Paraphrasing and Citation basics Beth House 9th grade English A paraphrase is... your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because... it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage. it helps you control the temptation to quote too much. the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. 6 steps to effective paraphrasing cont. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. Example to compare The original passage: A legitimate paraphrase: Students frequently overuse direct In research papers students often quotation in taking notes, and as a quote excessively, failing to keep result they overuse quotations in quoted material down to a desirable the final [research] paper. Probably level. Since the problem usually only about 10% of your final originates during note taking, it is manuscript should appear as essential to minimize the material directly quoted matter. Therefore, recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. Example cont. A plagiarized version: Students often use too many Why is this direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too version many of them in the final plagiarized? research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. Parenthetical Citations In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what's known as parenthetical citation. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the author's name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s). Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). What if the work has no author listed? When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work, or italicize or underline it if it's a longer work. Citations and Works Cited page Your in-text citation will correspond with an entry in your Works Cited page, which, for the Burke citation above, will look something like this: Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. When Citation is not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge. Example Works Cited page Works Cited "Business Coalition for Climate Action Doubles." Environmental Defense. 8 May 2007. Environmental Defense Organization. 24 May 2007 <http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?ContentID =5828>. Clinton, Bill. Interview. New York Times on the Web. May 2007. 25 May 2007 <http://video.on.nytimes.com/>. Keyword: Climate. Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New York Times on the Web 22 May 2007. 25 May 2007 Works Cited The Owl at Purdue (2008) 22 March 2008 <http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/>.