Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Douglas McGregor’s X and Y Theory Chris Argyris Pattern A and B Theory Classic Self-actualization/Esteem Social Safety /Physiological Theory X-directed, controlling atmosphere Pattern A-High degree of structure close supervision Modern ERG Theory- Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Social Needs, Esteem Needs Theory Y- cohesive work teams, self-directed, creative Pattern B-supportive, facilitating, trust concern, individuality Inclusive of all areas of an organization, greater responsibility , greater opportunities Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Challenge and scope as motivators The graph above is a comparison of classical vs. modern motivational theories. This information was gathered after reading chapters 2 and 3 in the text Management of Organizational Behavior, (Hersey, 2001.) Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is compared to the “classic” way of thinking which includes the six basic needs to the more “modern” version which includes a more detailed study human need. Also, Douglas McGregor’s Pattern A theory is compared and contrasted to the more modern Pattern B which entails much of today’s ideas of leadership including characteristics such as teamwork, self direction, and creativity. Also being compared is Chris Argyris’s Pattern A Theory to the widely used more modern Pattern B Theory. While still needing structure and supervision, today’s society promotes a supportive facilitating environment of mutual respect between administrators and staff. Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation Theory is compared and contrasted from the classical version of using challenge and studying motivators to the modern inclusive version where all areas of organization are considered, greater responsibility is given and more opportunities. When comparing the classical theories to more modern versions of these theories, one must consider the significant differences between them. With our ever changing society focused on technology and diversity, it is certain that different aspects of the classical theories will change to fit the personality of todays needs. Certain aspects of these theories still exist such as Chris Argygis ‘s Pattern A theory of close supervision and structure and McGregors X Theory, but todays society warrants the theories that involve cohesive teamwork, mutual trust and respect and concern. These characteristics are expressed in theories such as Argyris’s B Theory and Mc Gregors Theory. Goal: Marble Elementary School has not met the Adequate Yearly Progress goals in the past five years. Tests scores have been just a fraction below what is needed to make the school goal for testing in grades 3-5. This motivational plan includes planning and preparing for an after school tutoring program for students in grades 3-5 to increase test scores. To accomplish this goal, teachers must be motivated to take turns staying after school to helps students who are having difficulties mastering concepts in class. Students must also be motivated to stay after school in order to better their chances of understanding the concepts that will be included on the end of grade tests. Motivating Techniques Motivating techniques include discovering what motivates staff at Marble by getting to know staff members. Ways to promote understanding of staff members is to have frequent staff meetings and seeking feedback from each staff member. When gaining a better perspective of the staff at Marble Elementarys motivators, the administrator needs to gather staff and discuss the problem of just barely missing the goal of growth by the school. The administrator must be able to verbalize how important it is for the staff to help in meeting this goal. They must be able to be included in the decision making process of how to set up the tutoring program and how it should run. Involving stakeholders in the decision making process will allow them to realize they are a huge part of the process taking place. Administrator must not use coercive power when establishing an after school program that is dependent on the teachers willingness to stay after school periodically. Dialogue and Messages Dialogue that must be used to set up an after school tutoring program for grades 3-5 must include teamwork and words of recognition of achievement and dedication to the schools vision. Teachers and students must be recognized for the extra effort they are putting in to meet their own personal goals as well as the schools. The message that should be conveyed to all stakeholders is that by working cohesively as team and by working toward the schools goals while helping students achieve goals they set for themselves, the school works together to recognize problems and overcome them. By working as a team to increase test scores needed to meet the schools goals, the message to the community should be that Marble unifies together to overcome conflicts. Evaluation of Change and Motivational Levels In order to evaluate the progress of the program, the administrator must consistently get feedback from teachers and students. Another way to monitor the progress of the program is to determine if students scores and understanding of concepts are increasing according to their work in class and on tests. An administrator can determine the motivational level of staff by having an open communication system in which staff provide their thoughts on the program and offer ideas and suggestions. Another way of determining motivational levels of staff is by having surveys in which staff members can relay their thoughts on paper. After evaluating the progress if the program and the staffs motivational levels, the administrator can make the necessary changes to make the program more effective.