Handwriting Analysis (PowerPoint) by fjzhangxiaoquan

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									Handwriting Analysis
    There are two types of
     hand writing analysis
Graphology study of how handwriting
reflects a persons personality and
character traits

Questioned Document Examiner or
Forensic Document Examiner
=determining whether a questioned
writing of unknown origin was authored
by a person whose known writings are
► Has  been called a pseudo science There are many
  individuals who, in evaluating the legitimacy of
  graphology, place it on the same level as
► There are, indeed, a great number of individuals
  who fervently believe in the worth of graphology
  as a reliable method to learn valuable information
  about the personality of an individual through his
  or her writing.
► Not  a modern invention
► Roman Emperor Nero is said to have judged
  the abilities of his associates by a study of
  their handwriting
► Italian scholar Camillo Baldi is said to have
  authored the first treatise on graphology in
  1625, under the loosely translated title of
  "How to know the nature and qualities of a
  person by looking at a letter he has
► Abbe Michon, a French monk, wrote about
 the relationship between handwriting and
 personality in a book wherein he referred to
 the study as "graphologie."
► International Graphoanalysis Society    (IGAS).
► learn the principles of graphology, and
  become "graphoanalysts" through home
► 18-month course
► (1) identifying strokes; (2) relating these
  strokes to specific personality traits; and (3)
  evaluating the relative strength of the
  interrelated traits
      Forensic Document Examiner
      Uses of Handwriting Analysis

► Determine    identity of writer
     In ransom notes
     In document forgery
     In death threats
     In suicide notes
     Can you think of others?
   Forensic Document Examiner
Comparisons Are Useful Because
► No two people have identical handwriting
► By adulthood, it is exclusive to an individual
  (we all learned the same techniques to
  begin writing in grade school)
► Even disguised handwriting will exhibit
  some of the person’s individual
        Standard Comparisons
► Includesample to be analyzed called an
► Samples from an individual include
   Collected writing comes from prior to the
    beginning of the investigation (helps prevent or
    indicate when a person is disguising their
   Requested writing is a dictated text using the
    same type of paper
   Same type of ink as the sample to be analyzed
   Forensic Document Examiner
► The  best thing to examine is something with the
  same words as the document in question.
► An examiner may dictate to a potential suspect,
  slowly then faster so that they have less chance of
  disguising the handwriting.
► Use same ink and paper (as said before) pencil,
  ballpoint pen, fountain pen, marker, etc.
   Forensic Document Examiner
► Listways a person may change or attempt
  to disguise their handwriting
  Forensic Document Examiner
► Name items that you could get from a
 potential suspects home to use for
 handwriting identification.
   Forensic Document Examiner
► Handwriting originates in the brain when a
 mental picture of letters and words is
 formed. The signal to try to duplicate the
 mental picture is sent to the arm and hand
 through the muscles and nervous system.
 The actual output is almost never an exact
 match of the original mental picture.
   Forensic Document Examiner
Handwriting is distal, meaning that it occurs
 at the extremities and involves fine motor
 activity as opposed to a skill like walking
 which is proximal - a large, or gross motor
 skill. One reason individuals find it difficult
 to simulate the handwriting of others is that
 to do so successfully requires understanding
 the essence of the writer's motor control
 program and executing that same program.
     Forensic Document Examiner
►   Some typical document examination questions
►   Is the signature genuine?

►   Is the document forged, and if so is it forged by a particular person?

►   Is the same person the author of several documents?

►   Did someone guide a person's hand as a will was signed?

►   Did the doctor come back later and alter the medical records?

►   Did the signer of the document also initial the changes?

►   What is written under the crossed out portion of the writing?

►   Was the document written on the date indicated?
      Forensic Document Examiner
►   Some typical document examination questions

    Are there erasures on the document?

►   Are there alterations or obliterations on the document?

►   What was originally written before the alteration or under the obliteration?

►   Are there perforations, folds, staple holes, or other physical clues on the
    document ?

►   Was the entire document rewritten, or was it prepared sequentially, over a
    period of time?
     Forensic Document
  Can you describe an individual's
    personality from examining

No, forensic document examination does not develop information
about personality. There is a separate field of study called
"Graphology" which deals with personality and handwriting.
         Forensic Document
        Can right or left handedness be
            detected by examining

Contrary to popular belief, there are three things that can not be reliably
ascertained by examining handwriting. One of those is the "handedness" of
the writer. The other two things are the author's gender and age.
          Forensic Document
       Can you compare printed writing
             to cursive writing?
Rarely. Some writers style of writing is a mix of cursive and printed forms,
thereby allowing the examiner to carry out some level of examination on
either cursive or printed writing. There are also many factors other than letter
formation that enter into the examination and and analysis process. However,
it is generally accepted that the materials to be compared need to be written
in the same style: cursive to cursive, hand printing to hand printing, upper
case to upper case, lower case to lower case,
          Forensic Document
      Can you examine documents in a
             foreign language?

Yes, it is possible, but the examiner must first learn about the
characteristics of the written language and how that writing is taught
          Forensic Document
        Can a document examiner work
        with photocopies of questioned
This question must be answered on a case by case basis. If the copy
is of good quality, and if there is enough information in the writing to
allow an opinion, a copy can be sufficient. But there are some
situations where the opinion rests on a subtle aspect of the writing
that might only be visible on an original viewed under the microscope.
         Forensic Document
     Can a client fax documents to you
              for examination?

There is a wide range in reproduction quality of faxed documents.
Until recently a faxed document was of minimal use for comparison of
handwriting. The fax process could digitize the writing line, obscure
details, and add flaws to the document. A large number of fax
machines still produce poor quality documents. However, there are
now higher quality fax machines, and there is also a process of
electronic faxing in which a document is scanned and transmitted to a
virtual fax number through the internet
  Shredded Material Recovery
► The purpose of our work was to turn bags
 of shredded documents like these...
   Shredded Material Recovery
► Into   legible documents like these...
  Shredded Material Recovery
► Whichinvolved separation of individual
 shreds from the pile and re-assembling
 them piece by piece.
  Shredded Material Recovery
► Eachbag of shredded paper contained an
 average of 100 recoverable documents.
   Shredded Material Recovery
► As a result of the hard work and persistence
  of our dedicated team, 426 documents were
  reconstructed over the period of the 27th
  August to the 13th September, 1999.
► 14 people
worked on it.

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