Security Scheme for Wireless Sensor
                                                           Networks”, Journal of Information And
         In this paper, we have developed a                Computational Science, Vol.4, No.2.pp.553-
multipath routing protocol which attains                   567, June 2007.
confidentiality of packets in both routing and             7.      S. Schmidt, H. Krahn, S. Fischer, and D.
link layers of MANETs. This paper does the                 Watjen, "A Security Arichitecture for Mobile
realistic comparision of three protocols namely            Wireless Sensor Networks“, In proceedings of
AODV, AOMDV and DSR with our newly                         First European Workshop on security in Ad-Hoc
proposed Reactive (on-demand) multipath                    and Sensor Networks (ESAS 2004), August
routing protocol RAOA. The significant                     2004.
observation is, simulation results agree with              8.      A. Rajaram and Dr. Palaniswami
expected results based on theortical analysis. As          “Detecting Malicious Node in MANET Using
we expected, our routing protocol RAOA                     Trust     Based-Layer     Security     Protocol”,
performance is the best considering its ability to         International Journal of Computer Science and
maintain connection by periodic exchange of                Information Technologies, Vol. 1 (2), 2010,
information, which is required for TCP, based              130-137.
traffic. As we know, routing protocol in grid              9.      Ajay Jangra, Nitin Goel, Priyanka &
environment is a rather hot concept in computer            Komal Bhatia “Security Aspects in Mobile Ad
communications. In our future work we would                Hoc Networks (MANETs): A Big Picture”,
be try to focus more on security issues.                   International     Journal      of     Electronics
                                                           Engineering, 2(1), 2010, pp. 189-196.
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16.     S R Biradar, Subir Kumar Sarkar,                  both as a participant and as a resource person.
Rajanna K M, Puttamadappa C “Analysis QOS                 He has Doctorate in Computer Science, he is a
Parameters for MANETs Routing Protocols”,                 visiting faculty to IT companies. It is customary
International Journal on Computer Science and             to see been keenly involved in organizing
Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 03, 2010, 593-599.              training programmes for students and faculty
17.     P Chenna Reddy, Dr. P. Chandrasekhar              members. His good rapport with the IT
Reddy, “Performance Analysis of Ad Hoc                    companies has been instrumental in on /off
Network Routing Protocols”, Academic Open                 campus interviews, and has helped the post
Internet Journal, ISSN 1311-4360, Vol-17,                 graduate students to get real time projects. He
2006.                                                     has also guided many such live projects. Lt.Dr.
18.     Lucian Popa, Costin Raiciu, Ion Stoica,           Santhosh Baboo has authored a commendable
David s. Rosenblum, “Reducing Congestion                  number        of      research     papers      in
Effects in Wireless Networks by Multipath                 international/national Conference/journals and
Routing”.                                                 also guides research scholars in Computer
19.     Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B.              Science. Currently he is Reader in the
Johnson Yih-Chun Hu, Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A                 Postgraduate and Research department of
Performance Comparision of Multi-Hop                      Computer Science at Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan
Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols.                Doss Vaishnav College (accredited at ‘A’ grade
20.     Rahul C. Shan, Adam Wolisz, Jan M.                by NAAC), one of the premier institutions in
Rabacy, “On the performance of geographical               Chennai.
routing in the presence of localization errors”.

            AUTHORS PROFILE                                            V J Chakravarthy, done his Under-
                                                                       Graduation in Madras University
              Lt. Dr. S .Santhosh Baboo, aged                          and       Post-Graduation        in
              forty, has around Twenty years of                        Bharathidasan University and
              postgraduate teaching experience                         Master of Philosophy Degree in
              in Computer Science, which                               Periyar University. He is currently
              includes      Six     years      of         pursuing his Ph.D in Computer Science in
              administrative experience. He is a          Dravidian University, Kuppam, Andhra
member, board of studies, in several                      Pradesh. Also, he is working as a Assistant
autonomous colleges, and designs the                      Professor in P G Department of Computer
curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate              Science, in the New College, (accredited at ‘A’
programmes. He is a consultant for starting new           grade by NAAC), one of the premier institutions
courses, setting up computer labs, and recruiting         in Chennai.. He is having more than two years
lecturers for many colleges. Equipped with a              of research experience and seven years of
Masters degree in Computer Science and a                  teaching experience. His research interest
Doctorate in Computer Science, he is a visiting           includes Wireless - Ad-HocNetworks -
faculty to IT companies. It is customary to see           Congestion reduction – Shortest Path detection,
him at several National /international                    new protocols findings.
conferences and training programmes

                                                                              ISSN 1947-5500

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