Citations Take notes on this presentation. I will give you a quiz over this material. Citing Facts • As you work on developing your outline for your persuasive speech, you will be citing the facts from your research. You will also need to cite facts in your essay. Add your citations into your outline as it develops. I. American Girl dolls cultivate imagination and activate the brain. A. According to psychologists, imaginative play is one of the most important components of early learning and is a key factor in brain development. 1. Research Fact (citation) 2. Research Fact (citation) B. Social development is also inspired through imaginative play. 1. Fact (citation) 2. Fact (citation) Which of these is a fact that needs to be cited? American Girl dolls cultivate imagination and activate the brain. According to psychologists, imaginative play is one of the most important components of early learning and is a key factor in brain development. 80% of American girls play with dolls. Social development is also inspired through imaginative play. • For EACH of your THREE key ideas in your outline you need THREE FACTS. In total, the minimum number of citations for this essay is NINE. • HW: Work on adding facts to your outline. Bring your draft to class tomorrow to show me your progress. You should pick up your rough outline before you leave class today to read my comments. What is a citation? Why do we cite facts in an essay? • A citation is a reference to the source of the information- the article or document where you read a specific fact or from which you copied a specific quote. • We cite facts to show that we have solid credible sources. • We cite because if we don‟t we are simply stealing the idea of others. This is plagiarism- a form of intellectual theft. 2. What does credible mean? Would an anonymous source be more or less credible than a named source? • Credible means believable. • An anonymous source is less credible usually because we don‟t know anything about the merits or qualifications of the writer. • If something is published by a major publication such as a large magazine, the credibility is greater, but you should not rely on facts from blogs or message postings even on a Website sponsored by a credible group. 3. What is a quote? Can I quote the writer of an article even if nothing in the article is in quotes? A quote is anything you take word for word from another text, movie, or other printed source, or anything you take word for word from an interview. You can quote the writer of an article. That person‟s ideas need to be quoted if you take them word for word, and need to be cited if they are original and not “common knowledge”. 4. How do you properly introduce a quote or a research fact in a paper or a speech to make your fact come across to your audience as credible? Lead in with information about who said the quote and when. During a recent speech at the White House, President Obama said, “….. New York Times sports columnist John Brown stated his views about the draft in his recent article, “… 5. What is a paraphrase? When should I paraphrase? When should I quote an idea instead of paraphrasing? Paraphrasing is when you write an idea in your own words. A paraphrase needs to be cited when it is an idea that is unique to a specific article. Often you will paraphrase general ideas that you see in several articles. These ideas would not need to be cited. 6. When do I need to cite information? Do I cite quotes? Do I cite statistics? Do I cite everything? Always cite quotations. Cite paraphrased information if it is a unique and original idea that belongs to someone else. Cite research data such as statistics. 7. When I cite a quote, what information is included within the parentheses? Why? The citation is a short reference to the Works Cited sheet. So it contains the first thing listed on the works cited sheet. On the Works Cited I can find all of the information about the source. The first thing you list on a Works Cited sheet is the author‟s name. If there is no author, you list the title of the article. A citation looks like this ( Smith 6) - Author and page number when possible (“The Truth about Barbie”) If there is no author, you cite the title of the article. If there is no page number, you leave it out. Do not cite the speaker‟s name unless the speaker is the writer of the article. • Use a lead-in to say who is speaking. The citation should refer the reader to the Works Cited Sheet. • According to psychologist Susan Smith, “Barbies are harmless” (“The Truth about Barbie”). *Notice the punctuation here? Notice that I do not put Smith in parentheses because she is not the writer of the article I am citing. No Citation Needed common knowledge • ________________Children often create their own stories when they play with dolls. No citation needed general information/ common knowledge • _________________According to many child development experts, the best toys for babies and toddlers are developmental toys such as playgyms, swings, simple stacking toys, puzzles and musical toys. Toys more suitable for older children are electronic educational toys, construction toys such as Lego, and puzzles, board games and science- based toys. Cite Needed Direct Quotation • _________________"Toys 'R' Us strongly believes in promoting outdoor activities and a healthy lifestyle among children," says Toys „R‟ Us executive Mr R.J. Sen. Its retail outlets offer a wide range of sports and outdoor toys. No Citation Needed Common Knowledge • _________________Children are struggling to make friends at school because they spend too long playing computer games and listening to MP3 players, according to many teachers. Citation Needed Specific Study Referenced • __________________A survey of primary teachers in the UK by the organization Save the Children reveals that an increase in "solitary pastimes'' has caused damaged to the social skills and has resulted in greater levels of loneliness amongst young people today. Citation Needed Quoted Material • __________________Education Correspondent, Graeme Paton of The Daily Telegraph explains that there are growing concerns that the toxic mix of modern life, including exposure to electronic entertainment, junk food and over-competitive schooling, is poisoning childhood”. Citation Needed Statistic • __________________More than 70 percent of teachers said that increased use of games consoles, mobile phones, the internet and MP3 players has harmed children's ability to interact with their peers. No Citation Needed General Information Idea Not Unique To One Source • __________________If young people do not learn to form solid relationships with others and rely too much on solitary play, it can be difficult for them to form long-term relationships later in life. This can affect both their work relationships and their family lives. 8. What is a Works Cited Sheet and how is it different than a Bibliography? A bibliography lists all the sources you read or used in any way. A Works Cited ONLY lists the sources that you actually cited in your essay. Where do I put citations on my outline? Place the citation right after the fact. Include the author‟s name and the page number (if applicable.) If there is no author, list the title of the article in quotation marks. How many citations do I need for each of my key ideas? You should have 2-3 for each key idea and a MINIMUM of 9 citations in your typed outline. You need to CITE your sources. How do I make a Works Cited page? What is MLA format? • Use MLA format. Examples of this format can be found in your planner and also on many solid college writing sites. • My favorite is Purdue University‟s Owl Writing Center. • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/74 7/01/ Make sure you have all of the source information and that you use the right format. • Don‟t forget to punctuate titles. • Pay attention to the punctuation between each part of the Works Cited. • Make sure you alphabetize your sources based on the first word of the entry. • Double space and indent second and third lines of each entry (when applicable) Turn in Outline • Turn in your outline draft today. • Work on your Works Cited tonight. It is due on Thursday. • Bring your typed outline to class tomorrow. You will need to reference it! Speeches • Speeches will start next Monday. • I am going to stretch them out over the last two weeks. Everyone should be ready to go on their assigned day. You will have a 20% late penalty if you are not prepared. That means a B- is the highest grade you can get even if you give the most incredible speech I have ever seen. PLAN AHEAD!