Chapter 7

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					         Chapter 8

Psychosocial Development in Early
           Childhood
Self-concept
• Total image of ourselves

• Self-definition: cluster of characteristics by
  which we describe ourselves
Three steps from ages 5-7
Age 4-Single representation: isolated, one-
  dimensional items, thinking without logical
  connections; cannot image having more than
  one emotion at a time; cannot decenter
  (consider different aspects of self
  simultaneously); dichotomous thinking. Real
  and ideal self seen as one.

5-6, moves to representational mapping: logical
  connections among parts of image of self; seen
  as completely positive, dichotomous terms;
  good or bad, not both.
Three steps from ages 5-7

Middle childhood-Representational systems:
 begin to integrate specific features of the
 self into a general, multidimensional
 concept; self-descriptions more balanced.
Self-esteem
Self-evaluative part of self-concept,
  judgement about overall worth.

Children’s pos/neg self-perceptions at age 5
 tended to predict their self-perceptions and
 socioemotional functioning by age 8

5-7: not realistic image of self-worth. Seen as
  contingent on success.
Helpless pattern: failure/criticism as
 indicative of their worth; stop trying;
 regress to easier work less challenging; self-
 denigration, self-blame, lowered self-
 expectations. Give-up.
Erikson: Initiative Versus Guilt- 3-5½
• Genital-locomotor stage: initiative, expanding
  mastery and responsibility.
• Learns to pursue, plan, and determination of
  achieving tasks and goals.
• Growing Sense of Purpose: the virtue that ascend
  in this stage; major activity here is playing,
  explorations, attempts and failures, and
  experimentation with toys.
• Danger of this stage: feeling of guilt for an
  overzealous contemplation of goals, including
  genital fantasies, use of aggression, manipulative
  means of achieving these goals.
Erikson: Initiative Versus Guilt- 3-5½
• Mental games: assuming roles of parents and other
  adults in make believe world.
• Imitation of adults allows for realization of what it
  is like to be them.
• Play provides an immediate reality; learns what
  the purpose of things are, and connection between
  an inner and outer world.

• Imaginative and uninhibited play are vitally
  important to the child’s development.
Erikson: Initiative Versus Guilt- 3-5½
• Purpose: is the courage to envision and pursue
  valued goals uninhibited by defeat of infantile
  fantasies, by guilt, and by overcoming the fear of
  punishment.
• This age of play is characterized by Dramatic
  realization: actively plays, wears costumes,
  imitating adult personalities and pretending to be
  anything.
• Negative counterpart to dramatic realization is the
  ritualism of impersonation throughout life: adult
  plays roles to present false image of one’s true
  personality.
Erikson: Initiative Versus Guilt- 3-5½
• Phallic Stage

****The child must discover ways to initiate
  actions on their own. If such actions are
  successful, guilt will be avoided.
Gender Identity
Gender differences: psychological and behavioral
  differences between males and females

Sex differences: physical differences between males
  and females

After age 3, boys/girls remain more similar.

Boys: more aggressive behavior
Girls: more empathetic and helpful; more compliant
  and cooperative with parents; seek adult approval
  more than boys
• Girls tend to use more responsive language
  (praise, agreement)
• IQ: shows no gender differences other than
  specific abilities
• Females: better at verbal tasks, mathematical
  computations, tasks requiring fine motor and
  perceptual skills
• Males: between in spatial abilities and abstract
  mathematical and scientific reasoning.
• Girls’ superiority in perceptual speed and verbal
  fluency appears during infancy and toddlerhood
• Boys’ greater ability to mentally mentally
  manipulate figures and shapes and solve mazes
  becomes apparent early in preschool years.
• As toddlers, boys/girls equally likely to
  behave aggressively and to show difficult
  temperament

• At age 4, problem behavior diminishes in
  girls; this difference continues into
  adolescence
Gender Development
• Gender roles: behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills,
  and personality traits considered for males or
  females; women expected to devote time for
  household and children; men to be providers and
  protectors. Women as compliant and nurturant;
  men active, aggressive, competitive
• Gender-typing: process children acquire a gender
  role
• Gender stereotypes: preconceived generalizations
  about male or female behavior
• Females as passive; males as aggressive
Four Perspectives on Gender Development
Biology: Hormones
• Male hormone testosterone with low levels of
  serotonin may be related to aggressiveness,
  competitiveness, and dominance; hypothalamus
  and amygdala
• At age 5: Brain is adult size; boys 10% larger,
  mostly in cerebral cortex
• Girls have greater neural density
• Girls have larger corpus callosum: tissue joining
  right/left hemispheres; correlated with verbal
  fluency
Four Perspectives on Gender Development
Psychoanalytic approaches
Identification: adoption of characteristics,
  beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of
  the same sex parent. This develops once the
  child has given up wish to posses parent of
  opposite sex (Oedipus Complex and Electra
  Complex).
Cognitive Approach: Kohlberg
Children actively search for cues about gender
 in their social world; once realize which
 gender they belong, adopt behaviors
 consistent with being male or female.

Acquisition of gender roles hinges on gender
 consistency: child’s realization that they are
 permanently male or female and adopt
 appropriate behaviors. Begins ages 2-3;
 constancy arrives around 3-7.
Gender schema theory: a cognitive
 mechanism through which gender learning
 and gender-typing occur (Bem). Children
 very young begin to categorize events and
 people, organizing their observations into
 schema/categories. Males/females wear
 different cloths, play with different toys,
 different roles.

Problem with the above two theories: gender-
  typing ebbs/flows. Ages 4-6, constructing
  their own gender schemas
Socialization-Based approaches
By observing role models. Choose the powerful and
  nurturing. Typically same sex parent.

Bandura: social cognitive theory: gender identity as
  the outcome of a complex array of interacting
  influences, personal and social. Socialization- the
  way a child interprets and internalizes experiences
  with parents, teachers, others, plays central role.
  Shifts from socially guided control to self-
  regulation of gender-related behavior occurs
  between 3-4.
Play
Stimulates the senses, learns to use muscles,
  coordinate movement, gain mastery over
  bodies, acquire new skills.

Different play
Preschoolers: depends on gross motor skills,
  run, jump, throw, aim
Middle childhood: Rough and tumble play
  involving wrestling, kicking, chasing
Play
Functional play: begins in infancy; involves
  repetitive muscle movement
Constructive play: 4-6; using objects to make
  something
Pretend play: begins age 2 and continues;
  fantasy, dramatic, imaginative; symbolic
  function
Social dimension of play
Unoccupied behavior: not playing; watches
  anything of momentary interest
Onlooker behavior: watches others play, talks
  with others, does not interact to play
Solitary independent play: plays alone with
  different toys than others are using; no
  attempts to get closer to others playing
Social dimension of play
Parallel play: plays independently among other
  children with similar toys but not necessarily in
  same way; playing besides them not with them

Associative play: play with others. Talk about play,
  borrow/lend toys; follows; play similarly; interest
  in others more than activity

Cooperative/organized play: plays in group to make
  something or play formal game; division of labor
  and a leader to the group; different roles assigned
  to each.
Imaginary Friends
• Ages 3-10
• Girls more likely than boys to have or
  acknowledge
• Can distinguish fantasy from reality
• When in free-play sessions, more likely to
  engage in pretend play than children
  without imaginary friends.
• Play more happily and more imaginatively
  than other children and more cooperative
  with others
Imaginary Friends
• Do not lack friends at preschool
• Fluent with language
• Watch less tv
• Show more curiosity, excitement, and persistence
  during play
• Did better on theory of mind tasks
• Greater emotional understanding three years later
• Tend to continue with imaginary friends until
  around age 10
• A peer relationship; with peers, sociable and
  friendly
• Provide a wish-fulfillment
Forms of Discipline
Reinforcement and Punishment
• Children usually learn from reinforcement
  for good behavior versus punishment
• External reinforcers may be tangible
  (candy) and intangible (smile)
• Child must see it as rewarding
• Consistent
• Eventually, move to internal reward- sense
  of accomplishment and pride
• Also denial of privileges can be used
Forms of Discipline
Punishment, if consistent, immediate, and clearly
  tied to the offense, may be effective. Administer
  calmly, in private, aimed at eliciting compliance,
  not guilt, along with short explanation

Corporal punishment
Use of physical force with intention of causing a
  child to experience pain, not for injury, purpose of
  correction or control of child’s behavior.
Forms of Discipline
Spanking, hitting, pinching, shaking

Mostly used with aggressive children; hard to
 manage child; characteristics of a genetic basis.

Must be loving parents and not result in serious
 injury

However, evidence suggests that it has serious
 negative consequences and should not be used!
Power Assertion, Induction, and Withdrawal of
  Love
Power Assertion: intended to stop undesirable
  behavior though physical or verbal enforcement of
  parental control; includes demands, threats,
  withdrawal of privileges, spankings. Generally
  induces fear. Least effective.

Induction: encourage desirable behavior (or
  discourage undesirable behavior) by reasoning
  with child; includes setting limits, demonstrating
  logical consequences, explaining, discussion,
  getting ideas from child about what is fair. Most
  effective.
Power Assertion, Induction, and Withdrawal of
  Love
Withdrawal of Love: may include ignoring,
  isolating, showing dislike for child.

Psychological Aggression
• Verbal attacks that may result in psychological
  harm; yelling, screaming, swearing, threatening to
  spank, threatening to kick out of house. Occurs in
  at least 2/10 households, likely 4-5/10
• 20% parents of toddlers engage in
• 50% among parents of teens
Parenting Styles
Authoritarian
• High on control but low on responsiveness
• Characterized by low warmth
• Little positive involvement with their
  children
• Set rigid rules
• Discipline harshly
• Expect obey because of parental authority
Parenting Styles
Authoritative
• Show warm, responsive involvement
• Set appropriate and clear standards
• Communicate openly
• Provide rationale for rules
• Show respect for children’s rights and
  opinions
• Encourage autonomy and independence,
  resulting in social competence
Parenting Styles
Permissive-Indulgent
• Highly warm and responsive
• Place few demands or expectations
• Rules that exist are not clearly
  communicated or enforced so children left
  to make own decisions and regulate own
  behavior
Parenting Styles
Permissive-Indifferent
• Leave children alone to make their own
  decisions and control own behavior
• Place few demands, neglectful
• Appearing emotionally detached, show little
  or no involvement in their children’s lives
Consequences of Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
Authoritative:
  Self-reliance
  Social responsibility
  Higher levels of achievement
Authoritarian:
  Social incompetence
  Anxiety about social comparison
  Failure to show initiative
  Poor communication skills
  Lower school performance
  Lower self-esteem
Consequences of Parenting Styles (Baumrind)
Permissive-indulgent:
•     Expect to get their own way
•     Show little respect for others
•     Never learn to control their own behavior
•     Lower school performance
Permissive-Indifferent:
•     Social incompetence
•     Lack of self-control
•     Lower school performance
However, no one right way to raise children. Cause-
  effect not demonstrated (e.g., parent style causing child’s
  incompetence- consider innate factors, temperament)
Promoting Altruism
Prosocial behavior: voluntary act intended to benefit
  another
Altruism: giving of self without expectation of
  reward

4-5 year-olds who demonstrated sympathy and
  spontaneous altruistic acts demonstrated same
  behavior 17 years later; suggests predisposition
  possible temperament or genetic.

Family is important as role model for explicit
  standards of behavior.
Instrumental aggression: used as instrument
  to reach a goal. Usually occurs during social
  play, to get another toy (ages 2½-5). Due to
  developing more self-control, between 2-4,
  switch from physical aggression to verbal.

Children at age 2 engaging in more hitting or
 grabbing likely to continue at age 5.

6-7, less aggressive and more cooperative.
Hostile aggression- action intended to hurt
 another- tends to continue and increases
 over time. Testosterone underlies much of
 the male aggression.

				
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