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CH 13 Programming leisure and recreation services and facilities Tzu-Ching Chang Tourism School Ming Chuan University Introduction Programming The key element in the delivery of services The means by which opportunities are provided for people to enjoy their leisure time The mechanism by which the aims and objectives of an organization are realized Undertaken by leisure managers in the public, commercial and voluntary sectors Introduction Manager Knowledge to assist policy makers to establish guidelines for effective community recreation Knowledge of programming strategies, approaches and methods in order to direct staff in achieving the aims and objectives of the organization Chapter structure Why leisure and recreation require programming? What is the programming? Community recreation programming Which agencies program leisure and recreation? The contents about a programmer? The programmer classification Directional planning strategies for community recreation programming Chapter structure The specific methods and approaches for programming The lessons to be learned Community recreation management Programming by objectives and leisure facility programmers Introduction What you need to know from this chapter? Understand the complexity of the programming and its role in providing leisure and recreation opportunity The means to meet the objectives The programming is an ongoing process, which required a framework and objectivity Learn how to set strategies, approaches, methods, and how to choose the activities and how to measure the results 13.2 What is programming? Definitions Recreation programming is the process of planning to create opportunities for individuals to engage in recreation experience This opportunity can be enacted through facility design and social environment 13.2 What is programming? Definitions Contents: Consists of planning, scheduling, timetabling and implementing action which users resources, facilities, and staff to offer a wide range of services and activities within the community 13.2 What is programming? Definitions Process: leisure management planning, which uses resources and organizes activities to meet the different wants and needs for different people and group. Variety of recreational facilities and services 13.2 What is programming? Definitions The programming is a function of a leisure and recreation organization which include everything that a service or department is concerned with – facilities, supplies, personnel, budgets, marketing, public relations, activities, timetabling and administration to ensure that the people or consumers are satisfied with those products and service. 13.2 What is programming? Definitions Requirement: skillful management and results in an integrated plan. The products should be linked to the marketing process. 13.2 What is programming? Definitions Types: different types of facilities and aims of the organization such as a community recreation center, an art center or sport association. For different types of customers Poor, rich, disabled, children, adult, senior 13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming? Main reason To achieve optimal use of existing resources – facilities, personnel and finance – to meet The goals of the organization The needs of people (consumers) To deliver the products and service To meet an organization’s objectives 13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming? Other reasons To make the best use of resources – time, space, staff, money To resolve conflicting claims of time and space To balance between a wide range of potential customers To achieve best results – optimum number, between numbers of people and activities and facilities To provide the order and structure for the development of the resources… 13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming? Other reasons Discuss handouts 13.2.1 Community recreation programming Incorporates social objectives Provided by the local authorities Faced with economic difficulties and constraints Community recreation programming requires Good financial sense Meeting social objectives 13.2.1 Community recreation programming The features for a balanced programmer at local authority Opportunities to participate in a range of leisure activities Opportunities to participate activity or passively, or creatively Take PE class 13.2.1 Community recreation programming The features for a balanced programmer at local authority Opportunities to be involved as individual or with a club or group Run alone vs join a running club Opportunities to participate for people to participate on a formal basis and on an informal basis Join a swimming class vs swimming with family 13.2.2 The main programming agencies Commercial sector Cinema, night clubs, fitness center, golf club, bowling center… Institutional sector University, colleges, community schools 13.2.2 The main programming agencies Voluntary sector Girl Guides and Boy Scout, YMCA/YWCA Local sector Local government 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? The programmer resolve around activities, facilities, services, staff and money Activities Informal activities: anticipated within a community programme by creating opportunities, encouraging spontaneity, having resources available such as space, time and equipment Ex: a ball to kick, a wall to scribble, deck chairs 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? Structured activities: several categories such as arts, crafts, dance, drama, entertainment, games, sport, and health and fitness…. Have class time, scheduled place, certain amount of people 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? Facilities Cover all areas, buildings, supplies and equipment with recreation Designed and constructed for special purposes such as art centers or swimming pool Simply the nature resources such as riverside walks, forests and beaches 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? Services Cover all methods and means for people to enjoy leisure and recreation such as information services, promotion, publicity, transport information 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? Staff Enables, connectors and controllers Duty managers, supervisors, coaches, countryside rangers Teachers, librarians, community workers … 13.2.3 What constitutes a programme? Money Required for the investment to achieve financial profits To break-even or to run services, facilities and programmers at an agreed subsidy level 13.3 Programme classification By function The most usual classification By listing a number of activities or groups of activities such as sports, arts, crafts, .. Linked to special groups of people: children, youth, disabled, aged, beginner, advanced 13.3 Programme classification By facilities Piches available, pool opening times, By people Who the programme is intended for: Casual users, members, family days, over 50s, parents Discuss handouts 13.3 Programme classification By Outcomes Learn to swim Improve courses Keep fit Slim and train sessions Social purposes 13.3 Programme classification Other classifications By life-cycle changes Pre-school, early childhood, late elementary, youth, teenage, young adults, early adulthood, maturity, later middle age, old age, and senescence By activities Passive/active, structured/ unstructured, planned/self- directed, high risk/low risk 13.4 Directional planning strategies Two main directions for public sector planning of community recreation programmes Planned programmes directed professionally by officers or authorities Programmes which emanate from the community itself The social planning approach The use of professional expertise and knowledge to meet the needs and solve community programs Changes occurs as a result of a professional or the authority 13.4 Directional planning strategies The community development approach Foster independence Require capable, trained men and women in this field Community developers have become known by many ways: “encourage, enabler, catalyst, friend, adviser, activator”. 13.4 Directional planning strategies Disadvantages for the social planning approach The decision makers are remote from the potential users of the faculties A lack of consultation and sensitivity concerning the needs and demands of the community The facility staff are not involved in the decision-making process Lack of accountability and commitment at facility level Decision making is slow and programming tends to be repetitive and unimaginative 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 1. No one approach, system or method which is suitable for all organization, situations or all people 2. The programming methods employed depend on the organization, the aims, the community to be served, the directional strategy, staff skills, money, facilities and a wide variety of other factors. 3. Do not use single method. Use a number of methods. 4. Each method has benefits. 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 1. Lettings “policy” approach: Commonly found in the management of community centers The facility is provided and bookings and usage are awaited Optimal usage and balance are seldom achieved 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 2. The traditional approach: Suggests what has gone on in the past and is generally successful is likely to be repeated. Learning from the past Rely on the same format for future programme planning Making modification for the future 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 3. The comparative current trends approach: Rely on reacting to recent trends or activities has benefits in meeting some new demands Likely to serve only a segment of the market and it may be a failure in other groups 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 4. The expressed desires approach: by asking people, through questionnaire and survey for people's wishes and wants Limitations: some participants may not really know what they want until they try it and cannot predict their future leisure behavior Discuss handouts 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 5. The authoritarian approach: placed on the judgment of the controller, head of department or manager The assumption is that they understand what the needs are and what the community wants. However, the participants are denied any involvement in the programming process Very quick approach 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 6. The social approach: consider the social issues such as crime, poverty, discriminiation Have to respond to the political and social pressure 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 7. Action-investigation-creation plan approach: Action: reaction to the demands generated by the community Investigation: concerned with fact-finding Creation: the interactive relationship between participant and professions the most effective. 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 8. External requirements approach: Dictated by standards, an institution or a governing body Have uniform, standards, leadership, and resources by using external assessment for measuring A Scout or Girl Guide Troop 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 9. Cafeteria-style approach: A variety of choice and can meet the diverse of needs of clients. The customers can have many choices and do the selection Useful approach, there is a variety of choice, people may not know what they know and can just see … Difficulty to set up the goals and objectives for measuring success 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 10. Demand approach: most usual form of programming in the public sector. Include this approach in their overall plan Just “ Offer what people want” Clubs, association know the demands Managers are faced with the applications of requesting facilities Sometimes what they want is not good 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 11. The community orientation approach A process based on using people talent’s and capabilities Have individuals involved in programming process Use the professionals to meet people need such as outreach programmers, association or community counselors People to people approach require community face to face leadership 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 11. The community orientation approach Assume people can work together No one is supervisor or subordinate 13.5 Specific methods and approaches 12. Community leadership approach: Consumer input is made possible through advisory boards, user committees, tenants’ groups They represent concerns of the community The individual interests are represented by their group Boards, committees or other groups USA Specific methods and approaches System theory Input – Process- Output P43 Benefits-Driven Model Identify the parks, recreation and leisure service outputs in terms of benefits gained from engagemnt in leisure programs P45 Motivation-Based Model Respond to what they need P48 13.7 Community recreation management Disadvantage groups: with social economic problems Effective community management can be measured in part by the degree to which a reasonable balance of the various population market segments to provide a variety of service Leisure managers need to make contact, to communicate effectively with disadvantage groups. 13.7.1 How help? Positive programming to encourage wider community use Table 13.1 P415 For single parent Financial / Programmes / Outreach / Marketing • Financial • Outreach • Cost subsidies • Assistance to self-help groups • Baby sitting services • Reduced/free membership • Neighborhood contacts • Free passes • Neighborhood facilities • Avoidance of lump sum payments • Mobile facilities • Bus passes • Programmes • Marketing • Play schemes and family holiday • Leisure counseling • Advertising benefits • Woman's program • Help-line services • Transport • leisure information service • Leisure skill learning • Links with other community services • Family events and voluntary groups • Open days and days out • Social and community programs 13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure facility programmes The programming is a systematic process The approach at public facilities must be capable of incorporating both major strategies, social planning and community development Be capable of handling any of options, from authoritarian- directed service to participant-controlled program 13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure facility programmes The Programming by objectives methods MBO (Management by Objective) To achieve measurable targets It set targets, plan, implements, controls and monitors One example for leisure facility programming. Seven-stage programming model is below 13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure facility programmes Seven-stage programming model is below P55 1. Review policy and establish goals 2. Assess demand and resources 3. Set objectives and targets 4. Plan the programme 5. Implement the program 6. Evaluate and monitor progress 7. Obtain feedback and modify programme 1. Review policy and establish goals The aim of a community recreation service could include To serve and give substantial leisure opportunity to all people in the community To meet significant social needs To involve people in the community in recreation programming To provide the most appropriate service to serve the greatest number of people in the community 1. Review policy and establish goals The aim of a community recreation service could include To market community recreation effectively to discover need, to supply appropriate services and to attract participants To give range, diversity and balance to programmes To provide progrmmes which are flexible enough to cope with changing demands To make the fullest use and most imaginative use of all resources 1. Review policy and establish goals The aim of a community recreation service could include To give a large measure of choice through which variety, novelty and depth of programming is possible To stimulate community initiatives and spontaneous activity To manage services and facilities with capable and suitably qualified and trained personnel To evaluate progress regularly and systematically 2. Assess demand and resources The process will cover the following areas The likely client base: will the facilities and activities attract individual, casual users, recreational groups, course and event? Market assessment: a profile of the current and prospective customers and the type of services and activities to meet their needs and expressed demands for a new program 2. Assess demand and resources The process will cover the following areas For a existing program, review the customer profile and compare with the market profile and the catchment population Review the current performance Assess the contribution made by other agencies, and the success and failures of other programs 2. Assess demand and resources The process will cover the following areas Identify market gaps In terms of information, new program will need more general information compared to established programs Consider the current leisure trends and the experience of other leisure providers Set up the program review meetings 3. Set objectives and targets Short range targets for each objective Within a precise time, weeks, months, years In terms of social objectives at community facility Free entry In terms of economic objective Balance the revenue and cost 3. Set objectives and targets Short range targets for each objective Within a precise time, weeks, months, years In terms of comprehensive services with wide ranging goals 30% of budget for community special service Pricing levels The costs for the leisure and recreation facility uses 3. Set objectives and targets The objectives for a sport hall program The range of opportunity 80% of programming for sport, 20% for non-sporting (course) The ranges of course to be offered to the customers 40% for children 60% for teenagers 3. Set objectives and targets The objectives for a sport hall program The pricing level Weekday – weekend Day – night Senior, Junior, children, …. 4. Plan the programme Every programmer should have a checklist of essential aspects that must be considered in planning the programme including: Time The basis on which the program operates. Establish hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns of use Types and forms Determine program types and classification and forms of organization and recognize the different needs of different people 4. Plan the programme Activities and balances Choose activities and methods which are more likely to meet objectives and sustain interest. Budget Set budgets for each main programming stream and ways of achieving targets Priorities Because of conflicting claims, establish priorities. Avoid the casual use to narrow the field 4. Plan the programme Compatibility Avoid incompatible activities in terms of health and safety, noise, age, level of play and ambience. Expand Expand the program with new activities, new methods and new people Resources Consider the resource implications and staffing Safety Undertake equipment and maintenance safety checks 4. Plan the programme Training Train staff to undertake programming functions. Contract With contract management, ensure that the contractor complies with the specification not just the letter of the contract Systems Establish the easily understood administration systems and methods Try new technologies to programming 4. Plan the programme Promote Produce excellent promotional and publicity materials Ensure weekly story in the local press Advise the program and monitor the promotional methods Critical path Try to use CPM to save the time 5. Implement the program To be able to manage the program efficiently, a range of systems need to be developed to deal with specific aspects associated with programming Program control The manager has overall responsibility Have the necessary ability and authority To deliver the highest customer service To make sure the staff can carry out their jobs efficiently 5. Implement the program Practical operational knowledge need To adjust staffing levels in light of changes in occupancy levels To anticipate operational problems To obtain daily feedback To use a specially designed, comprehensive management information system To deal with complaints immediately and turn them into opportunities for getting things right 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Evaluation should consider three things: The input How much has gone into the program planning and organization The process What has actually occurred during the program The outcomes What were the end-results and how these compared with the target objectives and performance objectives 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Three ways to conduct the evaluation: The inside evaluation Sensitive to staff feelings Biased and less objective to justify failures The outside evaluation More objectives Staff will worry about the outcome More expensive 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Three ways to conduct the evaluation: Combination Involvement from all sources is better From the policy makers, the officers, the clients, the contractors, the staff and the customers 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Five types of evaluations Personnel Policy Place Program Participants 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Based on the time Beginning – assessment Formative Summative 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Questions? Criteria? How to measure? To what extent has the programme been successful in meeting objectives? How well the program been delivered and received? How well the staff performed? Data: quantitative and qualitative? The complaints? Turn into better service 6. Evaluate and monitor progress Questions? How markets expanded? Wider customers base? How effective have the promotion methods been? How adaptable has the organization been to the changes? Have resources been adequate – facilities, equipment, staff, space, time, budget? Have all regulations been met? What lessons have been learned? Example Planning by objectives Seven step community programming planning guide P427 Presentation 2 Course：Recreation Management (20203) Instructor: Dr. Tzu-Ching Chang Presentation date：Dec. 25 Group member The grades Kurt & Jimmy - Cinema Content: 60% Joanne & Erin – Theme Park Presenter: 20% Lucy & Miranda – Fitness Center Format: 10% Miga & Rita - Restaurant Feedback: 10% Chris & Teo - Hotel Ralph & Helen - Bar Presentation rule The length of time for your presentation is around 20 minutes and 5 minutes for questions. The number of the slides in you presentation is at least 20 pages. The order of the presentation won’t be decided until the class. Both need to do the presentation and each one is for 10 minutes. Email your file to me on Oct. 20 Presentation Topic On the previous presentation, you already choose a commercial sector. For this presentation, you need to pick one famous company or example from that sector. For example, Norman and Chris can select the Holiday Inn. Jimmy and Kurt selected AMC cinema. After you decided the company, you need to select one type of management from the following choices: 1) Programming, 2) Marketing, 3) Staffing, 4) Employee training, 5) Event management, and 6) Information management. Then just focus on how the companies apply those management ideas in their organizations.
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