SEMINAR ON LCD & FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS BY CLOVER DISPLAY LTD. (HONG KONG S.A.R, CHINA) AN LCD MANUFACTURER SINCE 1983 URL http://www.cloverdisplay.com & DATE : Sept 29, 2005 SPEAKER Mr. JOHNNY C. L. CHOU <Topics> 1. FLAT PANEL DISPLAY 2. INTRODUCTION TO LCD TECHNOLOGY. 3. HOW LCDs ARE MADE. 4. COLOR LCD 5. TODAY’S LCD 6. CUSTOM DESIGN LCD & LCM (MODULES). 7. TOUCH PANEL, Bi-STABLE LCD & ORGANIC LED. 8. QUESTION & ANSWER. Edition #7 (2005) 1.0. FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS Display Types Emits Voltage Current Patterning ( commonly used Display ) Light Flexibility CRT ( Cathode Ray Tube ) Yes High DC Low ( scanning ) VFD ( Vacuum Florescent Yes High DC Low Medium Displays ) LED ( Light Emitting Diode ) Yes Low DC Medium Low Plasma Displays Yes High DC Low Low EL ( Electro Luminescent Yes High DC Low High Displays ) LCD ( Liquid Crystal Display ) NO Low AC Low High OLED (Organic LED) Yes Low DC Low- High medium P.1. 2.0. LIQUID CRYSTAL 2.1. Three major characteristics of Liquid Crystal 2.1.1. The Thermal Nature Solid State Liquid Crystaline Liquid (Crystal) State State Low Temp High Temp Melting Point Clearing Point 2.1.2. The Optical Nature of a LC molecule XXX NO light passing through Light Light passing through 2.1.3. The Electrical Nature of the LC molecules Electrodes No potential field AC potential P.2. 2.2. COMMON STRUCTURAL PHASES in the Liquid Crystal State Smectic Phase Nematic Phase Cholesteric phase 2.3. Two other components to make a Liquid Crystal Display Panel 2.3.1. Transparent Electrodes ---- Glass with conductive ITO layer which is etched to form a pattern. 2.3.2. The Polarizer Film Light wave Polarizer & Outgoing light & its axis its light axis & its axis P.3. 2.4. A TYPICAL TN TYPE LCD CELL Polarizer (Axis 0 degree) Glass with electrodes NO power With AC Volts supply connected Glass with electrodes Polarizer Cell Gap = (Axis 90 degrees) The separation between two glasses Positive Mode = Black digit on the grey background Negative Mode = Light Clear digits on the dark background P.4. 2.5. THREE COMMON TYPES OF LCD 2.5.1. TRANSMISSIVE TYPE LCD Eyes Light (Back Light) POLARIZER ON BOTH SIDES 2.5.2. REFLECTIVE TYPE LCD Incident Light POLARIZER ON THE FRONT SIDE REFLECTOR ON THE BACK SIDE 2.5.3. TRANSFLECTIVE TYPE LCD Day Light Night Light (Back Light) POLARIZER ON THE FRONT SIDE TRANSFLECTOR ON THE BACK SIDE P.5. 2.6. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES Vs (Saturation Voltage) % LIGHT ABSORPTION Vth of LC 90% changes (or TRANSMISSION) At higher Temp. 5v 4v 10% change VOLTS 0 volt -40 deg C +80 deg C Vth (Threshold Voltage) LC Fluid % Light Viscosity Absorption mm2/sec 10,000 At a lower Temp. 100 Time Ton 5ms to 100ms Toff 20ms to 300ms -40 deg C +80 deg C Depending on how the LCD fluid is formulated. The smaller the cell gap, the faster response. P.6. 2.7. TN & STN (Super Twisted Nematic) The LC molecule mid-plane tilt angle Vth Vs % Light Absorption % Light Absorption % Light Absorption 90 deg 180 deg 240 deg Twisted Twisted Twisted 0 V 0 V 0 Volts Narrow View Angle Wide View Angle TN LCD STN LCD Grey Background Yellow Green background color in the positive mode In the positive mode P.7. 2.8. HTN (Highly Twisted Nematic) & FSTN (Film STN) STN 180 deg or higher deg TN Twisted 90 deg Twisted Wide View Angle BUT with Narrow View Angle Darker Color Background & Blue or dark blue patterns. HTN FSTN 1st Minimum TN 110 deg 240 deg or higher deg Twisted Twisted Little wider View Angle than TN Wider View Angle than TN View angle same as 240 deg STN (see later pages) but narrower than STN BUT in Grey Background Color & Black patterns. DSTN (Double STN Cells) Polarizer Old way 1st Cell with patterns LCD Cell when NO Same as usual STN Retardation 2nd Cell without pattern film Retardation Films on Polarizers But in reverse twisting to correct the color phase P.8. 2.9. COMPARISON AMONG TN, HTN, STN & FSTN 2.9.1. Positive Mode (Pattern on a Clear Background) Either TN HTN STN STN FSTN Deg Twisted 90 110 180 240 240 Background Grey Grey Yellow Green Grey or Grey Color or Grey Yellow Green Pattern Black Black Dark Blue Blue or Black Color or Blue Dark Blue Temp Range -40C to +85C -20C to +40C -20C to +70C -20C to +70C -20C to +70C Multiplex =< 1/8 duty =<1/16 duty =<1/32 duty =<1/240 duty =<1/240 duty Ratio View Angle 60 deg 80 deg 120 deg 120 deg 110 deg View At 6 or 12 At 6 or May specify May specify All Direction O’clock 12 O’clock 6 or 12 O’clock 6 or 12 O’clock ONLY ONLY Voltage 2.5v min 3v min 3v min 5v typical, 5v typical, 5v typical 5v typical 5v typical (higher duty, (higher duty, higher volts) higher volts) P.9. 2.9.2. Negative Mode (Clear Pattern on a Color Background) TN HTN STN STN FSTN Degree Twisted 90 deg 110 deg 180 deg 240 deg 240 deg Background Black Black (Seldom used) Dark Blue Black Color Pattern Color Clear Clear (Seldom used) Clear Clear Other natures same as the Positive Mode. 2.10. Gooch-Tarry Curve --- The 1st Minimum TN LCD % Transmission n : Birefringence (reflective indices of 12% Light transmitted in parallel & perpendicular To the director of LC molecules. 8% d : the cell gap 4% 0% d n 0.48 (1st Min* ) 1.05 (2nd Min) 1.64 (3rd Min) (um) P.10. *The 1st Min process is patented by E. Merck. 2.11. THE STATIC & MULTIPLEX DESIGN OF ELECTRODES 4 pairs of electrodes 5 electrodes 4 electrodes in matrix 8 connectors needed. 5 connectors needed. 4 connectors needed. No time sharing for 1/4 time sharing for 1/2 time sharing for the input signals – the input signals to the input signals to The STATIC Design each of the top electrode. both the top and No time sharing for bottom electrodes---- the bottom glass. The MULTIPLEX Design. We call the top electrodes the SEGMENT while We call it 1/2 duty if the the bottom electrodes 1/2 time sharing is used the COMMON. on the Common. PROBLEM: The higher the duty ratio, the shorter time the power signal goes into each electrode pair. Finally the power rms value may NOT be enough to fully drive the LC twisting properly. P.11. 2.12. THE PASSIVE AND ACTIVE LCD Y1 Y2 Signal X1 Time X2 Signal An ACTIVE Component ; MIM (metal insulator metal) Diode Or Time TFT (thin film transistor) The LCD Pixel The TFT method is commonly used today on the large DOT MATRIX LCD, we call it the ACTIVE MATRIX LCD, or AMLCD The LCD built together with the Active Component is not only the TFT LCD. The LCOS is also an LCD built on a silicon wafer with active components to control the LCD. In general, the duty ratio over 1/256 may not give a good contrast in the Passive design. But there are still some special design to work in the Passive way, such as; Dual Scan STN (DSTN), High Performance Addressing (HPA), …. etc P.12. 2.13. THE HISTORY OF LC & LCD Application Approx Year Major Development 1888 Liquid Crystalline initially described by an Austrian Scientist, Mr. Friedrich Reinitzer. 1904 E. Merck sold the first Liquid Crystal substrates to the research market. 1960 Westinghouse used the cholesteric LC as a temperature indicator. Thermometer 1965 RCA demonstrated a dynamic scattering LCD to show numeric symbols. Kent State Univ. in Ohio USA presented an LCD operated at room temp. 1970 Rockwell (USA) and Sharp (Japan) made LCD Calculators. Calculator Hull Univ. in England synthesised new biphenyls with excellent physical properties for display use. Higher Contrast Twisted Nematic Mode in use. Time pieces OCLI (USA) coated ITO on glass as electrodes. BDH (UK) sold LC to LCD manufacturers. 1975 Hamlin Inc (USA) in TN LCD mass production. Instruments E. Merck introduced Biphenylcyclohexanes LC for higher multiplex. Motorola built LCD on 4 ½”x 4 ½” glass substrates Microma (USA) further improved the mass production technique and Fairchild Semiconductor Inc. moved LCD production to Hong Kong. Data bank & PDA Timex (USA) bought RCA LCD facility and merged with Fairchild. The Japanese developed a Chemical Sealing process for cost reduction. P.13. 2.13. THE HISTORY (continued) Application Approx Year Major Development The first LCD scriber made by Villa Precision Inc. (USA) 1980 Roche, BDH, E.Merck improve LC mixtures for TN, STN 5x7 Character Fairchild scaled up to 14x14” substrates Dot Matrix Graphic Clover Display Ltd established in May 1983 Word Processor MIM & TFT AMLCD invented Full Dot Matrix & TV Panels Brewer Science Inc. & OIS of Troy, USA developed colour 1985 AMLCD for space shuttle use. PDA, Laptop & Notebook PC Full color TFT panel for Notebook PC 1990 Mobile phones 1995 Bi-stable Cholesteric LCD E Books 2000 New Display to replace LCD ?---- OLED, PLED P.14. 3.0. HOW LCDs ARE MADE 3.1. THE FRONT END PROCESS ITO Glass ITO = Indium Tin Oxide, a transparent conductive layer coated on the Sodium Lime Glass. Its resistance is from 10 Ohms to 120 Ohms/square. Glass area usually in 14x16”. Thickness in 1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3mm Clean Glass Artwork & Mask Design with DI water Patterning the Methods: Photo Masking, Resist Ink Printing, Electrodes on ITO ITO Ink direct Printing, Laser Cutting. Alignment Layer To form a rough surface to hold the LC molecule chains Sealing Frame & To form the cell and the inter-connections between the top and bottom glasses Silver Dot Printing Top/bottom Glass The Laminated pairs Alignment and Seal P.15. 3.2. THE BACK END PROCESS Laminated Pair Cutting into cells Liquid Crystal Mixture Formulation Liquid Crystal Filling End Sealing & Cleaning Testing & Inspection Polarizer Cutting Polarizer Fixing Metal Pin or Heat Seal Connector fixing Cosmetic Check LCD Module Assembly (COB, TAB, COG, COF) Optional Process Shipments P.16. 4.0. THE COLOR LCD 4.1. THE FULL COLOR LCD Black and White LCD Full Color LCD Slice ITO Segments into narrow sections Common RGB Color Filter Common In order to give a better color mixing, the RGB line widths are usually less The color LCD can be built as a Passive LCD. than 30 micron in width per color. But most large size Dot Matrix Color LCDs Hence the same for the ITO electrodes. are built in the Active design. P.17. 4.0. THE COLOR LCD (continued) 4.2. THE ECB (ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED BIREFRINGENCE) COLOR LCD % Light Absorption Various ECB Types; 1) Homogeneous Type Red->Yellow->Green->Blue 2) Deformation of Vert Aligned 0 V Plane (DAP) Type Clear Dark YO R P B G Dark Blue->Green->Yellow->Red Grey Color around 2.4v to 3.7v 3) Hybrid Aligned Nematic (HAN) Type Green->Red->Blue 4) Vertical Aligned Nematic (VAN) Type V No pure color, 50% Green + 25% Red + 25% Blue at this point P.18. 4.3. DOUBLE CELL COLOR LCD There are two kinds of double cell can generate colors; A) With Color Polarizer B) With usual Polarizers at certain angles (Only working in Transmissive Mode) (Reflective Mode is also possible) 4.4. GUEST HOST LCD (Single fixed color) Mixing color dye in the LC fluid and build LCD in Negative Mode. It will show clear pattern on a color background. Such method was used in the early date. 4.5. LCD WITH COLOR POLARIZER, COLOR FILM OR COLOR REFLECTOR IN CERTAIN AREA (fixed color) Pre-printed color polarizer is expensive. 4.6. COLOR INK PRINTING ON THE BOTTOM GLASS SURFACE (fixed color) This is the cheapest way to make LCD with fixed colors. The LC image & color area may not coincide well due to the glass thickness. P.19. 5.0. TODAY’S LCD Duty Ratio Active LCD LCD TV & Monitors 1/256 Passive LCD Projector Portable TV Notebook Panels 1/128 Digital Camera 1M+ Pixels Office Equipment 1/64 PDA 100K Pixels 1/32 Mobile Phone Digital Instruments STN 1/16 10K Pixels TN 1/8 Data Bank 1/4 Film Camera 1K Pixels 1/3 Calculator 100 Pixels 1/2 Time pieces Hand Held Games 1/1 Panel Static Size 10 mm2 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 mm2 P.20. 6.0. CUSTOM DESIGN LCD & LCM --- The factors to consider 6.1. LCD PANEL DIMENSIONS Outer Dimensions (Be economical size) View Area (normally 2mm from the edges) End Seal (0.5mm thick) Active Area (Area with patterns) Pinout or Connection Area (2 to 2.5mm) Glass Thickness (1.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 or 0.3mm/one side) ( Glass Material: Sodium Lime Glass with SiO2 barrier, surface polished for STN use ) Economical Panel Size: The outer dimension may use up most the raw glass sheet area. or For small order size or pilot run, Raw Glass Sheet 7x8 inches sheets are used to boost up the yield and save the tool cost. 7x8 inches (178x203mm) 14x16 inches (The usable area is 7mm off the edge) (355x406 mm) P.21. 6.2. PANEL CONFIGURATIONS The thick lines representing A B C D the pinout areas. Eyes Connectors suitable: Zebra (Silicone Rubber) – A, B, Heat Seal or TAB – A, B, C, D, Metal Pins – C, D, All the above 4 models required Ag (silver) connections inside the LCD cell. If such Ag connection not to be used or unable to be used, the configurations will be as follows; E F G Models E, F & G are good for combination use of Zebra and Heat Seal connectors together. Most TAB connections are also applying on such models. 40+deg 40+deg For TN LCD, don’t forget to 45+deg 15+deg specify the View Direction 15+deg 45+deg 12 O’clock 6 O’clock P.22. 6.3. PATTERN LAYOUT Too Long Trace Cross Over Narrow down trace Good Bad Layout Layout C S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S6 S3 C S1 S2 S4 S5 + P.23. 6.4. ZEBRA CONNECTORS Three kinds of Rubber Side Wall Insulators 1. Sponge Rubber Conductive Layers 2. Silicon Rubber Insulation Layers 3. Super Soft Rubber Metal Mounting Bezel Pitch: (Conductor/Insulator Layers) Low Cost Type --- 0.25+-0.05mm LCD Assembly General Type ----- 0.18+-0.04 mm Dot Matrix Type – 0.10+-0.03 mm Zebra Graphic Type ------0.05+-0.025 mm PCB Contact Resistance: 1000 –1500 ohms at 10%-15% compression Precautions in Assembly •Pre-clean Zebra •Three or more conductors in contact LCD •PCB wraping <0.375mm / 50 mm Zebra •Bezel has opening gaps with PCB •0.3mm or 10%-15% compression •Dummy zebra use with single side contact LCD. Mis-aligned Good A safer way •Insulation side wall quality. (wider contact on PCB) P.24. 6.5. HEAT SEAL CONNECTORS Conductors (~20 um particles) printed on a Polyester (PET) Film of 20 -25um Contact Resistance & Pitch Graphite Type --- 35 to 100 ohms/sq 0.40, 0.60, 2.80 mm Silver Graphite Type ---- 0.5 ohm/sq 0.23, 0.35, 2.80 mm Silver Type ------ 0.05 ohm/sq 0.23 mm Choose proper LCD configuration: Hot Press PET film LCD Conductor side PET side Welded PCB PCB Precautions in Assembly •The Hot Press head temperature 120-140 deg C at joint LCD PET side •32 Kg/sq cm pressure is recommended •Leveling the press for even pressure along the joint. •Properly select the sealing time to prevent uneven flow or wash away the conductor particles. PCB •100pcs/mm2 particles at contact area is suggested. PET side •Peeling off strength be >200gm (Vertical) & >500gm (Horizontal) P.25. 6.6. METAL PIN CONNECTORS ( for 0.7 & 1.1mm glass ) Standard Pitch: 1.27mm, 1.8mm, 2.0mm, 2.54mm Pin Length: 20mm, 30mm, & 45mm max LCD Clip Depth 2.0mm to 2.4mm max Contact Resistance: <0.05 ohm Precautions in Assembly: • Prolong soldering may damage the Pin contact to glass ---- A good LCD will add carbon cushion between pin clip and glass contact area. Epoxy enforcement • Care on bending the pins ---- LCD maker provides pin Wider seal area is lead forming. required. • Pin length under 4.0mm is not recommended. • Wave solder is not recommended ---- Polarizer is weak • Mechanical stress on pin or temperature changes may cause LCD background color changed. All the above connections may have IC on PCB by SMT, Wire Bonding (COB) or Insert & Solder. 6.7. TAB (TCP IC BONDING) IC on a flexible film LCD with conductors. The Film is heat sealed onto the LCD pinout area TAB = Tape Automation Bonding P.26. TCP = Tape Carrier Package 6.8. CHIP ON FILM (COF) LCD Same as TAB, but with more components on the film like a circuitry on PCB 6.9. CHIP ON GLASS (COG) The IC Chip Same as an LCD for COG is usual LCD different from those for usual Glass with wire bonding Fine traces on PCB. Fan-in & Fan-out ACF* film is used to fix the COG chip onto the glass. Most panels with IC Chip The ACF film is similar to Metal Pins Heat Seal but with much finer Pitch and conductive particles. * ACF=Anisotropic Conductive Film P.27. 6.10. TRICKS ON THE LCD PANEL DESIGN Recommended Driving Freq 60 Hz to 120 Hz 6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE Theoretical Driving Waveform % LIGHT ABSORPTION Applied to 90% Segment Applied to Common 10% Resulting Volts 0 volt Vth Waveform to LCD Volts Off On Practical Design Waveform (Example: Waveform to LCD at 1/3 Bias) V 2/3V Off On Off 1/3V The Bias The driving 0 Voltage Voltage -1/3V -2/3V Time -V P.28. 6.10.1. THE BIAS VOLTAGE (continued) The formula and design facts; N: Multiplex Rate. Example: N=3 for 1/3 duty S: Bias The ideal design S=1+ N Vd: The supply voltage to the panel. Von = ( Vd / S ) x ( N-1+S 2 ) / N Voff = ( Vd / S ) x [ N – 1 + ( S – 2 )2 ] / N N 2 3 4 8 16 S 2 2 3 4 5 Vd 3 volts 3 volts 3 volts 3 volts 5 volts Voff 1.06 v 1.22 v 1.00 v 0.88 v 1.22 v Von 2.37 v 2.12 v 1.73 v 1.27 v 1.58 v Von – Voff 1.31 v 0.90 v 0.73 v 0.39 v 0.36 v Less than 1 volt ! Beware the drifting under temp changes P.29. 6.10.2. CROSS OVER LAYOUT Epoxy Sealing Frame S1 S2 S3 S4 Ag Dot C1 Hided under Frame Connection C2 C1 2 cross over points 6.10.3. THE POLARIZER SELECTION •The Glue Type or Non-glue Type polarizer. •The Polarizer with the UV Barrier may extend the LCD Life under strong UV exposure. •The Anti Glare Polarizer may improve the contrast. •The high durability polarizer may stand for wider temperature environment. •The slightly orientation of Polarizer axis may change the background color. 6.11. THE THERMAL COMPENSATION It is recommended to use the thermal compensation circuit when a LCD will be operated under a wide temperature range. P.30. 6.12. TEMPERATURE RANGE Wide Temp Type Melting Low Temp Type Clearing point point General purpose Temp Deg C Operating Temp. -30 -20 0 deg +50 +60 +75 deg Storage Temp 10 deg C lower 10 deg C higher The STN temp is 10 deg narrower than TN Problem Black Spots Background blackened when exceeds Slow response Cross Talk rated temp. All the above defects are reversible at room temp Possible design Specific for High Temp Specific for Low Temp Temp -40 deg +10 +30 deg +100 P.31. 6.13. BACK LIGHTS Choice of Descriptions Common Back Light Color Side LED Type Wedge diffuser (Light Guide) and reflector are Yellow Green, ( Fig. 1 ) needed. Blue, White Poor illumination for large panel Array LED Type Consuming more power and generating more heat. Yellow Green, ( Fig. 2 ) Beware the difference in supply voltages of each Red. model. Easy assembly EL (Electro- The best in even brightness and light weight. But Green, Blue, Luminescent) less brighter than LED Backlight. High voltage and White. EMC consideration. CCFL (Cold Cathode The strongest illumination. White. Fluorescent Lamp) High voltage and EMC consideration. Important: The Transmissive and the Transflective Type LCD absorb the different light intensity. Light Light Diffuser Paper - Light Guide LED wiring LEDs Reflector domes + Fig. 1. Reflector Paper Fig. 2. P. 32. 7.0. BI-STABLE LCD Bi-stable Cholesteric Display, or SSCT – Surface Stabilised Cholestric Texture Display, or Multi-stable Chiral Nematic Display, or E-Book Display This is a new technology in LCD making use of the Cholesteric Liquid Crystal. Mr. John West and Mr. D. K. Yang of Kent State University, Ohio, USA filed the patent in 1995. The display image is retentive in the absence of an electric field. It has a excellent readability and wide view angle under the daylight or strong ambient light. No Polarizer is required on this kind of display panels. The Liquid Crystal is switchable and stable in two kinds of texture. (a) The Twisted Planar Texture, which has the LC layers parallel to the display surface, reflects the incident light. (b) The Focal Conic Texture, whose LC is in fragmentary, scatters the incident light. Switch-able (a) (b) The above two textures are switch-able under 30V to 180V pulse of 10ms to 100ms, and stable in zero electric field. By properly adjust the pitch of the Twisted Planar Texture, it can reflect R, G, B lights. P.33. 8.0. ORGANIC LED The Organic Electro Luminescent Displays (OELD) , or The Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLED) The EL ( Electro-luminescence ) Back Light for LCD has been used for many years. It operates at high voltage (>100V). In 1987, Tang and Van Slyke in Kodak, USA reported a low voltage (<10V) Organic EL. It comes a new display ---- the OELD. 8.1. THE BASIC STRUCTURE Metal Cathode Electron Transport Layer DC Re-combination and Emission Layer volt Hole Transport Layer ITO Layer (Anode) Glass Substrate Light emits 8.2. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LCD & OLED LCD OLED No Light emission Emits light in colours (100cd/sqm) Narrow view angle Wide view angle (>150 degrees) Slow response Fast response (<10 microsec) OLED has most the advantage of LCD such as; Easy patterning Low operating voltage but at high current ( 20ma/cm2) Low manufacturing cost Thin and light weight P.34. 8.0. ORGANIC LED (continued) 8.3. THE OLED & PLED There are two major ways to build the OLED; a. The small molecule process ---- by spluttering the organic materials onto the ITO patterns. Kodak uses such way. b. The large molecule process, or the polymer process ---- by spin coating, dip coating or screen printing the organic pastes layer by layer. Cavendish Lab in Cambridge, UK and Dow Corning, USA developed such process and materials in ’90s. Some people now call the OLED made under polymer process the PLED. The small molecule process is also applying to making the ACTIVE OLED. Pioneer, Japan seems the first one in mass production for the OLED. It is expected the OLED will replace the LCD step by step from 2005. CLOVER DISPLAY GROUP has started a joint venture with the University of Hong Kong to research and develop the materials and process for OLED. The newly formed joint venture company is named COLED DISPLAY LTD., established Sept 2002. P.35. 9.0. TOUCH PANELS PE Film With ITO 9.1. ANALOG TYPE Ra Rb Silver A PE film with ITO layer is sealed Conductors onto an ITO Glass with epoxy dots as Spacer to maintain a gap. Epoxy dots When the external pressure of As Spacer touching makes contact of two ITO Glass with Rd layers, the sensing IC circuit with give ITO Pin out an analog reading corresponding to the Rc Area touch position. 9.2. DIGITAL TYPE The ITO on the PE Film and the PE Film ITO Glass are etched out into sectors. With ITO When touched, the corresponding sectors are shorted circuit and reflected to the pins concerned. Epoxy dots As Spacer Glass with ITO Pin out Area P.36. 10.0. CUSTOM LCD/LCM DEVELOPMENT GUIDE. Enquiry from Customer Feasibility Study & NRE Free quote in 2-4 working days Charge / Unit Price Quoted NRE Order Confirmation NRE payment in advance LCD Panel PCB & Circuit External Casing ** normally 10-20 LCD or 3-5 LCM samples 1 week 1 week 1-3 weeks will be free. For more qty, please notice us in advance Panel Drawing Circuit diagram Case Drawing when confirm the NRE order. for Approval & PCB Layout 3-6 weeks 3-4 weeks 3-10 weeks Mask Design PCB Tool Design Hand mould up sample Final Case & Samples** & Samples** for Mould for Approval Approval 3-9 weeks Primary Sample Final Sample Total development time; LCD Panels 4-7 weeks, LCM Modules 4-10 weeks; With External Case 7-18 weeks P.37. 11.0. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & DECLAIMER We have tried our best to present up-to-date and correct information here. Some of them to be explained together with photographs and demonstration samples to form a complete part of the Introduction. We wish that the information discussed in this seminar may help the design engineers to make a cost effective and quality custom design in an easier and logical way. However, this is not an academic seminar that we have used a simply way in the presentation. All information here is provided in good faith without any expressed or implied warranty. The reader should seek for more detail advice from the industry. The information in above are partly referring to the following documents; 1. Proceedings of the Liquid Crystal Seminar HK by E. Merck, Darmstadt, Germany. 2. Various articles in the SID International Symposium and Information Display by the Society for Information Display, Inc. USA 3. LCD Displays, the leading edge in flat panel displays, by Sharp Technical Library, Vol. 1, of Sharp Corporation, Osaka, Japan. Prepared by; Editions: Johnny C. L. Chou, 7th edition Sept 29, 2005 Clover Display Ltd. 6th edition Mar 13, 2003. Room 1006, 26 Hung To Road, 10/F, Kwun Tong, Hong Kong 5th edition Sept 19, 2001. Tel: 23428228, 23413238 4th edition Apr 16, 2000. Fax: 23418785, 23574237 3rd edition Sept 6, 1999. email: cdl@cloverdisplay,com 2nd edition Sept 1, 1998. URL: http://www.cloverdisplay.com (in English) 1st edition May 19,1997. http://www.cloverdisplay.com.hk (in Japanese) All copy rights reserved http://www.cloverchina.com (in Chinese) Clover Display Ltd. H.K. P.38.