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A neural network architecture for progressive learning of robotic


Experts, stair climbing upstairs to the equivalent of doing aerobic exercise, can exercise cardiopulmonary function, but also to exercise the leg muscles, exercise can play a certain effect. But down the stairs, the knee and ankle joints to bear the weight of the whole body, and constantly repeat the action, will artificially increase the amount of these joint activities, will be a sharp increase in the intensity of pressure, the possibility of joint wear and tear will increase by On the body adversely.

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									           A neural network architecture for progressive learning of robotic grasps
                                J. Molina-Vilaplana and J. Lopez-Coronado
                            Department of Systems Engineering & Automation
                                   Technical University of Cartagena.
                                       Cartagena, Murcia, Spain

In this paper we present a neural network architecture for learning of robotic grasping tasks. The neural
network model allows acquisition of different neural representations of the grasping task through a
successive learning over two stages in a strategy that uses already learned representations for the
acquisition of the subsequent knowledge. Systematic computer simulations have been carried out in order
to test learning and generalization capabilities of the system. The proposed model can be used as a high
level controller for a robotic dexterous hand during learning and execution of grasping tasks.

            Adaptive stair-climbing behaviour with a hybrid legged-wheeled robot
                                 M. Eich, F. Grimminger and F. Kirchner
                                           Robotics Group
                            German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
                                          Bremen, Germany

Inspired by quadruped animals we developed the hybrid legged-wheeled robot ASGUARD. We showed
already that this robot is able to cope with a variety of stairs, very rough terrain, and is able to move very
fast on fat ground. We will describe a versatile adaptive control approach for such a system which is
based only on proprioceptive data. An additional inclination and roll feedback is used to make the same
controller more robust in terms of stair climbing capabilities. At the same time, high velocities can be
reached on fat ground without changing the configuration of the system. By using twenty compliant legs,
which are mounted around four individually rotating hip-shafts, we abstract from the biological system.
For the locomotion control we use an abstract model of bio-inspired Central Pattern Generators (CPG),
which can be found in biological systems from humans to insects. In contrast to existing work,
ASGUARD uses the sensed feedback of the environment to adapt the walking pattern in real time.
               On the mechanized inspection of glass fiber plastic pipes and pipe joints
            P. Chatzakos1, A. Lagonikas1, D. Psarros1, V. Spais1, K. Hrissagis1 and A. Khalid2
                            Zenon SA, 5 Kanari str., Glyka Nera, Athens, Greece.
                     TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

In this paper the development of a robotic multi-axis crawler to accurately deploy inspection equipment
on glass fiber plastic pipe and pipe joints is presented. The developed crawler is able to carry a range of
sensors to automatically inspect complex geometry components, making traditional scanners redundant.
First results show that the dexterity of the mechanized system is such that component coverage and
positional accuracy are maximized using only a minimum number of degrees of freedom.

              Development and gait generation of the biped robot stepper-senior
                               Y. Liu, M. Zhao, J. Zhang, L. Li, X. Su and H. Dong
                                            Department of Automation
                                              Tsinghua University
                                                 Beijing, China

This paper presents the development and gait generation of biped robot Stepper-Senior. Parallel double
crank mechanism and elastic materials are introduced in the 10 DOF lower limbs to mechanically restrict
the sole to contact flat with the ground for stable fast walking. Virtual Slope Walking is used for biped
gait generation, which is a simple method with strongly intuitive parameters for real-time utilization. In
walking experiment, Stepper-Senior reaches the speed of 0.65 m/s and accomplishes omnidirectional

    Development of an underground explorer robot based on an earthworm’s peristaltic
                                      H. Omori, T. Nakamura and T. Yada
                Department of Precision Mechanics, Faculty of Science and Engineering
                                          Chuo University
                                           Tokyo, Japan

Although shield tunnel construction and tunnel boring machines have developed a great deal, the
machines are still large in size and consume large amounts of energy. A robot small enough to investigate
under the ground by itself would extend the range of underground investigation both under the Earth‟s
surface and, in the future, on the moon. This study focuses on the peristaltic crawling of an earthworm as
a locomotion mechanism for an underground explorer robot. In peristaltic crawling, extension and
contraction waves are propagated in the anteroposterior direction by varying the thickness and length of
the earthworm‟s segments, and a large surface area is brought into contact during motion. Furthermore, it
requires no more space than that of an excavation part on the anterior of the robot. The proposed robot
consists of several parallel link mechanisms. We confirmed that the robot could move on a plane surface,
also climb a tube, and in perforated dirt. Good performance was observed in the experiments.

          Rolling locomotion of a deformable soft robot with built-in power source
                                Y. Matsumoto, H. Nakanishi and S. Hirai
                                        Department of Robotics
                                        Ritsumeikan University
                                             Shiga, Japan

Locomotion over rough terrain has been achieved mainly by rigid body systems, including crawlers and
leg mechanisms. We have proposed an alternative method, which uses deformation of a robot body, and
developed a prototype of this deformable robot. But, electric power was externally supplied, such that
power supply cables hindered the locomotion of the robot. We describe here the rolling locomotion of a
deformable soft robot with an internally supplied power source. We applied dynamic simulation with
particle-based modelling to analyze the rolling motion of this robot and found that increased weight had
little influence on the kinematics performance of this robot on flat surfaces. Increased weight, however,
was effective in providing greater stability on slopes.

                   GRACE – Generic robotic architecture to create emotions
                             T. H. H. Dang, S. L. Zarshenas and D. Duhaut
                               IFI - Francophone Institute for Informatics
                                        South Brittany University
                                            Vannes, France

In this paper, we present a model of emotions that we proposed in EmotiRob project. We make a
comparison of recent models of emotions and show that our model is generic in basing on the theories of
emotions of Ortony et al., Lazarus, Scherer and then the personality theory of Meyers-Brigg and Meyers.
               Motion design for an insectomorphic robot on unstable obstacles
                                    Y. F. Golubev1 and V. V. Korianov2
                           Mech.-Math. dept., Lomonosov Moscow State University,
                                  Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics,
                                               Moscow, Russia

Methods for designing of insectomorphic six-legged robot motion to overcome complicated obstacles by
means of Coulomb friction are presented. Those obstacles are two identical lofty horizontal shelves
connected by a narrow horizontal beam, a ladder leaned against a vertical wall of the shelf and a ball
which can roll along a horizontal plane. The 3D computer simulation was fulfilled to demonstrate
effectiveness and robustness of elaborated methods for obstacles overcoming.

                              Study of a vibration driven hopping robot
                                   S. Jatsun, V. Dyshenko and A. Yatsun
                                       Mechatronical Department
                                     Kursk State Technical University

In this article dynamics of vibration driven mobile micro-robots are developed. During locomotion these
robots use ideas of periodical motion of internal masses. In previous papers the motion of robots without
separation from supporting surface was developed. But in this paper hopping robot is presented. Such
kind of robots is especially useful for applications where small devices with high speed are needed. It
could be monitoring of relatively big terrain with no smooth surface. Considering robot moves due to
rotation of internal mass inside of robot body. Simplest mathematical model of the robot takes into
consideration only two rigid bodies moving relatively each other. Robot body contacts periodically with
rigid supporting surface. The flight regimes and landing of robot on the supporting surface are described.
Such approach allows defining parameters of robot providing different regimes of motion of considering
system. Theoretical results were compared with experimental dates received by investigation of
locomotion hopping robot`s prototype.
    Stable upright walking and running using a simple pendulum based control scheme
                                 H. M. Maus, J. Rummel and A. Seyfarth
                                    Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory
                                           University of Jena

One of the major issues in humanoid walking and running is to keep the trunk upright while the system is
basically an unstable inverted pendulum. Here, we investigate trunk stability based on the bipedal spring-
loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model. The proposed control strategy is to redirect the ground reaction
force (GRF) to a point on the trunk located above the center of mass. For keeping the trunk upright, no
external sensors are required. In a perturbed situation, the proposed strategy leads to pendulum-like
pitching motions. The model predicts a hip torque similar in shape and magnitude to that observed in
human walking.

   Remote automated non-destructive testing (NDT) weld inspection on vertical surfaces
                    S. C. Mondal, A. A. Brenner, J. Shang, B. Bridge and T. P. Sattar
                                 Centre for Automated and Robotic NDT
                                    London South Bank University,
                                        London, United Kingdom

This paper describes the development of an automated NDT system deployed by a climbing robot for the
inspection of vertical off ground weld structures of ship hull. The aim of this automated inspection system
is to monitor quality of both cold and melt weld and detect melt weld pool flaws at early stage of the
welding process and cooperate with a welding robot through a common intelligent system called Central
Task Manager (CTM) so that it can be repaired before the weld solidifies. An on-board couplant supply
system which normally applies in medical application and the design of a phased array probe holder with
a linear actuator to avoid obstacles during the transition motion climbing from the ground on to the
vertical surface is discussed. The central novel feature of the system is that complete and continuous
100% volume coverage of long weld line is achieved by combining electronic ultrasonic beam steerage
with just a single axis mechanical scan devices from the linear motion of the NDT robot parallel to the
weld. Experimental results obtained from a vertical section of the ship hull weld with the well visible
defect are presented. The results focus on the NDT signal stability achieved during a continuous scan of a
long weld line.
               Structure and model identification of a vortex-based suction cup
                           F. Bonaccorso, C. Bruno, D. Longo and G. Muscato
                      Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi
                                   Università degli Studi di Catania
                                             Catania, Italy

In this work a vortex-based suction cup is firstly described. This new kind of active suction cup is built
upon an idea of Duke University and composed by a rigid plastic cup with a rotating centrifugal fan,
powered by means of a small brushless DC motor. The fan generates a vortex in the centre of the cup that
finally creates a strong adhesion force. The cup could be of non-contacting type, reducing friction
between cup and wall when it is used as sliding suction cup, like in the Alicia VTX climbing robot,
increasing movement speed, allowing passing over small obstacles on the wall and avoiding the
construction / maintenance of sealing between cup and wall. In order to better understand and describe the
cup behaviour, a set of measurements of the cup internal pressure and associated payload have been done.
Based on these measurements, a dynamical model between motor speed and adhesion force has been
computed. The model structure will be described and some result will be showed.

                A robotic walker with standing, walking and seating assistance
                            D. Chugo, T. Asawa, T. Kitamura and K. Takase
                                Graduate School of Information Systems
                               The University of Electro-Communications
                                         Chofu, Tokyo, Japan

This paper proposes a robotic walker system with standing, walking and seating assistance function. Our
system focuses on domestic use for aged person who needs nursing in their daily life. Our key ideas are
two topics. The first topic is combination of standing assistance function and walking assistance function.
In previous works, many assistance devices are specialized in only "standing-up operation" or "walking
operation". However, in their daily life, elderly person needs standing, walking and seating assistance
continuously by a same device. Therefore, our developing assistance system can support both operations
by a small sized mechanism which is easy to use in the home. The second topic is a seating position
adjustment assistance. From questionnaires of nursing specialists, a seating position adjustment requires
the elderly to walk backward and it is difficult operation for them. Furthermore, in many cases, a failure
of this operation causes a fracture which has high risk to fall into bedridden life. Thus, our developing
system can assist the elderly to adjust the seating position safety. The performance of our proposed
system is verified by experiments using our prototype.
              Impact of upper body effort in FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise
                                Z. Hussain, M. O. Tokhi and S. C. Gharooni
                         Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering,
                                        The University of Sheffield
                                            United Kingdom

This paper describes the effect of voluntary upper body movement in assisting the indoor rowing exercise
for paraplegics. The indoor rowing exercise is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of
function of lower extremities through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The
model is developed using Visual Nastran Software. Three different damping levels of the flywheel are set
up to provide different pulling forces during the pull phase of rowing manoeuvre. Fuzzy logic control is
implemented to control the knee and elbow trajectory for each of the damper level settings. The generated
level of electrical stimulations for activation of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles are recorded and
analysed. In view of good results obtained, it is concluded that the voluntary upper body movement with
proper rowing manoeuvre significantly contributes to assisting paraplegics‟ indoor rowing exercise.

 Development of the riding robot like as a horse and motion control for the healthcare and
                                           M. Lim1 AND J. Lim2
                  Dept. of Mechatronics, Kyonggi Institute of Technology, Kyonggi-do, Korea
                    Div. of Electronics & Computer, Hanyang University, Kyonggi-do, Korea

This paper describes a riding robot system like as a horse developed for healthcare and entertainment
applications. The riding motion of this robot named by RideBot is similar to riding a horse for human.
The developed RideBot can to follow the intention of horseman using by the rein and spur mechanism
and to simulate the walking and running motion using by the saddle mechanism of 3 DOF. And also this
RideBot have the bio-handle mechanism which is to check the horseman‟s bio-signals include blood
pressure, pulse and heartbeat for the healthcare services of users. In order to evaluate the performance of
RideBot, we carried out the experiments on the several riding motions as follows: the slow walking, the
fast walking, and the turning of direction with horseman.
 Jumping via Robot Body Deformation - Mechanics and Mechanism for Higher Jumping
                                        M. Miyazaki and S. Hirai
                                         Department of Robotics
                                         Ritsumeikan University
                                              Shiga, Japan

As jumping is an effective method of moving over rough terrain, there is much interest in building robots
that can jump. Deformation of a soft robot's body is an effective method to induce jumping. Our aim was
to develop a jumping robot by deformation of a circular shell made of spring steel to result in the highest
jump. Higher jumping requires enlargement of the contact area between the robot body and the floor. We
developed a jumping mechanism that utilized a dish shape to maximize contact area.
     Mechanical and electrical design of a two segmental eight-legged mobile robot for
                                   planetary exploration
                          B. Ugurlu1, C. M. Uzundere2, H. Temeltas2 and A. Kawamura 1
                                         Yokohama National University, Japan
                                         Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

As a recent trend in robotic research, legged robots gained importance since they are capable of
performing vast maneuver abilities on rough terrain. Especially in case of planetary exploration, legged
robots seem to offer the most suitable mechanism in order to accomplish any given mission. Therefore,
this paper is aimed at introducing the development of a two segmental, eight-legged mobile robot for
planetary exploration, which has a novel mechanical structure and a hierarchical control system. Its
mechanical and electrical hardware design is explained in detail. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the
designed robot can be employed as an outdoor explorer robot.

                       From biomechanical concepts towards fast and robust robots
                         D. Renjewski1, A. Seyfarth1, P. Manoonpong2 and F. Wörgötter2
                    Locomotion Laboratory, Friedrich-Schiller-UniversitÄat Jena, Germany
                 Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, Georg-August-UniversitÄat
                                            Göttingen, Germany

Robots of any kind, highly integrated mechatronic systems, are smart combinations of mechanics,
electronics and information technology. The development of bipedal robots in particular, which perform
human-like locomotion, challenges scientists on even higher levels. Facing this challenge, this article
presents a biomimetic bottom-up approach to use knowledge of biomechanical experiments on human
walking and running, computer simulation and neuronal control concepts to sequentially design highly
adaptable and compliant walking machines.
             FES-assisted cycling with quadriceps stimulation and energy storage
                     B. S. K. K. Ibrahim, S. C. Gharooni , M. O. Tokhi, R. Massoud
                        Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering
                                       The University of Sheffield
                                           United Kingdom

Using quadriceps only to obtain smooth FES-cycling reduces the number of stimulated electrodes applied
to a paraplegic. Therefore, the preparation process for FES-cycling become more comfortable and less
time consuming. This paper discusses how elastic cables can be used to assist quadriceps FES-cycling to
eliminate the dead points of the pedal cycle. Implementation of an energy storage device (elastic cable)
has many desirable influences on FES-cycling, such as decreasing the number of stimulated muscles. This
in turn reduces the number of FES surface electrodes, thereby saving excess energy that is released during
the cycling. This subsequently reduces stimulation intensity and duration and minimizes muscle fatigue.

                             Motion planning to catch a moving object
               J. Serrano, C. Pérez, R. Morales, N. García, J. M. Azorín and J. M. Sabater
                    Virtual Reality and Robotics Lab., Miguel Hernández University
                                      Avda. de la Universidad S/N
                                              Elche, Spain.

Visual Servoing is one of the techniques that focus on more research projects in the robotics field due to
the great number of unsolved problems. One of these unsolved issues is the reduced velocity of the visual
servoing task, therefore this paper shows a high speed acquisition and processing image system that,
combined with a powerful cartesian robot can be used to catch flying objects. To estimate the trajectory of
the moving/flying object (a ball in this research), two Kalman filters with different cinematic models
(constant velocity model for horizontal movement and constant acceleration model for vertical
movement) are used. In this work, a great number of experiments are done to check the reliability and
robustness of the configuration setup and algorithms presented.
Teleoperation of a manipulator with a master robot of different kinematics: using bilateral
                              control by state convergence
                       C. Peña1, R. Aracil1, R. Saltaren1, I. Banfeld1 and J. M. Sabater2
             Departamento de Automática y Robótica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
          Departamento de Ingeniería de Sistemas Industriales, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Spain

This paper presents the teleoperation method of manipulators which have different kinematics with
respect of the master robots using bilateral control by state convergence. This method makes a relation
between the kinematics of the master and slave robot using a virtual robot. This method allows
controlling manipulators which are a part of different kinds of robot as: climbing robots, underwater
robots, human robots, etc.

   Computational cost of two forward kinematic models for a S-G based climbing robot
     M. Almonacid1 ,R. Saltaren2, R. Aracil2, C. Perez3, N. Garcia3, J. M. Azorin3 and J. M. Sabater3
                            Polytechnic University of Cartagena, Madrid, Spain
                               Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
       Virtual Reality and Robotics Lab., Miguel Hernandez University, Avda. Universidad s/n, Spain

An interesting novel application of the Gough-Stewart platform as a climbing robot and its kinematics
control has been proposed to climb autonomously through long structures describing unknown spatial
trajectories, such as palm trunks, tubes, etc. For planning the motion of the parallel robot, inverse and
direct kinematics problems have to be solved continuously in the path planning algorithm in a minimum
time. Computation efficiency of the model is very important. This paper presents a comparison between
two models of the 6-UPS parallel mechanism. Inverse and direct kinematic problems have been
numerically solved with classic methods and compare for four different configurations for the two
models. The analysis and simulation of the kinematics problems show the computational efficiency of the
proposed model for the path planning of the climbing parallel robot.

                      Modelling and control of an overhead crane with 3 DOF
                                      O. A. A. Shaebi and M. O. Tokhi
                         Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                        The University of Sheffield
                                             United Kingdom

This paper presents the design and control of a new style overhead crane. The design approach is based
on a modified traditional model of the overhead crane to allow the crane to move in three dimensions.
Two overhead cranes acting in the same work space are designed to show the benefit of the proposed
strategy. The modelling is done in the Visual Nastran (vn4d) software environment; and this is integrated
with Matlab-Simulink for analysis and control purposes. The simulation results show that the proposed
approach is effective with multiple cranes acting in the same work space.

         Impact of the hook attachment mechanism on control of an overhead crane
                                    O. A. A. Shaebi and M. O. Tokhi
                       Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                      The University of Sheffield
                                           United Kingdom

A methodology is proposed to control the positioning of an overhead crane and the sway and residual
oscillation of the associated payload. The MSC Visual Nastran (Vn4D) is used to model the system where
joints, forces and physical parameters such as dimensions and material type can be easily assigned. The
model is integrated with Matlab-Simulink for analysis and control purposes. Investigations are carried out
on mechanisms to attach the hook to the trolley for reduced the vibration in the payload. The simulation
results show that good performance in the reduction of vibration and accurate positioning of the payload
is achieved with a four ropes attachment mechanism.

    CROMSCI - A climbing robot with multiple sucking chambers for inspection tasks
                                C. Hillenbrand, D. Schmidt and K. Berns
                        Robotics Research Lab, Department of Computer Science
                                      University of Kaiserslautern

The non-destructive inspection of large concrete walls via robotic systems is no longer an unsolved
problem. This paper will present first results with the climbing prototype Cromsci which uses a vacuum
system of seven controllable vacuum chambers and an omnidirectional drive to move and cling to vertical
concrete surfaces. This platform is able to move and inspect vertical surfaces safely, fast and cost-
efficient. The technician can check the building more safe without any telescopic crane or other complex
access devices via remote control or semi-autonomously.
                Magnetic wheeled robot with high mobility but only 2 DOF to control
                              W. Fischer, F. Tâche, G. Caprari and R. Siegwart
                                        Autonomous Systems Lab
                                  ETH Zürich, CLA E18, Tannenstrasse 3,
                                           Zürich, Switzerland

In this paper, the mechanical design and calculation of a magnetic wheeled climbing robot is presented. It
is able to pass obstacles that previously had only been accessed by robots with more complex
mechanisms, but only needs 2 actively controlled DOF. A comparison to other design alternatives and the
influence of some core parameters are shown in calculations with simplified 2D models. According to
these calculations, a prototype was realized to prove its functionality in real tests. The paper concludes
with an outlook on further design improvements and shows possible scenarios for its industrial
application in the field of power plant inspection.

          Mechanism for variable transformation shapes of a single-tracked mobile structure
                                             J. Kim1 and C. Lee2
       Department of Control & Measurement Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
     Professor, Division of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju,

The variable shape single tracked mobile platform is designed to change track‟s geometrical shape by the
way for driving on a flat road and overcoming obstacles like stairways. Therefore the robot gets an
advantage from the way making a angle between tracks and stairs when it climb up high steep steps with
an appropriate attack angle formed by tracks. After rise on the slope of stairs, the robot‟s track shape is
changed to have more friction by the straight shape of tracks with rotation of the front pair wheels‟ arms.
Stairs‟ height, however, are not uniform, wheels‟ arms linked on the head side of body rotate to change
the shape of tracks for an appropriate attack angle. To these, we had designed variable front wheel pair by
the rotated arm. It is made to rotation with actuator which is linked at the adequate point on the arm and
has two passive wheels combined with bearing on the both of the end of arm. The mobile platform for a
robot is consisted rear wheels to drive for moving and front wheels pair arms to change shape of track for
surmounting obstacles. The rear driving wheels are connected with front passive pair wheels by a timing
belt to make a track. This moving structure is similar in kinematics with a two wheel base mobile
platform except strength of grounding surface frictions.
                            Dexterous energy-autarkic climbing robot
                        W. Brockmann, S. Albrecht, D. Borrmann and J. Elseberg
                      Institute of Computer Science, Computer Engineering Group
                                        University of Osnabrück

Over the last years researchers have put forth climbing robots for applications like cleaning and
inspection of buildings, many composed of large glass facades or plain painted surfaces. Besides adhesion
to the surface, dexterity and energy supply have turned out to be large challenges. This paper proposes an
energy-autarkic and dexterous robot concept, able to cross frames and climb arbitrarily inclined smooth
surfaces. To demonstrate this concept, the four-legged prototype CLAUS with kinematics of a simple
four-legged walking robot is introduced. Passive suction cups on each foot provide a simple and robust
method of adherence for climbing and avoid the constant energy consumption of active adherence
systems. A simple release mechanism controls these suction cups. By reducing weight, cost and energy
consumption of active adherence devices, the presented concept of the CLAUS robot comes one step
closer to the ambition of low-cost, dexterous and energy-autarkic climbing robots. To illustrate this
concept basic investigations are made using the CLAUS platform and considerations of control are

                        Balance control of a TWRM with a static payload
                                    K. M. K. Goher and M. O. Tokhi
                       Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                      The University of Sheffield
                                          United Kingdom

This work presents investigations into controlling a two-wheeled robotic machine (TWRM) with a
payload positioned at different locations along its intermediate body (IB). Two types of control
techniques are developed and implemented on the system model. The traditional proportional-derivative
(PD) control and fuzzy logic (FL) control. An external disturbance force is applied to the rod that
constitutes the IB in order to test the robustness of the developed controllers. The simulation results of
both control algorithms are analysed on a comparative basis for the developed two control techniques.
                    Balance control of a TWRM with a dynamic payload
                                 K. M. K. Goher and M. O. Tokhi
                     Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                    The University of Sheffield
                                        United Kingdom

A control technique is developed to balance a two-wheeled robotic machine (TWRM) with a
payload in a sliding motion along its intermediate body (IB). The balancing of the robot has to
be achieved during the motion of the vehicle and the payload. An external disturbance force is
applied to the rod in order to test the robustness of the developed controller. Investigations are
carried out on the effect of changing the level and duration of the disturbance force, and
changing the speed of the payload on the system during the balancing mode. The simulation
results with two control algorithms are analysed and discussed on a comparative basis .
                                        Climbing rescue robot
                                  L. Rimassa, M. Zoppi and R. Molfino
                                     PMAR Robotics research group
                                        University of Genoa
                                             Genoa, Italy

Rescue robotics for disaster response is of relevant practical importance to support rescuers. Main tasks
are inspection of collapsed areas and localization of victims. Rescue robots need to be agile in order to
penetrate even the smallest openings in the rubble. Often paths in the rubble are steep and climbing ability
is required to the rescue robot to move along. The efficacy of locomotion intended as amount and
distribution of thrust force transmitted to ground contributes remarkably to determine agility and usability
of the robot. A particularly efficient locomotion technique called „sliding sock‟ has been proposed. The
paper presents the application of sliding sock locomotion to a modular serpentine robot with climbing

     Stability control of a hybrid wheel-legged robot using the potential field approach
                          G. Besseron, Ch. Grand, F. Ben Amar and Ph. Bidaud
                         Institut des Syst`emes Intelligents et de Robotique (ISIR)
                                Universit´e Pierre & Marie Curie - Paris VI
                                               Paris, France

This paper concerns the control of an autonomous high mobility wheel-legged rover crossing uneven
terrains. A new control strategy, using active redundancies of the robot, leads to elaborate a posture
control based on the potential field approach of the stability measurement. Then a decoupled posture and
trajectory control algorithm based on the velocity model of the robot is proposed. Last, simulation results
showing performance of the control algorithm are presented.

    Influence of the sampling strategy on the incremental generation of the grasp space
                                    M. A. Roa, R. Suarez and J. Rosell
                          Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC)
                                 Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)
                                              Barcelona, Spain

The grasp space for 2D and 3D discretized objects describes the possible grasps on the object that fulfils a
desired property, namely the resistance to external disturbances or force-closure. The grasp space may be
generated by a brute force search, however, a more efficient approach takes advantage of the information
provided by a low number of samples of the space that allow the construction of the Independent Contact
Regions (ICRs) and Non-Graspable Regions (NGRs). This paper presents the algorithm for the structured
exploration of the grasp space, and compares the performance of two sampling strategies in terms of
coverage and time.

                   Step climbing of a four-wheel-drive omnidirectional wheelchair
                                                 M. Wada
                                      Department of Human-Robotics
                                      Saitama Institute of Technology
                                          Fukaya, Saitama, Japan

This paper presents a development of a four-wheel drive (4WD) omnidirectional wheelchair with an
advanced step climbing capability. For enhancing the mobility of standard wheelchairs, a new type of
omnidirectional mobile platform with a 4WD mechanism is proposed. The 4WD system provides
enhanced step climb capability however, chair inclination becomes large when either front or rear wheels
are on a step because a wheelbase of the developed wheelchair is almost same as a standard one. This
large inclination not only gives a high risk for falling but also brakes a load distribution condition
between front and rear wheels which is required for climbing the step. To solve these problems relating to
the chair inclination, we develop a chair tilting system for the 4WD omnidirectional wheelchair including
a linear drive and a variable center of rotation mechanism and an inclination sensor.

From hopping to walking-how the biped jena-walker can learn from the single-leg marco-
                                K. T. Kalveram1, D. Häufle2 and A. Seyfarth2
                         Cybernetical Psychology, University of Düsseldorf, Germany
                             Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena, Germany

Fast dynamic biped walking also includes a vertical “hopping” component which demands provisions for
take-off as well as for touchdown. To explore the conditions for stable hopping with minimal risk of
damage, we designed – inspired by the previously described Marco robot - a hopper model with a leg
consisting of two cascaded compliant elements. Optimization runs resulted in positive damping
coefficients (i.e. negative velocity feedback) to be applied from touch down until midstance, but negative
damping (i.e. positive velocity feedback) from midstance to take off, while stiffness barely differed in
both stance phases. Thereby, the energy management by positive and negative velocity feedback turned
the hopper model functionally into a mass-spring assemble capable of both stable hopping and avoidance
of hard impacts.
            Rolling locomotion of a deformable soft robot wit h built-in power source
          M. Xie, Z. W. Zhong, L. Zhang, L. B. Xian, L. Wang, H. J. Yang, C. S. Song and J. Li
                             School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
                                   Nanyang Technological University

Planning and control of humanoid biped walking have been an active research topic for many years. But,
there is no definite answer to the question of how to practically achieve speedy and stable walking in real-
time and in a changing environment. In this paper, we first re-examine the issue of planning and
controlling humanoid biped walking. Then, we propose two new ideas. The first idea is to treat the
supporting foot of a biped to be part of the ground. In this way, there is a foot reaction force acting at a
fixed virtual joint, which can be at, or below, the ankle joint. And, we come out a new concept, which is
named as {\it in-foot ZMP} in contrast to the existing concept of {\it on-ground ZMP}. The unique
benefit with this new concept of in-foot ZMP is that the ZMP control is no more an issue because the in-
foot ZMP can be controlled so as to to be at a fixed virtual joint during a stable walking. And, such a
fixed virtual joint can be called a {\em ZMP joint}. The second idea is to focus on hip's trajectory (instead
of on-ground ZMP's trajectory) and to split a hip's dynamic response into two independent parts: one is
the steady-state response contributing to the stability of walking (or standing), and the other is the
transient response contributing to the speed of walking. This idea allows us to explicitly postulate the
necessary and sufficient condition for achieving leg stability as well as the necessary and sufficient
condition for achieving foot stability. We will show that the implementation of these two new ideas help
realize a unified framework for task-guided, intention-guided, and sensor-guided, planning and control of
humanoid biped walking.

      Efficient sensor-based path planning for landmine location using walking robots
                             A. Ramos, E. Garcia and P. Gonzalez de Santos
                                     Department of Automatic Control,
                                 Institute of Industrial Automotion (CSIC),
                                      Arganda del Rey, Madrid, Spain

Detection and clearance of antipersonnel landmines has become a worldwide problem of interest to
civilians and military alike. The time required for deactivation by hand is too large. Robotic systems can
help to perform these tasks efficiently and safely. This work tackles a complete coverage method for an
hexapod walking robot based on a cellular decomposition strategy in which a circular robot with an array
of sensors surrounding the robot‟s periphery was considered. We have modified this coverage algorithm
to allow its implementation in a rectangular-body legged robot which handles a mine detecting set in its
front. Experimental results demonstrate the successful implementation and also the efficiency of the
coverage path obtained.
               Robot-human cooperation holding and handling a piece of fabric
                              P. N. Koustoumpardis and N. A. Aspragathos
                          Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics Department
                                         University of Patras
                                         Rio Patras, Greece

A neural network force control of a robot manipulator collaborating with a human to handle a fabric is
presented. A robotic gripper holds the one end of a piece of fabric while a human hand holds the opposite
end. As the human moves the fabric arbitrarily, the robot tries to manipulate the fabric according to the
required handling task. The task could be defined in a higher-level decision making process which is
based on the artificial constrains of the handling task and influenced by the human needs. A force sensor
mounted on the wrist of the robot manipulator measures the 3-components (Fx, Fy, Fz) of the actual force
applied by the human hand to the fabric, and the formulated force errors are used in the backpropagation
algorithm, which trains the Neural Network force controller. The controller is tested in a simple case of a
desired handling task and the results are discussed and compared with the reversed case, i.e. the robot
moves the fabric arbitrarily and the human tries to manipulate the fabric according to the handling task.
The response of the controller show that the robot is capable to handle the fabric according to the desired

          A cooperative climbing robot for melt weld inspection on large structures
                       J. Shang, S. Mondal, A. A. Brenner, B. Bridge and T.Sattar
                                Centre for Automated and Robotic NDT,
                                    London South Bank University
                                       London, United Kingdom

This paper presents a cooperative climbing robot which follows a welding robot for the inspection of long
weld lines simultaneously with the automatic welding process. The robot is designed to climb on ferrous
surfaces with strong neodymium magnets elevated by 20mm from the work surface for adhesion which is
able to cope with 20mm height obstacles on the surface, such as weld caps etc. There are two driving
wheels differentially controlled to provide smooth and continuous movement and two omniwheels, one in
the front and the other one in the back to support the robot. The design of two sections jointed by a hinge
joint mechanism increases the robot capability of moving on both concave and convex curvatures as well
as transferring across angled surfaces. The robot is able to follow the welding robot by looking at the
welding robot and the hot weld point using a number of sensors. The wireless control of the robot
expands the working range of the robot without concerning the umbilical problem experiencing on many
climbing robots. The safety factor of the robot climbing on vertical surface with the NDT payload is 2.3.
              A sub €1000 robot hand for grasping design, simulation and evaluation
                                      J. E. Tegin1, J. Wikander1 and B. Iliev2
                                   Mechatronics Lab., Machine Design, KTH,
                                 AASS Learning Systems Lab., Orebro University

A subset of grasps useful for service robots were identified and a low-cost robotic hand was designed and
assembled to execute those. Dynamic simulation allows control algorithms to be efficiently developed
and enables testing also in simulation. The performance of the actual hand is evaluated. The bill of
materials, assembly instructions, drawings, and CAD-files are all available on the Internet
(www.md.kth.se/kthand) to facilitate for those wishing to build their own sub EUR1000 robot hand for
service robotics research and development.

        The effect of leg segmental proportions on the energetic cost of robotic locomotion
                                        P. Chatzakos and E. Papadopoulos
                                      Department of Mechanical Engineering,
                                      National Technical University of Athens
                                                 Athens, Greece

In this paper the influence of knee joint on the motion of the robot and the effect of leg segmental
proportions and angle between leg segments on the performance of the robot is explored via parametric
analysis. The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) running in the sagittal plane, which is a simple
model commonly used to analyze the basic qualitative properties of running, is used. The performance
index is the cost of locomotion, which is given as the actuator power to sustain a certain motion, very
close to a passive one, normalized to forward velocity per body length and robot weight. Simulation
results show that the effect of leg configuration is great and that considerable variations exist on the value
of the energetic cost of locomotion that makes some leg configurations more desirable than others.

                     Humanoid robot game: a mixture of vr and teleoperation
                                             T. Juhász1 and L. Vajta2
         Dept Virtual Engineering, Fraunhofer Ins. for Factory Operation and Automation, Germany
       Dept of Control Engineering and Information Technology, Budapest University of Technology and
                                      Economics, Budapest, Hungary

Teleoperation indicates operation of a machine at a distance. The goal of our presented project was to
implement a face-to-face semi-contact robot fighting game that can be played by two remote human
players over the Internet. Our paper focuses on the system design of the robot game, where the behaviour
of each physical mobile robot is synchronized to a central virtual world.
 Sliding mode attitude control of a six-legged robot in consideration of actuator dynamics
                                          H. Uchida1 and K. Nonami2
                             Kisarazu National College of Technology, Chiba, Japan
                                         Chiba University, Chiba, Japan

The purpose of this study is to design a robust attitude control method of a six-legged robot. The walking
robot is a system including many uncertainties like the modeling error, the perturbation of a parameter,
and so on. These uncertain elements effected to the performance of the attitude control method by optimal
servo system. Sliding mode control is a very robust control method for above uncertain elements. As a
robust attitude control method, sliding mode control is applied. The validity of the proposed control
method is verified by 3D simulations and experiments of the six-legged robot, in which each leg link is
constructed by the worm gear.

 Generation method of feedback control input of leg link using an attitude sensor for a six
                           legged robot consisting of one link
                                   H. Uchida, Y. Shimizu and S. Nakayama
                                  Kisarazu National College of Technology
                                           Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan

This paper dealt with a walking control method of a six-legged robot consisting of one link without the
signal of the angular sensor. The leg of the six-legged robot is semicircle arc shape. In details, the transfer
function of the leg is derived from the frequency response, and the feedforward control input of the leg is
obtained from the inverse function of the transfer function. The attitude of the robot was classified by
eight types, and the generating method of FB control signal was proposed in four types where the
deflection between the reference signal and the angle of the leg was small. The validity of the proposed
control method was verified by experiments of the walking.
           Power analysis and structure optimization in the design of a humanoid robot
                           L. Wang, M. Xie, Z. W. Zhong, M. Wang and L. Zhang
                              School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
                                     Nanyang Technological University

Power consumption affects a lot on the humanoid robot‟s performance. Therefore, the estimation of a
humanoid robot‟s power consumption in the routine activities, such as walking, is a very important issue
at the initial stage of the mechanical design of the humanoid robot. In this paper, dynamic walking is
considered to be continuous oscillation, and a dual pendulum model is established in order to analyze a
humanoid robot‟s power consumption when it walks at the ground level. Based on this model, we will
show that the power consumption by a robot could be minimized by selecting an optimal value of the
walking frequency. Interestingly, such a value turns out to be quite close to that of a human being‟s
walking. In addition, the model is proven to be useful to determine the best placement of the hip joint for
the purpose of minimizing the humanoid robot‟s power consumption.

                 Biomimetic approach for tortoise-like robot modeling and control
                      H. El Daou1, J-C. Guinot1, P-A. Libourel2, S. Renous2 and V. Bels2
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotique, Paris Cedex,
                           Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris Cedex, France

In this paper we study the locomotion behavior in the terrestrial tortoise, Geochelone graeca to present a
biomimetic approach for modeling and controlling a virtual model of tortoise like robot. While the work
performed focuses on a particular animal, the method used is not specific and can be applied for others.
Many Experiments in vivo and vitro were performed on adult specimens, including X-ray filming of
animal in motion, 3D scan of bones and Schell of naturally dead tortoises and measures of the contact
forces between the animal and the ground. The collected data provided us with the inertial proprieties, the
lengths and masses of body limbs, the nature of joints, their corresponding axis of revolution, the angular
trajectories between joints and finally the ground reaction forces on each leg. The physical proprieties
were useful to build the virtual robot while the real recording of the animal in motion were used to control
         Wall climbing robotic system and noise control for reconnaissance purpose
                                 P. Wang, M. Li, W. Li and M. Zhong
                          Robotics Institute of Harbin Institute of Technology
                                  NanGang District, Harbin, China

The paper proposes a wireless wall climbing robotic system for reconnaissance purpose. Firstly, we
introduce the mechanism of the wall climbing robotic system. The wall-climbing robot of one single
suction cup with four wheels locomotion system enables fast motion and can adapt nearly any kind of
vertical wall surface in urban environment. Secondly, embedded control systems of wall climbing robotic
system based on 485 BUS are designed. Thirdly, This paper analyzed the noise producing mechanism of
the climbing robot using vacuum sucker, deduced the noise occurrence source and noise-power spectral
density and a stable pressure generating radical fan of low noise was designed with the Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. Experiments indicated that the noise of the robot is very low and reached 62
dB by testing in 1 meter distance while the robot was moving stably on tile wall.

                   Simple intuitive method for a planar biped robot to walk
                                               G. Chung
                            Pohang Institute of Intelligent Robotics (PIRO),
                                          Republic of Korea

This work deals with an intuitive method for a planar biped to walk. A key feature of the proposed
intuitive method is that feet of the robot are controlled to track a given trajectory, which is specially
designed relative to the base body of the robot. The trajectory of feet is presumed from analysis of the
walking motion of a human being. The author names the proposed scheme Relative Trajectory Control
(RTC) method. A simple method to maintain a stable posture while the robot is walking is also introduced
in RTC method. In this work, the biped is modelled as a free-floating robot, of which dynamic model is
obtained in the Cartesian space. Using the obtained dynamic model, the robot is controlled by a model-
based feedback control scheme. The author shows a preliminary experimental result to verify that the
biped robot with the proposed RTC method can walk on surface, which may be irregular.
Detection and clustering of the erroneous torques developed in the femur joint of a walking
                           A. Vitko, L. Jurišica, M. Kľučik, R. Murár and F. Duchoň
                        Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology
                                       Slovak University of Technology
                                              Bratislava, Slovakia

The process of clustering and classification of erroneous patterns that may appear in the behaviour of a
system is an inevitable constituent of any intelligent system. The paper is focused on the analysis of the
sensed signals for purposes of the early detection and classification of imminent faults. In particular, the
strings of the foot placing-lifting signals are grouped into clusters based on their similarity. The same is
done with samples of the joint torques. The clustering is carried out by the adaptive resonance theory
(ART) - based neural network. The results obtained with the experimentation with real robot demonstrate
feasibility of the suggested approach.

               Obstacle avoidance strategy for biped robot based on fuzzy q-learning
                                C. Sabourin1, K. Madani1, W. Yu2 and J. Yan2
                Laboratoire Images, Signaux, et Syst`emes Intelligents, Universit´e Paris, France
          Flight Control and Simulation Institute, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China

In this paper, we present the first results about dynamic obstacle avoidances using stepping over strategy
for biped robots. The proposed approach is based on the Fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) concept. The originality
of our strategy is that we consider it should be possible to design separately the high-level (path planning)
control and the low-level control (gait pattern). The first results show the effectiveness of the proposed
approach in the case of a flat dynamic obstacle.

                                   Intuitive human-robot cooperation
                                          H. Woern and A. J. Schmid
                                  Institute for Process Control and Robotics
                                          Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
                                              Karlsruhe, Germany

This paper presents new methods for an intuitive human-robot interaction. On the one hand, a new
explicit command interface is introduced that uses the robot's artificial skin as input modality. On the
other hand, a novel implicit command interface for proactive execution of robot tasks is described, which
is based on the estimation of the human intention. In order to accommodate these new human-robot
interfaces, the robot architecture was augmented by a task planner and an execution supervisor.
    Improving manipulation capabilities by means of radio frequency identification and
                                    computer vision
                     J. Sales, X. García, P. J. Sanz, R. Marin, M. Prats and Z. Falomir
                                           University of Jaume I
                                             Castellón, Spain

The present work shows recent results in the robotic manipulation context, after suitable integration
between computer vision and radio frequency identification (RFID). The experimental validation has
been carried out in a household environment, by using current manufactured objects, labelled previously,
and processed through a RFID reader situated in the robot hand. A camera-in-hand also was used for
segmentation and localization of the corresponding objects. The main problems solved in this work are
those related with hardware integration between the robot and the RFID system, including the RFID
reader, antenna and necessary interfaces. Furthermore, a graphical user interface was developed for
displaying the results from visual processing, including both, segmentation and localization of the objects
in the scene, visualizing at the same time the corresponding RFID labels associated which each previously
identified object. These preliminary results have demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of this system
to succeed with localization, identification and handling of daily objects, without predefined models at all,
in household environments.

    Adaptive locomotion for a hexagonal hexapod robot based on a hierarchical markov
                                    decision process
                                G. Cuaya-Simbro and A. Munoz-Melendez
                                     Computer Science Department
                        National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics
                                      Tonantzintla, Puebla, Mexico

This article describes a probabilistic control model based on Markov Decision Processes for the
locomotion of a hexagonal hexapod robot. Uncertainty is naturally taken into account in probabilistic
models, resulting in flexible control models that enable a robot to react to both, expected and unexpected
situations. The model was tested using a simulated robot under various experimental conditions.
Keywords: flexible mobile robot, autonomous robot, legged locomotion.
           Logic-based automatic locomotion mode control of a wheel-legged robot
                                 I. Leppänen, P. Virekoski and A. Halme
                           Department of Automation and Systems Technology
                                  Helsinki University of Technology
                                             Espoo, Finland

A robot that has powered wheels suspended by active actuators or legs can utilize the wheels and legs
independently or combined, in different locomotion modes. This paper describes criteria and
corresponding logic that can be used to automatically determine the best locomotion mode in order to
achieve best mobility according to the local terrain conditions.

      Inverse dynamics modelling for humanoid robots based in lie groups and screws
                                       M. Arbulu and C. Balaguer
                   Robotics Lab, Department of Systems Engineering and Automation
                                   University Carlos III of Madrid,
                                       Leganes, Madrid, Spain

This work deals with the multibody dynamics modelling of the humanoid robots. An alternative
geometric method will be presented based in the screw theory. The obtained torques are used for selecting
the right motors. Otherwise, this computation allows computing the joint torques at any humanoid robot
motion, those are constrained for the physical robot limits. Furthermore, the joint torque references could
be obtained for doing the torque control loop and develop any motion pattern. The simulation results in
order to check the joint torques are shown and discussed.

          Human-humanoid robot cooperation in collaborative transportation tasks
                                       M. Arbulu and C. Balaguer
                   Robotics Lab, Department of Systems Engineering and Automation
                                   University Carlos III of Madrid
                                       Leganes, Madrid, Spain

This paper deals with collaboration of human with humanoid robot in common collaborative tasks. The
paper is focusing in the motion planning for transportation tasks. The humanoid‟s motion planning is
described from approaching to the objective until carrying an object with human cooperation. In order to
obtain the overall control, ZMP and Generalized ZMP (GZMP) concepts had been taking into account.
The simulation results of the system have been presented.
                              Steering control of wheelchair on two wheels
                                  S. Ahmad, M. O. Tokhi and K. M. K. Goher
                          Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                         The University of Sheffield
                                              United Kingdom

This paper discusses the steering control for a wheelchair on two wheels. A novel fuzzy logic control
(FLC) system is designed and implemented for this highly nonlinear system. The wheelchair system is
modeled in Visual Nastran software environment as a plant and controlled with the developed FLC in
Matlab/Simulink environment. The steering motion takes place after lifting and stabilizing has been
achieved. There are noticeable challenges in the modeling of the wheelchair where limited actuators are
used for different functions, thus suitable controllers need to be developed. Results show that the FLC
strategy works very well and gives good system performance.

                                RobuDOG's design, modeling and control
                        P. Bidaud1, S. Barthélemy1, P. Jarrault1, D. Sallé2 and É. Lucet2
        Institut des Systémes Intelligents et de Robotique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
                                 Robosoft, Technopole d'Izarbel, Bidard, France

The paper gives a description of the kinematics and the mechatronics design of RobuDOG, a four-legged
robot developed for supporting research and education in robotics. Several aspects related to control and
programming of this platform are considered as its inverse kinematic model, its velocity-based control
and its dynamic behaviour analysis.

                               A modular mobile self-reconfigurable robot
                                    M. Zhong, P. Wang, M. Li and W. Guo
              Robotics Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Nangang District Harbin, China

A novel mobile self-reconfigurable robot is presented. This robot consists of several independent units.
Each unit is composed of modular components including ultrasonic sensor, camera, communication,
computation, and mobility parts, and is capable of simple self-reconfiguring to enhance its mobility by
expanding itself. Several units can link into a train or other shapes autonomously via camera and other
sensors to be a united whole robot for obstacle clearing, and disjoin to be separate units under control
after missions. To achieve small overall size, compact mechanical structures are adopted in modular
components designing, and a miniature ARM-based embedded controller is developed for minimal power
consumption and efficient global control. The docking experiment between two units has also been
     Initiating normal walking of a dynamic biped with a biologically motivated control
                                         T. Luksch and K. Berns
                           Robotics Research Lab, University of Kaiserslautern
                                        Kaiserslautern, Germany

Two-legged locomotion is a much reseached topic in the robotics community since many decades.
Nevertheless human walking and running is still unequaled. This paper introduces a biologically
motivated approach of controlling bipeds that is based on recent results from neurological research on
human walking. It features a hierarchical network of skills, motor patterns and reflexes that works locally
and distributed and tries to exploit the natural dynamics of the system. The control concept is illustrated
by the process of walking initiation.

            A convex optimization approach for online walking pattern generation
                       Rong Xiong, Changjiu Zhou, Liandong Zhang and Jian Chu
                                        Zhejiang University, China

This paper proposes an online walking pattern generation approach using convex optimization. With an
inverted pendulum model based zero moment point dynamics formulation in the framework of Lie group,
the convex optimization is introduced to revise the reference trajectory of joints which is generated by the
cart-table model and the inverse kinematics to achieve dynamically-stable gait. The optimal objectives,
that minimize the desired ZMP tracking error and joint trajectories' tracking error, and the constraints for
single support phase of dynamic walking are discussed and formulated into the form of second order cone
programming program. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation experiments
which show the iterations for each convex optimization is no more than 15.

      Application of lateral obstacle sensor in following contours for terrain recognition tasks
                                 R. Ponticelli and P. Gonzalez de Santos
                                      Department of Automatic Control
                         Institute of Industrial Automation – CSIC, Madrid, Spain

One application of the sensor head designed for terrain scanning in humanitarian demining tasks in the
DYLEMA project is presented, where the lateral distance to obstacles measured by a network of lateral
range sensors is converted into a virtual contact force, which in turn is feed as input for a contact force
control loop. The sensor head sweep movement is modified when an obstacle is detected (or \touched")
also helping to detect the position of the obstacle's contour. Keywords: contact force; range sensor;
contour following; obstacle detection; terrain recognition.
                GA-tuned fuzzy logic control for FES-assisted indoor rowing exercise
                            Z. Hussain, M. O. Tokhi, S. Ahmad and S.F. Toha
                        Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering
                              The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

The indoor rowing exercise is introduced as a total body exercise for rehabilitation of function of lower
extremities of paraplegics through the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). Fuzzy logic
control (FLC) is implemented to control the knee and elbow trajectory for the purpose of smooth rowing
manoeuvre. Conventional FLC methods rely on simple experiences and trial and error for parameters
identification. In this work, the FLC is optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs), a stochastic global
search method. GA implementation incorporates dynamic crossover and mutation probabilistic rates for
faster convergence. The objective function of GA is to maintain smooth rowing manoeuvre. The
performance of the proposed GA-tuned FLC is compared to a conventional manually tuned FLC. It is
demonstrated that the developed controller offers encouragingly better performance.

   Localizing from multi-hypotheses states minimizing expected path lengths for mobile
                      K. Hemanth1, S. Subhash1, K. M. Krishna1 and A. K. Pandey2
                                Robotics Research Center, IIIT Hyderabad, India
                                       RIA, LAAS-CNRS, Toulouse, France

This paper explains how to singularize a robot to a unique hypothesis state from a state of multiple
hypotheses. This it does by computing a path whose expected distance is minimum from a tree where
each path to the leaf from the root results in a singular hypothesis. At various nodes of the tree the number
of hypotheses is reduced as it proceeds down from the root. The nodes of the tree are computed as the
best locations to move from an earlier higher hypotheses state. They are either frontier regions or a
direction of traversal that result in reduction of hypotheses from an earlier multi hypotheses state. The
method has been tested robustly in various simulation situations and its efficacy confirmed.
                   Climbing robots: a survey of technologies and applications
                                     M. F. Silva and J. A. T. Machado
                 Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering of Porto
                               Rua Dr. Ant´onio Bernardino de Almeida
                                            Porto, Portugal

The interest in the development of climbing robots is growing rapidly. Motivations are typically to
increase the operation efficiency by obviating the costly assembly of scaffolding or to protect human
health and safety in hazardous tasks. Climbing robots are starting to be developed for applications ranging
from cleaning to inspection of difficult to reach constructions. These robots should be capable of
travelling on different types of surfaces, with varying inclinations, such as floors, walls, ceilings, and to
walk between such surfaces. Furthermore, these machines should be capable of adapting and
reconfiguring for various environment conditions and to be self-contained. Regarding the adhesion to the
surface, they should be able to produce a secure gripping force using a light-weight mechanism. This
paper presents a survey of different applications and technologies proposed for the implementation of
climbing robots.
                     Design of climbing cleaning robot for vertical surfaces
                                T. Akinfiev, M. Armada and S. Nabulsi
                                               IAI CSIC

New design of climbing cleaning robot for vertical surfaces is considered. Special crane is used to
compensate force of gravity. It is shown, that the robot can suffer a vibroimpact regime. Powerful fun is
used to prevent this regime. Experimental results with industrial prototype have confirmed that the new
robot can work with reliability and high productivity.
                 Application of smart materials - bionics modular adaptive implant
                         N. G. Bîzdoacă1, D. Tarniţă2, D. Tarniţă3 and E. Bîzdoacă 4
                    Department of Mechatronics, University of Craiova, Craiova, Romania
                           University of Pharmacology and Medicine, Craiova, Romania
                         Faculty of Mechanics, University of Craiova, Craiova, Romania
                     Faculty of Electromechanics, University of Craiova, Craiova, Romania

Applications of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering
systems and modern technology are defined as BIONICS. The present paper describes a bionics
application of shape memory alloy in construction of orthopedic implant. The main idea of this paper is
related to design modular adaptive implants for fractured bones. In order to target the efficiency of
medical treatment, the implant has to protect the fractured bone, for the healing period, undertaking much
as is possible from the daily usual load of the healthy bones. After a particular stage of healing period is
passed, using implant modularity, the load is gradually transferred to bone, assuring in this manner a
gradually recover of bone function. The adaptability of this design is related to medical possibility of the
doctor to made the implant to correspond to patient specifically anatomy. Using a CT realistic numerical
bone models, the mechanical simulation of different types of loading of the fractured bones treated with
conventional method are presented. The results are commented and conclusions are formulated.

         Compliant control of FES-rowing with energy store and release mechanism
                          S. Sareh1,3, B. J. Andrews1,2, S. Gharooni3, M. O. Tokhi3
            Department of Technology, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom
             Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

A novel control technique for FES assisted paraplegic rowing is introduced using computer simulation.
The paralyzed extensor musculature of the lower limbs is electrically activated during the drive phase. An
energy storing mechanism assists the recovery phase. In this way the number of stimulation channels
required is minimized whilst rowing performance is maintained. A finite-state controller (FSC) is used for
FES control to ensure coordination between voluntary upper limb motion and simulated leg movements.
A four-channel, surface electrodes FES system is used to activate the quadriceps and hip extensor
musculature during the drive phase based on command signals from the FSC. The FSC takes input from
an instrumented rowing machine. In this approach, FES is applied in short bursts thereby preventing the
early onset of muscle fatigue and prolonging the exercise period.
                 Person following with a mobile robot using a modified optical flow
                    A. Handa1, J. Sivaswamy1, K. M. Krishna1, S. Singh1 and P. Menezes2
                    Robotics Research Center, IIIT Hyderabad, Hyderabad, 500032, India
              Department of Electrical Engineering, Laboratory, University of Coimbra, Portugal
                                    mkrishna@iiit.ac.in, pm@deec.uc.pt

This paper deals with the tracking and following of a person with a camera mounted mobile robot. A
modified energy based optical flow approach is used for motion segmentation from a pair of images.
Further a spatial relative velocity based filtering is used to extract prominently moving objects. Depth and
color information are also used to robustly identify and follow a person.
          The influence of human factors on task performance: A linear approach
                             Y. Gatsoulis1, G.S. Virk2 and A.A. Dehghani1
                                    University of Leeds, United Kingdom
                                 Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

This paper investigates the influence that the human factors of situation awareness, telepresence and
workload have on task performance, as they have been identified as important factors for effective
collaborations between humans and robots. The relations between the variables are studied in detail
through a multiple linear regression model. The proposed novel measurement methods for each human
factor are presented in general. All these issues were studied in a developed virtual urban search and
rescue scenario with a teleoperated robot system.
                 Design of wheeled climbing robot with changeable structure
                               T. Akinfiev, R. Fernandez and M. Armada
                                              IAI CSIC

New design of wheeled robot for climbing stairs is considered. It is shown that a combination of movable
wheel axis and special wheel design enable the robot to use three modes of movements: the traditional
mode for wheeled robot continuous movement, the regime of discontinuous movement upon the road
with low coefficient of friction and the regime of movement up and down the stairs. Experimental results
with prototype confirmed that the new robot can climb up and down the stairs.
           Genetic algorithm optimization of PID controller for a flexible manipulator
                                         B. A. Md Zain and M. O. Tokhi
                           Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering
                                          The University of Sheffield
                                              United Kingdom

In this paper genetic algorithm (GA) optimization of controller for a flexible manipulator is proposed.
The dynamic model of the system is derived using the Lagrange equation and discretised using the finite
difference (FD) method. GA optimization is used to tune parameters of proportional-integral-derivative
(PID) controllers for the system. PID controllers are employed in the feedforward and feedback paths for
control of rigid-body and flexible motion dynamics of the system. Simulation results of the response of
the manipulator system with the developed controllers are presented and discussed.

   Energy-efficient humanoid walking with ankle actuation: learning from biomechanics
               R. Versluys1, B. Vanderborght1,2, R. V. Ham1, P. Beyl1, P. Cherelle1 and D. Lefeber1
             Robotics & Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
          Italian Institute of Technology, Robotics, Brain and Cognitive Sciences Dept, Genova, Italy

This paper reports on the importance of understanding human walking biomechanics for the design of
new robotic and/or prosthetic feet. Based on human ankle behavior, the design specifications for new
ankle-foot systems are determined. Three electrically powered ankle-foot design concepts are described.

                              Design of new modular walking robot MERO
                           I. Ion1, I. Simionescu2, A. Curaj3, V. Luige4 and A. Vasile3
              Technology of Manufacturing Dept., Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania
              Mechanism and Robot Theory Dept., Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania
            Automatic Control and System Eng. Dept., Politehnica University of Bucharest, Romania
                          Institute of Solid Mechanics, Romanian Academy, Romania
                                              ioni51@ yahoo.com

The walking robots are built to displace the loads on the not-aligned terrain. The modular walking system
protect much better the environment when its contact with the soil is discrete, a fact that limits
appreciately the area that is crushed. At the Polytechnic University of Bucharest has been new developed
a walking modular robot to handle farming tools. This walking robot has three two-legged modules.
Every leg has three freedom degrees ( RRT) and a tactile sensor to measure the contact, which consists of
lower and upper levels. The body of the MERO (MEchanism RObot) walking robot carries a gyroscopic
bearing sensor to measure the pitch and roll angles of the platform. The legs are powered by hydraulic or
electric drives and are equipped with transducers and sensors. They are used to control the walking robot
in the adaptability to a natural ground. A vehicle like that is Romanian Walking Robot MERO (Fig.1)
        Behavior network control for a holonomic mobile robot in realistic environments
                          M. Göller, T. Kerscher, J. M. Zöllner and R. Dillmann
                            Interaktive Diagnose- und Servicesysteme (IDS),
                    Forschungszentrum Informatik an der Universität Karlsruhe (FZI),
                                          Karlsruhe, Germany

A main challenge in the field of service robotics is the navigation of robots in human everyday
environments. Supermarkets, which are exemplary chosen here, pose a challenging scenario because they
often have a cluttered and nested character. They are full of dynamic objects. Especially the presence of
large numbers of people is a special challenge to cope with. It can often be difficult to map the locality
because of a frequently changing environment. Therefore a broad approach is needed to cover three main
tasks: the reactive local navigation, the interaction with dynamic objects and the flexible global
navigation and task planning. A three layered navigation concept was developed where each of these
fields is dealt with in a dedicated layer. This paper presents the bottom layer of this three-layered
approach. The focus lies on providing an reactive local navigation system that is able to accomplish
movement tasks in a complex scenario. The control is based on behavior networks. To enhance the
manoeuvrability of the robot it uses a holonomic drive system with mecanum wheels. This paper is
associated with the CommRob project.

                                  ISO standards for service robots
                                   G. S. Virk1, S. Moon2 and R. Gelin3
    CLAWAR Ltd, UK & School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Wellington,
                                           New Zealand
                    Department of Computer Engineering, Sejong University, Korea
                                          CEA LIST, France

This paper presents an overview of the latest robot standardization activities being carried out under ISO
TC184/SC2 to address changes in the robotics sector. Several new activities have been initiated recently
to address the emerging emphasis of service robots and the shift away from manufacturing robots in
industrial sectors. The emphasis of increasing human-robot collaborations appears to be a key
requirement that needs to be satisfied to allow safe service robots to be developed and supplied to the
community; the growing human-robot interactions is present even within manufacturing robots in
industrial environments where collaborative robots are being proposed. The paper reports on the generic
issues that are emerging and need to be addressed to allow the robotic community to move forward
collectively and the need for revising the robot vocabulary for the new applications. Formulating a safety
standard for the new service robots is essential so that close human-robot interactions may be permitted.
In fact the issues that need to be specified for safe human-robot contact are being formulated for personal
care robots covering both non-invasive and invasive applications.
      RFID transponder barriers as artificial landmarks for the semantic navigation of
                                   autonomous robots
                   M. Göller, F. Steinhardt, T. Kerscher, J. M. Zöllner and R. Dillmann
                           Interaktive Diagnose- und Servicesysteme (IDS),
                   Forschungszentrum Informatik an der Universität Karlsruhe (FZI),
                                         Karlsruhe, Germany

A main challenge in the field of service robotics is the navigation of robots in human everyday
environments. Supermarkets, which are exemplary chosen here, pose a challenging scenario because they
often have a cluttered character. They are full of dynamic objects. Especially the presence of large
numbers of people is a special challenge to cope with. It can often be difficult to map the locality because
of a frequently changing environment. Therefore a broad approach is needed to cover three main tasks:
the reactive local navigation, the interaction with dynamic objects and a the global navigation and task
planning. A three layered navigation concept was developed where each of these fields is dealt with in a
dedicated layer. This paper describes the top layer with a semantic navigation using RFID tags as
landmarks. It is based on a topological map with semantic attributes. Barriers of RFID tags are used to
discriminate the environment into topological areas. Combining a topological navigation with a behavior-
based control makes the navigation independent of a global metrical map. This paper is associated with
the CommRob project.

                   True ground speed measurement, a novel optical approach
                                     Viktor Kálmán and Tibor Takács
                    Department of Control Engineering and Information Technology,
                          Budapest University of Technology and Economics,
                             Magyar Tudósok krt. 2, Budapest, Hungary

Optical sensors supply by far the most information and as greater and greater processing capabilities
become readily available their use becomes more widespread. Many researchers and companies have
made more or less successful attempts at creating optical sensors for speed measurement, however there
are still many questions open for research. The aim of this article is to introduce a novel method for
optical speed measurement and put it into perspective by summarizing and reviewing recent related work.
Practical considerations on texture analysis and sensor parameters are discussed backed up with
simulation results.
               Modelling and simulation of sit-to-stand in humanoid dynamic model
                               S. C. Gharooni, M. Joghtaei and M. O. Tokhi
                         Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering
                                        The University of Sheffield
                                            United Kingdom

The goal of this study is to investigate torque profiles of each active joint in sit-to- stand (SiSt) mode arm
free and with seesaw exercise machine. This paper considers the development of a dynamic humanoid
model for SiSt demonstration. It consists of two main parts, the development of human model using
Visual Nastran and the development of a controller for controlled movement of the system. A closed loop
feedback finite-state PID control strategy is used. In order to reduce torque amplitude profile on each
joint, a seesaw mechanism is realised to reduce the upper body load on lower extremity. In this method
only knee joint torque in the range of stimulation muscle torque (50Nm) was adequate to perform sit to
stand without relying on hip and ankle joints.

                      Walking robot “anton”: design, simulation, experiments
 M. Konyev , F. Palis1, Y. Zavgorodniy1, A. Melnikov1, A. Rudskiy1, A. Telesh1, U. Schmucker2 and V.
            University of Magdeburg, Department Electrical Energy Systems, Magdeburg, Germany
                    Fraunhofer IFF, Department Virtual Engineering, Magdeburg, Germany

This work presents a new improved six legged mobile robot “ANTON”. Its mechanical structure, sensor
system and control system are discussed in details. The hierarchically and modular build control
algorithms are presented. The Software-in-the-Loop and Rapid Control Prototyping frameworks, which
are used by robot development, are presented. An industrial Ethernet-based real-time communication
protocol is introduced and the communication ability between the robot-side hardware and PC-side
control system is investigated.
                  A cooperative gripper for handling and hanging limp parts
                                   E. Carca, M. Zoppi and R. Molfino
                                     PMAR Robotics research group
                                        University of Genoa
                                             Genoa, Italy

The paper investigates the prospects of extending flexible automation and intelligent manufacturing
options in the field of textile and clothing industries. In particular the paper focuses on the automatic
gripping and handling of limp and soft materials that is a needed step to extend automation beyond the
fabric parts cutting by exploiting options of robotics, already in use for most of the manufacturing of
automotive electric, electronic and mechanical goods. The manufacturing section here considered in
clothes manufacturing is the cutting room and the task is picking up a piece of fabric from the cutting
table and forward it single out, flat in a well defied pose to the following manufacturing sections. The
robotic system purposely developed is presented: it includes: - a metamorphic robotic gripper to carry out
automatically the cut part picking tasks and giving back the part hung; - a reconfigurable passive hanger.
The system architecture and main components are presented.
                      Kinematics and kinetics analysis of rectilinear locomotion gait
                    A. Ghanbari1, A. Rostami2, S. M. R. S. Noorani1 and M. M. S. Fakhrabadi1
                        Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Tabriz, Iran
                   Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Tabriz, Iran

The crawling motions of snakes and other limbless animals have always been of great interest for
specialists in mechanics and biomechanics. In this paper we intend to present a new locomotion mode
which is inspired of snakes, as rectilinear locomotion gait, for perform in a mobile robot. To this end, first
we show a simple model of motion mechanism, based on a manipulator, and develop its kinematics
formulation. Then, the dynamic problem of the gait design is investigated and torque values are needed to
achieve the desired joint motion will be computed.

  INSPIRAT – Towards a biologically inspired climbing robot for the inspection of linear
 J. Maempel1, E. Andrada1, H. Witte1, C. Trommer2, A. Karguth2, M. Fischer3, D. Voigt and S. N. Gorb4
            Department of Biomechatronics, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany
             TETRA - Gesellschaft für Sensorik, Robotik und Automation mbH, Ilmenau, Germany
        Ins. für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Germany
           Evolutionary Biomaterials Grp, Max Planck Ins. for Metals Research, Stuttgart, Germany

Common goals for mobile robots are locomotion, idiomotion, manipulation, navigation,
orientation, imitation and cooperation. Climbing robots have to move horizontally and vertically,
ascending and descending. The environment is unstructured. Current robot systems are designed
to climb on special, structured substratum. Many robots are available to climb walls with flat and
smooth surfaces. The aim of the project „InspiRat‟ is the design of a biologically inspired
climbing robot, capable to move in complex und semi-structured environment. High motional
ability should not only be achieved by the control system. An intelligent mechanical design
reduces the mass of the robot, increases the ability of adaptation to the substratum and minimizes
power consumption.The overall mass of the robot should be lower than 1 kg. The focus is not
primarily on the control, but on intelligent mechanical design. A very simple model of climbing
is build and a dynamic model in the software ADAMS is generated. On this base a very simple
robot is designed and built. Stable climbing is achieved by this robot with only three actuators on
linear straight substratum. Based on this in future a more complex robot structure will be
Development of predictive models of climbing robot attachment mechanisms for an energy-
                           efficient adaptive control scheme
                                  S. A. Jacobs and A. A. Dehghani-Sanij
                                    School of Mechanical Engineering
                                           University of Leeds
                                            United Kingdom

This paper presents the investigation of two climbing robot attachment mechanisms. The two mechanisms
are tested to find their maximum holding forces under a range of conditions, and models to predict these
forces are developed. We describe the experimental methodology and the results of testing three types of
vacuum pads and an electromagnet are presented, which are then compared to the predictive models. The
outcome of this work is to be used to develop a fully autonomous and efficient method of adaptive control
for climbing robots.

Simple optoelectronic exteroceptive sensor for the control of the dynamic equilibrium of a
                                      walking robot
                                                  E. Král
                                      Faculty of Applied Informatics
                                      Tomas Bata University in Zlin
                                          Zlin, Czech Republic

Simple optoelectronic exteroceptive sensor for controlling and learning the dynamical equilibrium of a
walking robot is presented. Sensor consists of the digital camera and structured light source, for example
laser diode module with Diffractive Optical Element. Digital camera captures structured configuration of
light spots projected on a surface in front of a robot. There are two variants, the light source position is
fixed to the digital camera and there is no reference object at scene. In these case only medial and lateral
tilt to plane in front of the robot is estimated and second variant when only light source of the robot is
fixed to any part of robot and camera is placed somewhere else. In these cases multi-degrees-of-freedom
information can be estimated. The image information from the digital camera is input for the control of a
dynamical equilibrium of a walking robot.
 Single view depth estimation based formation control of robotic swarms: implementation
                              using realistic robot simulator
                                        V. Gazi1, B. Fidan2 and S. Zhai3
     TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Dept. Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Turkey
             National ICT Australia and the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
                      Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

In earlier articles we had developed a formation control method based on single view depth estimation. In
this paper, we implement that strategy on a robotic swarm composed of non-holonomic agents using the
physics based Webots robot simulator. First, we review the single view depth estimation based scheme
and the distributed control laws for the agents. Then, we discuss the related modifications due to the non-
holonomic constraints of the agents and some related implementation issues and present some simulation
results obtained using the proposed control scheme. The scheme is based completely on local information
implying that neither global position information nor communication between robots are needed for the
implementation of the algorithm.

     EXOSTATION: 7-DOF haptic control chain featuring an arm exoskeleton and virtual
                                   reality tools
P. Letier1, M. Avraam1, S. Veillerette1, M. Horodinca1, A. Preumont1, J-P. Verschueren2, E. Motard3 and
                                              L. Steinicke3
                   Active Structure Laboratory,Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium
                Micromega Dynamics, Parc Scienti¯que du Sart Tilman, Rue des Chasseurs Ardenais
                                                 Angleur, Belgium
                         Space Applications Services, Leuvensesteenweg, Zaventem, Belgium

EXOSTATION is a project aiming at developing a complete haptic control chain. The demonstrator is
composed of a 7-DOF portable arm exoskeleton master, controlling an anthropomorphic slave robot
interacting with its working environment. This system is meant to be used in a telemanipulation and
telepresence modes (master/slave control), making it usable in many applications including space
exploration missions (planetary surface exploration and surface habitat construction), medicine (medical
acts training or guidance, CBRNE crisis management (interventions requiring precise remote
manipulation or performed in unstructured environment), industrial environments (remote maintenance).
    Can semantics help autonomous service robots in inspecting complex environments?
            M. Ziegenmeyer, K. Uhl, S. Sayler, B. Gassmann, J. M. Zöllner, and R. Dillmann
                                      FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik
                               Interactive Diagnosis and Service Systems (IDS),
                                             Karlsruhe, Germany

The inspection of complex environments is a challenging task for autonomous service robots. An
autonomous inspection robot should actively examine entities of interest (EOIs), e.g. defects. If the data
analysis results are uncertain, additional inspection actions, e.g. activating a special sensor, approaching
the EOI from a different perspective or employing a different data analysis algorithm, should be taken to
increase the confidence of the results. The selection of theses actions should be driven by the assessment
of the individual circumstances. Human experts usually resort to experience and expert knowledge to
solve this task. In this paper we investigate a semantic approach for inspection planning, assessment of
the data analysis results given the individual inspection situation, decision making and re-planning. The
main idea is to incorporate human expert knowledge via a semantic inspection model for generating
intelligent system behaviour. As inspection scenario for the experimental evaluation of this approach we
choose the detection and classification of waste on irregular terrains with the hexapod walking machine
LauronIVc. First preliminary simulation results aimed at validating the proposed semantic inspection
approach are presented.

Walking gait control for making smooth locomotion mode change of a legged and wheeled
                                  T. Okada1, W. T. Botelho2 and T. Shimizu2
                      Department of Biocybernetics, Niigata University, Niigata-Shi, Japan
                           Graduate School of Niigata University, Niigata-Shi, Japan

This paper describes the robot control for switching locomotion mode between leg-type and wheel-type
adaptively toward forward and backward. Knee ahead and knee behind gaits are typical features
discriminated with respect to the knee joint location from the hip joint toward the robot's traveling
direction. In the mode transition simulation, we show results satisfying the direction of the hip joint
rotation as a favorable phase to make continuous and smooth movement in the period of changing the
mode from leg-type to wheel-type and vice versa. Also, by using the robot, PEOPLER, we demonstrate
the control to verify that the selection of an appropriate gait is useful in practical application.
    A feasibility study for energy autonomy in multi robot search and rescue operations
              Yosoph Sindi, Tony Pipe, Sanja Dogramadzi, Alan Winfield, Chris Melhuish
                                      Bristol Robotics Laboratory
                                    University of the west of England
                                        Bristol, United Kingdom

This paper proposes a novel search and rescue concept that aims to overcome the most basic obstacle in
utilising a search and rescue teleoperated robot for a long distance - energy autonomy. The concept
utilizes a number of small robots capable of creating an energy supply chain that extends, to a degree
based on the requirements of the search area. In this present work, the collaborative group of robots‟
predominant task is to maintain a constant supply of energy to the leading robot. Feasibility of the energy
transfer and „energy cost‟ have been simulated which consequently produced a mathematical description
of the cost function. The results presented are obtained using a set of identical robots capable of
conveying energy from the last deployed all the way to the leading robot. A robot single-line formation is
important as it maps out the most frugal energy supply line. The methodology used was to simulate both
methods of energy transfer, robots charging each other and robots exchanging batteries. The first method
was implemented using MARCO2 (an in house built robot) to test the validity of the computer simulation
and to study the effect of inaccurate localisation on the system.

 Robotic system for inspection of test objects with unknown geometry using NDT methods
                                      A. A. Brenner and T. P. Sattar
                 Department of Electrical, Computer and Communications Engineering
                                    London South Bank University
                                       London, United Kingdom

The aim of this work is to develop a portable Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) robotic system that can be
carried by CLAWAR to evaluate defects in geometrically complex surfaces and industrial products. In
this paper, the difference in quality of defect data during manual inspection and automated inspection will
be compared. Tests have been performed amongst others on complex shaped turbine blades using eddy
currents. The challenge is to be able to follow the surface by keeping the NDT probe normal to the
surface while maintaining a constant contact force with it. The approach to maintaining a constant contact
force and angle to the object was to use a secure contact using permanent magnets and a force adapting
control of the manipulator which resulted in improvements in the quality of inspection compared to
manual inspection. Furthermore, a novel application of the position-force-moment (PFM) control was
developed. Here, the robotic arm scans unknown contoured surfaces by keeping the sensor probe normal
to the test surface, maintaining at the same time constant contact force, thereby ensuring good data
             Mechanical design and motion planing of a modular reconfigurable robot
                        A. H. H. Agha Memar, P. Z. H. Bagher and M. Keshmiri
                                 Department of Mechanical Engineering
                                   Isfahan University of Technology
                                             Isfahan, Iran

This paper studies kinematics and dynamics of a reconfigurable modular robot consisting of ten
modules. Motion planning for 3 different configurations; snake-like, inch-worm like and loop
like robot are studied in detail. Actuating motors selection and mechanical design are done based
on the simulation results. Designed trajectories are implemented in real open-loop control
experiments for all configurations. The experiments show very satisfying results.

              Brain computer interface approaches to control mobile robotic devices
                                 G. Pires1, U. Nunes1 and M. Castelo-Branco2
                  Institute for Systems and Robotics (ISR), University of Coimbra, Portugal
         Biomedical Institute for Research in Light and Image (IBILI), University of Coimbra, Portugal

This paper presents and compares two approaches for brain computer interface to steer a wheelchair,
namely a new visual based P300 paradigm consisting of 8 arrows randomly intensified used for direction
selection and a motor imagery paradigm for discrimination of three commands. Classification follows
Bayesian and Fisher Linear Discriminant approaches both based on prior statistical knowledge. Results in
P300 paradigm reached false positive and false negative classification accuracies above 90%. Motor
imagery experiments presented about 70% accuracy for left vs. right imagery and imagery vs. non-

   An electrode array design for use with a multichannel functional electrical stimulator
             N. Sha1, L. P. J. Kenney1, D. Howard1, M. Moatamedi1, B. Heller2 and A. T. Barker3
                     CRHPR/IMR, University of Salford, Salford, United Kingdom
                     CSES, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom
   Department of Medical Physics, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, United

Foot drop, a common symptom following stroke, leads to poor control over the movement of the foot
during gait and a consequent energy inefficient and unstable gait pattern. Functional electrical stimulation
(FES) applied via surface located electrodes has been shown to improve the gait of patients with foot
drop. However, this technique requires patients or carers to be trained to accurately place a stimulating
electrode over the common peroneal nerve. Incorrect placement of the electrode can result in a failure of
the FES to correct for the inappropriate foot motion. This paper reports on the development and
preliminary evaluation of an electrode array designed to be used in combination with a multi-channel
stimulator by patients with foot drop. The array consists of 64 mini electrodes, which may be grouped
together to form a software-controlled „virtual‟ electrode, thus potentially automating electrode location
for the user. The array design is presented and an experiment is described that shows it is possible to
locate appropriate virtual electrodes within the array.

                        A proposed wall climbing robot for oil tank inspection
                       R. Fernández-Rodríguez1, V. Feliu1 and A. González-Rodríguez2
         Dep. de ingenier´ıa de electricidad, electr´onica, autom´atica y comunicaciones, UCLM, Spain
                      Dep. de mec´anica aplicada e ingenier´ıa de proyectos, UCLM, Spain

This paper describes a solution for a mobile climbing robot which uses magnetic wheels for adhesion.
The design has been created for the automatic non-destructive inspection in the surface of oil tanks, where
direct access for a human operators is extremely expensive owing to the need for scaffolding and is highly
dangerous due to the presence of a hostile environment. Our main optimization criteria in this design were
that it should not have the limitations of the umbilical power connection, that it should be as light as
possible to reduce the actuators torque and to increase the battery life and capacity load, and that it should
have a turning radius close to zero to improve maneuverability, adaptability to non-flat surfaces and a
high surface upon which to install the ultrasonic sensor. The proposed wall climbing robot with
permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism is briefly described, including the details of mechanical system
architecture in reversed tricycle along with the results of some test, on the magnetic wheels with twelve
cylindrical permanent magnets.

               Underwater wall climbing robot for nuclear pressure vessel inspection
                                H. E. Leon-Rodriguez, T. Sattar and J. Shang
                             Research Centre for Automated and Robotic NDT
                         Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment
                                      London South Bank University
                                         London United Kingdom

The paper describes the development of an underwater teleoperated wall climbing robot that can carry
another pipe crawler robot to nozzle openings inside a nuclear pressure vessel (PV). The wall climbing
robot is positioned over each nozzle in the pressure vessel via teleoperation using visual feedback. The
pipe crawler robot then transfers into the nozzle where it non-destructively tests circumferential welds
located at a distance of 700mm from the inside walls of a pressure vessel. The results of trials with the
robot in water tanks and a mock-up of the PV are presented. The paper describes the performance of the
two underwater wall climbing robot prototypes, with emphasis on the design of a highly manoeuvrable
robot and the performance of a special design of suction cups that have a low coefficient of friction and
permit motion in cylindrical pressure vessels.
   Analysing human-robot interaction using omni-directional vision and structure from
                                     C. Salinas and M. A. Armada
                                   Automatic Control Department
                                Industrial Automation Institute – CSIC
                                            Madrid, Spain

Service Robots are intended to support people in daily activities (complex environments), and, for this
reason, human-robot communication is an important subject. This work is based on the fact that humans
noticeably exploit motion information from other humans‟ actions. This paper presents a new approach of
analyzing Human Robot Interaction based on robust optical flow techniques to calculate motion
information using a catadioptric system implemented to enhance the Field of Vision. This allows
capturing much more information for the interpretation procedure that employs a hierarchical fuzzy
making decision technique designed for the learning model.

           The DLR-crawler: Gaits and control of an actively compliant hexapod
                                     M. Goerner and G. Hirzinger
                                Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics
                                  German Aerospace Center (DLR)
                                           Wessling, Germany

This paper presents the control and gait generation for the DLR-Crawler, an actively compliant hexapod
based on the fingers of DLR-Hand II. The first gait generation method combines a fixed pattern with an
leg extension reflex and an obstacle avoidance reflex. The second method employs leg coordination based
on Cruse's rules and some reflexes to master uneven terrain. Both methods show smooth walking on even
ground as well as on gravel.
                                     Amphibious inspection robot
                      Tariq P. Sattar, Hernando E. Leon-Rodriguez, Jianzhong Shang
                  Department of Electrical, Computer and Communications Engineering
                                     London South Bank University
                                        London, United Kingdom

The paper presents the test results of a swimming and floor moving robot inspection system to test welds
located inside a floating production storage and offloading oil tank (FPSO tank). This is a time consuming
and expensive operation that requires operators to enter a hazardous environment. Significant cost
reductions could be made by automating the inspection with robots that provide access to the welds. The
simplest way to do this is to empty the tank so that only two to three centimeters of oil remain on the tank.
A floor moving robot then operates autonomously in the tank to follow and inspect the welds. A better
solution is to perform inspection in a full tank. In the first case the robot operates in air and an explosive
environment but eliminates the need to swim the robot through a very complicated maze of partitioning
walls and rows of strengthening plates that occur every 700-900 mm. In the latter case the robot swims to
a strengthening plate and operates under oil thereby eliminating the need to empty the tank. An
amphibious mobile robot called FPSO is described which is capable of performing NDT in air and when
submerged in liquids.

                 Developing fast bipedal locomotion method for inclined floors
                                     A. Eshghinejad and M. Keshmiri
                                  Department of Mechanical Engineering
                                    Isfahan University of Technology
                                              Isfahan, Iran

This paper extends and modifies fast bipedal locomotion method for inclined floors. The fast bipedal
locomotion method is a real-time method for generating the joint trajectories of a humanoid robot. It had
been developed only for ideal flat floors so if the floor has a little inclination (2 or 3 degree) the robot
motion will not be stable. Modification basically is done in the controlling part of the motion on inclined
floors. The modified method is analyzed and verified by numerical simulation.
    A fall down resistant humanoid robot with soft cover and automatically recoverable
                             mechanical overload protection
                             M. Hayashi1, R. Ueda2, T. Yoshikai2 and M. Inaba2
           Graduate school of Interdisciplinary Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan
           Graduate school of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Japan

This paper describes development of a middle size humanoid robot with a prototype of “flesh”. The target
tasks are walking, crawling, and toleration for obstacles in unpredictable daily environment. We have
been developed a small humanoid robot with whole body tactile sensors. In order to utilize tactile sensors,
a robust robot frame which enables various autonomous contact behavior is necessary. The developed
robot has thick soft polyurethane covers and mechanical torque limiters so as to absorb impulsive external
force and protect relatively fragile joints from overload. Thick soft covers are designed to have precise
shape and enough thickness, which contain sensors. The developed mechanical torque limiters can sense
slip angles, and the robot can recover from dislocation automatically. At the latter part of the paper,
motion ability and tolerability of the robot was evaluated. It was confirmed that the robot can walk, roll-
over, and crawl. It was also confirmed that the developed robot can be hit by an object such as a thrown
soccer ball and can fall without breakdown. The robot dislocates joints, recovers automatically, and then
it restarts moving.

                      Retargeting system for a social robot imitation interface
               J. P. Bandera, R. Marfil, R. López, J. C. del Toro, A. Palomino and F. Sandoval
                Grupo de Ingenier´ıa y Sistemas Integrados, Dpto. Tecnolog´ıa Electr´onica,
                                           University of M´alaga
                                              M´alaga, Spain

This paper presents a novel retargeting method, which is included in an interface that allows a social robot
to imitate the gestures performed by a human demonstrator. The input for this interface are human pose
data obtained using any motion capture system. A general human 3D model adopts the perceived pose,
and then this pose is retargeted to the particular robotic platform being used. The retargeting module
combines two different strategies to translate data from human to robot. Experimental results show that
this combined approach is able to preserve the characteristics of both static and dynamic gestures in
different scenarios. The system has been tested over two different robotic platforms: the Fujitsu HOAP-1
humanoid robot and the NOMADA, a new social robot that is currently being developed in our research
             Robust grasping of 3D objects with stereo vision and tactile feedback
                        B. J. Grzyb, E. Chinellato, A. Morales and A. P. del Pobil
                                       Robotic Intelligence Lab.
                                      Universitat Jaume I Castell n

This paper presents a multimodal approach to the problem of planning and performing a reliable grasping
action on unmodeled objects. The proposed system consists of three main components. The first,
fundamental component is a grasping architecture based on primitives rather than on contact point
selection. The second component is a visual processing module that uses stereo images and biologically-
inspired algorithms to accurately estimate pose, size and shape of a target object. A grasp action is
planned and executed by the third component of the system, a reactive controller that uses tactile
feedback to compensate possible inaccuracies and thus complete the grasp even in difficult or unexpected

         Control of the multi-track type robot inspired from antennae of a centipede
                       T. Chung, K. H. Hyun, C-K Woo, S. Kim and Y. K. Kwak
                            Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
                                            Daejeon, Korea

This paper proposes a method to control a multi-track type robot developed for reconnaissance missions.
A centipede decides body motion using antennae on its head instead of using eyes. Inspired from that, we
imitated the antennae using 3 IR sensors attached in front of the robot. Based on the information got from
the sensors the robot decides next behavior automatically. By the proposed control method, the robot was
controlled effectively in various environments. The control method and experiment results are mentioned
in this paper.
     Implementation of analog controller based on biologcial nervous system for biomimetics
                                         walking robot 1
                                                S. H. Kim1, T. H. Kang1 and J-H. Cho2
                          Pohang Institute of Intelligent Robotics, Gyeongbuk, Korea.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

In this paper, we proposed an analog neural controller (ANC) that is similar to physical modeling
of the nervous system. ANC is composed of sensory neurons, motor neurons, synapses and
dendrites. The functions of sensory neurons generate CPG signals and motor neurons change the
sensory neuron signal for driving actuators. Synapses connect between neurons and the weigh to
be given. Dendrites can accept external signal from the sensor. Because of parallel structure
which is one of main characteristic of ANC, it is possible to walk by generating new pattern even
though one of the neuron is out of working

                             Bond graph modeling of soft contact for robotic grasping
                                                       A. Khurshid and A. Ghafoor
                                        College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
                                         National University of Sciences and Technology

The superiority of deformable human fingertips as compared to hard robot gripper fingers for grasping
and manipulation has led to a number of investigations with robot hands employing elastomers or
materials such as fluids or powders beneath a membrane at the fingertips. It is interesting to study
the phenomenon of contact interaction with an object and its manipulation. In this paper bond graph
modeling is used to model the contact between a grasped object and two soft fingertips. Detailed bond
graph modeling (BGM) of the contact phenomenon with two soft-finger contacts which are placed against
each other on the opposite sides of the grasped object as is generally the case in a manufacturing
environment is presented. The stability of the object is determined which includes friction between the
soft finger contact surfaces and the object, the stiffness of the springs is exploited while achieving the
stability in the soft-grasping. The weight of the object coming downward is controlled by the friction
between the fingers and the object during the application of contact forces by varying the damping and
the stiffness in the soft finger.

    This research was supported in part by the project of the dual--use technology for military and civilian missions ({it Development of Quadruped
     Robot}, 10028526--2007--12) of Ministry of Knowledge Economy, KOREA.
                        Optimum size of a soft-finger contact in robotic grasp
                                         A. Ghafoor1 and J. S. Dai2
      College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology,
           Department of Mechanical Engineering, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

This paper discusses an approach to determine the size of a soft-finger contact required to hold and
manipulate an object with two soft fingers. The grasp is based on the equivalent stiffness resorting to the
soft finger contact to balance the external forces. In this study, the soft-finger is modeled as elastic
elements and placed at the boundary of equivalent contact patch circle. The size of the soft contact is
determined based on the variables that include the dimensions of the grasped object, externally applied
load and couples. The stiffness of the elastic elements are then used to model the soft-finger and the fine
displacement resulting from the line springs under the application of preloads.
               Genetic optimisation of ANFIS network for modelling of a TRMS
                                 S. F. Toha, M. O. Tokhi and Z. Hussain
                       Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                        University of Sheffield
                                          United Kingdom

This paper deploys the core methodologies of soft computing for the identification of 1 DOF hovering
motion model of a twin rotor multi input-multi output system (TRMS). A TRMS is a scaled and
simplified version of practical helicopter often used as a laboratory platform for control experiments.
Although the dynamics of the TRMS are simpler than those of a real helicopter, they retain the most
important helicopter features such as couplings and strong nonlinearities as well as it can be perceived as
an unconventional and complex „air vehicle‟. The fusion of artificial neural network and fuzzy logic
through a adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique has embarked to a remarkable result
in identification of the TRMS model. However, evolutionary computing using genetic algorithm with its
inherent adaptation capabilities brings powerful optimization mechanisms for dynamic system modeling.
The results and evidence from these meta-heuristics evolutionary algorithms are justified, presented and

               Tactile sensing methods for automated blood samples on humans
                     A. S. Sørensen, T. R. Savarimuthu, E. Pedersen and A. G. Buch
                                 The Mœrsk Mc-Kinney Møller Institute
                                    University of Southern Denmark
                                         Odense M, Denmark

Manipulation of flesh, lies at the core of all surgical procedures, both as the objective of the procedure,
but also as a means of gathering necessary knowledge to support the procedure. This is also true of the
relatively simple procedure of drawing a blood-sample. Chemical analysis of blood for diagnostics and
treatment have become highly automated, enabling a radical growth in the use of blood samples for
diagnostic purposes. This trend is highly beneficial for the patients, but puts an increasing strain on the
personnel drawing the blood samples. In this paper, we present our progress to locate, develop and
validate tactile sensing methods, that could enable fully automated blood-sampling, in order to support the
rapidly growing demand in modern health-care systems. Tactile sensing based on direct measurement of
elasticity, using Hooks law, is hard to implement accurately for human skin, so we are evaluating a
method based on 'impact analysis', using a small rod moving at constant speed towards the skin. The
method has been evaluated for a medium size pool of subjects, and show some promise, compared to
prior work.
 Optimal posture control for force actuator based articulated suspension vehicle for rough
                                      terrain mobility
                      V. P. Eathakota1, S. Kolachalama1, K. M. Krishna1 and S. Sanan2
        Robotics Research Centre, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India
                        Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, USA

In this paper we develop a model of a Linear Force Actuator based actively articulated suspension vehicle
with toroidal wheels and propose a strategy to control its contact forces to improve traction on uneven
terrain in 3-D while maintaining a desired posture. We develop the quasi-static analysis for our vehicle
and compare the maneuverability of our vehicle with that of a passive suspension system. Extensive
uneven terrain simulations depict the efficacy of our proposed system.

               Control of a single - link flexible arm to be used as a sensing antenna
                                      J. G. Fernández and V. F. Batlle
               Departamento de Ing. El´ectrica, Electr´onica, Autom´atica y Comunicaciones
                       ETS Ing. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha
                                           Ciudad Real, Spain
In this article, A feedback control law for controlling the tip position of a flexible arm is proposed and
evaluated. The objective of this research is to design a sensing antenna, a robot based on a single - link
flexible arm which will enable us to locate a contact position with an object in order to detect the precise
shape of that object. In a previous work, a nonlinear dynamic model was derived through the Lagrangian
formulation where elastic characterics of the arm were modeled using the Euler - Bernoulli beam theory.
Based on this model, an effective nonlinear controller was developed. Simulation results are given to
show the controller‟s effectiveness.
 Realistic humanoid robot simulation with an optimized controller: a power consumption
                                minimization approach
                         J. L. Lima1, J. C. Gonçalves1, P. J. Costa2 and A. P. Moreira2
         Electrical Engineering Department of Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
      Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of University of Porto,
                                              Porto, Portugal

This paper describes a humanoid robot simulator supporting joint trajectory optimization, following
accurately the real robot characteristics. The simulator, based on a rigid body simulator (Open Dynamics
Engine) and an OpenGL based graphics library (GLScene), provides instant visual feedback and realistic
dynamics. It allows to design and test behaviours and control methods without access to the real
hardware, preventing damages in the real robot in the earlier stages of development. Having in mind the
energy consumption minimization, the low level trajectory planning is discussed and experimental results
are presented. The proposed methods are shown to minimize the total energy assuming two intervals of
constant acceleration.

             Behaviour-based control of the six-legged walking machine LAURON IVc
            T. Kerscher, A. Roennau, M. Ziegenmeyer, B. Gassmann, J.M. Zoellner and R. Dillmann
                                     FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik
                               Interactive Diagnosis and Service Systems (IDS)
                                             Karlsruhe, Germany

The biologically inspired hexapod walking machine LAURON has been developed to implement
statically stable walking in rough terrain. The mechanics and the motion control have been modelled on
the stick insect. LAURON autonomously perceives the environment and plans a path to a given target.
Using its sensors LAURON can detect obstacles and avoid them while walking. As a walking machine,
the robot can also climb over obstacles without damaging them, as it is the case with tracked or wheeled
systems. This paper describes the new flexible behaviour based control of the six legged walking machine
LAURON IVc using behaviour networks.
                Particle swarm optimization for humanoid walking-gaits generation
                                N. Rokbani, El H. B. Boussada and A. M. Alimi
          REGIM, Research Group on Intelligent Machines, National School of engineers of SFAX,
                                          University of SFAX
                                             Sfax, Tunisia

In robotics, gaits generation is a first step of locomotion control strategies. A particle swarm is used to
generate the joints trajectories, such a proposal is an alternative to classical kinematics‟ modeling. Our
proposal consists in a hybrid swarms placed in the skeleton-joints. The skeleton structure is directly
inspired from a human-like locomotion system. A collaboration strategy is applied to extract efficient
locomotion gaits ensuring the walker stability. The stability control uses a classical method based on the
projection of the center of mass, CoM, of the robot on the sustention polygon.

                     Approximation control of a differential-drive mobile robot
                                     H. Marin-Reyes1,2 and M. O. Tokhi2
                            Industrial Systems Unit, FATRONIK-Tecnalia, Spain
    Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

This paper presents an analysis of a differential mobile robot with an arbitrary position and orientation
(x,y,θ) for best approach to a pose vector goal (0,0,0°). Although the control law implemented is a
feedback motion controller, which is relatively simple and does not satisfy Brockett‟s theorem, the results
show that this control algorithm can be tuned to develop solutions to a differential drive mobile robot‟s
motion control problem. Various sets of control parameters are tested on the mobile robot and a set of
control parameters are obtained for the system that requires fewer turns while approaching the origin of
the inertia frame coordinates.

     Development of a simulation environment of an entertainment humanoid robot doing a
                                   handstand on a high bar
           P. Teodoro1 , M. A. Botto1, C. Cardeira1, J. Martins1, J. Costa1 and L. Schweitzer2
                      IDMEC/IST, TULisbon Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal
                     RoboSavvy Ltd, Broadhust Gardens, London, United Kingdom

This paper presents an LQR controller approach for the simulation and controls of an affordable
commercial humanoid robot doing a handstand on a high bar, by considering it as an
underactuated 3-link inverted pendulum with off-centered masses. The developments presented
include: i) the software development for interfacing the Matlab® Real Time Workshop
Toolbox® with the humanoid robot servos; ii) the identification of the internal and external
dynamic parameter of the humanoid servos and structure, respectively; iii) the dynamics
modeling and simulation of the humanoid robot; iv) the deduction of the equations of motion for
an underactuated n-link inverted pendulum. Simulation results proved the adequacy of LQR

                      A nonlinear model for simulating contact and collision
                                      D. A. Jacobs and K. J. Waldron
                                 Mechanical Engineering Design Division
                                          Stanford University
                                           Stanford CA, USA

Collision and contact are complex interactions vital to the analysis of several research fields. In many
models, collision and contact are unable to be described by a single equation because the change in
energy loss is related to the relative collision velocity of the two objects. In this paper, an improvement is
made to an existing nonlinear model to increase the realism of simulations of collision and contact. The
new formulation removes the inconsistencies and numerical instability of previous treatments while
maintaining the computational simplicity of the original model. Given a set of coefficient of restitution
data, the new model simulates realistic collision behavior across a wide range of velocities. The new
model is compared to two previous formulations in their ability to simulate experimental data from a
croquet ball colliding with a croquet mallet in the normal direction.

     Augmented control scheme for input tracking and vibration suppression of flexible
                        manoeuvring systems: simulation studies
                                      F. M. Aldebrez and M. O. Tokhi
                        Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                       The University of Sheffield
                                            United Kingdom

This paper presents an investigation into the development of an augmented control scheme for vibration
suppression and rigid body motion control of a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS) in
hovering mode. The augmented control scheme comprises feedforward and feedback control methods. A
4-impulse input shaper is designed and employed as a feedforward control method to pre-process the
command signal applied to the system, based on the identified modes of vibration. It is then combined a
hybrid feedback controller to form an augmented control scheme referred to as hybrid PD-type FLC and
PID with 4-impulse input shaper (FPDPID+IS). The developed control strategy is designed and
implemented within the simulation environment of the TRMS rig. Results of the response of the TRMS
with the developed controller are presented in time and frequency domains. The performance of the
proposed control scheme is assessed in terms of input tracking and level of vibration reduction. This is
accomplished by comparing the system response with the developed controller to the one without control
action in both open and closed loop configurations.
 Experimental study on track-terrain interaction dynamics in an integrated environment:
                                         test rig
           S. Al-Milli, S. Chhaniyara, E. Georgiou, K. Althoefer, J. S. Dai and L. Seneviratne
                                  Mechanical Engineering Department
                                       King’s College London
                                      London, United Kingdom

An understanding of track-terrain interaction dynamics and vehicle slip is crucial for skid-steered tracked
vehicles traversing over soft terrain. There is a lack of experimental data for validating dynamic,
kinematic and control models developed for tracked vehicles on soft terrains. The objective of this paper
is to develop a test rig that will generate experimental data for autonomous tracked vehicles following a
steady state circular trajectory on soft terrains. The data will be used in the future to validate a
traversability model for predicting track thrusts, a visual odometry technique for predicting vehicle slip
and in controlling autonomous tracked vehicle following a steady state circular trajectory on soft terrains
that were developed at King‟s College London.

     Augmented control scheme for input tracking and vibration suppression of flexible
                   manoeuvring systems: experimental investigations
                                     F. M. Aldebrez and M. O. Tokhi
                       Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                      The University of Sheffield
                                           United Kingdom

This paper presents an investigation into the development of an augmented control scheme for vibration
suppression and rigid body motion control of a twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS) in
hovering mode. The augmented control scheme comprises feedforward and feedback control methods. A
4-impulse input shaper is designed and employed as a feedforward control method to pre-process the
command signal applied to the system, based on the identified modes of vibration. It is then combined a
hybrid feedback controller to form an augmented control scheme referred to as hybrid PD-type FLC and
PID with 4-impulse input shaper (FPDPID+IS). The developed control strategy is designed and
implemented within the real-time environment of the TRMS rig. Results of the response of the TRMS
with the developed controller are presented in time and frequency domains. The performance of the
proposed control scheme is assessed in terms of input tracking and level of vibration reduction. This is
accomplished by comparing the system response with the developed controller to the one without control
action in both open and closed loop configurations.
      Evolution and perspectives of climbing robots at the industrial automation institute-
                             Lessons learned and new directions
M. A. Armada1, T. Akinfiev1, R. Fernandez1, P. González de Santos1, E. García1, S. Nabulsi1, H. Montes2,
                                   J. C. Grieco3 and G. Fernandez3
                  Department of Automatic Control, Industrial Automation Institute – CSIC, Spain
                      Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá, El Dorado, Panama City, Panama
                       Grupo de Macatronica, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas,Venezuela

The Industrial Automation Institute (IAI-CSIC) has been very active since its foundation (1971) in
providing innovative and advanced solutions to a relevant number of industrial problems. Applied
research in the field of Automatic Control paved the way to investigate robot design and control, where
contributions can be traced back for more than thirty years. Both industrial and special purpose robots
were the subjects of research and technical development. Since twenty years ago, the Automatic Control
Department of the IAI-CSIC is researching in climbing and walking robots. In this paper, the evolution
and perspectives of research in the field of climbing robots at the IAI-CSIC are revisited, and, on this
foundation, lessons learned are revealed and new directions are proposed.

         Using nonlinear oscillators to create a pattern generator of bipedal locomotion
                                      A. C. de Pina Filho1 and M. S. Dutra2
     Graphical Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
        Mechanical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The bipedal locomotion is performed by means of rhythmic and synchronized motions. These movements
have a pattern produced by nervous networks in the spinal marrow. These specialized systems are known
as central pattern generators (CPGs). Oscillators can be used to create similar systems to the human CPG,
providing approximate patterns of locomotion. The objective of this work is to present a nonlinear
oscillators system used to generate patterns of bipedal locomotion, taking into consideration a 2D model,
with three determinants of human gait, which performs parallel movements to the sagittal plane. Using
this system, the behavior of the hip and knee angles was determined. Modification of the step length and
gait frequency can be obtained from change of few parameters in the oscillators. An analysis of the
system provides excellent results when compared to experimental analyses. Based on these results, we
conclude that the use of nonlinear oscillators can represent an excellent method for creation of pattern
generators, allowing their application to simulate a CPG of bipedal locomotion.
   Visual odometry technique using circular marker identification for motion parameter
                             S. Chhaniyara, K. Althoefer and L. D. Seneviratne
                                  Department of Mechanical Engineering,
                                         King’s College London
                                        London, United Kingdom

This paper presents a new visual odometry approach for mobile robot self-localization utilizing natural
circular invariant features during motion. It is proposed that the on-board camera acquires sequences of
overlapped images and senses the distance and orientation of the vehicle with respect to identified
markers. The paper uses an effective image filtering technique based on convolution that can be used to
localize the natural markers in the images. The proposed approach simplifies the problem of feature
localization and allows a robust estimation of the vehicle‟s trajectory. Initial experiments are carried out
on mobile robot and results are presented.

     A robotic catapult based on the closed elastica with a high stiffness endpoint and its
                          application to impulsive swimming robot
                         M. Watari1 , A. Yamada1, H. Mochiyama2 and H. Fujimoto2
           Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan
                Department of Intelligent Interaction Technologies, University of Tsukuba, Japan

In this paper, we propose a new robotic catapult with a high stiffness endpoint. The conventional robotic
catapults based on the closed elastica are the robotic elements for generating impulsive motions by
utilizing the snap-through buckling. In a typical closed elastic catapult, the two ends of an elastic strip are
fixed to a free joint and an active joint, respectively. Here we found that by adding only the high stiffness
at the free joint, compared to the conventional type, more elastic energy can be stored and release surely
without loss of a characteristic of generating impulsive motion repeatedly. By utilizing the high stiffness
endpoint, we develop the faster impulsive swimming robot than the conventional one and perform
experiments including start and changing direction motion.
  A robotic catapult based on the closed elastica with an anisotropic stiffness point and its
                     application to compact continuous jumping robot
                         A. Yamada1, M. Watari1, H. Mochiyama2 and H. Fujimoto2
           Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan
                Department of Intelligent Interaction Technologies, University of Tsukuba, Japan

In this paper, we propose a new robotic catapult based on the closed elastica with an anisotropic stiffness
point which can generate impulsive motions for specific direction with higher repeated frequency than
conventional one. Using proposed robotic catapult, we propose a compact jumping robot and try for
realizing continuous jump of the robot.

                  On the design of walking machines using biarticulate actuators
                                 T. J. Klein, T. M. Pham and M. A. Lewis
                               Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
                                           University of Arizona
                                                Tucson, USA

Biarticulate muscles – muscles that span more than one joint – are ubiquitous in nature and are believed to
play an important role in locomotion. In particular, biarticulate muscles may be important during running
and jumping tasks; tasks at which most current bipedal robots are deficient. In human, it is known that
biarticulate muscles greatly assist in transferring energy from muscles near the body (i.e. thigh muscles)
to muscles far away (i.e. ankle muscles). Here we reproduce this effect in a robot leg design based on the
muscle architecture of the human leg, including biarticulate muscles. We demonstrate that biarticulate
muscles can transfer a significant amount of work and power from upper limb segments. Further, we
show that peak power transfer is dependent on the exact timing between biarticulate muscles and the
monoarticulate muscles that they assist. We show analytically that the pull-but-not-push property of
muscles is critical to ensure only positive work transfer from upper limbs to lower limbs.

             Body-weight-supported treadmill locomotion with spring brake orthosis
                                        M. S. Huq and M. O. Tokhi
                         Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering
                                        The University of Sheffield
                                            United Kingdom

A new form of body-weight supported treadmill walking technique is presented in this paper which may
serve as a suitable form of therapeutic intervention with minimal therapists support. While the technique
relies on spring brake orthosis (SBO) for the swing phase generation, hip extension is produced by the
foot being literally dragged backwards by the treadmill belt, appropriate trunk position and orientation
being simultaneously maintained by voluntary hand support. Voluntary hand support is simulated with
fuzzy logic controllers and the whole gait cycle is controlled as a finite state machine with event detection
from kinematic data. The simulation resulted in a complete gait cycle whose parameters were largely
dependent on the chosen treadmill speed. The torque requirement from the hand joints (shoulder and
elbow) for the successful implementation of the gait cycle is also analysed.

           Six DOF sensory system for the force-torqe control of walking humanoid
                                               M. Kvasnica
                                      Faculty of Applied Informatics
                                      Tomas Bata University in Zlin
                                          Zlín, Czech Republic

This paper focuses on current state of the art in sensory equipment for walking robotic systems and
walking humanoids oriented on assistive technologies, military, security and rescue robotic systems.
Described sensory systems are based on modular design that measures axial shiftings and angular
displacements is a part of many sensory systems in robotics and human-machine interface applications.
This is done by means of a square or annular CCD, or a set of four linear PSD elements, and four laser
diode rays or planes, creating the shape of a pyramid. The positions of four light spots on the CCD or
eight light spots on the PSDs are processed to produce three axial shiftings and three angular
displacement values.

 The replication of experiments and the performance evaluation in clawar system research
                                             F. P. Bonsignorio
                                    Heron Robots s.r.l., V.R. Ceccardi,
                                              Genova, Italy

As the complexity of developed and investigated clawar systems grows it is more and more relevant to be
able to replicate results and to compare different implementations and different approaches, in order to
enable the cumulative advancement of our knowledge and even to be able to assess disruptive changes.
In this short discussion it is first surveyed the state of the art as regards replication and benchmarking in
Clawar systems, in particular, and robotics, in general, showing both the opportunities and the issues
related to such a program, then a possible roadmap for the future is proposed.
                  UNIFIER – Unified robotic system to service solar power plants
                                                 R. Azaiz
                                     RWTH Aachen, Kastanienweg 6,
                                          Aachen, Germany

UNIFIER describes the concept of a robotic system to service solar power plants both on the ground and
on inclined surfaces. They usually consist of several seperated generators and modules. While wall
climbing robots are able to move on the solar modules they are not able to cross the large distances
between the generators. An additional robot carries the robot from one generator to another and supplies it
with electricity and cleaning agent. The wall climbing robot becomes a satellite robot of its carrier.

                    Internet 3.0 for the simulation of networked clawar systems
                                             F. P. Bonsignorio
                                    Heron Robots s.r.l., V. R.Ceccardi,
                                              Genova, Italy

The 3.0 or 3D internet, exemplified by environments such as LindenLabs SecondLife, supplies a
massively multiagent simulation environment, whose capability of simulating, for example the multi body
dynamics, is so far quite limited. Nethertheless it is possible to do some preliminary simulations of the
collective behaviours of multirobot systems, in a mixed environment where some of the agents are
directly controlled by a human being. In this paper we discuss the limits and future opportunities of
Massive Multiplayer Game technologies applied to Internet 3.0 for the simulation of massively multi
robot systems. In particular in the cooperative behaviour analysis of bioinspired locomotion systems.
Some reasoned guesses on the time frame of these developments are shared and a few examples are

                               Modelling and design of IPMC devices
                            I. Chochlidakis1, G. S. Virk2 and A. Dehghani-Sanji1
                      School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
             School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Wellington, NZ

The first part of this paper presents the unique behavior of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC) that
respond quickly with a following back relaxation when used as actuators. This behavior is frequency
dependent and appears within the lower spectrum frequencies. A model is presented that predicts the
behavior of the IPMC actuator within its whole frequency spectrum separated into slow and fast modes.
The frequency dependent output characteristics of the IPMC sensors are also shown. The second part of
the paper presents the design of an Integrated Sensor-Actuator Device (ISAD) using IPMC as both the
sensing and actuating elements. The need and potential of the two-element type of arrangement is
addressed, which can be seen as a starting point to the development of more complex devices
incorporating many sensing and actuating elements. The ISAD performance is compared with the
individual performances of the same strips used prior to integration.

   A new gravity compensation system composed of passive mechanical elements for safe
                            wearable rehabilitation system
                                  T. Nakayama, T. Asahi and H. Fujimoto
                              Omohi College, Graduate School of Engineering
                                     Nagoya Institute of Technology
                                             Nagoya, Japan

This paper proposed a new gravity compensation system which is suitable for the lower extremity
rehabilitation therapy. The proposed system can compensate the gravitational moments exerting on the
leg joints perfectly using the passive mechanical elements. In contrast with the previous systems, the
proposed gravity compensation mechanisms are wholly embedded in the link body, so that the system is
safer and well-suited to the wearable equipment. The feasibility of the gravity proposed mechanisms is
confirmed through the experiments using an actual equipment. The effectiveness of the system as a lower
extremity rehabilitation equipment is examined through computer simulations for the bending and
stretching exercises.

       Quasi-static energy analysis of the robotic catapult based on the closed elastica
                               H. Mochiyama1, A. Yamada2 and H. Fujimoto2
               Department of Intelligent Interaction Technologies, University of Tsukuba, Japan
                 Department of Information Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan

The authors have proposed the robotic catapult based on the closed elastica as a robotic element for
generating impulsive motions by using the snap-through buckling of an elastic material. In this paper, we
show a quasi-static energy analysis of the robotic catapult based on the closed elastica. The quasi-static
energy analysis with respect to the control variable allows us to see the relationship between mechanistic
values and geometric ones of the closed elastica.
         Output feedback nonlinear model predictive control of a twin rotor MIMO system
                                      A. Rahideh1,2 and M. H. Shaheed2
      School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, I. R. Iran
     Department of Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK m.h.shaheed@qmul.ac.uk

An output feedback model predictive control approach for constrained nonlinear systems is presented in
this paper. The state variables are observed using an unscented Kalman filter that has some advantages
over an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear dynamic model of the system has been developed
considering all possible effective elements. The nonlinear model is adaptively linearized during the
prediction procedure. In order to improve the performance of the control system as many linearized
models as prediction horizon are found at each real sample time. The optimum results of previous sample
time are utilised for linearization of current sample time. Developing the equations to form a linear
quadratic objective function with constraints is then carried out. A constrained highly nonlinear
aerodynamic test rig, twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) is selected to validate the performance and
effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
            Stereo camera based head orientation estimation for real-time system
                                             Y-O Kim and S. Jun
                                     Intelligent Robotics Research Center
                                    Korea Electronics Technology Institute
                                                Bucheon, Korea

This paper presents a new system to estimate the head pose of human in interactive indoor environment
that has dynamic illumination change and large working space. The main idea of this system is to suggest
a new morphological feature for estimating head angle from stereo disparity map. When a disparity map
is obtained from stereo camera, the matching confidence value can be derived by measurements of
correlation of the stereo images. Applying a threshold to the confidence value, we also obtain the specific
morphology of the disparity map. Therefore, we can obtain the morphological shape of disparity map.
Through the analysis of this morphological property, the head pose can be estimated. It is simple and fast
algorithm in comparison with other algorithm which apply facial template, 2D, 3D models and optical
flow method. Our system can automatically segment and estimate head pose in a wide range of head
motion without manual initialization like other optical flow system. As the result of experiments, we
obtained the reliable head orientation data under the real-time performance.

              Merging Topological Maps for Localisation in Large Environments
                                      F. Ferreira1, J. Dias1 and V. Santos2
                         Institute of Systems and Robotics- Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
                             Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aveiro, Portugal

This article presents a method for the creation of a topological map without having to previously create a
geometric map. Independently obtained topological paths are compared pairwise to search for possible
overlap in the view sequence. Each individual topological path is created from a sequence of raw data
views that are sampled by leading the robot along a path in the environment. The multiple topological
paths are 'stitched together' into a generic Topological map by identifying overlapping segments in the
individual sequences. A general topological map can be created by considering all the multiple sequences
or separate runs through the environment. Results on the merger of upto 8 separate paths indicate that this
method of mapping large environments, by selective touring through the environment, can generate
robust topological maps.
       A Lie group formulation for realtime ZMP detection using force/torque sensor
                                    L. Zhang, C. Zhou and R. Xiong
                       Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Control Centre (ARICC)
                                       Singapore Polytechnic

This paper presents a unified formulation of realtime Zero Moment Point(ZMP) detection using 6-axis
force/torque sensor in the framework of Lie group aiming to achieve dynamically-stable gait for a
humanoid robot. The proposed approach is able to detect ZMP in both single-support and double-support
phases for humanoid walk. Experiment is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed Lie group
formulation for realtime ZMP detection for balance control and dynamic walking control of humanoid

     Analysis, simulation and implementation of a human inspried pole climbing robot
                             A. Sadeghi, H. Moradi and M. N. Ahmadabadi
                             Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
                  School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran
                                              Tehran, Iran

In this paper we present the design, analysis, simulation and implementation of a novel design for a
naturally stable climbing robot that has been inspired from human pole/tree climbers. The other features
of this robot are its simple design, ease of control, light weight, simple mechanism and fast climbing
speed. The robot consists of three wheels, two free and one active wheel which enable the robot to climb
or descend poles. The free wheels are almost frictionless while the active wheel has enough friction to be
able to apply force on the pole for stably climbing or descending. The wheels are designed such that the
robot can compensate for misplacements eliminating possible detachment from poles. The static analysis
of the robot is formulated and the robot is simulated and actually tested. The results show the unique
characteristics of this robot that make it more stable if more weight is carried.

 A comparison study on pneumatic muscles and electrical motors, using the 3DCLIMBER
                                  as a case study
                             M. Tavakoli, L. Marques and A. T. de Almeida
         Institute for Systems and Robotics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
                                          University of Coimbra
                                            Coimbra, Portugal.

One of the major research areas in the biological inspired robots is Biologically inspired actuators.
Animals use their muscles to generate force for their movements. Pneumatic muscles, also known as
McKibben Artificial Muscles, are the most similar artificial actuators to animal muscles. A pneumatic
muscle (PM) is an interesting actuator, initially developed in the late 1950's for use in prosthetics. These
devices share many properties with actual muscles and are readily applicable to construction of
biomechanical realistic skeletal models. The actuators consist of a rubber bladder encased in mesh braid
(with flexible yet inextensible strands) that is rigidly attached at either end to fittings. 3DCLIMBER, is a
pole climbing robot designed at ISR-UC which is able to climb from poles with bents and branches. The
first prototype of the robot uses electrical motors as actuators. A research started to study possibility of
using other types of actuators to reduce the weight of the robot and thus increase the efficiency. This
paper presents a comparison study between the pneumatic muscles and electrical motors. The
3DCLIMBER robot was used as a case study for this comparison.

                         A step toward autonomous pole climbing robots
                       M. Tavakoli, A. Marjovi, L. Marques and A. T. de Almeida
                                   Institute for Systems and Robotics
                           Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
                                         University of Coimbra
                                           Coimbra, Portugal.

Pole climbing robots have many applications in the maintenance and inspection of human made 3D
tubular structures. One application is performing periodical inspections by NDT probes in order to detect
the progression of material degradation and welding defects. Nowadays NDT methods are applied by
dexterous technicians in elevated structures, where dangerous chemicals run inside the pipes. It is
extremely difficult and can be categorized in the 3D jobs (jobs that are Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult).
3DCLIMBER is a pole climbing robot which was developed at ISR-UC. It can climb from 3D structures
with bents and branches and scan whole area of the structure. Upon the completion of the mechanical
structure some tests were conducted for proof of the concept. During this test the errors which might
happen were revealed and then a sensorial architecture were designed in order to measure the errors and a
control architecture was proposed in order to compensate them. This paper discusses the source of errors
and the approach for compensation of the errors and also the Mechatronics and the control architecture of

               Sniffing a fire: Simulated experiments in a reduced scale scenario
                              P. Oliveira, L. Marques and A. T. de Almeida
                                    Institute for Systems and Robotics
                                          University of Coimbra
                                            Coimbra, Portugal

This paper addresses the searching of indoor fires with mobile robots using olfactory information. An
experimental environment and devices necessary to study maze searching algorithms using olfaction are
described. This environment allowed collecting data from a possible fire scenario. From the collected data
we made a study from the test results in way to understand how the smoke behaves inside the maze. The
collected data was also used to insert in a robot in Player/Stage simulator. A maze solving algorithm,
taking into account the smoke direction is proposed and validated in a simulated scenario. To compare
behaviours inside the environment it was implemented three algorithms for searching fire in a maze. A
simulated Khepera III mobile robot equipped with an olfaction system and an infrared array is used in a
set of trials searching small simulated fires inside a weakly ventilated maze with 4x3 meters. A simple
study of results is described as the important aspects of the simulations.

                         KheNose - A smart transducer for gas sensing
                                  J. Pascoal, P. Sousa and L. Marques
                                   Institute for Systems and Robotics
                                         University of Coimbra
                                           Coimbra, Portugal

This paper describes a Smart Transducer, inspired by the IEEE 1451 Standards, for olfactory sensing. The
device is composed by five different types of gas sensors, three anemometers and one temperature and
humidity sensor. This system senses the environmental conditions, process the acquired information and
send it to a Khepera III mobile robot through an I2C bus. An overview on the implemented real time
software and data structures associated with each sensing node will be made.

                  A scalable benchmark for motion control of mobile robots
                                      A. Marjovi and L. Marques
                                   Institute of Systems and Robotics
                                         University of Coimbra

Motion control is a key aspect for the performance of wheeled mobile robots (WMR). There are several
well known motion control methods for WMR, but usually those methods are very dependent from the
robot physical constraints. One of the most commonly employed platforms to propose and demonstrate
motion control algorithms is the differential drive platform and its variants. Every time a new motion
control algorithm is proposed, some comparisons with traditional algorithms are usually made, but there
are no set of benchmarks globally accepted to assess the performance of motion control algorithms. This
work tries to make some contributions in this area, analyzing the problem and proposing a set of
benchmarks to be used in the evaluation of mobile robots' motion control algorithms.
                              Benchmarking of the robot design process
                                                 G. S. Virk
                                             CLAWAR Ltd, UK
                              School of Engineering and Advanced Technology
                                             Massey University
                                         Wellington, New Zealand

This paper presents the results of benchmarking the robot design process with an emphasis on robot
component modularity that has been carried out within the CLAWAR community. A generic design
methodology has been developed based on the CLAWAR “Interaction space”. The CLAWAR work on
robot design benchmarking has adopted a Delphi study approach that involved robot experts who
performed a number of conceptual robot designs for two application sectors (urban search and rescue and
surface cleaning) to meet given specifications and key criteria. The individual designs produced have
been assessed by the robot experts using various metrics via a specially developed benchmarking
questionnaire based on a five point scale (disagree, partially agree, agree, strongly agree, 100% satisfied).
Brief details of the Delphi study methodology adopted, the conceptual designs produced, evaluation
questionnaire and the benchmarking results obtained are presented to bring out the generic results of the
benchmarking study.

               Visual Tracking on an Autonomous Self-Contained Humanoid Robot
                             Mauro Rodrigues1, Filipe Silva1 and Vítor Santos2
        Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, University of Aveiro, Portugal
                    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, Portugal

This paper describes the hardware and software setups that allow a humanoid robot developed from
scratch to perform visual tracking based exclusively on onboard components. The robot which was started
on earlier projects was finally given its full autonomy in what concerns perception and vision capabilities.
An embedded PC104-based controller running Linux is now able to interface a IEEE1394 color camera
and, using the OpenCV library, can now perform visual tracking of some objects moving on its
neighborhood. This embedded controller, besides being responsible for image acquisition and processing,
serves as an interface between external monitoring and the distributed control architecture based on a
master-multi-slave CAN bus of local controllers for joint actuation and sensor monitoring.
                   Pose estimation for grasping preparation from stereo ellipses
                                      G. Saponaro1 and A. Bernardino2
     Dipartimento di Informatica e Sistemistica “Antonio Ruberti” Sapienza - Universit`a di Roma, Rome,
         Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior T´ecnico, Torre Norte, Lisbon, Portugal

This paper describes an approach for real-time preparation of grasping tasks, based on the low-order
moments of the target's shape on a stereo pair of images acquired by an active vision head. The objective
is to estimate the 3D position and orientation of an object and of the robotic hand, by using
computationally fast and independent software components. These measurements are then used for the
two phases of a reaching task: (i) an initial phase whereby the robot positions its hand close to the target
with an appropriate hand orientation, and (ii) a final phase where a precise hand-to-target positioning is
performed using Position-Based Visual~Servoing methods.

                    Climbing ring robot for inspection of offshore wind turbines
                                 H. L. Rodriguez, B. Bridge and T. P. Sattar
                             Research Centre for Automated and Robotic NDT
                         Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment
                                      London South Bank University,
                                         London, United Kingdom

The structural integrity inspection of offshore wind turbine blades poses problems of access, danger to
human operatives and costs in the event of blades having to be taken out of service and transported on
shore for inspection. Robotic in-situ blade inspection of offshore wind turbines has been proposed and
micro/nano focus computed axial X ray tomography (MNCAT) has been identified as the optimal
solution for identification of safety critical defects in the thickest blade sections. A scaled climbing ring
robot has been developed that completely encircles a turbine tower. Because of the size (typically 3 meter
in diameter) and thus development costs of such a huge robot, the optimal design path is to prototype a
small scale model. First results on such a model are described and from its performance the load carrying
capabilities of a full scale version are computed. The key design innovation is that the adhesive forces
between the robot and climbing surface a provided entirely by mechanical means rather than by using the
usual methods of vacuum suction or magnetic force, making the system much cheaper and easier to
manipulate. Furthermore the design is entirely modular.
                      Selecting and Learning Multi-Robot Team Strategies
                                           Manuela M. Veloso
                                      Herbert A. Simon Professor
                                     Computer Science Department
                                      Carnegie Mellon University

We will present different approaches to generating efficient multi-robot cooperative strategies. We will
focus on learning policies for multiple robots, including humanoid robots, by demonstration from a
human. The robots incrementally learn the policy by requesting further demonstration based on their
confidence on successful execution. The humans can provide additional guidance as more demonstration
in terms of examples, functional guidance or corrections. The work presented is in conjunction with
several of my students, in particular Sonia Chernova and Brenna Argall.

                    Fractional calculus: Application in control and robotics
                                            J. A. T. Machado
                                          Coordinator Professor
                                  Department of Electrical Engineering
                                    Institute of Engineering of Porto
                                             Porto, Portugal

In 1695 L'Hôpital wrote a letter to Leibniz asking for the meaning of Dny for n = 1/2. Leibniz replied 'It
seems that useful consequences shall be drawn from these paradoxes one day, as there are no paradoxes
that do not prove useful'. The term 'Fractional Calculus' (FC) was adopted at that time and is used even
nowadays, although many researchers find more adequate the terminology 'integration and differentiation
of arbitrary order'. Starting with the ideas of Leibniz many important mathematicians developed the
theoretical concepts, but practical aspects were not evident. During the thirties A. Gemant and O.
Heaviside applied FC in the areas of mechanical and electrical engineering, respectively. Nevertheless,
these important contributions were somehow forgotten and only during the eighties, we find relevant
work, by A. Oustaloup, that developed a pioneering work in the FC application in automatic control
systems. In the same period, FC emerged as an important tool associated with phenomena such as fractal
and chaos and, consequently, in the modeling of dynamical systems. The ongoing research of FC
application addresses many different aspects such as viscoelasticity, biology, electronics, signal
processing, system identification, diffusion and wave propagation, modeling, identification, and control.
Bearing these ideas in mind, this lecture introduces the FC fundamental mathematical aspects and
discuses some of their consequences. Based on the FC concepts, the lecture reviews the main approaches
for implementing fractional operators and discusses the application of FC in control and robotics.
                           Development of dance partner robot -PBDR-
                                            Kazuhiro Kosuge
                               Department of Bioengineering and Robotics
                                          Tohoku University
                                             Sendai, Japan

A Dance Partner Robot, PBDR (Partner Ball Room Dance Robot), dances a waltz as a female dancer
together with a human male dancer. The waltz, a ball room dance, is usually performed by a male dancer
and a female dancer. The dance consists of a certain number of steps, and transition of the steps, which is
lead by the male dancer based on the transition rule of the dance. The step transition rule allows the male
dancer to select a step from a class of steps determined for the current step so that the line of dance is
traced. The female dance partner estimates the following step through physical interactions with the male
dancer. The design of the mechanism of the PBDR has been done together with a dress designer, Tastuya
Oconogi. The robot mechanism, which has to be put into the robot body designed by the dress designer,
is designed so as to have enough number of degrees of freedom for performing the dance. An upper body
of the robot consists of two manipulators, each of which has four-degrees-of-freedom for forming a
frame, and a head rotating around a neck. A lower body of the robot has an omni-directional mobile base
having three degrees of freedom, which is attached to the upper body through a parallel link mechanism
driven by three linear actuators. The upper body motion is realized by the parallel link mechanism. The
dance robot has a database about the waltz and its transition rule which is used to estimate the following
dance step and generate an appropriate step motion. The step estimation is done based on the time-series
data of the force/torque applied by the male dancer to the robot upper body. The robot motion is
generated for the estimated step using the step motion in the database compliantly against the interface
force/moment between the human dancer and the robot in real time. The estimation of the following step,
however, could not be done perfectly. We are continuing the development of the robot, and current
version could watch the human‟s dance step all the time during the dance and if the step is different from
the estimated one, the step is corrected according to the human‟s step. The development of the dance
partner robot suggests us a lot of important issues for robots having interaction with a human. Why we are
developing the dance partner robot and how the concept will be applied to other robot systems will be
discussed in the presentation.

                                    From micro to nano robotics
                                                B. Nelson
                                              ETH Zurich

Robots are currently exploring many environments that are difficult if not impossible for humans to reach,
such as the edge of the solar system, the planet Mars, volcanoes on Earth, and the undersea world. The
goal of these robotic explorers is to obtain knowledge about our universe and to answer fundamental
questions about life and human origins. Microrobotics has entered this field by exploring life at a much
smaller scale and more fundamental level. Microrobotic systems for physically exploring the structures of
biological cells are being developed, and robotic motion planning strategies are being used to investigate
protein folding. Microrobotic mechanisms have been used to investigate organism behaviors, such as the
flight dynamics of fruit flies as well as the neurophysiology that govern many other biologically
interesting behaviors. These recent research efforts and others like them illustrate how several areas of
robotics research are rapidly converging to create this new discipline I refer to as BioMicroRobotics.
These new directions in robotics represent only a beginning and indicate that robotics research, and
biomicrorobotics in particular, has the capability of making significant contributions in the understanding
of life. In moving from the micro domain to nanometric scales, completely different issues in developing
nanorobotic systems and in their application arise. The second part of the talk will detail recent efforts at
the Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at ETH-Zurich in fabricating nanometer scale robotic

 Adhesion techniques for climbing robots: state of the art and experimental considerations
                                         D. Longo and G. Muscato
                      Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e dei Sistemi
                                   Università degli Studi di Catania
                                            Catania, Italy

Climbing robots are now widely accepted as valid options in situations where it is important to move on
sloped or vertical structures in order to inspect, paint, clean or perform the required operations. Even if
the first applications of climbing robots appeared more than 40 years ago, many new ideas are
continuously being proposed in the scientific literature and in the market. In this work a classification of
the different adhesion techniques proposed for climbing robots is proposed and discussed. Adhesion
methodologies can be classified as active when they require an external energy supply to support the
robot, or passive if no energy is needed (e.g. permanent magnets or suction cups). Another classification
can be done on the basis of the nature of the forces required to support the robot: pneumatic, if the
adhesion force is generated by a pressure difference; magnetic if the force is magnetic; mechanical if it
depends only on mechanical supports, chemical if it is due to some particular glue, or electrostatic.
Moreover within each of these categories, different kind of robots have been proposed in the last years,
also on the basis of the locomotion architectures: walking with legs, frame walking, with wheels, sliding,
jumping, etc. Recently biologically-inspired gripping methods, trying in many cases to imitate gecko skin,
appeared in several research works. However some doubts remain concerning the applicability of such
systems in real applications. Some critical considerations on the different techniques and on their practical
advantages and drawbacks will be exposed and an overview of the different climbing robots developed in
the last 12 years at University of Catania is also presented.

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