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					Drug Co-amoxiclav

MOA Inhibits cell wall synthesis

Indication Lower respiratory infection otitis media, sinusitis. Relief of fever, minor aches & pains Upper and lower respiratory tract infection , skin and soft tissue infection Duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and GERD, Dyspepsia, Aspiration prophylaxis, Zillinger-Ellison Syndrome.

Contraindication History of penicillin hypersensitivity None Known hypersensitivity to macrolides, patients receiving Terfenadine May prolong elimination of diazepam, warfarin, phenytoin, increases the plasma concentration of clarithromycin.

Paracetamol Clarithromycin

an analgesic & antipyretic inhibits ribosomal synthesis

Adverse Effects Diarrhea, nausea, skin rashes, urticaria, vaginitis,flatulence Allergic skin reactions Headache, nausea, vomiting, chills, dizziness, lethargy Headache, rarely rash, pruritus, paresthesia, somnolence, insomnia, vertigo, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, increased liver enzymes, malaise, hypersensitivity reactions Xerostomia, tachycardia, urinary retention, allergic reaction, rarely dyspnea.

Omeprazole

Inhibits the release of H ions to the stomach by antagonizing the H-K ATPase (proton pump) of the parietal cells.

Hyoscine-N-butyl Br

Smooth muscle relaxant.

Bisacodyl

Stimulates the myenteric plexus

Gastric and intestinal spasms & hypermotility, post-op vomiting, spastic constipation, biliary dyskinesia & spasm of the urinary tract, delayed relaxation of the uterine segment. Constipation, complete bowel clearance

Galucoma, hypertrophy of the prostate, mechnocal stenosis of a region in the GIT, tachycardia, megacolon.

Lactulose

Increases stool water content; increase stoolacidity by trapping NH4 ions.

Dopamine HCl

Adrenergic stimulant, enhances renal blood flow

Constipation assoc. with ediatric problems, post-op; preagnacy & post-natal period; bedridden and geriatric patients, surgical procedures, painful rectaland anal conditions, drug-induced constipation Correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in shock due to MI, trauma, endotoxic

Ileus, intestinal obstruction, acute surgical abdominal conditions, severe dehydration Low galactose diet, galactosemia, bowel obstruction

Rarely abdominal discomfort and diarrhea.

Flatulence , diarrhea

Pheochromocytoma, uncorrected tachyarrthmias or ventricular fibrillations.

GI upsets, ectopic beats, tachycardia, anginal pains, palpitations, hypotension,

Isosorbide-5-mononitrate

Stimulates cGMP production, resulting in vascular smooth muscle relaxation Stimulates cGMP production, resulting in vascular smooth muscle relaxation

septicemia, open heart surgery, renal failure and chronic cardiac decompensation as in refractory to failure. Prophylactic treatment to angina pectoris, Post MI angina. Long-term prophylaxis of angina pectoris, as adjunctive therapy in CHF

dyspnea, headache, vasoconstriction.

Isosorbide dinitrate

Cardiogenic shock, head trauma, cerebral hemorrhage, severe hypotension, severe hypovolemia. Marked anemia, head trauma, carabtal hemorrhage, shoch and hypotonic collapse

Headache, dizziness, nausea

Trimetazidine Captopril

Anti-anginal Antagonizes the angiotensinconverting enzyme

Long-term treatment of angina pectoris Hypertension, CHF

Pregnancy and lactation Pregnancy, lactation, aortic stenosis,

Headache, flushing, dizziness, palpitations,.orthosptaic hypotension,tachycardia, vertigo, confusion, weakness Rare cases of GI disorders Pruritus, fever, eosinophilia, persistent dry cough, taste disturbancesm proteinuria,nephritic syndrome, reversible acute renal failure, anemia, transient hypotension, headache, tachycardia, paresthesia. Fatigue, dizziness, headache, mood swings, sleep disturbances, cramps, dry mouth hypotension, allergic reactions. Dizziness, flushing, headache, hypotension, peripheral edema, GI disturbances, increased micturition frequency, lethargy, eye pain Heacdache URTI, back pain, dizziness, nausea Tachycardia, palpitations, flushing, anginal symptoms, hypotension, heart failure,

Perindopril

Antagonizes the angiotensinconverting enzyme, interferes with the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Inhibits Ca ion influx into the vascular smooth muscle and myocardium

Essential hypertension

Nifedipine

Hypertension, Reynaud’s phenomenon, prophylaxis of angina

Previous history of Quinke’s edema, severe renal or liver impairment, renal artery stenosis, hypokalemia or hyperkalemia Cardiogenic shock, advanced aortic stenosis; w/in 1 month of MI, porphyria, preganacy

Candesartan cilexetil Hydralazine

Inhibits the binding of angiotensin to its receptors. Venodilator

Hypertension Hypertension, chronic CHF, Hypertensive crisis

Pregnancy, severe end-stage renal impairment, children Idiopathic SLE, tachycardia & heart failure with high cardiac output, myocardial

Clonidine HCl

Stimulates alpha2 adrenergic receptors (centrally-acting antihypertensive) Inhibits loop of Henle, proximal and distal convoluted tubule Na and Cl resorption.

Hypertension of any form except pheochromocytoma

insufficiency due to mechanical obstruction Sick-sinus syndrome

Furosemide

Mild to moderate to severe edema, CHF accompanying hypertension, Mild hypertension

Electrolyte deficiency, anuria, hepatic coma, early pregnancy, hypokalemia, concurrent lithium therapy.

Indapamide

Inhibits distal convoluted tubule Na and Cl resorption

Essential hypertension

Citicoline

CNS stimulant

Metoclopramide

Inhibits the H1 receptor, antiemetic

Salbutamol

Stimulates the beta-2 adrenergic receptors of bronchial smooth muscle in effect relaxes the bronchi

Ceftriaxone

Bactericidal, inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis

Disturbances of consciousness due to trauma or brain surgery, disturbances of consciousness in acute stages of cerebral infarction, hemiplegia after cerebral apoplexy, cerebral insufficiency, recovery phase of stroke GI motility, nausea, vomiting of central and peripheral origin assoc. with surgery, infectious diseases and drug use. Relief of bronchospasm in bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, treatment of reversible bronchospasm assoc. with bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, brochiectasis Lower respi infection, skin infections, bone and joint infections, intraabdominal infections, UTI, meningitis,

Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, severe hepatic or renal failure, hepatic encephalopathy, hypokalemia Parasympathetic hypertonia

rarely hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, hepatitis Enhanced anti-hypertensive effects of diuretics, vasodilators & B-blockers, &/or cardiac glycosides Nausea, voiting, weakness, dizziness, muscular cramps, glomerulonephritis, pancreatitis, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, agranulocytosis Fatigue, orthosttic hypotension, hypokalemia, allergic manifestations GI disorders

Intestinal obstruction

Extrapyramidal reactions, drowsiness, fatigue, dizziness

Threatened abortion

Fine tremor, feeling of tension, peripheral vasodilation, tachycardia

hypersensitivity

GI disturbances, hematological disturbances, Skin reactions, rarely headaches, dizziness,

Cefuroxime

Bactericidal, inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis

Metronidazole

septicemia, Strep. Pneumo, Gonorrhea Infections of the respiratory tract, ENT, soft tissues & bones, bacterial meningitis, Gonorrhea, Surgical infection prophylaxis, Acute intestinal amebiasis, anaerobic infections Prevention & treatment of bronchospasm assoc. with COPD, including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma.

Hypersensitivity

increase liver enzymes, gallbladder sludge, oliguria Hypersensitivity reactions, GI disturbances, transient pain at inj. site.

Lactation

Ipatropium bromide

Bronchodilator

Hypersensitivity to atropinelike substances, history of hypersensitivity to soya lecithin or related food products.

Cefixime

Bactericidal, inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis

Bacterial infection, gonorrhea, uncomplicated renal dosing

History of bronchial asthma, rash, urticaria, renal dysfunction

Cefaclor

Bactericidal, inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis

Bacterial infection

Caution if penicillin allergy, impaired renal function, seizure disorder, nephrotoxicity drug use. Caution if gout, eye disorders, impaired renal function, neurotoxic, agents, > 8 years old

Ethambutol

Inhibits metabolite synthesis

Tuberculosis, adjuvant treatment for Mycobacterial infections, renal dosing

Pyrazinamide

Bactericidal

Tuberculosis, Adjuvant treatment

Severe hepatic dysfunction, caution if diabetes mellitus, gout, impaired renal function

Convulsive seizures, peripheral neuropathy, GI upsets, rash, pruritus Headache, nausea, dry mouth, increased heart rate & palpitations, ocular accommodation disturbances, GI motility disturbances, ocular side effects, cough, local irritation, bronchoconstriction, skin rash, angioedema, urticaria, laryngospasm, anaphylactic reactions. Trombocytopenia, anaphylaxia, hemolytic anemia, seizures, neutropenia, pseudomembranous colitis Anaphylaxis, thrombocytopenia, pseudomembranous colitis, serum sickness-like reaction, seizures Anaphylaxis, thrombocytopenia, optic neurirtis, peripheral neuropathy, blurred vision, joint pain, anorexia, dyspepsia, N/V Thrombocytopenia, hepatotoxicity, interstitial nephritis, anorexia, urticaria, N/V, arthralgia

Rifampicin

Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Tubercular infections, Meningococcal prophylaxis

Liver disease, acute caution if impaired liver function and if impaired renal function.

Isoniazid

Bactericidal, inhibits lipid and nucleic acid synthesis

Tubercular infections, tuberculosis prophylaxis

Liver disease, acute caution if impaired liver function and if impaired renal function. Systemic fungal infections

Prednisolone

Anti-inflammatory mechanism, produces multiple glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects

Hydrocortisone

Anti-inflammatory mechanism, produces multiple glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects

Cotrimoxazole

Antibacterial

Doxyfylline

Anti-asthmatic

Endocrine disorders, rheumatic disorders, collagen diseases, dermatologic diseases, allergic states, ophthalmic diseases, resp. disorders, hematoloic disorders, neoplastic disorders, edematous states, GI diseases, tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block. Acute adrenocortical insufficiency, bilateral adrenalectomy, severe shock, acute hypersensitivity reaction, overwhelming infections w/ severe toxicity, SLE, aspiration pneumonitis Urinary infections, respiratory infections caused by Shigella, S. typhi, infections by Pneumocystis carinii, for prophylaxis in neutropenic patients, genital infections, neocardia and brucellosis Bronchial asthma & pulmonary disease w/ spastic bronchial component

Latent, healed and active TB, herpes simplex, chronic nephritis, acute psychosis, Cushing’s syndrome, peptic ulcer & predisposition, to thrombophlebitis. Renal impairment, allergy

Shock renal failure, thrombocytopenia, hepatotoxicity, leucopenia, hemolytic anemia, interstitial nephritis. Agranulocystosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatotoxicity, optic neuritis, seizures Fluid and electrolyte disturbances, muscle weakness, steroid myopathy, loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, vertebral compression fractures, aseptic necrosis, pathologic fracture of the long bones, GI disturbances, impaired wound healing, fragile skin, petechiae & ecchymoses. CHF, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, chronic psychotic reactions, avoid injection to deltoid muscle.

GI upsets, stomatitis, reversible neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, StevenJohnsons Syndrome, Lyell’s Syndrome

Acute MI, hypotension, lactation

Combivent (salbutamol/ipatropium

Bronchodilator

COPD

Hypersensitivity to the drug, caution if CVD, HPN<

Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, cephalagia, irritability, insomnia, tachycardia, extrasystole, tachypnea, hyperglycemia, albuminuria Paradoxical bronchospasm, arrhythmia, angioedema

inhaler) Nizatidine

Hydrochlorothiazide

Selectively antagonizes histamine H2 receptors (H2 blockers) Inhibits distal convoluted tubule Na & Cl resorption Inhibits ADP binding to platelet receptors (platelet aggregator inhibitor) Irreversibly inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory mediators, inhibits platelet aggregation

GERD, DU, maintenance

Hypertension, peripheral edema Atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndrome Secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events I patients with transient ischemic attacks or minor stroke,reinfarction in patients with previous MI, restenosis of coronary bypass graft, primary prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, & intrauterine growth retardation particularly in pregnant women w/ preexisting chronic hypertension, autoimmune disorders like SLE, +ve anticardiolipin antibody test, history of recurring toxemia in successive pregnancies. For effective hemostasis in various hemorrhagic cases, traumatic injuries, profuse menstrual bleeding, posttooth extraction. Peripheral edema, pulmonary edema, hypertension, hypercalcemia In CHD:reduce risk of death, coronary death & non-fatal MI, reduce risk of stroke and

Clopidogrel

Arrythmias,DM Hypersensitivity to the drug, caution if impaired renal function Hypersensitivity to the drug (sulfonamides) CrCl<50, anuria Hypersensitivity to the drug, GI bleeding, IC hemorrhage Severe hepatic or renal disease, hemiphilia and other bleeding disorder, erosive gastritis or peptic ulcer

Aspirin

Hepatitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, leukopeni, exfoliative dermatitis Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, RF, Thrombocytopenia Hemorrhage, TTP, nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, purpura, rash GI distress, hypersensitivity, hematological disturbances

Tranexamic Acid

Antihemorrhageic, antifibrinolytic

Thromboembolic disease, defective color vision

Furosemide

Simvastatin

Inhibits loop of Henle, proximal and distal convoluted tubule Na and Cl resorption. Inhibits the conversion of mevalonic acid to cholesterol by inhibiting HMG-CoA

Hypersensitivity to the drug, hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, anuria, hepatic coma Active liver disease or persistent elevations of aminotransferases, porphyria,

GI disorders, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, headache may appear, impaired renal insufficiency, hypotension when iV inj.is too rapid. Severe hypokalemia, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic alkalosis, orthostatic hypotension Constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, rarely rhabdomyolysis

reductase

Sucralfate

Covers and protects the ulcer site

TIA, reduce risk of undergoing revascularization procedures, slow progression of coronary anthrosclerosis. In hyperlipedemia: adjunct to elevated total-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein B and TG Duodenal ulcer, gastric erosion (aspirin)

preganancy, lactation

Mannitol

Elevated the glomerular filtratrate osmolarity (osmotic diuretic)

Oliguria, elevated IOP, ICP, peripheral edema, forced diuresis

Atropine sulfate

Inhibits the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors

KCl Regular Insulin

Increases serum potassium Increased glucose absorption, glycogenesis Insulin sparing action, inhibits glucagon

Organophosphate poisoning, nicotinic poisoning, acute MI to decrease vagal tone, antispasmodic in renal cholic, decrease salivary and respiratory secretions Hypokalemia, as prophylaxis during treatment with diuretics Treatment of DM and control of hyperglycemia Treatment with sulfonylurea & diet failed NIDDM especially if overweight.

Hypersensitivity to the drug, dysphagia or GI obstruction; caution if impaired renal function. Hypersensitivity to the drug, anuria, pulmonary edema, severe dehydration, IC hemorrhage, caution if impaired renal function. GIT obstruction, cardiospasm, paralytic ileus or intestinal atony, narrow angle glaucoma.

Bezoar formation, constipation

Seizures, CHF, CV collapse, pulmonary edema, osmotic nephrosis, ARF, CNS depression, coma, extravasation necrosis. Dry mouth with difficulty in swallowing, dilated pupils with loss of accommodation & photophobia, increased intraocu;ar pressure, flushing and dry skin, bradycardia.

Renal insufficiency, hyperkalemia Hypoglycemia

Metformin

Glipizide

Increases secretion of insulin

Maturity-onset DM not manageable by diet alone

Digoxin

Inhibits Na-K-ATpase, increases the Na and Ca

Cardiac failure accompanied by atrial fibrillation,

Renal impairment, cardiac failure, diabetic coma, severe feverish ailments, alcoholics, those in slimming diets, severe lung disorders Should not be used alone in Type 1 DM, diabetes complicated by ketosis and acidosis, pregnancy, diabetics undergoing surgery, after severe trauma or during infections. Intermittent complete heart nd block or 2 degree AV block

Lipoid dystrophy, insulin resistance, local &generalized allergic reaction. GI complaints resulting from N/V, diarrhea, metallic tatse in the mouth, lactic acidosis

Hepatic or renal impairment, nausea, headache, rashes and GI disturbances.

Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, gynecomastia,

concentration inside the cell thus improving contraction and cardiac contractility

Metoprolol

Inhibits the B2 receptors, decreases cardiac contractility

management of chronic cardiac failure where systolic dysfunction or ventricular dilatation is dominant, management of certain supraventricular arrythmias, atrial flutter and fibrillation Hypertension and angina pectoris

esp if there is history of Stokes-Adams attacks, arrythmias caused by WolffParkinson White Syndrome; ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation Sinus, bradycardia, 2 and rd 3 degree AV block, right ventricular failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension, CHF, cardiogenic shock nd Pregnancy, AV block, 2 to rd 3 degree AV block, Sicksinus Syndrome, noncompensated heart failure, cardiogenic shock
nd

headache, weakness, apathy, malaise, fatigue, depresssion, psychosis, visual disturbances, ventricular premature contractions,atrial or ventricular arrythmias Tiredness, dizziness, GI symptoms, and sleep disturbances

Felodipine

Inhibits Ca release bi inhibiting the Ca channels

Hypertension

Headache, ankle swelling, flushing, dizziness, fatigue, nausea

Sodium bicarbonate

Alkali, neutralizes acid, source of sodium Inhibit activated Factor X

Indigestion, hyperacidity, heartburn Prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease, treatment of deep vein thrombosis w/ or w/o pulmonary embolism, prevention of thrombus formation in extracorporeal circulation during hemodialysis, treatment of unstable angina, non-Q-wave MI, administered concurrently with aspirin Neuritis, myalgias, polyneuritis, shoulder-arm syndrome, rheumatic pains, herpes zoster, alcoholism, cardiac disorders, diabetic neuropathy, encephalopathies, hyperemesis gravidarum, Control grand mal, Conditions with high risk of uncontrolled hemorrhage including major bleeding disorders

Enoxaparin

Avoid prolonged use, may increase Na or bicarbonate in the body, CHF History of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia w/ or w/o thrombosis. Do not administer by IM route, renal or hepatic insufficiency history of hepatic ulcer, arterial hypertension, diabetic retinopathy

Vitamin B complex

Source of vitamin B

Phenytoin

Antiepileptic

Sinus bradycardia, sino-atrial

Anorexia, dizziness,

Levofloxacin

Block bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase

psychomotor or temporal lobe epilepsy. Prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or after neurosurgery Infections of the respiratory tract, middle ear, sinuses, eyes, kidneys, urinary tract, genital organs, abdomen, skin and soft tissues, bones and joints, septicemia

block, 2 & 3 degree AV block, Adams-stokes syndrome

nd

rd

Hypersensitivity, children, adolescents, pregnancy, lactation

Cloxacillin

Inhibits cell wall synthesis

Treatment of infections due to Staph resistant to benzylpenicillin, skin and soft tissue infections, bones and joints, respiratory and urinary tract infections, otitis media, endocarditis, septicemia, meningitis Essential hypertension, CHF, Edematous disorders, Nephrotic symdrome, cirrhosis, malignant hypertension, primary aldosteronism, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia Anxiety & tension, agitation, tremors, impending or acute delirium tremens & hallucinosis. Muscular spasms & convulsion. Preanesthetic med during surgery

Hypersensitivity

headache, nervousness, insomnia, GI disturbances, gum hyperplasia & tenderness, hirsutism, nystagmus. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyapepsia, abdominal pain, tiredness, agitation, trembling, peripheral paralegsia, sweating, May increase theophylline, plasma levels, concomitant intake with NSAIDS may cause convulsions, Allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, neutropenia, neurotoxicity

Aminophylline Spirinolactone

Potassium-sparerdiuretic, Aldosterone antagonist

Acute renal insufficiency, anuria, hyperkalemia, pregnancy

Gynecomastia, GI symptoms, drowsiness, lethargy, headache, mental confusion, muscle spasm, weakness, fever, ataxia

Diazepam

anticonvulsant

Severe psychosis, 1 trimester of pregnancy, acute narrow-angle glaucoma, hypersensitivity to diazepam

st

Respiratory depression, hypotension, drowsiness, amnesia, blurred vision, urinary retention

1.Chlorampenicol

Gram positive and gram negative

neonates

Bone marrow suppression

infections 2. Penicillin G Gram positive cocci and bacilli , gram negative (N.Gonorrheae), spirochetal infections (Leptospira, Treponema) Pain, fever Essential hypertension, CHF, prevention of stroke recurrence in in combination with indapamide in patients with history of cerebrovascular disease. Reduction of risk of CV events in patients with stable coronary artery disease Hypersensitivity Renal failure (precautions)Renal, hepatic disease Heamtologic disorders Pregnancy

Hypersensitivity reactions Gray baby syndrome Allergic reactions

3. Paracetamol 4.Captopril

Heamtologic, skin allergic reactions Cough, angioedema, proteinuria,


				
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