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									Paraphrasing and Citation basics

             Beth House
          9th grade English
A paraphrase is...
 your own rendition of essential information and ideas
  expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
 one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate
  documentation) to borrow from a source.
 a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses
  concisely on a single main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...

 it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished
 it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
 the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps
  you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

 Reread the original passage until you understand its full
 Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note
 Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you
  later how you envision using this material. At the top of the
  note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject
  of your paraphrase.
6 steps to effective paraphrasing cont.
 Check your rendition with the original to make sure that
  your version accurately expresses all the essential
  information in a new form.
 Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or
  phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
 Record the source (including the page) on your note card so
  that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the
  material into your paper.
Example to compare
 The original passage:                   A legitimate paraphrase:
 Students frequently overuse direct      In research papers students often
  quotation in taking notes, and as a      quote excessively, failing to keep
  result they overuse quotations in        quoted material down to a desirable
  the final [research] paper. Probably     level. Since the problem usually
  only about 10% of your final             originates during note taking, it is
  manuscript should appear as              essential to minimize the material
  directly quoted matter. Therefore,       recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
  you should strive to limit the
  amount of exact transcribing of
  source materials while taking notes.
 Lester, James D. Writing Research
  Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
Example cont.
 A plagiarized version:
 Students often use too many
                                    Why is this
  direct quotations when they
  take notes, resulting in too
  many of them in the final         plagiarized?
  research paper. In fact,
  probably only about 10% of
  the final copy should consist
  of directly quoted material.
  So it is important to limit the
  amount of source material
  copied while taking notes.
Parenthetical Citations
 In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is
  done by using what's known as parenthetical citation.
  Immediately following a quotation from a source or a
  paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the author's name
  followed by a space and the relevant page number(s).
 Human beings have been described as "symbol-using
  animals" (Burke 3).
What if the work has no author listed?
 When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of
  the work instead of an author name. Place the title in
  quotation marks if it's a short work, or italicize or underline
  it if it's a longer work.
Citations and Works Cited page
 Your in-text citation will correspond with an entry in your Works
  Cited page, which, for the Burke citation above, will look
  something like this:
 Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life,
  Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.
 We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right
  now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works
  Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in
  writing your essay, so that they can either verify your
  interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly
When Citation is not Needed
 Common sense and ethics should determine your need for
  documenting sources.You do not need to give sources for
  familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common
  knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on
  audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a
  scholarly journal, they'll have different expectations of what
  constitutes common knowledge.
Example Works Cited page
                            Works Cited
"Business Coalition for Climate Action Doubles." Environmental
  Defense. 8 May 2007. Environmental Defense Organization. 24
  May 2007
Clinton, Bill. Interview. New York Times on the Web. May 2007. 25
  May 2007 <>. Keyword: Climate.
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New
  York Times on the Web 22 May 2007. 25 May 2007
                  Works Cited
The Owl at Purdue (2008) 22 March 2008

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