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					          Citations

Take notes on this presentation. I
  will give you a quiz over this
             material.
             Citing Facts

• As you work on developing your outline for
  your persuasive speech, you will be citing
  the facts from your research. You will also
  need to cite facts in your essay. Add your
  citations into your outline as it develops.
I. American Girl dolls cultivate imagination and
   activate the brain.
   A. According to psychologists, imaginative play is
   one of the most important components of early
   learning and is a key factor in brain development.
       1. Research Fact (citation)
       2. Research Fact (citation)

  B. Social development is also inspired through
  imaginative play.
      1. Fact (citation)
      2. Fact (citation)
Which of these is a fact that needs to be cited?

American Girl dolls cultivate imagination and activate the
 brain.

According to psychologists, imaginative play is one of the
  most important components of early learning and is a key
  factor in brain development.

80% of American girls play with dolls.


Social development is also inspired through imaginative play.
• For EACH of your THREE key ideas in
  your outline you need THREE FACTS. In
  total, the minimum number of citations for
  this essay is NINE.

• HW: Work on adding facts to your outline.
  Bring your draft to class tomorrow to show
  me your progress. You should pick up
  your rough outline before you leave class
  today to read my comments.
What is a citation? Why do we
   cite facts in an essay?
• A citation is a reference to the source of
  the information- the article or document
  where you read a specific fact or from
  which you copied a specific quote.

• We cite facts to show that we have solid
  credible sources.

• We cite because if we don‟t we are simply
  stealing the idea of others. This is
  plagiarism- a form of intellectual theft.
 2. What does credible mean?
Would an anonymous source be
  more or less credible than a
       named source?
• Credible means believable.

• An anonymous source is less credible
  usually because we don‟t know anything
  about the merits or qualifications of the
  writer.

• If something is published by a major
  publication such as a large magazine, the
  credibility is greater, but you should not rely
  on facts from blogs or message postings
  even on a Website sponsored by a credible
  group.
 3. What is a quote? Can I quote
  the writer of an article even if
nothing in the article is in quotes?
A quote is anything you take word for
  word from another text, movie, or other
  printed source, or anything you take
  word for word from an interview.

You can quote the writer of an article.
 That person‟s ideas need to be quoted if
 you take them word for word, and need
 to be cited if they are original and not
 “common knowledge”.
    4. How do you properly
introduce a quote or a research
 fact in a paper or a speech to
make your fact come across to
  your audience as credible?
Lead in with information about who said
  the quote and when.

During a recent speech at the White
 House, President Obama said, “…..

New York Times sports columnist John
 Brown stated his views about the draft
 in his recent article, “…
5. What is a paraphrase? When
   should I paraphrase? When
should I quote an idea instead of
         paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing is when you write an idea in
 your own words.

A paraphrase needs to be cited when it is
  an idea that is unique to a specific
  article. Often you will paraphrase
  general ideas that you see in several
  articles. These ideas would not need to
  be cited.
   6. When do I need to cite
information? Do I cite quotes?
 Do I cite statistics? Do I cite
          everything?
Always cite quotations.

Cite paraphrased information if it is a
  unique and original idea that belongs to
  someone else.

Cite research data such as statistics.
 7. When I cite a quote, what
information is included within
    the parentheses? Why?
The citation is a short reference to the Works
  Cited sheet. So it contains the first thing listed
  on the works cited sheet.

On the Works Cited I can find all of the
 information about the source.

The first thing you list on a Works Cited sheet is
  the author‟s name. If there is no author, you
  list the title of the article.
     A citation looks like this

( Smith 6) - Author and page number
  when possible

(“The Truth about Barbie”) If there is no
  author, you cite the title of the article. If
  there is no page number, you leave it
  out.
    Do not cite the speaker‟s
   name unless the speaker is
     the writer of the article.
• Use a lead-in to say who is speaking. The
  citation should refer the reader to the Works
  Cited Sheet.

• According to psychologist Susan Smith,
  “Barbies are harmless” (“The Truth about
  Barbie”). *Notice the punctuation here?
  Notice that I do not put Smith in parentheses
  because she is not the writer of the article I
  am citing.
        No Citation Needed
        common knowledge

• ________________Children often create
  their own stories when they play with dolls.
     No citation needed
 general information/ common
          knowledge
• _________________According to many child
  development experts, the best toys for babies and
  toddlers are developmental toys such as playgyms,
  swings, simple stacking toys, puzzles and musical
  toys. Toys more suitable for older children are
  electronic educational toys, construction toys such
  as Lego, and puzzles, board games and science-
  based toys.
            Cite Needed
           Direct Quotation
• _________________"Toys 'R' Us strongly
  believes in promoting outdoor activities and
  a healthy lifestyle among children," says
  Toys „R‟ Us executive Mr R.J. Sen. Its retail
  outlets offer a wide range of sports and
  outdoor toys.
       No Citation Needed
       Common Knowledge

• _________________Children are struggling
  to make friends at school because they
  spend too long playing computer games and
  listening to MP3 players, according to many
  teachers.
       Citation Needed
   Specific Study Referenced
• __________________A survey of primary
  teachers in the UK by the organization Save
  the Children reveals that an increase in
  "solitary pastimes'' has caused damaged to
  the social skills and has resulted in greater
  levels of loneliness amongst young people
  today.
             Citation Needed
             Quoted Material
• __________________Education Correspondent,
  Graeme Paton of The Daily Telegraph explains
  that there are growing concerns that the toxic mix
  of modern life, including exposure to electronic
  entertainment, junk food and over-competitive
  schooling, is poisoning childhood”.
          Citation Needed
              Statistic

• __________________More than 70 percent
  of teachers said that increased use of games
  consoles, mobile phones, the internet and
  MP3 players has harmed children's ability
  to interact with their peers.
      No Citation Needed
      General Information
Idea Not Unique To One Source
• __________________If young people do
  not learn to form solid relationships with
  others and rely too much on solitary play, it
  can be difficult for them to form long-term
  relationships later in life. This can affect
  both their work relationships and their
  family lives.
8. What is a Works Cited Sheet
  and how is it different than a
        Bibliography?
A bibliography lists all the sources you
  read or used in any way.

A Works Cited ONLY lists the sources
  that you actually cited in your essay.
Where do I put citations on my
          outline?
Place the citation right after the fact.

Include the author‟s name and the page
  number (if applicable.)

If there is no author, list the title of the
   article in quotation marks.
 How many citations do I need
  for each of my key ideas?
You should have 2-3 for each key idea
 and a MINIMUM of 9 citations in your
 typed outline.

You need to CITE your sources.
How do I make a Works Cited
 page? What is MLA format?
• Use MLA format. Examples of this format can
  be found in your planner and also on many
  solid college writing sites.

• My favorite is Purdue University‟s Owl Writing
  Center.

• http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/74
  7/01/
Make sure you have all of the
 source information and that
  you use the right format.
• Don‟t forget to punctuate titles.
• Pay attention to the punctuation
  between each part of the Works Cited.
• Make sure you alphabetize your
  sources based on the first word of the
  entry.
• Double space and indent second and
  third lines of each entry (when
  applicable)
           Turn in Outline
• Turn in your outline draft today.

• Work on your Works Cited tonight. It is
  due on Thursday.

• Bring your typed outline to class
  tomorrow. You will need to reference it!
                Speeches
• Speeches will start next Monday.

• I am going to stretch them out over the last
  two weeks. Everyone should be ready to go
  on their assigned day. You will have a 20%
  late penalty if you are not prepared. That
  means a B- is the highest grade you can get
  even if you give the most incredible speech I
  have ever seen. PLAN AHEAD!

				
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