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综合英语

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 114

  • pg 1
									高级英语
Aims of the Course

 a. Vocabulary
 b. Paraphrase

 c. Structure

 d. Style

 e. Rhetoric
Lesson one
      Objectives of Teaching
1.   To comprehend the whole text
2.   To lean and master the vocabulary and
     expressions
3.   To learn to paraphrase the difficult
     sentences
4.   To understand the structure of the text
5.   To appreciate the style and rhetoric of
     the passage.
        Important and difficult points:
   1. The comprehension and appreciation of
    the words describing sound, colour, light,
    heat, size and smell.
   2. The appreciation of the words and
    expressions   used  for   stress and
    exaggeration.
   3. Some useful expressions such as to make
    a point of, it is a point of honour…, and etc.
     Writing Style
 A description is painting a picture in
  words of a person, place, object, or scene.
 a description is generally developed

  through sensory details, or the
  impressions of one’s senses --- sight,
  hearing, taste, smell and touch. The writer
  chooses those that help to bring out the
  dominant characteristic of the person or
  thing described.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast
    Africa, including the Near East and Iran and
    Afghanistan.

   *image-1* (中东地图)
   *image-2*(中东集市, flash)
   The Middle Eastern bazaar reminds you of
    things hundreds --- even thousands--- of years
        Detailed Study of the Text

   Personification: an act of personifying sth.
    that is without life

   Hyperbole: overstate or exaggerate sth. in
    order to make it sound bigger, smaller,
    better, worse, etc. than it really is
       Detailed Study of the Text

   2. particular: special, single and
    different from others.
   The teacher took particular (special)
    notice of me.
   On this particular (single) day we had
    to be at school early.
  Detailed Study of the Text

3. Gothic-arched: a type of architecture
Goth: one of the German tribes
arch: a curved top sometimes with a
central point resting on 2 supports as
above a door. *image-3*(拱型门)
    Detailed Study of the Text
 aged:
 a. [d] ( 此处要求用音标)

 My son is aged 10.

 a middle aged couple

 b. [id] ancient

 He is aged.

 her aged grandfather

 Medicare for the sick & aged
       Detailed Study of the Text

   4. glare: shining intensely, uncomfortably,
    and too strong; in a way unpleasant to the
    eyes
   5. cavern: a large deep cave, closed roofed
    place.
   Here in the text we can see that it is a long,
    narrow, dark street of workshops and
    stores with some sort of roof over them.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   6. losing itself in the shadowy distance:
    In the farthest distance everything
    becomes obscure, unclear, only dimly
    visible in the dark surroundings.
   shadow: darkness where direct light,
    esp. sunlight, is blocked by sth.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   shadowy: hard to see or know about
    clearly, not distinct, dim
   7. harmony: musical notes combined
    together in a pleasant sounding way
   harmoniously: in a pleasant and peaceful
    way
    Detailed Study of the Text

  tinkle: to make a light metallic
  sound
 The rain tinkled on the metal roof.

  to tinkle coins together
      Detailed Study of the Text

   8. throng: large crowd of people, a crowd

    of people busy doing sth.

   Throng varies so little in meaning from

    crowd that the two words are often used

    interchangeably without loss.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   Throng sometimes carries the
    stronger implication of movement and
    of pushing and the weaker
    implication of density.
   The pre-Xmas sale attracted a throng
    of shoppers.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   10. roadway:
   a. central part used by cars, the
    middle part of a road where cars
    drive
   b. a narrow piece of land over which a
    road passes
         Detailed Study of the Text
   11. narrow: make or become narrow
    In the bright sunlight she had to narrow her
    eyes.
   The river narrows at this point.
   12. stall: BrE. a table or small open-fronted
    shop in a public place, sth. not permanent,
    often can be put together and taken away,
    on which wares are set up for sale.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   13. din: loud, confused, continuous
    noise. The word often suggests
    unpleasant, disordered mixture of
    confusing and disturbing sounds.
   The din in the theatre stopped when
    the curtain was raised.
   the din of the cheerful crowd
    Detailed Study of the Text
 14. wares (always-pl.) articles offered
  for sale, usu. not in a shop.
 to advertise / hawk / peddle one's
  wares
 15. would-be: likely, possible, which
  one wishes to be but is not
 a would-be musician / football player

 her would-be husband
       Detailed Study of the Text

   17. bargain: to talk about the condition of
    a sale, agreement, or contract
   18. dizzy: feeling as if everything were
    turning round
   The two-day journey on the bus makes
    me dizzy.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   19. penetrate: to enter, pass, cut, or
    force a way into or through.
   The bullet can penetrate a wall.
   Rainwater has penetrated through
    the roof of my house.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   20. fade: to lose strength, colour,
    freshness, etc.
   fade away: go slowly out of hearing,
    gradually disappearing
   The light faded as the sun went down.
   The sound of the footsteps faded away.
     Detailed Study of the Text

   The farther you push / force your way
    into the bazaar, the lower and softer the
    noise becomes until finally it disappears.
    Then you arrive at the cloth market
    where the sound is hardly audible.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   21. mute:
    verb: to reduce the sound of, to make a
    sound softer than usual
   to mute a musical instrument
   Here in the text the word "muted" is
    used to suggest the compelling
    circumstances, forcing you to lower your
    sound.
        Detailed Study of the Text
   22. beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given
    shape by the feet of those who pass along it,
    suggesting ancientness, timelessness.
   The path becomes flat because of the walking of
    countless people through thousands of years.
   We followed a well-beaten path through the
    forest.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   23. deaden: to cause to lose strength,
    force, feeling, and brightness
   Two of these pills will deaden the pain.
   24. vaulted: in the form of a vault --- a
    series of arches built to form a roof
   25. measured: carefully controlled
       Detailed Study of the Text

   26. overwhelm: overcome, control
    completely and usu. suddenly
   Sorrow overwhelmed the family.
   She was overwhelmed with grief.
   They won an overwhelming victory /
    majority.
     Detailed Study of the Text

   27. sepulchral: related to grave,
    gloomy, dismal
   sepulchre: old and bibl. use, a burial
    place; a tomb
       Detailed Study of the Text

   28. follow suit: to do the same as someone else
    has done, to play / to deal the cards of the
    same suits。
   A set of cards consists of 4 suits.They are
    hearts, diamonds, spades and clubs. In poker,
    if someone deals a spade, you follow suit.
   When the others went swimming, I followed
    suit.
   He went to bed and I followed suit after a few
    minutes.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   29. peculiarity: a special feature that
    is different from normal or usual,
    strangeness.
   One of his peculiarities is that his two
    eyes are not of the same colour.
   The large fantail is a peculiarity of the
    peacock.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   30. deal in: sell and buy, trade in
   This merchant deals in silk goods.
   Most foreign trading companies in
    West Africa deal in rubber, cocoa
    and vegetable oils.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   31. scatter: to cause (a group) to separate
    widely, to spread widely in all directions
    as if by throwing

   Hearing the explosion, the frightened
    people scattered about in all directions.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   One of the special features /
    characteristics of the M.E. bazaar is
    that shopkeepers in the same trade
    always gather together in the same
    place to do their business.
        Detailed Study of the Text

   32. knit: to make things to wear by uniting
    threads into a kind of close network.
   Here, to unite or join closely
   33. guild / gild: an association for
    businessmen or skilled workers who joined
    together in former times to help one
    another
     Detailed Study of the Text

 34. persecution: cruel treatment
 persecute: to treat cruelly, cause to

  suffer, esp. for religious or political
  beliefs
 Many intellectuals were persecuted in the
  Cultural Revolution.
 be persecuted by sb. for sth.

 suffer from political / religious
  persecution
      Detailed Study of the Text

   35. line: form rows along

   36. trestle: wooden beam fixed at each

    end to a pair of spreading legs, used, usu.

    in pairs, as a removable support of a

    table or other flat surface.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   37. order of the day: the characteristic
    or dominant feather or activity, the
    prevailing state of things
   If sth. is the order of the day, it is very
    common among a particular group of
    people
      Detailed Study of the Text

   Learning English is now the order of the

    day in China.

   Jeans and mini-skirts are no longer the

    order of the day now.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   38. veil: covering of fine net or other
    material to protect or hide a woman's face
   39. leisure: time free from work, having
    plenty of free time, not in a hurry to do
    sth.
   40. pace: rate or speed in walking,
    marching, running or developing
      Detailed Study of the Text
   41. preliminary: coming before sth.,
    introducing or preparing for sth. more
    important, preparatory
   There were several preliminary meetings
    before the general assembly.
   A physical examination is a preliminary to
    joining the army.
    Detailed Study of the Text

 42. beat down:
 to reduce by argument or other

  influence, to persuade sb. to reduce a
  price
 The man asked $50 for the dress, but
  I beat him down to $35.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   43. a point of honour: sth. considered
    important for one's self-respect

   It's a point of honour with me to keep my
    promise = I made it a point of honour to
    keep my promise.
        Detailed Study of the Text

    In our country, it is a point of honour
    with a boy to pay the bill when he is
    dining with a girl / when he dines a girl;
    but on the other hand, a western girl
    would regard it a point of honour (with
    her) to pay the bill herself.
        Detailed Study of the Text

   44. make a point of / make it a point to: do
    sth because one considers it important or
    necessary, to take particular care of, make
    extraordinary efforts in, regard or treat as
    necessary
   I always make a point of checking that all
    the windows are shut before I go out.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   I always made a point of being on time.

   I always make a point of remembering
    my wife's birthday.

   He made a point of thanking his hostess
    before he left the party.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   45. what it is: used to stress
   What is it she really likes?
   What is it you do?
   What is it you really want?
   46. protest: to express one's
    disagreement, feeling of unfairness
   Here: insist firmly
   Detailed Study of the Text

47. deprive of: take away from

The judge deprived him of his political
 rights.

The accident deprived him of his sight /
 hearing.
    Detailed Study of the Text
48. sacrifice: to give up or lose, esp. for
 some good purpose or belief
The ancient Greeks sacrificed lambs or
 calves before engaging in a battle.
(infml) to sell sth. at less than its cost or
  value
I need the money and I have to sacrifice (on
  the price of) my car.
       Detailed Study of the Text
   49. regard: respect
   Regard is colourless and formal. It usu.
    requires a modifier to reinforce its meaning
   I hold her in high / low / the greatest
    regard.
   to have a high / low regard for sb's opinion.
   Steve was not highly regarded in his
    hometown.
        Detailed Study of the Text

   50. the customer coming and going at
    intervals.
   at intervals: happening regularly after
    equal periods of time
   Trains leave at short intervals.
   The trees were planted beside the road at
    50-meters intervals.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   51. picturesque: charming or
    interesting enough to be made into a
    picture, striking, vivid
   52. -smith: a worker in metal, a
    maker
   copper- / gold- / tin- / black- / gun-
    smith
     Detailed Study of the Text

 53. bang: to hit violently, to make a
  loud noise
 The door banged open / shut.

 He banged the window shut.

 a noisy, usu. metallic sound of
  collision, swords clash
 The dustbins clashed as the men
  emptied them.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   54. impinge on (upon): to have
    influence on, (Here: to strike)
   The strong light impinges on his eyes.
   The noise of the aeroplane overhead
    impinged on our ears.
    Detailed Study of the Text

 55. distinct: clearly seen, heard,
 understood, etc.

Anything clearly noticed is distinct.

There is a distinct smell of cigarette
 smoke in this room.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   56. round: to go round
   Please round your lips to say "oo".
   Stones rounded by the action of water
    are called cobbles.
   57. burnish: to polish, esp. metal, usu.
    with sth. hard and smooth, to make
    smooth and shiny
      Detailed Study of the Text

   58. brazier: open metal framework like a
    basket, usu. on legs, for holding a charcoal
    or coal fire (see picture in ALD)
   *image-4* (此处要一brazier的图,在ALD中
    可找到。)
   60. incredible: too strange to be believed,
    unbelievable
       Detailed Study of the Text
   credible: deserving or worthy of belief,
    trustworthy
   Is the witness's story credible?
   61. hammer away at:
   away: continuously, constantly
   He was laughing away all afternoon.
        Detailed Study of the Text
   62. vessel: a round container, such as a
    glass, a pot, or a bottle, used for holding
    liquids
   63. bellows: an instrument for blowing air
    into a fire to make it burn quickly
   *image-5* (此处要一风箱图)
       Detailed Study of the Text

   64. the red of the live…
   The light of the burning coal becomes
    alternately bright and dim (by turns, one
    follows the other) as the charcoal burns
    and dies down, burns again, along with the
    repeated movements of the bellows.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   65. glow: send out brightness or
    warmth, heat or light without flame
    or smoke
   When you draw a deep mouthful, the
    cigarette tip glows.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   66. rhythmically: happening at
    regular periods of time, alternately;
    by turns, at intervals
   67. stroke: single movement, which is
    repeated (esp. in a sport or game)
   She can't swim but has made a few
    strokes with her arms.
        Detailed Study of the Text
   68. engrave: to cut (words, pictures, etc.)
    on wood, stone, or metal
   The terrible memory was engraved on his
    mind.
69. delicate: finely made and easily broken
   as delicate as silk
   the delicate skin of a baby
   delicate feelings
       Detailed Study of the Text

   70. intricate: containing many detailed
    parts and thus difficult to understand.
   71. functional: completely and exactly of
    practical use. Not ornamental, without
    many decorations
   a multi-functional machine
       Detailed Study of the Text

   72. profusion: plenty, great or too great
    amount, abundance
   to make promises in profusion
   Seldom have I seen food and drink served
    in such profusion.
   73. rich: (of colour) deep, strong, beautiful
    Detailed Study of the Text

 74. texture: the arrangement of the
  threads in a textile fabric
 a carpet of loose / firm texture

 75. bold: clearly formed, strongly

  formed
 words printed in bold type / printed

  in bold letters
        Detailed Study of the Text
   76. pungent: (often neg.) having a strong,
    sharp, stinging, burning taste or smell
   Onions and garlic give out pungent smell.
   77. exotic: (always positive, sth. pleasing)
    not native to the place where found,
    strikingly or excitingly different or
    unusual
   The smell and taste of kebab is exotic.
    Detailed Study of the Text

 78. sumptuous: costly, rich, showing
  great value
 A sumptuous meal was served to the

  visiting guests.
 The king wore sumptuous robes.

 79. humble: (of things) poor

 Here, cheap
      Detailed Study of the Text

   80. pottery: earthenware
   81. maze: a confusing intricate
    network of passages
   a system of twisted passages which is
    very difficult to pass through
       Detailed Study of the Text
   82. honeycomb: A honeycomb is a
    wax structure made by bees, which
    contains lots of six-sided holes where
    they store the honey that they make
   v. to fill with holes, tunnels, hollow
    passages like a honeycomb
       Detailed Study of the Text

   The streets cut the bazaar from all

    directions and lead towards all directions

   The streets cut the bazaar into many small

    sections, thus making it like a honeycomb.
    Detailed Study of the Text

 83. glimpse: a quick, incomplete look
  of sth. out of the corner of one's eye
 Commonly glimpse means a brief
  view of a thing
 get a glimpse of

 You can get a glimpse of the tower
  when you drive past the square.
      Detailed Study of the Text


   84. mosque: Moslem temple or place
    of worship (where there are wells,
    fountains, and space for assemble)
        Detailed Study of the Text

   85. caravanserai:
    an inn surrounding a court in eastern
    countries where caravans rest at night
    caravan: a company of travellers on a
    journey through deserts of hostile
    regions
      Detailed Study of the Text

   86. disdainful: contemptuous, showing
    lack of respect, regard sb. or sth. as low
    and worthless
   Here, arrogant, in a superior manner,
    suggesting that the camels are all stately,
    strong, heads holding high
     Detailed Study of the Text

 87. bale: large bundle of goods
 A Bale is a large bundle of goods

  bound up for storage or
  transportation and esp. one composed
  of materials (as hay, straw, cotton or
  wool) which are closely pressed
  together so as to form a mass, usu.
  tightly bound with cord or wire
        Detailed Study of the Text

   89. merchandise: (fml) things that you
    buy, sell or trade with
   90. vast, sombre cavern of a room
   sombre: dark-coloured, gloomy, dismal,
    solemn, very serious atmosphere
   When sb. dies, there is a sombre mood.
   She was dressed in sombre black for the
    funeral.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   cavern of a room:
   her tyrant of a father
   a palace of a house
   Before him stood a little shrimp of a
    fellow.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   91. revolve: to (cause to) spin round
    (on a central point), to go around in a
    circle

   a revolving door / stage
    Detailed Study of the Text

 cf: turn, revolve, rotate, spin, and
  circle
 Turn is a general, rather colourless
  word implying movement in circle
  after circle, or in a single full circle
  or through an arc of a circle
 a wheel turning on its axle

 He turned to speak to his friend.
    Detailed Study of the Text
 Revolve may suggest regular circular
  motion on an orbit around sth.
  outside to it.
 The earth revolves around the sun.

 Rotate is likely to suggest a circular
  motion on an interior axis (the
  imaginary axle)
 The earth rotates on its axis while it
  revolves in its orbit.
        Detailed Study of the Text

   Spin implies rapid, sustained, continuous,
    & constant rotation on an inner axis or
    fast circling around an exterior point
   a wheel spinning on its axle
   The dancer spun on her toes.
   To spin strands of cotton or wool, etc, is to
    twist them into thread.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   Circle basically applies to a movement
    around in a more or less circular pattern,
    but it can also be used to convey a lack of
    straight directness in a winding course.
   Our plane circled the airport for an hour
    before landing.
   The fence circles the yard.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   93. circular: round, not direct, being
    shaped like or nearly like a circle
   94. channel: the bed of a stream of
    water, narrow passage, passage for
    liquid
    Detailed Study of the Text

 96. attendant: a person who attends
  another to perform a service
 a museum / parking lot / library

  attendant;
 97. crush: to press with great power
  so as to break, destroy, the natural
  shape into powder
      Detailed Study of the Text

   The machine crushes wheat grain to make
    flour.
   The sugar cane is taken to the factory
    where the juice is crushed out.
   98. pulp: the soft almost liquid mass of
    plant or animal material, such as the soft
    inside part of many fruits or vegetable
    Detailed Study of the Text
 99. extract: to pull or take out, often
  with difficulty
 to extract one tooth

 The policemen extracted secret
  information from a criminal.
 100. superb: perfect in form, quality,
  etc.
 This word describes sth. that reaches
  the highest conceivable point.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   101. muscular: having well-developed
    muscles, strong, implying great physical
    strength
   102. stately: grand in style, noble,
    dignified. Here implies that the camels
    walk in a constant, unhurried way with
    their heads holding high, seemingly
    dignified.
      Detailed Study of the Text

   103. ramshackle: shaky, unsteady,
    likely to go to pieces
   a ramshackle house
   a ramshackle bike, which produces a
    sound at every part except the bell.
     Detailed Study of the Text
 104. apparatus: a set of machines,
  instruments, tools, etc. that work
  together for a particular purpose
 107. tower: to be very tall, esp. in
  relation to the height of the
  surroundings.
 The monument to the People's Heroes
  towers aloft on Tian’anmen.
 He towers above his contemporaries.
       Detailed Study of the Text

   108. dwarf: to cause to appear small by
    comparison
   Snow-white & the 7 Dwarfs
   Most basketball players dwarf other men.
   109. shovel: tool used for moving or lifting
    loose material such as sand, snow, coal
   v. to remove sth. with a shovel
      Detailed Study of the Text

   110. nimble: quick-moving, moving or

    acting quickly and lightly; agile

   as nimble as a monkey

   She knitted with nimble fingers.

   111. trickle: a slow, small flow of liquid
      Detailed Study of the Text

   112. ooze: (of thick liquids) pass
    slowly through small openings
   If you squeeze the tube of toothpaste,
    it oozes out of the tube.
   Tiny drops of oil are pressed out to
    form a small flow down the runnel.
        Detailed Study of the Text

   113. runnel: a small, narrow channel

   114. glisten: shine brightly, sparkle

   His eyes glistened with tears.

   Her hair glistens with oil.

   115. taut: tightly drawn
      Detailed Study of the Text

   116. girder: large horizontal beam,
    usu. made of iron or steel, which
    supports the smaller beams in a floor
    or room
   I-shaped girder
   117. blend: mixture
   Structural analysis

Part I. (para.1)
  (The Middle Eastern takes you back …)
General atmosphere
  ancient & primitive
  harmonious
  lively, active, vigorous, & healthy
    Structural analysis

 Part II. (paras 2 - 4)
(Then as you … at intervals.)
The cloth market
muted
sepulchral
Bargaining is the order of the day.
    Structural analysis
Part III: (paras. 5 – 7)
 (One of the most picturesque… lie beside
  them.)
The coppersmith market and other markets
sound and light
smell
varied characters
harmonious
     Structural analysis
I.Part IV: (paras: 8-9)
 (Perhaps the most unforgettable…)
the mill where linseed oil is extracted
the description of the mill
Words describing sound
   Style

TYPE of Writing:
Description: A description is
 painting a picture in words of a
 person, place, object, or scene.
        Style
   a descriptive essay is generally developed
    through sensory details, or the impressions
    of one’s senses --- sight, hearing, taste, smell
    and touch. The writer generally chooses
    those that help to bring out the dominant
    characteristic or outstanding quality of the
    person or thing described.
      Writing Technique:
   1. From Macro to Micro
   2. Words appealing to senses: light & heat,
    sound & movement, and smell & colour and
    taste.
   3. nouns, adjectives and even adverbs used as
    verbs: thread, round, narrow, price, live,
    tower and dwarf.
     Writing Technique:

   4. words imitating sounds:
    onomatopoeia
   5. stressful and impressive sentence
    structures:
   one of the peculiarities…,
   one of the most picturesque...
    Rhetoric
 Onomatopoeia: words imitating the
  sounds associated with the thing
  concerned
 creak: (to make) the sound of a
  badly-oiled door when it opens
 When you move in a wooden bed, it
  creaks.
 The hinge of the door needs oiling, it
  creaks every time it is opened.
      Rhetoric
   squeak: (to make) a short very high but
    not loud sound
   the squeak of a mouse
   rumble: (to make) a deep continuous
    rolling sound
   The thunder / the big guns rumbled in the
    distance.
   I am hungry, my stomach is rumbling.
       Rhetoric
   grunt: (of certain animals, to make)
    short deep rough sounds in the throat,
    as if the nose were closed, such as the
    deep short sound characteristic of a
    hog, or a man making a similar sound
    expressing disagreement, boredom,
    irritation
      Rhetoric

   sigh: (to let out) a deep breath slowly
    and with a sound, usu. expressing
    tiredness, sadness, or satisfaction
   We all heaved a sigh of relief when
    the work was done.
      Rhetoric
 groan: (to make) a sound caused by the
  movement of wood or metal parts heavily
  loaded, (to make) a deep sound forced out
  by pain, or expressing despair
 The patient groaned as he was lifted on to
  the stretcher.
 The ancient chair gave a groan when the
  fat woman sat down on it.
 The roof creaked and groaned under the
  weight of the snow.
       Rhetoric:

   Personification: a figure that endows objects,
    animals, ideas, or abstractions with human
    form, character, or sensibility,

   The Middle Easter bazaar takes you...

   dancing flashes

   The beam sinks…taut and protesting
    Rhetoric
 Hyperbole: a device of comparison
  using exaggeration or obvious
  overstatement for comic or dramatic
  effect.
 takes you ...hundreds even thousands
  of years
 every conceivable

 innumerable lamps

 incredibly young

 with the dust of centuries:
104.ppt

								
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