Effective_Communication by buddasak


									Effective Communication 1 Running Head: Effective Communication

Module # 6 Effective Communication

Name: Judy Philpot E-Mail: jphilpot@cruiser.grand_canyon.edu Due Date: August 17,2005 Submission Date: August 16, 2005

Course # 531 Grand Canyon University Instructor: Jamie Barron Summer, 2005

Effective Communication 2 Effective Communication Communication skills cannot be better described than as stated by the ―Employee Assistance and Development‖ article found in the communication file of California State University- Fresno: Effective communication is basic to success in life. Good communication is far more than having a large vocabulary or being articulate and verbose, however. Good communication involves many factors—the ability to listen, to correctly perceive and interpret the words and actions of others, and to accurately and appropriately respond—to name a few key elements. The researcher’s intention is not only to describe the three effective communication models for the reader, but, also, to supply five basic tools of communication. Included with these tools of communication will be scenarios so the reader will fully explain their importance. Hersey (2001) purports that there are three models of communication. The Linear Model shows ―communication events as one-sided activities from the leader… to the follower‖ (Hersey et al., 2001, p. 297). The main problem is that there is no interaction with this model. The second model, the Interactional Model, is perceived more like a ―tennis game. The server send a message, the receiver lobs a response back. This is misleading because communication is a multidirectional transactional process‖ (Hersey et al., 2001, p.299). Since the first two models were unacceptable as the ideal human communication, the third model of communication was envisioned. The Transactional Model presents the real interaction between humans. This model portrays ―an ongoing process between the leader and a follower and contains three

Effective Communication 3 new elements‖—noise, listening and pacing and leading (Hersey et al., 2001, p. 300). This model provides opportunities for opinions and input from all involved parties. The other two models did not offer these opportunities; they were not practical. Once leaders have reflected upon these models, it is obvious that they would embrace the Transactional Model. Green (2005) states that a speaker should be ―available, approachable, and able to listen… to others, conveying the feeling the leader is… concerned about them‖(p. 88). To improve one’s leadership ability, one would have to integrate this model into his communication skills. Five tools needed to enhance one’s skills would be improvement of verbal communication, fine tuning of non-verbal communication (paralanguage), use of symbols, addressing noise issues, the upgrading of one’s listening skills, and learning how to pace and lead. Before proceeding, the researcher would like to insert this idea. In ―A model of effective listening‖, the writer states, ―Feelings are the lifeline to communication… Having one’s feelings understood and respected by another leads to a sense of being respected and cared for by that person. Trust can evolve when we sense that others know how we are feeling‖. It is the researcher’s opinion that this quote avows an important leadership quality. To further explain the communication tools, the researcher desires to briefly explain and provide short scenarios for the reader. Of the five tools, the most obvious is verbal communication. Verbal communication refers ―to words only‖ (Hersey, 2001, p.297). Words can build or destroy, confuse or explain, create a smile or bring a tear. The purpose of the words spoken depends upon the speaker’s intentions. When a minister stands behind a podium, preaching a message of salvation, the listener must decode the

Effective Communication 4 verbal message. After decoding, the listener will decide whether to accept or reject the invitation of salvation. Non-verbal communication is more difficult to decipher between speaker and listener. In ―Cognitive Behavior‖, Nierenberg and Calero (1993) stated that gestures are like ―words in a language‖. One can feel connected in a conversation just by the gestures, eye contact, and the paralanguage (the pitch, rate, pauses and even the volume) (Hersey et al., 2001). Driving down the road, late for work, the driver is hurriedly making her way to school. A policeman steps out into the road and waves the teacher over to the side of the road. Not a word has been spoken, but the nervous feeling in her stomach informs her that it is inevitable—a speeding ticket is in her future. Communication can be formed by the smallest attachment to a larger picture. Symbols can cause a person to sing or hum a melody, cause the taste buds to water, or even cause one to check their insurance coverage. The importance of an idea or company can rise from just a picture or visual drawing. When one sees the hands come together in a cupped formation, one hears, ―You’re in good hands with All State Insurance.‖ How many times have children in a group seen those famous golden arches and yelled, ― Let’s go to McDonald’s‖? There is an abundance of power in the symbols that are used on a daily basis. One of the most difficult hindrances to communication is noise. Whether it is external noise (outside the brain), internal noise (inside the brain or causing the mind to be distracted), or word noise (mental deciphering of persons, images or things) (Hersey et al., 2001). During a conversation, it is imperative for the speaker to keep noise levels at a minimum. To eliminate distractions, plan ahead as to positioning, room assignment, and

Effective Communication 5 minimal interruptions. A priceless example to lack of communication is the Raisin Bran Crunch Cereal commercial. As his boss is firing him, an employee is eating his crunchy cereal. Since he cannot hear him, the employee just smiles and keeps eating. The headman comes over with the boss but responds differently. He states that he admires the employee’s refusal to quit his job. The whole time the worker never hears a word. The most vital form of communication from the leaders standpoint would be the art of listening. Both interacting parties must excel in active listening to achieve ― the content of the message and the intention of the speaker‖ (Hersey et al., 2001, p. 305). Active listening must be practiced and used often to develop. After several people walk by a little crying girl, one elderly woman approaches the little girl to inquire of her problem. The little girl is lost and trying to find her mother. The lady consoles her and explains to the girl that they will find her mother together. Feeling safe, the little girl smiles and stops crying. The elderly lady takes her by the hand and escorts her around the store until her mother is found. One has to take the time and make the effort to listen to others. Pacing and Leading is a form of communication that aids in opening one’s conversation to discuss issues pertinent to the dialogue. If one desires to develop rapport, making people feel comfortable is a necessity. As Hersey (2001) writes, ―You have to get in step with them – pace with them‖ (p.306). The researcher has a friend who constantly repeats the last words of each sentence spoken. Although this is an annoying habit, there is no doubt that she is listening. There is an assurance that Linda is pacing the conversation.

Effective Communication 6 One movie that causes laughter and tears is When Harry Met Sally. There are numerous communication errors in this movie but one of the funniest and non-verbal communication examples occurs in a diner. Billy Crystal and Meg Ryan are the on-again, off-again daters/friends. They are discussing ―faking orgasms.‖ Crystal says he could never be ―faked out‖ about such things. Meg Ryan begins making sounds, groans and gestures. The paralanguage in this scene is priceless. Just when the moviegoer has stopped laughing, a lady in the next booth says to the waitress, ―I’ll have what she’s having.‖ It is hilarious and totally embarrasses Billy Crystal. In ―Cognitive behavior‖, the writer interjects that communicating is like unlocking a lock— the speaker needs to make a conscious effort to understand the problem and use conscious strategies to open closed doors. To excel in communication, a leader must make a conscious effort to develop the skills and tools that have been discussed. The researcher hopes to have communicated effectively to the reader the importance of this topic. Good communication will help one succeed in friendships, business, and, even in life.

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Author n/a. (n/a). A model of effective communication. Retrieved August 10, 2005, from http://www.coping.org/dialogue/model.htm Author n/a. (n/a). Communication. Retrieved August 11, 2005, from http://www.cognitivebehavior.com/practice/concepts/communicating.htm Author n/a. (n/a). Communication Skills. Retrieved August 10, 2005, from http://www.csufresno.edu/employeeassistance/Communication.htm Green, R.L. (2005). Practicing the art of leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Hersey, P., Blanchard, K.H., & Johnson, D.E. (2001). Management of organizational behavior: Leading human resources (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Martin, C. (n/a). Nonverbal communication: Escape the pitfalls. Retrieved August 11, 2005, from http://interview.monster.com/articles/actions/

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