Handwriting Analysis http://basepair.library.umc.edu/FBLM/BASE%20PAIR%20LABS/CSI%20UMMC/G%20- %20Handwriting%20Analysis.ppt There are two types of hand writing analysis groups Graphology study of how handwriting reflects a persons personality and character traits Questioned Document Examiner or Forensic Document Examiner =determining whether a questioned writing of unknown origin was authored by a person whose known writings are available Graphology ► Has been called a pseudo science There are many individuals who, in evaluating the legitimacy of graphology, place it on the same level as astrology. ► There are, indeed, a great number of individuals who fervently believe in the worth of graphology as a reliable method to learn valuable information about the personality of an individual through his or her writing. Graphology ► Not a modern invention ► Roman Emperor Nero is said to have judged the abilities of his associates by a study of their handwriting ► Italian scholar Camillo Baldi is said to have authored the first treatise on graphology in 1625, under the loosely translated title of "How to know the nature and qualities of a person by looking at a letter he has written." Graphology ► Abbe Michon, a French monk, wrote about the relationship between handwriting and personality in a book wherein he referred to the study as "graphologie." Graphology ► International Graphoanalysis Society (IGAS). ► learn the principles of graphology, and become "graphoanalysts" through home study. ► 18-month course ► (1) identifying strokes; (2) relating these strokes to specific personality traits; and (3) evaluating the relative strength of the interrelated traits Forensic Document Examiner Uses of Handwriting Analysis ► Determine identity of writer In ransom notes In document forgery In death threats In suicide notes Can you think of others? Forensic Document Examiner Comparisons Are Useful Because ► No two people have identical handwriting ► By adulthood, it is exclusive to an individual (we all learned the same techniques to begin writing in grade school) ► Even disguised handwriting will exhibit some of the person’s individual characteristics Standard Comparisons ► Includesample to be analyzed called an EXEMPLAR ► Samples from an individual include Collected writing comes from prior to the beginning of the investigation (helps prevent or indicate when a person is disguising their handwriting) Requested writing is a dictated text using the same type of paper Same type of ink as the sample to be analyzed Forensic Document Examiner ► The best thing to examine is something with the same words as the document in question. ► An examiner may dictate to a potential suspect, slowly then faster so that they have less chance of disguising the handwriting. ► Use same ink and paper (as said before) pencil, ballpoint pen, fountain pen, marker, etc. Forensic Document Examiner ► Listways a person may change or attempt to disguise their handwriting Forensic Document Examiner ► Name items that you could get from a potential suspects home to use for handwriting identification. Forensic Document Examiner ► Handwriting originates in the brain when a mental picture of letters and words is formed. The signal to try to duplicate the mental picture is sent to the arm and hand through the muscles and nervous system. The actual output is almost never an exact match of the original mental picture. Forensic Document Examiner Handwriting is distal, meaning that it occurs at the extremities and involves fine motor activity as opposed to a skill like walking which is proximal - a large, or gross motor skill. One reason individuals find it difficult to simulate the handwriting of others is that to do so successfully requires understanding the essence of the writer's motor control program and executing that same program. Forensic Document Examiner ► Some typical document examination questions ► Is the signature genuine? ► Is the document forged, and if so is it forged by a particular person? ► Is the same person the author of several documents? ► Did someone guide a person's hand as a will was signed? ► Did the doctor come back later and alter the medical records? ► Did the signer of the document also initial the changes? ► What is written under the crossed out portion of the writing? ► Was the document written on the date indicated? Forensic Document Examiner ► Some typical document examination questions ► Are there erasures on the document? ► Are there alterations or obliterations on the document? ► What was originally written before the alteration or under the obliteration? ► Are there perforations, folds, staple holes, or other physical clues on the document ? ► Was the entire document rewritten, or was it prepared sequentially, over a period of time? Forensic Document Examiner FAQs Can you describe an individual's personality from examining handwriting? No, forensic document examination does not develop information about personality. There is a separate field of study called "Graphology" which deals with personality and handwriting. Forensic Document Examiner FAQ Can right or left handedness be detected by examining handwriting? Contrary to popular belief, there are three things that can not be reliably ascertained by examining handwriting. One of those is the "handedness" of the writer. The other two things are the author's gender and age. Forensic Document Examiner FAQs Can you compare printed writing to cursive writing? Rarely. Some writers style of writing is a mix of cursive and printed forms, thereby allowing the examiner to carry out some level of examination on either cursive or printed writing. There are also many factors other than letter formation that enter into the examination and and analysis process. However, it is generally accepted that the materials to be compared need to be written in the same style: cursive to cursive, hand printing to hand printing, upper case to upper case, lower case to lower case, Forensic Document Examiner FAQs Can you examine documents in a foreign language? Yes, it is possible, but the examiner must first learn about the characteristics of the written language and how that writing is taught Forensic Document Examiner FAQs Can a document examiner work with photocopies of questioned documents? This question must be answered on a case by case basis. If the copy is of good quality, and if there is enough information in the writing to allow an opinion, a copy can be sufficient. But there are some situations where the opinion rests on a subtle aspect of the writing that might only be visible on an original viewed under the microscope. Forensic Document Examiner FAQs Can a client fax documents to you for examination? There is a wide range in reproduction quality of faxed documents. Until recently a faxed document was of minimal use for comparison of handwriting. The fax process could digitize the writing line, obscure details, and add flaws to the document. A large number of fax machines still produce poor quality documents. However, there are now higher quality fax machines, and there is also a process of electronic faxing in which a document is scanned and transmitted to a virtual fax number through the internet Shredded Material Recovery ► The purpose of our work was to turn bags of shredded documents like these... Shredded Material Recovery ► Into legible documents like these... Shredded Material Recovery ► Whichinvolved separation of individual shreds from the pile and re-assembling them piece by piece. Shredded Material Recovery ► Eachbag of shredded paper contained an average of 100 recoverable documents. Shredded Material Recovery ► As a result of the hard work and persistence of our dedicated team, 426 documents were reconstructed over the period of the 27th August to the 13th September, 1999. ► 14 people worked on it.
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