Secure Communication with Flipping Substitute Permutation Algorithm for Electronic Copy right Management System by ijcsiseditor

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									                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                   Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

 Secure Communication with Flipping Substitute
 Permutation Algorithm for Electronic Copy right
              Management System
           1                                                2                                       3
           C. PARTHASARATHY                                  G.RAMESH KUMAR                          Dr.S.K.SRIVATSA
         Assistant professor in IT Dept                      Assistant Professor                      Senior professor
                             Sri Chandrashekhendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya University,
                              Enathur, Kanchipuram – 631 561,,
                Department of Computer Science & Applications,Adhiparasakthi College of Arts & Science
                 G.B.Nagar, Kalavai - 632 506,Vellore District. Tamil Nadu,
                    St. Joseph’s College of Engg, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai-600 064

Abstract-The main objective of this paper is to detect               Digital images are most common sources for hiding
the existence of secret information hidden within an                 message. The process of hiding information is called
image. Cryptography is one of the most interested and                an embedding.
important area in the computer industry that deals with
secures transmission of information. Encryption, the                   Still and multi-media images are subject to
process which helps for such secure transmission
                                                                     transformations for compression, steganographic
prevents hackers to access the information. And
decryption helps to retrieve the original information.               embedding and digital watermarking. We propose
Cryptography provides many methods and techniques                    new measures and techniques for detection and
for secure communication. Currently there are many                   analysis of steganographic embedded content. We
industry standard encryption/decryption algorithms                   show that both statistical and pattern classification
including RSA, Rijndael, Blowfish and so forth.                      techniques using our proposed measures provide
However, they are fairly complex and require that one                reasonable discrimination schemes for detecting
spend a lot of time to comprehend and implement them.
                                                                     embeddings of different levels.
This paper introduces simple Encryption/decryption
algorithm that is fast and fairly secure. The algorithm
manipulates a 128-bit input using flipping, Substitution,               Many algorithms are developed for encryption and
and Permutation to achieve its encryption/decryption.                decryption which provides high security. All these
                                                                     algorithms are kept open to the public and the secrecy
  Keywords - Cryptography, Hacker, Security, attack                  of the algorithm lies entirely in the key. This paper
Steganography,     Watermarking,      compression,                   stands different that the development of algorithm
authentication.                                                      addresses the user needs in specific, thereby offering
                                                                     more flexibility. With the help of socket program,
                       I. INTRODUCTION                               establish a connection between client and server
                                                                     .Different segments of secrete picture were passed as
  Steganography is a Greek word meaning covered or                   file objects to the server from client.
hidden writing. It is the art and science of secret
co+mmunication, aiming to conceal the existence of                       II. PROBLEM DEFINITION - PROPOSED
the communication. This is a different from                                         ALGORITHM
Cryptography, where the existence of the
communication is not disguised but the message is                    Secure communication with the help of FSP
obscured by scrambling it. Use of cryptography                       algorithm as follows:
would not stop a third party knowing that some secret
communication is going on. In steganography, the                     Step 1: Set the flipping bit.
message to be sent is concealed in such a way that an                Step 2: Change the characters according to the
intruder would not know whether any secret                                   flipping bit.
communication is going on or not. Hiding                             Step 3: Check the ASCII table and find keys.
information inside digital carriers is becoming                      Step 4: With the help of the keys, make a square
popular. A rapid growth in demand and consumption                            matrix, using inverse table.
of multimedia has resulted in data hiding techniques                 Step 5: Do flipping operation.
for files like audio (.wav), images (.bmp, .pnm, .jpg).              Step 6: Repeat the steps 2 to 5.

                                                                                              ISSN 1947-5500
                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                    Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

In Fig 1, PT is the Plain text and CT is the Cipher                        K= 15 7 14 6 13 5 12 4 8
text.                                                                           1 9 2 10 3 11
                                                                    [Numbers 1 to 15 occurring in the key corresponding
                                                                                    to the above table]

                                                                   Using the above key, Flipping key is determined. So
                                                                   the length of the Flipping key is 128bit (ie, 16 x 8 =

                                                                   And Using this key the substitution table and Inverse
              Figure 1. Encryption with 8 levels
                                                                   substitution table is also constructed.
A. Flipping Operation
                                                                                       Table 1 – ASCII Table
         One piece of the secret information is the
flipping key and its length is 128 bits, and it is used
to obscure the plaintext or cipher text further. Given a
128-bit input PT (Plain Text) and a flipping key F,
We denote the flipping operation on PT as below:

                 Output=Flip (F, PT)

          In the flipping operation, its 128- bit input is
disguised as follows: For each bit of the input, if the
corresponding bit of the flipping key is 0, the
corresponding bit of the flipping key is 1, the                    Again this table is divided into subsets.
corresponding output bit will be the complement of
the input bit. That is, if the flipping key bit is 0 and                               Table 2 – Subset Table
the input bit is 0/1, the output of the flipping
operation is 0/1. On the other hand, if the flipping
key bit is 1 and the input bit is 0/1 the output of the
flipping operation is 1/0. In reconstructing the
original input, the output of the flipping operation is
flipped against the same flipping key.

B. Substitution Operation

         This algorithm uses substitution and Inverse
Substitution table for encryption and decryption
.These tables are generated based upon the ASCII
code and the key. Let PT be the plain text, CT be the
Cipher text and Key be the Flipping key. In this,
plain text as a text file. This file will have all the
ASCII characters. The ASCII characters are given in
                                                                                       Table 3 – Block Table
the Table 3. In this, the rows indicate the left digit
and the column indicates the right digit. Again this
table is subdivided into subsets. For dividing the
subset into blocks, we have to follow the following
procedure. If the no of characters is less than or
equal to 10, we have to divide this into two halves. If
the number of characters is even number, we divide it
into equal halves. Suppose, the number of characters
is odd number, we have to divide this into 2 subsets
but the size of the first subset is greater than the
second subset by 1. To construct the substitution
table 2, it uses key and it will be informed to the
receiver in a secure manner.

                                                                                               ISSN 1947-5500
                                                   (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                   Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

               Table 4 – Substitution Table
                                                                         PLAIN TEXT                    CIPHER TEXT
                                                                       A B C D E                      U V W X Y
                                                                       F G H I      J                 P Q R     S  T
                                                                       K L M N O                      K L M N O
                                                                     P    Q      R     S      T       F     G      H     I      J
                                                                     U    V      W     X      Y       A     B      C     D      E

                                                                           Figure 3.Horizontal Folding Technique

            Table 5 – Inverse Substitution Table
                                                                         PLAIN TEXT                        CIPHER TEXT
                                                                   A      B  C   D            E       A     F   K   P             U
                                                                   F     G   H    I           J       B     G   L   Q             Y
                                                                   K      L  M   N            O       C     H M R                 W
                                                                   P     Q   R    S           T       D     I   N   S             X
                                                                   U     V   W X              Y       E     J   O   T             Y
                                                                       Figure 4.Diagonal Vertical Folding Technique

                                                                           In the case of vertical folding method
                                                                  columns are exchanged dynamically. It is same as
                                                                  horizontal folding using column processing instead of
                                                                  row processing.
C. Permutation Operation Proposed Folding
  Technique                                                                The diagonal folding method must be
                                                                  implemented in square matrix arguments. If not
  The origin of folding is from paper folding nature.             proper padding must be added to get the appropriate
This folding is broadly divided into 3 angles of                  solution. On the side of decryption padding must be
processing:                                                       eliminated after processing.
         1. Vertical Folding
         2. Horizontal Folding                                         for(int i=0;i<5;i++)
         3. Diagonal Folding                                                 for(int j=0;j<5;j++)
Consider there are 5 rows present in the plain text                          {
document. Cipher text created with respect to                                   int p=(i*10)+j;
                       1↔5                                                      for(int k=0;k<5;k++)
                       2↔4                                                         for(int q=0;q<5;q++)
                       3 ↔'3                                                       {
              Note : Exchange occurs                                                    b[i][j]=((k+1)*10)+q+1;
the horizontal folding method finds the mid-row of
whole text. With respect to that mid row subsequent
rows are exchanged.                                               Program 1.Substitution - forming inverse table

     PLAIN TEXT                     CIPHER TEXT
A     B  C   D           E      E    D   C   B        A           D. Encryption Level
F     G  H    I          J      J    I   H G          F                    The last piece of the secret information is
K     L  M   N           O      O    N   M L          K           the encryption level. It is a positive integer. The
P     Q  R    S          T      T    S   R Q          P           higher the encryption level is, the more secure the
U     V W X              Y      Y    X W V            U           algorithm is. However, we should be cautious with
                                                                  large values of the encryption level since the
            Figure 2.Vertical Folding Technique                   increasing of the encryption level is proportional to
                                                                  the decreasing of the Encryption / decryption speed.
                                                                  E. Traffic padding

                                                                                                  ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

                                                                                 IV. LAN CONNECTION
          Effective countermeasure to traffic analysis
is traffic padding. Traffic padding is one of the                 The program or process initiating the
functions of link encryption approach. It produces              communication is called a client process, and the
cipher text output continuously in the picture; even in         program waiting for the communication to be
the absence plaintext a continuous random data                  initiated is the server process. The client and server
stream is generated. When plaintext is available, it is         processes together form a distributed system.
encrypted and transmitted. When input plaintext is
not present, random data are encrypted and                      Step 1: Start.
transmitted. It shown in figure 5,
                                                                Step 2: Select the image file.
Advantage of traffic padding:                                   Step 3: Encode the information into the image file.
                                                                Step 4: Pass the image, to image splitter application,
 • It is impossible for an attacker to distinguish
   between true dataflow and padding data flow.                 enter the number of segments as input. Multiple
 • It is impossible to deduce amount of traffic.                image files will be created.
                                                                Step 5: Using socket programming, establish a
                                                                connection between client and server.
                                                                Step 7: Different segments were passed as file objects
                                                                to the server after connecting to the server.
                                                                Step 8: Stop.
                                                                public static void main(String[]
                                                                args) {
         Figure 5. Traffic padding                              // TODO Auto-generated method stub
     III. BRUTE FORCE ATTACK                                          {
                                                                File file = new File"C:/test.jpg");
  To hack into the FSP encryption/decryption                    InputStream fis = new
algorithms using the brute force approach, one needs            FileInputStream(file);
to guess the flipping key, the Substitution function,           long fileLength = file.length();
the permutation function and the encryption level.                    long numberOfSplits = 5;
  A force attack or exhaustive key search is a strategy               long splitFileSize =
that can in theory be used against any encrypted data           fileLength/numberOfSplits;
by an attacker who is unable to take advantage of any                            byte[] byteArray =
                                                                new byte[(int)splitFileSize];
weakness in an encryption system that would
                                                                System.out.println("length of the
otherwise make them task easier. It involves
systematically checking all possible keys until the
                                                                System.out.println("split file
correct key is found. In the worst case, this would
involve traversing the entire search space
                                                         , 0,
A. The Number of the Flipping Keys
                                                                 File file2 = new
     The resources required for a brute force attack                OutputStream fos = new
scale exponentially with increasing key size, not               FileOutputStream(file2);
linearly. As a result, doubling the key size for an                       fos.write(byteArray);
algorithm does not simply double the required                   System.out.println("length of file
number of operations, but rather squares them.                  2::"+file2.length());
          There are 128 bits in a key. Each bit can be            fis.close();
either 1 or 0. Therefore, there are 2128 flipping keys.           fos.close();

                                                                          Program 2. Split the image

                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                      (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                      Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

     V. Description Diagram for Watermarking                           In collection Society module, Buyer PIN is
                                                                     embedded into the image using CS private key in
                                                                     Asymmetric encryption. It also computes Hash value
                                                                     of the image which should be sent to buyer. It is used
                                                                     for authentication purpose. This hash value is also
                                                                     appended into the image and the encrypted image is
                                                                     transferred to the buyer using LAN or Email

                                                                                 Sender                                   Uk

                                                                                            ||                            F
                                                                                      F                  FK(M)


                                                                        M - Input Message
                                                                        F - MAC function
          Figure 6.Water marking in Protected Image
                                                                        Pk- Secret key
                                                                        Uk - Public key
  The media distributor inserts the third watermark,
which contains the document Creation Unique                                          Figure 8.Massage authentication
Number (CUN) and the buyer’s PIN encrypted with                        In Buyer module, Buyer decrypts the encrypted
the collecting society’s private key.                                digest using CS public key and the digest value is
                                                                     computed. Hash value is recomputed from the
        VI. IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS                                   decrypted digest and the hash value is compared. If
                                                                     these values are same then it ensures no transmission
  This paper consists of implementing the Electronic                 loss. From third encrypted watermark buyer decrypt
Copyright Management System (ECMS). In ECMS                          the Buyer PIN from it and ensures it legal ownership.
there are four modules.                                              Control Authority is used for Illegal usage detection
                                                                     phase. It compares CUN with buyer watermark and
                                                                     distributor watermark and detects the legal or illegal

                                                                     A. Algorithm - Server Side:
                                                                       Sockets are interfaces that can "plug into" each
                                                                     other over a network. Once so "plugged in", the
                                                                     programs so connected communicate. A "client"
                                                                     program can then connect its own socket to the
                                                                     server's socket, at which time the client program's
                                                                     writes to the socket are read as stranded input to the
                                                                     server program, and stranded output from the server
              Figure 7. Four modules of ECMS                         program are read from the client's socket reads.

  In Author Module Creation Unique Number is                         Step 1: Different segments were received as file
embedded into the Image using author private key. In                 objects.
the embedding of CUN it uses asymmetric
                                                                     Step 2: Using Image Merger application, the
watermarking algorithm. Distributor PIN is also
                                                                     segments are merged back to a single file.
embedded into the image using private key
Asymmetric encryption algorithm.                                     Step 3: Apply the FSP algorithm Decode the
  Collection Society is the trusted third party that will
ensure that the protected document traded correctly.                 Step 4: Both the server and client socket connection
It involves transaction between buyer & media                        is closed.
distributor.                                                         Step 5: Stop.

                                                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

B. Author Module
                                                                  String with encrypted third watermark is decrypted
  In this module CUN and Distributor PIN is                     using CS public key and the obtained CUN and
encrypted using author private key and the encrypted            Buyer PIN is compared
info is embedded into the image using transaction
watermark embedded. In this module all the info                      •    BUYER passes his PIN to Distributor.
embedded into the watermarked image is decrypt and                   •    Distributor passes buyer’s PIN, the CUN,
decoded using transaction watermark decoder.                              and a string with the second watermark’s
                                                                          content (that is, Distributor’s PIN and the
  In our approach, the document is self-contained. At
                                                                          CUN encrypted with author’s private key) to
any given instant it contains all the information
                                                                          the CS.
needed to verify whether the current holder is using
the data legally. No attempt is made to trace the                    •    The CS passes revenue to Author.
document history, however, either by watermarking                    •    After encrypting the string with buyer’s PIN
the document each time the owner changes, or by                           and the CUN with its private key, the CS
recording transaction details in a register. We take                      embeds the second and the third watermarks
particular care to allow each actor to check that the                     into its copy of the document.
data exchange was carried out correctly. The basic                   •    The CS computes a digest of the
principle underlying our ECMS strategy is that the                        watermarked document using a proper hash
data holder’s name must be watermarked into the                           function, signs the digest with its private
data to prove legal ownership. To ensure that a                           key, and sends the signed digest and the
document is being used legally, any authorized                            third, encrypted, watermark to distributor.
person can check the watermark field the holder’s                    •    Distributor embeds the third watermark into
name is written in. We also envision a protocol-level                     the document and gives it, the encrypted
mechanism that addresses the reversibility problem                        third watermark, and the signed digest to
by preventing data holders or counterfeiters from                         buyer.
benefiting from watermark removal: at no step of the
transaction can a counterfeiter insert a fake                     Verification Process: To verify that Distributor has
watermark, so a counterfeiter cannot prove document             embedded his PIN within the data, Buyer need only
ownership. To keep misappropriating persons from                decrypt the third watermark using the CS public key.
writing their names into the data, the ECMS assumes             To check whether the CUN embedded in the third
that the seller (or the author when a media distributor         watermark corresponds to that in the first, Buyer can
sells the document) embeds the watermark.                       compute the digest of the watermarked document and
                                                                confirm that it corresponds to the digest computed by
B. Collection Society Module                                    the CS. Such a digest also allows buyer to verify the
                                                                integrity of the watermarked document that is he can
  In this module Buyer PIN and total document is                confirm that Distributor has not modified the original
encrypted using CS private key. If author wants to              document.
sell copies of her document through a media
distributor, she embeds a second watermark into the             D. Control Authority Module
document. This watermark contains a personal
identification number (PIN) identifying the media                 This phase is used to verify the illegal usage.
distributor, and the document’s CUN. Author                     Protecting Data from Illegal Use Control authority
encrypts the watermark string with her private key              asks buyer to prove his right to a digital document in
and a copy of the encrypted string, which distributor           its possession. Buyer can simply give the
can use to verify that author really inserted his name          watermarked document and the file with the
into the document. Distributor can use Author’s                 encrypted third watermark to the control authority.
public key to read the encrypted string, and                    The CA first checks the encrypted.
watermark detection software to verify it. (Unlike
with the first watermark, only an asymmetric                      Third watermark for buyer PIN, then, by applying a
cryptography scheme can be used here.)                          watermark detection engine to the protected
                                                                document, it verifies that the watermark with buyer’s
C. Buyer Module                                                 PIN is actually embedded in the data. Finally, the
                                                                CA, which knows both the true CUN and author’s
 In this module, buyer verification is achieved by              secret key, can control whether the CUN contained in
checking the watermarked string with the original               the third watermark matches the document identity.
watermark using watermark decoder.

                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

   Indeed, the CA would not really need the user’s              enhanced and to be used in Copyright protection. In
file with the encrypted third watermark if it could get         addition to that all the image formats should be
this information directly from the CS. Rather than              supported by the software and the e-commerce used
storing all watermarking codes or digests, the CS can           in e-transaction will be added in future. This
simply compute them whenever it needs to, provided              software needs facility of Monitoring and analyzing
the CA gives it the required information. In                    intruders and raising alarm with new technique. The
particular, the CS can generate the second and third            FSP encryption / decryption algorithm is a simple
watermark and the digest if it knows the media                  algorithm based on the flipping, substitution and
distributor’s PIN, the buyer’s PIN, the CUN, and the            permutation operations. It is fast and fairly secure.
author’s identity.                                              However, it is only suitable for applications that do
                                                                not expose the inputs and the encrypted form of the
        VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                             inputs to the public. If there is a need for the
                                                                applications to expose its inputs and its encrypted
   Here the new variant FSP Algorithm developed                 forms of the inputs, then it should use the FSP
has been adopted successfully to implement                      encryption / decryption algorithm instead.
watermarking technique used for invisible
information retrieval hidden in a picture message in
ECMS. The secret information sending / retrieval
among the four modules of ECMS are carried out and              REFERENCES
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                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500
                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                    Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

[7] Rade Petrovic, 2003, “Copyright Protection                     [16] Fridrich et al. 2002 Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Du,
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     Internet & Multimedia Lab., Chunghwa Telecom                                  AUTHORS PROFILE
     Labs,       Taoyuan,       Taiwan,  7810434,
                                                                   1                                 C.PARTHASARATHY has been working as a
     /freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1202744.                            Assistant professor in the Department of Information
                                                                   Technology in Sri Chandrashekhendra Saraswathi
[11] Wei Li, Xiangyung Xue, and Peizhong Lu, Dept                  Viswa Maha Vidyalaya University, Enathur,
     of CSE, University of Fudan, Shangai, China,                  Kanchipuram –631 561 since 2006. He has
     2003, “A Novel Feature-based Robust Audio                     completed his M.C.A from in Madras University, and
     Watermarking for Copyright Protection”, IEEE                  M.Tech in Sathyabama University and M.Phil in
     Computers and Communication 2003, ISBN: 0-                    Computer Science from Annaamalai University.
     7695-1916-4,554-560,Washington,DC,USA.                        Since January 1st 2001 C.Parthasarathy has been a
                                                                   Lecturer in various colleges. He has been research in
[12] William Stallings, 2008,“Cryptography and                     Network Security. He has been a Ph.D student in
     Network Security”, Pearson Edn. Pvt. Ltd, 2008,               network security at the S.C.S.V.M.V University of
     4th edtion, ISBN 13:9780132023221,pp. 26-29,                  Kanchipuram. He is currently focusing on the
     Akhil books Pvt Ltd,India.                                    creating a new algorithm in Steganography. He has
                                                                   attended international and National seminars,
[13] Anderson and Petitcolas 2001 Anderson.R,                      Conferences, Workshops and also presented papers.
     Petitcolas.F,  “On    the   limits    of   the
     steganography", IEEE Journal Selected Areas in                 G.RAMESH KUMAR started his career as
     Communications, 16, 4,474{481.                                Lecturer in 1994 and having more than 16 years of
                                                                   teaching experience. He completed his M.Phil degree
[14] Bassia et al. 2001 Bassia, P., Pitas, I., Nikolaidis,         from Manonmaniam Sundararanar University,
     N.: “Robust audio watermarking in the time                    Tirunelveli in 2003. He served as a member of the
     domain”, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 3,                  inspection committee for Computer Science courses
     2, 232{241.                                                   at Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore. He has been
                                                                   appointed as member in Board of studies in
[15] Cedric et al. 2000 Cedric, T., Adi,                           Computer Science and Computer Application(PG)
     R.,Mcloughlin, I.: “Data concealment in audio                 for a period of three years from 16.04.2010 to
     using a nonlinear frequency distribution of PRBS              15.04.2013. He has written three Text books for
     coded data and frequency-domain LSB                           Computer Science UG & PG Courses. Presently he is
     insertion”, Proc. IEEE Region 10 International                working as Assistant Professor of Computer Science,
     Conference on Electrical and Electronic                       Adhiparasakthi College of Arts & Science, Kalavai –
     Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 275-278.                  632 506. Vellore District. Tamil Nadu.

                                                                                               ISSN 1947-5500
                                               (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                               Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

 Dr.S.K.SRIVATSA was born at Bangalore on 21st
July 1945. He received his Bachelor of Electronics
and Communication Engineering Degree (Honors)
from Javadpur University (Securing First Rank and
Two Medals).          Master Degree in Electrical
Communication Engineering (With Distinction) from
Indian Institute of Science and Ph.D also from Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore. In July 2005, he
retired as professor of Electronics Engineering from
Anna University. He has taught twenty-two different
courses at the U.G. Level and 40 different courses at
P.G. Level during the last 32 years. He has
functioned as a Member of the Board of Studies in
some Educational Institutions. His name is included
in the Computer Society of India database of
Resource Professionals. He has received about a
dozen awards. He has produced 23 PhDs. He is the
author of well over 350 publications.

                                                    Random Gen

                                                        Spatial                   Watermarked
               Secret           Encryption
                Info             Process                                             Image

                               Encryption               Protected
                                  Key                    Image

                                 Figure 9. Encoding with Watermarking technique.

                                                                                          ISSN 1947-5500
                     (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                     Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

                       Random Gen

Watermarked                                        Watermarked
   Image                                             content

                      Decoding Key

    Figure 10. Decoding with asymmetric watermarking technique

        Figure 11. Copyright watermark embedding

                                                                 ISSN 1947-5500

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