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Enhancement of stakeholders participations in Water fall Process Model (Step towards reducing the defects in software product)

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					                                                               (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                   Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

       Enhancement of stakeholders participations in
               Water fall Process Model
                            (Step towards reducing the defects in software product)


                Mehar Ullah                              Fasee Ullah                        Muhammad Saeed Shehzad
        meharullah@yahoo.com                          faseekhan@gmail.com                     saeedshehzad@gmail.com



                                              Department of Computer Science
                               City University of Science & Information Technology (CUSIT)
                                                       Peshawar, Pakistan


Abstract— In complete software development life cycle, defects             is done during the early stages, so it causes many design flaws
can be originated from any source such as from stakeholders, end           before the development process. But its planning and intensive
users, or in understanding the scope of project or product. In             documentation helps to maintain the product quality. For
water fall process model, all activities are performing in sequence        considering the full waterfall process model, developers can
and though it has its own drawbacks, which causes of different
                                                                           use the set of activities such as system requirement, software
defects but one perspective of defects is the involvement of
developer stakeholders in development process. The coordination            requirement, architectural design, detail design, coding, testing
problem between developer stakeholders of successive activities            and maintenance [3, 4].
causes many problems such as improving defect ratios, managing
the work within deadline time, productivity, reliability and                    In each stage of waterfall process model, documents are
quality of software. Coordination and communication problem                created to describe the objectives and requirements of that
among stakeholders is due to lack of communication power of                phase and at the end of each phase a review of project is held
stakeholders and proper way to understand his/her work to                  for continuation on next phase [5, 6, 7]. But if developer
stakeholder of successive activity. To overcome this problem, we           stakeholder of current stage is unable to communicate
have proposed a strategy which can be implemented by project
                                                                           effectively with developer stakeholder of next phase then
manager of team or with mutual coordination of team members.
                                                                           number of factors arise which can impact the achieving of
   Key Words:Defects , stakeholders, Defects ratio, Coordination,          functional or non functional requirements, delay in delivery of
                                                                           product and its defect rate. Similarly, external influence of
               Communication                                               software development causes the risk factor which can lead
                                                                           further to cost, duration and quality of projects [8].
                       I.    INTRODUCTION
       Software development process comprises on set of                         In 1960, some software crises come in front of audience
activities which can be shaped or named according to define                during development phase. Later on in 1993, an IEEE standard
methodologies and umbrella of these activities is considered as            defines several dimensions of defects that should be collected
process model. Now-a-day, stakeholders are using number of                 [9].      There are number of interrelated factors in
process model and their demand can be seen with respect to                 documentation, process management, development and
different aspect such as delivery time for products, quality               activities sequences which cause defects but most probably
level, maintainability, availability, complexity or agility.               communication gap between stakeholders of successive phase
Among these process model, water fall is an old and                        is considered as important source [10, 11].
traditional model which can be followed by many developers
to develop the customized software and where instant change                 To overcome this problem, we have proposed a strategy to fill
in system are not acceptable. Water fall process model is also             the communication gap between stakeholders of two
represented as classic software life cycle [1] where software              connective phases and reduce the defect rate.
evolution proceeds in sequence of activities. Besides its
advantages, water fall process model causes some problems                                  II. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
due to its sequential approach, making the development                           In water fall model, development of software is done by
process length and unable to accept the uncertain requirements             following a set of activities in sequence and each activity is
of a system [2]. Similarly, in waterfall process model planning            performed by one or more than one stakeholders. The




                                                                      78                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                      ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
coordination problem between developer stakeholders of
successive activities causes many problems such as improving
defect ratios, managing the work within deadline time,
productivity, reliability and quality of software. Coordination

                                                                                                           Understand scope of project
and communication problem among stakeholders is due to
lack of communication power of stakeholder and proper way
to understand the work of stakeholder of successive activity.
To overcome this problem, a proposed strategy which can be
implemented by project manager of team or with mutual                                                       Identify list of actual and
coordination of team members. According to this proposed                                                      relevant stakeholders
strategy the work of each stakeholder should be documented
for easy access and help to stakeholder(s) of next phase.
Influence of proposed work over the activities of water fall                                                  Identify requirements
model is shown in Figure 1.                                                                                  relevant to stakeholders

                                                                                              Figure 2. Steps for System Analyst in proposed methodology


             Analysis
                                                                                        Information about users, their requirements and some other
                                                                                        information is shown in table 1.

                                                                                             Table 1, show the information which is maintained by
              Design
                                                                                        system analyst for precise communication with stakeholder(s)
                                                Influence                               of next coming phase or activity. The first column of table 1
                                                    of                                  shows the list of all linked and non-linked departments from
                                                Proposed                                where requirements are collected. The second column
              Coding                             Strategy                               represents the list of users who are involved in operations
                                                                                        directly or indirectly. Third and forth columns represent the
                                                                                        management level of users and their assign roles respectively.
                                                                                        Moreover, fifth column show the list of requirements which
                                                                                        are gathered from different users of proposed system. Finally,
              Testing                                                                   last column represent the page number of feasibility report
                                                                                        where gathered requirements have been organized.


Figure 1. Influence of proposed strategy and activities list of Water fall Model
                                                                                                    III.    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
                                                                                             In water fall process model, communication gap and
Figure 1 shows the list of activities and implementation of                             understanding between developer stakeholders of successive
proposed methodology whose influence will be remain during                              stages causes of many defects and its effect on the
the phase, but here it has shown only at the end of activity or                         maintenance period of product. Because, due to maintenance
phase. In proposed methodology, we considered the five roles                            process extra efforts are needed to overcome the problems and
who worked together under supervision of a project manager.                             reducing the defect rate. Due to proposed methodology in this
These roles are of project manager, system analyst, designer,                           paper, developer becomes able to convey their messages and
programmer and tester. Each role will follow the rules which                            enhance the understandability of his/her work to the
are defined in methodology. But here in next section only the                           stakeholder of next coming stage or phase. Here, author has
rules and work of system analyst according to methodology is                            presented the rules and task for system analyst only and this
defined.                                                                                thing has been defined for other type of developer
                                                                                        stakeholders. Finally, author’s proposed strategy can be
     The first activity of waterfall model is the analysis or                           enhanced and precise after its implementation for customized
requirement specification and in this phase main role is of                             projects and according to opinion of developer stakeholders.
system analyst. Instead of his/her actual work, each analyst
will must use the following sequence shown in Figure 2.




                                                                                   79                                http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                           Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011




               Department          User          Level         Working as (role)      Requirement(s)      Page# of feasibility report to
                 Name              Name                                                                     show the organizing of
                                                                                                                 requirement
                                                                                             R1                        N
                                                                                             R2                        N
                                      U1          Low                     KPO               -----
                Admission                                                                    Rn                         N
                                                                                             R1                         N
                                      U2         Middle        Admission Officer             R2                         N
                                                                                            -----
                                                                                             Rn                         N

                                   Table 1: Precise information for designer




                             REFERENCES

[1]  Walt Scacchi, “Process Models in Software Engineering”, J.J. Marciniak
     (ed.), Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, Feb 2010.
[2] Center for Technology in Government University at Albany / SUNY, “A
     Survey of System Development Process Models”, Center for
     Technology in Government University at Albany / SUNY, 1998.
[3] Nabil Mohammed Ali Munassar and A. Govardhan, A Comparison
     Between Five Models Of Software Engineering, IJCSI International
     Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 5, September 2010.
[4] PK. RAGUNATH ET AL, Evolving A New Model (SDLC Model-2010)
     For Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), IJCSNS International
     Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.10 No.1,
     January 2010.
[5] Craig Larman,”Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief
     History”, Published by the IEEE Computer Society, July 2003.
[6] http://www.buzzle.com/articles/waterfall-model-advantages-and-
     disadvantages.html
[7] IEEE Std 1044-1993. IEEE Standard Classi_cation for Software
     Anomalies, 1993.
[8] Raymond Madachy, Barry Boehm and Dan Houston, “Modeling
     Software Defect Dynamics”, STN 13-1 April 2010.
[9] Sakthi Kumaresh and R Baskaran, “nalysis and Prevention for Software
     Process Quality Improvement”, International Journal of Computer
     Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 8– No.7, October 2010.
[10] Raymond Madachy, Barry Boehm and Dan Houston, “Modeling
     Software Defect Dynamics”, STN 13-1 April 2010.

                         AUTHORS PROFILE


Mr. Mehar Ullah is a Lecturer in Computer Science Department
Kardan Institute of Higher Education, Kabul Afghanistan. The author
pursuing his MS(Software Engineering) from City University of
Science & IT.
Mr. Fasee Ullah is a lecturer and active researcher in the field of
Networks and System Security. He is currently working at
Department of Computer Science, City University of Science & IT.
He has done MS (IT) from SZABIST, Pakistan and currently is
official reviewer of IEEE committee.
Mr. Muhammad Saeed Shehzad is working as Assistant Professor in
the department of computer science department, City University of
Science and Information Technology. He has done his MS in software
engineering form City University of Science & Information
Technology – Pakistan.




                                                                               80                           http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                            ISSN 1947-5500

				
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