1. Social norms of speech behaviour. 2. the degree of formality of the situation, the social 3. Extralinguistic factors – sex, age, social roles – role of the speakers and the influence of these factors influencing the norms of speech behaviour. on the choice of 10honetic means. 10. The degree of formality and social status of the (the social role 1. 3. 10.) characters, influence. 5. formal and informal styles of speech, their The more official the speech is, the more standardized phonetic, lexical and grammatical peculiarities norms of pronunciation are used. The more colloquial 9. the degree of formality and style-differentiating the speech is, the more often are the deviations from means standard norms. If a person wants to produce a certain Formal style: impression (highly educated person) he also resorts to The speaker sounds dispassionate. The characteristic more literary norms of pronunciation. Hypocorrectness. feature is the use of Falling Scale+ Low Fall (low rise), Estuary English (closer to Cockney) becomes more and normal or slow speed of utterance and regular rhythm. more common. Intonation groups tend to be short, duration of pauses There are certain social roles which require the best varies from medium to long. There are practically possible phonetic norms (lawyers, teachers). contracted forms of form words though they may be RP has lost its social marker. slightly reduced. We observe only quant reduction of If [h] is initially dropped, [t] is stopped in intervocal long vowels. Vocabulary is neutral. Full style. The position, -ing is pronounced as [in], we are speaking sentences tend to be rather long. No omissions or about estuary English. Younger people who want to elliptical sentences. sound modern resort to this pronunciation. Informal style: It is typical of well-educated people with good cultural Entire range of intonational patterns existing in English. background a great variability in the use of scales, Falling or stepping scales. Low falling or rising tones. considerable pitch changes, the pronunciation of –ing as Increased pith height. Heterogeneous scales. Unexpected [iŋ], wide ranges. placement of terminal tone. Short sense-groups. Absence Low middle class – mainly use narrow ranges, wavy of stable pattern of tempo and rhythm but generally the scales, the pronunciation of –ing as [in]. speed is quite fast. Hesitation pauses, hesitant drawls Sex in speech behaviour. Women usually want to be (lengthening of sounds, syllables and words), unfinished hypocorrect, they have fewer deviations from phonetic sense-groups. Fillers-in (well, you see, you know). All norms. It may be explained by the fact that they have possible contractions. Unstressed form words are more contact with children. Men want to sound reduced in quality or it is complete reduction. differently. Vocabulary: words simple in structure. Any lex item There are some vocalizations (mmm…er…). They are may be replaced by words like: what -do-you-call-it more common with women (it means – I agree with which function as nouns. Collog voc. you). If a man says this, it means – I am listening to you. Grammar: sentences are relatively short and their The speech of women is emotionally more vivid, more structure is predominantly simple. Elliptical sentences, high-pitched. Women speak with a wider range than omissions. children. Grown-up women speak quicker than anybody else. Men use much simpler patterns. Age. 3 types of RP: 1) Advanced RP – young people of certain classes 2) General RP – TV, radio 3) Conservative RP – older people. Children more often use high scales with 1 stressed word, use more rising tones, the range of their speech is more narrow. Younger people: chance [æ] – older [a:] Newspaper [z] – younger Forehead [fo:hed] All the extralinguistic factors may lead to some change in the phonetic realization: 1) Assimilation – good girl [gug g met] ,[l:פּ minפּts] occurs in quick speech. 2) Allision [febrפּri]. 3) Pre-consonantal cluster reduction (omission of consonants) – [neks dei], [tel im]. 4) Syllabification of sonants – [getl loŋ]. 5) Vocalization of sonants – [tw פּraiv]. 6) Smothering vowels – [fai פּpa.]פּ 7) Intrusive [r] – Asia [r] and Africa. 8) Reduction. 8. Phonostylistic and style-differentiating 8. Phonostylistic peculiarities of monologue and peculiarities of newspaper style dialogue The aim of a newspaper text is to impart information. Oral speech may be classified as spontaneous. It may be This aim presupposes that intonational peculiarities both monological and dialogical. Peculiarities of should serve the aim. The information should be clear. monologues and dialogues: The following phonetic features: 1) A lot of elliptical sentences (usually the subject is 1. The tempo of speech is moderate and usually stable. omitted). Parenthetic elements are read quicker. 2) A lot of non-finished sentences and repetitions. 2. The division into sense-groups depends on the Peculiarities of intonation in dialogues: meaning of the text. The division is very distinct, sense- 1) A great number of sense-groups, they are very groups are long (4-5 stressed syllables). short (2 semantically important words). In monologues 3. Scales are mainly descending. Tones are mainly there may be longer sense-groups. falling (they sound sharp and very categoric). 2) Tones are falling. Complex tones are very 4. Singling out the communicative centers of sense- common. groups is achieved mainly by decentralized stressing 3) The melodical contour is diverse. It may have (each semantically important word is singled out). different movements. Wavy (heterogeneous) scales. 5. Each sense-group may be separated by a pause. At 4) Medium range. If a passage is emphatic, the range the end of a paragraph there is a rather long pause. is wider. 6. Medium range. 5) Both centralized and decentralized stressing is 7. The tembre of speaker’s voice is unchangeable. used. Decentralized stressing is used mainly in monological elements. 6) The tempo of speech depends on the situation. If we compare the reading of a written dialogical text to actual dialogue – the reading is quicker. (When you speak, you think about what you are going to say next.) 7) Lots of pauses. Sometimes the length of pauses is equal to 50 %. Pauses may be of different character. Hesitation pauses are most common (they precede some information which the speaker thinks over). 8) The tembre of speech may be used artistically.
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