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					1. Social norms of speech behaviour.                          2. the degree of formality of the situation, the social
3. Extralinguistic factors – sex, age, social roles –         role of the speakers and the influence of these factors
influencing the norms of speech behaviour.                    on the choice of 10honetic means.
10. The degree of formality and social status of the          (the social role 1. 3. 10.)
characters, influence.                                        5. formal and informal styles of speech, their
The more official the speech is, the more standardized        phonetic, lexical and grammatical peculiarities
norms of pronunciation are used. The more colloquial          9. the degree of formality and style-differentiating
the speech is, the more often are the deviations from         means
standard norms. If a person wants to produce a certain        Formal style:
impression (highly educated person) he also resorts to        The speaker sounds dispassionate. The characteristic
more literary norms of pronunciation. Hypocorrectness.        feature is the use of Falling Scale+ Low Fall (low rise),
Estuary English (closer to Cockney) becomes more and          normal or slow speed of utterance and regular rhythm.
more common.                                                  Intonation groups tend to be short, duration of pauses
There are certain social roles which require the best         varies from medium to long. There are practically
possible phonetic norms (lawyers, teachers).                  contracted forms of form words though they may be
RP has lost its social marker.                                slightly reduced. We observe only quant reduction of
If [h] is initially dropped, [t] is stopped in intervocal     long vowels. Vocabulary is neutral. Full style. The
position, -ing is pronounced as [in], we are speaking         sentences tend to be rather long. No omissions or
about estuary English. Younger people who want to             elliptical sentences.
sound modern resort to this pronunciation.                    Informal style:
It is typical of well-educated people with good cultural      Entire range of intonational patterns existing in English.
background a great variability in the use of scales,          Falling or stepping scales. Low falling or rising tones.
considerable pitch changes, the pronunciation of –ing as      Increased pith height. Heterogeneous scales. Unexpected
[iŋ], wide ranges.                                            placement of terminal tone. Short sense-groups. Absence
Low middle class – mainly use narrow ranges, wavy             of stable pattern of tempo and rhythm but generally the
scales, the pronunciation of –ing as [in].                    speed is quite fast. Hesitation pauses, hesitant drawls
Sex in speech behaviour. Women usually want to be             (lengthening of sounds, syllables and words), unfinished
hypocorrect, they have fewer deviations from phonetic         sense-groups. Fillers-in (well, you see, you know). All
norms. It may be explained by the fact that they have         possible contractions. Unstressed form words are
more contact with children. Men want to sound                 reduced in quality or it is complete reduction.
differently.                                                  Vocabulary: words simple in structure. Any lex item
There are some vocalizations (mmm…er…). They are              may be replaced by words like: what -do-you-call-it
more common with women (it means – I agree with               which function as nouns. Collog voc.
you). If a man says this, it means – I am listening to you.   Grammar: sentences are relatively short and their
The speech of women is emotionally more vivid, more           structure is predominantly simple. Elliptical sentences,
high-pitched. Women speak with a wider range than             omissions.
children. Grown-up women speak quicker than anybody
else. Men use much simpler patterns.
Age. 3 types of RP:
     1) Advanced RP – young people of certain classes
     2) General RP – TV, radio
     3) Conservative RP – older people.
Children more often use high scales with 1 stressed
word, use more rising tones, the range of their speech is
more narrow.
Younger people: chance [æ] – older [a:]
Newspaper [z] – younger
Forehead [fo:hed]

All the extralinguistic factors may lead to some change
in the phonetic realization:
     1) Assimilation – good girl [gug g met] ,[l:‫פּ‬
         min‫פּ‬ts] occurs in quick speech.
     2) Allision [febr‫פּ‬ri].
     3) Pre-consonantal cluster reduction (omission of
         consonants) – [neks dei], [tel im].
     4) Syllabification of sonants – [getl loŋ].
     5) Vocalization of sonants – [tw‫ פּ‬raiv].
     6) Smothering vowels – [fai‫ פּ‬pa‫.]פּ‬
     7) Intrusive [r] – Asia [r] and Africa.
     8) Reduction.

8.    Phonostylistic     and     style-differentiating        8. Phonostylistic peculiarities of monologue and
peculiarities of newspaper style                              dialogue
The aim of a newspaper text is to impart information.         Oral speech may be classified as spontaneous. It may be
This aim presupposes that intonational peculiarities         both monological and dialogical. Peculiarities of
should serve the aim. The information should be clear.       monologues and dialogues:
The following phonetic features:                             1) A lot of elliptical sentences (usually the subject is
1. The tempo of speech is moderate and usually stable.       omitted).
Parenthetic elements are read quicker.                       2) A lot of non-finished sentences and repetitions.
2. The division into sense-groups depends on the             Peculiarities of intonation in dialogues:
meaning of the text. The division is very distinct, sense-   1) A great number of sense-groups, they are very
groups are long (4-5 stressed syllables).                    short (2 semantically important words). In monologues
3. Scales are mainly descending. Tones are mainly            there may be longer sense-groups.
falling (they sound sharp and very categoric).               2) Tones are falling. Complex tones are very
4. Singling out the communicative centers of sense-          common.
groups is achieved mainly by decentralized stressing         3) The melodical contour is diverse. It may have
(each semantically important word is singled out).           different movements. Wavy (heterogeneous) scales.
5. Each sense-group may be separated by a pause. At          4) Medium range. If a passage is emphatic, the range
the end of a paragraph there is a rather long pause.         is wider.
6. Medium range.                                             5) Both centralized and decentralized stressing is
7. The tembre of speaker’s voice is unchangeable.            used. Decentralized stressing is used mainly in
                                                             monological elements.
                                                             6) The tempo of speech depends on the situation. If
                                                             we compare the reading of a written dialogical text to
                                                             actual dialogue – the reading is quicker. (When you
                                                             speak, you think about what you are going to say next.)
                                                             7) Lots of pauses. Sometimes the length of pauses is
                                                             equal to 50 %. Pauses may be of different character.
                                                             Hesitation pauses are most common (they precede some
                                                             information which the speaker thinks over).
                                                             8) The tembre of speech may be used artistically.