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									CH 13
Programming leisure and recreation
services and facilities

                            Tzu-Ching Chang
                              Tourism School
                        Ming Chuan University

 Programming
      The key element in the delivery of services
      The means by which opportunities are provided for people to
       enjoy their leisure time
      The mechanism by which the aims and objectives of an
       organization are realized
      Undertaken by leisure managers in the public, commercial and
       voluntary sectors

 Manager
      Knowledge to assist policy makers to establish guidelines for
       effective community recreation
      Knowledge of programming strategies, approaches and methods
       in order to direct staff in achieving the aims and objectives of the
Chapter structure
 Why leisure and recreation require programming?
 What is the programming?
     Community recreation programming
     Which agencies program leisure and recreation?
     The contents about a programmer?
 The programmer classification
 Directional planning strategies for community recreation
Chapter structure

 The specific methods and approaches for programming
 The lessons to be learned
 Community recreation management
 Programming by objectives and leisure facility programmers

 What you need to know from this chapter?
      Understand the complexity of the programming and its role in
       providing leisure and recreation opportunity
      The means to meet the objectives
      The programming is an ongoing process, which required a
       framework and objectivity
      Learn how to set strategies, approaches, methods, and how to
       choose the activities and how to measure the results
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      Recreation programming is the process of planning to
       create opportunities for individuals to engage in recreation
      This opportunity can be enacted through facility design and
       social environment
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      Contents: Consists of planning, scheduling, timetabling
       and implementing action which users resources, facilities,
       and staff to offer a wide range of services and activities
       within the community
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      Process: leisure management planning, which uses
       resources and organizes activities to meet the different
       wants and needs for different people and group.
      Variety of recreational facilities and services
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      The programming is a function of a leisure and recreation
       organization which include everything that a service or
       department is concerned with – facilities, supplies,
       personnel, budgets, marketing, public relations, activities,
       timetabling and administration to ensure that the people or
       consumers are satisfied with those products and service.
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      Requirement: skillful management and results in an
       integrated plan. The products should be linked to the
       marketing process.
13.2 What is programming?

 Definitions
      Types: different types of facilities and aims of the
       organization such as a community recreation center, an art
       center or sport association.
      For different types of customers
         Poor,   rich, disabled, children, adult, senior
13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming?

 Main reason
      To achieve optimal use of existing resources – facilities,
       personnel and finance – to meet
           The goals of the organization
           The needs of people (consumers)
      To deliver the products and service
      To meet an organization’s objectives
13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming?

 Other reasons
      To make the best use of resources – time, space, staff, money
      To resolve conflicting claims of time and space
      To balance between a wide range of potential customers
      To achieve best results – optimum number, between numbers of
       people and activities and facilities
      To provide the order and structure for the development of the
13.1 Why leisure and recreation programming?

   Other reasons
        Discuss handouts
13.2.1 Community recreation programming

   Incorporates social objectives
   Provided by the local authorities
   Faced with economic difficulties and constraints
   Community recreation programming requires
         Good financial sense
         Meeting social objectives
13.2.1 Community recreation programming

   The features for a balanced programmer at local authority
        Opportunities to participate in a range of leisure activities
        Opportunities to participate activity or passively, or
           Take   PE class
13.2.1 Community recreation programming

   The features for a balanced programmer at local authority
        Opportunities to be involved as individual or with a club or
           Run    alone vs join a running club
        Opportunities to participate for people to participate on a
         formal basis and on an informal basis
           Join   a swimming class vs swimming with family
13.2.2 The main programming agencies

   Commercial sector
         Cinema, night clubs, fitness center, golf club, bowling
   Institutional sector
         University, colleges, community schools
13.2.2 The main programming agencies

Voluntary   sector
        Girl Guides and Boy Scout, YMCA/YWCA
   Local sector
        Local government
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

 The programmer resolve around activities, facilities, services,
staff and money
   Activities
         Informal activities: anticipated within a community
          programme by creating opportunities, encouraging
          spontaneity, having resources available such as space,
          time and equipment
         Ex: a ball to kick, a wall to scribble, deck chairs
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

      Structured activities: several categories such as arts, crafts,
       dance, drama, entertainment, games, sport, and health and
      Have class time, scheduled place, certain amount of
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

 Facilities
       Cover all areas, buildings, supplies and equipment with
       Designed and constructed for special purposes such as art
        centers or swimming pool
       Simply the nature resources such as riverside walks,
        forests and beaches
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

 Services
      Cover all methods and means for people to enjoy leisure
       and recreation such as information services, promotion,
       publicity, transport information
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

 Staff
      Enables, connectors and controllers
      Duty managers, supervisors, coaches, countryside rangers
      Teachers, librarians, community workers …
13.2.3 What constitutes a programme?

 Money
      Required for the investment to achieve financial profits
      To break-even or to run services, facilities and
       programmers at an agreed subsidy level
13.3 Programme classification

   By function
        The most usual classification
        By listing a number of activities or groups of activities such
         as sports, arts, crafts, ..
        Linked to special groups of people: children, youth,
         disabled, aged, beginner, advanced
13.3 Programme classification

 By facilities
        Piches available, pool opening times,
   By people
        Who the programme is intended for:
        Casual users, members, family days, over 50s, parents
        Discuss handouts
13.3 Programme classification

 By Outcomes
      Learn to swim
      Improve courses
      Keep fit
      Slim and train sessions
      Social purposes
13.3 Programme classification

 Other classifications
       By life-cycle changes
          Pre-school, early childhood, late elementary, youth,
           teenage, young adults, early adulthood, maturity, later
           middle age, old age, and senescence
       By activities
          Passive/active,  structured/ unstructured, planned/self-
           directed, high risk/low risk
13.4 Directional planning strategies

 Two main directions for public sector planning of community
recreation programmes
        Planned programmes directed professionally by officers or authorities
        Programmes which emanate from the community itself
   The social planning approach
        The use of professional expertise and knowledge to meet the needs
         and solve community programs
        Changes occurs as a result of a professional or the authority
13.4 Directional planning strategies

   The community development approach
        Foster independence
        Require capable, trained men and women in this field
        Community developers have become known by many ways:
         “encourage, enabler, catalyst, friend, adviser, activator”.
13.4 Directional planning strategies

   Disadvantages for the social planning approach
        The decision makers are remote from the potential users of the faculties
        A lack of consultation and sensitivity concerning the needs and
         demands of the community
        The facility staff are not involved in the decision-making process
        Lack of accountability and commitment at facility level
        Decision making is slow and programming tends to be repetitive and
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

1.   No one approach, system or method which is suitable for all
     organization, situations or all people
2.   The programming methods employed depend on the
     organization, the aims, the community to be served, the
     directional strategy, staff skills, money, facilities and a wide
     variety of other factors.
3.   Do not use single method. Use a number of methods.
4.   Each method has benefits.
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

1.   Lettings “policy” approach:
        Commonly found in the management of community
        The facility is provided and bookings and usage are
        Optimal usage and balance are seldom achieved
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

2.   The traditional approach:
        Suggests what has gone on in the past and is generally
         successful is likely to be repeated.
        Learning from the past
        Rely on the same format for future programme planning
        Making modification for the future
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

3.   The comparative current trends approach:
        Rely on reacting to recent trends or activities
        has benefits in meeting some new demands
        Likely to serve only a segment of the market and it may
         be a failure in other groups
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

4.   The expressed desires approach:
        by asking people, through questionnaire and survey for
         people's wishes and wants
        Limitations: some participants may not really know what
         they want until they try it and cannot predict their future
         leisure behavior
        Discuss handouts
 13.5 Specific methods and approaches

5.   The authoritarian approach:
        placed on the judgment of the controller, head of
         department or manager
        The assumption is that they understand what the needs
         are and what the community wants.
        However, the participants are denied any involvement in
         the programming process
        Very quick approach
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

6.   The social approach:
        consider the social issues such as crime, poverty,
        Have to respond to the political and social pressure
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

7.   Action-investigation-creation plan approach:
        Action: reaction to the demands generated by the
        Investigation: concerned with fact-finding
        Creation: the interactive relationship between participant
         and professions
        the most effective.
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

8.   External requirements approach:
        Dictated by standards, an institution or a governing body
        Have uniform, standards, leadership, and resources by
         using external assessment for measuring
        A Scout or Girl Guide Troop
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

9.   Cafeteria-style approach:
        A variety of choice and can meet the diverse of needs of
        The customers can have many choices and do the
        Useful approach, there is a variety of choice, people may
         not know what they know and can just see …
        Difficulty to set up the goals and objectives for measuring
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

10.   Demand approach:
         most usual form of programming in the public sector.
          Include this approach in their overall plan
         Just “ Offer what people want”
         Clubs, association know the demands
         Managers are faced with the applications of requesting
         Sometimes what they want is not good
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

11.   The community orientation approach
         A process based on using people talent’s and
         Have individuals involved in programming process
         Use the professionals to meet people need such as
          outreach programmers, association or community
         People to people approach require community face to
          face leadership
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

11.   The community orientation approach
         Assume people can work together
         No one is supervisor or subordinate
13.5 Specific methods and approaches

12.   Community leadership approach:
         Consumer input is made possible through advisory
          boards, user committees, tenants’ groups
         They represent concerns of the community
         The individual interests are represented by their group
         Boards, committees or other groups
USA Specific methods and approaches
       System theory
          Input – Process- Output
          P43
       Benefits-Driven Model
          Identify the parks, recreation and leisure service outputs in terms of
           benefits gained from engagemnt in leisure programs
          P45
       Motivation-Based Model
          Respond to what they need
          P48
13.7 Community recreation management
   Disadvantage groups: with social economic problems
   Effective community management can be measured in part
    by the degree to which a reasonable balance of the various
    population market segments to provide a variety of service
   Leisure managers need to make contact, to communicate
    effectively with disadvantage groups.
13.7.1 How help?
   Positive programming to encourage wider community use
   Table 13.1 P415
   For single parent
   Financial / Programmes / Outreach / Marketing
• Financial                        • Outreach

• Cost subsidies                   • Assistance to self-help groups
                                   • Baby sitting services
• Reduced/free membership
                                   • Neighborhood contacts
• Free passes
                                   • Neighborhood facilities
• Avoidance of lump sum payments
                                   • Mobile facilities
• Bus passes
• Programmes                        • Marketing

• Play schemes and family holiday   • Leisure counseling
                                    • Advertising benefits
• Woman's program
                                    • Help-line services
• Transport
                                    • leisure information service
• Leisure skill learning
                                    • Links with other community services
• Family events
                                    and voluntary groups
• Open days and days out
• Social and community programs
13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure
facility programmes

   The programming is a systematic process
   The approach at public facilities must be capable of
    incorporating both major strategies, social planning and
    community development
   Be capable of handling any of options, from authoritarian-
    directed service to participant-controlled program
13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure
facility programmes

       The Programming by objectives methods
          MBO (Management by Objective)
          To achieve measurable targets
          It set targets, plan, implements, controls and monitors
          One example for leisure facility programming.
       Seven-stage programming model is below
13.9 Programming by objectives and leisure
facility programmes

    Seven-stage programming model is below P55
    1. Review policy and establish goals
    2. Assess demand and resources
    3. Set objectives and targets
    4. Plan the programme
    5. Implement the program
    6. Evaluate and monitor progress
    7. Obtain feedback and modify programme
1. Review policy and establish goals

   The aim of a community recreation service could include
       To serve and give substantial leisure opportunity to all
        people in the community
       To meet significant social needs
       To involve people in the community in recreation
       To provide the most appropriate service to serve the
        greatest number of people in the community
1. Review policy and establish goals

   The aim of a community recreation service could include
       To market community recreation effectively to discover
        need, to supply appropriate services and to attract
       To give range, diversity and balance to programmes
       To provide progrmmes which are flexible enough to cope
        with changing demands
       To make the fullest use and most imaginative use of all
1. Review policy and establish goals

   The aim of a community recreation service could include
       To give a large measure of choice through which variety,
        novelty and depth of programming is possible
       To stimulate community initiatives and spontaneous
       To manage services and facilities with capable and
        suitably qualified and trained personnel
       To evaluate progress regularly and systematically
2. Assess demand and resources

   The process will cover the following areas
       The likely client base: will the facilities and activities
        attract individual, casual users, recreational groups,
        course and event?
       Market assessment: a profile of the current and
        prospective customers and the type of services and
        activities to meet their needs and expressed demands for
        a new program
2. Assess demand and resources

   The process will cover the following areas
       For a existing program, review the customer profile and
        compare with the market profile and the catchment
           Review the current performance
       Assess the contribution made by other agencies, and the
        success and failures of other programs
2. Assess demand and resources

   The process will cover the following areas
       Identify market gaps
       In terms of information, new program will need more
        general information compared to established programs
       Consider the current leisure trends and the experience of
        other leisure providers
       Set up the program review meetings
3. Set objectives and targets

   Short range targets for each objective
       Within a precise time, weeks, months, years
       In terms of social objectives at community facility
           Free entry
       In terms of economic objective
           Balance the revenue and cost
3. Set objectives and targets

   Short range targets for each objective
       Within a precise time, weeks, months, years
       In terms of comprehensive services with wide ranging
           30% of budget for community special service
       Pricing levels
           The costs for the leisure and recreation facility uses
3. Set objectives and targets

   The objectives for a sport hall program
       The range of opportunity
           80% of programming for sport, 20% for non-sporting
       The ranges of course to be offered to the customers
           40% for children 60% for teenagers
3. Set objectives and targets

   The objectives for a sport hall program
       The pricing level
           Weekday – weekend
           Day – night
           Senior, Junior, children, ….
4. Plan the programme

       Every programmer should have a checklist of essential
        aspects that must be considered in planning the programme
          Time
             The basis on which the program operates. Establish hourly, daily,
              weekly, and seasonal patterns of use
          Types and forms
             Determine program types and classification and forms of
              organization and recognize the different needs of different
4. Plan the programme

      Activities and balances
          Choose activities and methods which are more likely
           to meet objectives and sustain interest.
      Budget
          Set budgets for each main programming stream and
           ways of achieving targets
      Priorities
          Because of conflicting claims, establish priorities.
           Avoid the casual use to narrow the field
4. Plan the programme
      Compatibility
          Avoid incompatible activities in terms of health and safety, noise,
           age, level of play and ambience.
      Expand
          Expand the program with new activities, new methods and new
      Resources
          Consider the resource implications and staffing
      Safety
          Undertake equipment and maintenance safety checks
4. Plan the programme
      Training
          Train staff to undertake programming functions.
      Contract
          With contract management, ensure that the contractor complies
           with the specification not just the letter of the contract
      Systems
          Establish the easily understood administration systems and
          Try new technologies to programming
4. Plan the programme

      Promote
          Produce excellent promotional and publicity materials
          Ensure weekly story in the local press
          Advise the program and monitor the promotional
      Critical path
          Try to use CPM to save the time
5. Implement the program

   To be able to manage the program efficiently, a range of
    systems need to be developed to deal with specific aspects
    associated with programming
   Program control
       The manager has overall responsibility
       Have the necessary ability and authority
       To deliver the highest customer service
       To make sure the staff can carry out their jobs efficiently
5. Implement the program

   Practical operational knowledge need
       To adjust staffing levels in light of changes in occupancy
       To anticipate operational problems
       To obtain daily feedback
       To use a specially designed, comprehensive
        management information system
       To deal with complaints immediately and turn them into
        opportunities for getting things right
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Evaluation should consider three things:
       The input
           How much has gone into the program planning and
       The process
           What has actually occurred during the program
       The outcomes
           What were the end-results and how these compared
            with the target objectives and performance objectives
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Three ways to conduct the evaluation:
       The inside evaluation
           Sensitive to staff feelings
           Biased and less objective to justify failures
       The outside evaluation
           More objectives
           Staff will worry about the outcome
           More expensive
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Three ways to conduct the evaluation:
       Combination
           Involvement from all sources is better
           From the policy makers, the officers, the clients, the
            contractors, the staff and the customers
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Five types of evaluations
       Personnel
       Policy
       Place
       Program
       Participants
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Based on the time
       Beginning – assessment
       Formative
       Summative
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Questions?
       Criteria? How to measure?
       To what extent has the programme been successful in
        meeting objectives?
       How well the program been delivered and received?
       How well the staff performed?
       Data: quantitative and qualitative?
       The complaints? Turn into better service
6. Evaluate and monitor progress

   Questions?
       How markets expanded? Wider customers base?
       How effective have the promotion methods been?
       How adaptable has the organization been to the changes?
       Have resources been adequate – facilities, equipment,
        staff, space, time, budget?
       Have all regulations been met?
       What lessons have been learned?

       Planning by objectives
          Seven step community programming planning guide
          P427
Presentation 2
Course:Recreation Management (20203)
Instructor: Dr. Tzu-Ching Chang
Presentation date:Dec. 25
Group member                        The grades
  Kurt & Jimmy - Cinema                Content: 60%
  Joanne & Erin – Theme Park           Presenter: 20%
  Lucy & Miranda – Fitness Center      Format: 10%
  Miga & Rita - Restaurant             Feedback: 10%
  Chris & Teo - Hotel
  Ralph & Helen - Bar
Presentation rule
   The length of time for your presentation is around 20 minutes
        and 5 minutes for questions.
   The number of the slides in you presentation is at least 20
   The order of the presentation won’t be decided until the class.
       Both need to do the presentation and each one is for 10
   Email your file to me on Oct. 20
Presentation Topic

 On the previous presentation, you already choose a commercial sector. For
 this presentation, you need to pick one famous company or example from
 that sector. For example, Norman and Chris can select the Holiday Inn.
 Jimmy and Kurt selected AMC cinema. After you decided the company,
 you need to select one type of management from the following choices: 1)
 Programming, 2) Marketing, 3) Staffing, 4) Employee training, 5) Event
 management, and 6) Information management. Then just focus on how the
 companies apply those management ideas in their organizations.

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