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									Personal Computing in the
Networked World

Henry Minsky
Keio University
Beartronics Inc.
11/27/101     Henry Minsky
What‟s so great about a network
n   Where is all your stuff?
n   A personal virtual server
n   What defines „mobile‟ services? (nothing,
    everything is „mobile‟)
n   How could we make better platform and
    infrastructure support for personal
n   What can be learned from I-mode?
11/27/101             Henry Minsky
Some Mobile Projects I Worked
n   NTT DoCoMo Sponsored Research at Keio Univ.
    SFC Campus
n   Ketai controlled Web Camera
n   Ketai controlled virtual bulletin board
n   WEM / Memspace server: remembers everything
    everywhere, environmental, personal, shared data
n   GPS correction data over IP
n   Picobrowser (see iMode section)

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
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WEM Mobile Unit
                           Web server
                           Sensor Net
                           Ketai UI

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Ketai-activated Bulletin Board

n   Personalized to each user, calendar,
    task list, SFC-MODE
n   Java and I-mode UI supported
n   Remote control of browser window
n   View summary (via Google gateway!)
    on I-mode
n   Submit articles via web, I-mode, or
11/27/101          Henry Minsky
11/27/101   Henry Minsky
Vboard iMode UI

11/27/101   Henry Minsky
Java Picobrowser

n   The PicoBrowser is
    a tiny customizable
    HTML browser and
    web server, runs on
    the NTT DoCoMo
    IAppli platform.
n   Also in MIDP, with
    micro SVG

11/27/101                Henry Minsky
Mobile can mean the other room

n    Sitting in my office at home, get email
    with URL of interesting article, from my
    wife in the other room.
n   When Wireless WAN Access is
    available (4G? 802.11?), there won‟t be
    any difference between mobile and
    fixed access

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
11/27/101   Henry Minsky
It‟s about how you interact online
n   Emailing links to interesting articles is a very
    high-bandwidth and concise, and organized
    way to communicate online.
n   Even from the other room.
n   High volumes of email tend to be organized
    by filter apps such as Eudora.
n   Online bookmarks, weblogs …
n   Because he was deaf, Edison used to put
    everything in writing

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
The Problem
n   Personal computers are currently difficult to maintain for even skilled engineers.
n   Servers are impossible to maintain.
n   As new applications are emerging which require full-time network connectivity
    and presence, the modern personal computer becomes even less appropriate.
    In addition, as people's usage methods change, with more use mobile
    computers and access from multiple devices, a new approach is required

n   Future requirements include VoIP, multimedia instant messaging, streaming
n   Users need a „home base‟.
n   I-mode was nice but you have to be a server network programmer to make even
    a simple new application.
The Applications I Use
n   Personal file directory (I     n   Random Email - post-it notes
    keep mine in CVS)                  to self
n   Webmail (Yahoo Mail)           n   Household prioritized task
n   Weblog                             list (bug tracking)
n   Phonebook                      n   Power (Wimpy) Point for
n   Household Calendar / Email         professional presentations
    alerts                         n   I-Mode address book app
n   Photo album / home             n   I-Mode Google gateway
    electronic picture frame
n   Instant Message service

11/27/101                  Henry Minsky
Everyone now needs their own
n   Mobile forces customers to use an ASP
n   A drawback (for the user) of turning an
    app into a service is that you are now at
    the mercy of the service provider
n   In the future, people will lease generic
    virtual servers, and configure them
    themselves, thus making remote
    desktop PC‟s.
11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Personal Virtual Server
n   A logical evolution of the telephone
    answering machine
n   Replace the desktop machine
n   We need a high-level virtual machine models
    of a server, and it‟s database, so people can
    easily pack up their personal server
    configuration and run it on another provider
    (no lock-in)
n   Write Mobile apps for people‟s PVS

11/27/101             Henry Minsky
Virtual Server

n   Many of these issues can be solved by
    combining the functions of personal
    computer and network server into a
    standardized abstract virtual server.
Virtual Server
                         Physical Host Server
                                     Server image
               VM + COW

               VM + COW                              RDBMS

               VM + COW
               VM + COW                             Filesystem


11/27/101             Henry Minsky
Virtual Server Prototype
Application Environment
n   Linux UML
n   Apache Java Server
n   Microsoft .net common runtime
n   VMWare
n   IBM 390

11/27/101         Henry Minsky
Server Architecture Features
n   A common reliable operating system base image can be made
    read-only, and shared amongst thousands of servers. Users can
    thus be freed from low level operating system administration
n   On top of this base, each user can have their own personal
    filesystem and applications which can be installed and
n   Virtual Server runs at data center, local copy can be run at
    user‟s location for performance. Synchronization required.
n   Distributed encrypted locally-cached filesystem infrastructure
    would be useful. Solves the „backup‟ problem, makes portability
    even easier.
A Virtual Machine
n   Define a virtual machine server platform
    Allows users to easily install/uninstall and run multiple
    web applications, analogous to desktop applications
n   Provides a complete runtime environment including a
    fileysystem and database.
n   Being a virtual machine, a complete snapshot can be
    made of it and all its application and data contents, in
    the form a of a simple data file. This server image
    can be installed and run on any host or hosting
    service which supports the virtual machine.

11/27/101                 Henry Minsky
Virtual Server Technology

n   Relies on inter-server standards - XML-RPC, TCP,
n   Sometimes you want to send a link to your server,
    sometimes you want to send a copy of the data
n   24x7 operation is assumed (like the phone company)

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
Virtual Server

n   Obviously this would be useful to businesses and
    other organizations as well as consumers
n   Technology allows download copy of server image to
    local host, for high performance local interaction
n   Real dedicated hardware server could be used for
    high performance applications
n   Like DOS, or Windows, make a standard, and try to
    allow for direct access to high performance features
    of the system if required

11/27/101                Henry Minsky
Front-end Technology

n   Flash and DHTML are adding desktop-
    like front-ends to web apps.
n   Return of client-server architectures.
n   .NET RPC technology (XML
    RPC/SOAP) is helpful
Mechanizing the Handling of
n   Stowger switch
n   Hollerith Card
n   Teletype vs. Hell
n   Spreadsheet
n   Ebay

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Mobile Devices are Virtual
Windows Into an Online World
n   The mobile information device provides
    a (small) window into a virtual world
n   The richer that world is, the more useful
    the mobile device
n   Requirements: (a) People, (b) Servers,
    (c) Extensible cross-server
n   cHTML is 1st order approximation of (c)
11/27/101           Henry Minsky

11/27/101       Henry Minsky
HTML Takes a Wrong Turn
n   Turned into the equivalent of a fax machine, a
    corrupted page layout language
n    This set back where we are today in mobile, i.e.,
    alternate access is hard instead of simple.
n   Complete failure of industry to use the technology
n   I go to, and if my browsers doesn't
    support JavaScript, I get a blank page.
n   You can implement fax over IP, but not the reverse

11/27/101                Henry Minsky
11/27/101   Henry Minsky
XML To The Rescue

n   But my calendar cannot be
    downloaded as XML.
n   There are twenty different formats.
    SyncML may help.
n   XML-RPC is a medium sized hammer,
    SOAP is a big hammer. XML and HTTP
    are sufficient for many things.

11/27/101         Henry Minsky
What Kind of Apps Run on A
(Personal) Virtual Server?
    n   Built in common model of users/groups
    n   Security / authentication model
    n   Scripting environment
    n   Relational Database Backed

        Personal                     Collaborative

11/27/101                   Henry Minsky
OpenACS Modules – compare to
Yahoo Personal Portal
n   Photo Album    n   Download               n   Site-Wide Search
                   n   E-commerce             n   Survey
n   Address Book
                   n   Email Handler          n   Ticket
n   Web Log
                   n   FAQ                    n   Group Features
n   Bookmarks                                 n   User Administration
                   n   File Storage
n   Calendar                                  n   User Groups
                   n   General Comments
n   Chat           n   General Permissions    n   User Registration and
n   Classifieds                                   Access Control
                   n   Graphing
                                              n   WimpyPoint
n   Contact        n   Intranet
    Manager        n   Member Value           n   Bboards
n   CMS            n   Neighbor to Neighbor   n   Mailing lists
n   Curriculum     n   New Stuff
n   Directory      n   News
                   n   Permissions
                   n   Poll
11/27/101                  Henry Minsky
Web of Services
n   Each user has their own personal web
    of services that they use online that
    makes up their virtual identity
n   Need to be able to traverse that easily
    from a mobile device
n   POP is a good example.
n   Industrial users‟ wireless servers should
    be in the web (FedEx, or door locks)

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Server Technology That is User
n   Can your users do something that you
    didn‟t envision with your service?
n   Is there any way they could?
n   Do they have the ability to manipulate
    data in your virtual environment to
    communicate with others?

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
Peer to Peer is Orthogonal

n   Users may keep their data in their own
    personal server‟s applications, or
    spread around other servers
n The key is inter-server communication
n But users cannot run their own servers
n We‟re in the mainframe/mini phase of
    web/wireless, not the PC phase
11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Example Future Mobile Services

n   Higher bandwidth: 3g, 4g - wireless-to-
    server photo album direct from digicam,
    wireless video sharing

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
The Sims

n   "example of how a company and its
    customers can help a product evolve to
    the point where customers not only do a
    large portion of the innovation and
    marketing but also produce as much
    intellectual capital as they consume."
    The Sims
n    Applies to DoCoMo i-mode service
11/27/101          Henry Minsky
Learning From The Sims
n   For the business community, The Sims' lessons are twofold. The first
    is that interaction design trumps graphics. The Sims is less
    photorealistic than any computer game on the market, or any
    broadband site on the Web - it's not even fully 3D. Yet it succeeds
    tremendously because it allows players with different agendas to
    interact as consumers, producers, mavens and community leaders and
    to reap rewards for all of these activities. The richness and complexity
    of an online experience, like the richness and complexity of a city, is
    created by the people who live there as they engage with the place and
    each other.

n   Learning From The Sims
    By J.C. Herz in The Standard
    Issue Date: Mar 26 2001

11/27/101                          Henry Minsky
Learning From The Sims

n   "The second lesson is that online businesses don't just exist, like
    buildings, in space. They exist, like cities, in human context over time.
    The best ones are designed to grow more interconnected, not just
    bigger, as the population evolves. They're always messy. They're never
    finished. They harbor an almost palpable sense of around-the-clock
    activity and a sense of place that owes as much to collective
    experience as to snazzy signage. When you open your window, there's
    a there there." comments on sim city
n   Learning From The Sims
    By J.C. Herz in The Standard
    Issue Date: Mar 26 2001

11/27/101                          Henry Minsky
End of PVS section

Optional I-Mode section follows

11/27/101        Henry Minsky
How Did NTT DoCoMo

n   "Yes, it's chicken-
    and-egg. What you
    need is a big
    enough chicken."

11/27/101            Henry Minsky
Henry‟s Theory of i-mode
n   Everyone loves to discuss this, so I'll do it too:
n   Low penetration of home PC‟s and networked machines at work, thus i-mode is the best
    email option. Culturally I think people here are discouraged from web-surfing and making
    personal phone calls at work.
n   Good content (what? train schedules?)
n   Actually not so good, but compared to what the WAP vendors did, it was sensational
n   People in Japan accustomed to paying for things, not accustomed to flat rate (phone)
    services, or free internet
n   NTT sits all over phone service, making it more expensive to call next door than to call
    across the planet
n   The train ride! 20% of free time spent on train.
n   Even carrying a "laptop" in Japan is not practical. Ultra lite notebooks abound, PDAs
    somewhat popular.
n   USA: 'Mobile' means you can put it on the car seat next to you when you drive
n   Japan: 'mobile' means put it in your shirt pocket while you walk or are crammed on a rush
    hour train
n   Excellent Marketing! Great ads, coordinated campaigns.
n   The handsets are marketed as *cool*. They are cool.
n   DEVELOPERS: Low barrier to entry, cHTML, just like the real web
11/27/101                               Henry Minsky
NTT paid attention to user
experience and developers
n   Magnet content authored by experts
n   Core set of attractive services to build a community
n   Worked with handset manufacturers
n   Support for integrated email/browser/address-book in
n   Strict quality control over “captive” sites, while
    allowing external sites to be accessible
n   cHTML, GIF, low barrier to entry for developers
n   It‟s an online community...

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
What about voice?

n   DoCoMo voice audio quality is
    noticeably worse than others
n   They make up for it with marketing, as
    far as I can tell.
n   Or rather, non-marketing (they never
    mention voice quality)

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
                                              $$ landlines
Potential Barriers                              Sexy Handsets
                   Automobile/Home Culture
                                                  Unified Marketing
                  Misleading Hype
                                                   No Expectations
               Marketing Confusion
                                                   Magnet Content
             Pay by minute
             No Content
                                                       Pay by packet
            Crappy Handsets                          2 hour train ride
 WAP                                                            i-mode

11/27/101                      Henry Minsky
Elements of DoCoMo Success
n   "Potential Energy Model" of adoption -- make it easy
    to fall into the hole
n   Users accustomed to not complain about high rates
n   What are the factors -- more than one:
n   Easy to buy, shovel the users in, cHTML
n   NTT soaks you on per/minute on phone lines, but you
    pay by the packet for i-mode

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
Elements of WAP Failure

n   I-mode is a „lubricant‟
n   WAP is an „irritant‟
Mobile Subscribers in Japan

11/27/101Source:   Henry Minsky
Mobile Internet Services in Japan

11/27/101     Henry Minsky
It‟s not just DoCoMo

n   Most wireless carriers in US/Europe
    would be happy to have 3rd place in
n   Wireless Internet is working for other
    Japanese companies as well

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
You Get I-Mode by Default
n   A typical Japanese user ordering mobile phone
    service from NTT DoCoMo for the first time will
    usually be subscribed to the i-mode service unless he
    or she specifically refuses the extra online service.
n    i-mode is an add-on service that costs an extra 300
    yen monthly service fee on top of the regular phone

11/27/101                Henry Minsky
Handsets. They do matter.

n   What is the best
    handset you can get in
    the US? Europe?
n   What is the typical
n   How does it compare
    to Japan?
n   Features:

11/27/101            Henry Minsky
Ericsson R289LX Handset (USA
ATT PocketNet)
n   172 g
n   160 hours standby
n   240 min talk
n   full charge in 2 hr
n   154 x 50 x 23 mm
n   Laughably small
    B&W screen

11/27/101             Henry Minsky
F503i Handset (low-end Java ketai)
n   77g
n   430 hours standby
n   135 min talk
n   full charge in 2 hr
n   135 x 46 x 15 mm
n   16 bit color,
    120x160 pixels
n   Java, 600k heap
n   voice dialing
11/27/101             Henry Minsky
Handset Technology not just
n   UI needs all the help it can get
n   3D user interface?
n   CD quality sound
n   24 bit color?
n   More screen resolution?

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Java in the Handset

n   Why isn‟t Java in the Phone as useless
    as client side Java on desktop?
n   Because the UI is the bottleneck, and
    data rates are slow
n   The restricted subset API is actually a

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
What use is Java in a phone?
n   No hardware I/O on current java API DoCoMo phones. Why
    not? Do they think we're idiots?
n   They want to avoid the risk of some malicious applet grabbing
    your address book or dialing your phone.
n   But wait a minute here - that's what signed applets are for.
    Authentication means you recognize and trust the guy who
    made the software, and you give them the power to potentially
    do harm, in exchange for doing something useful.
n   Like when you give your online broker your social security
    number. Don't cripple the phone, just make sure that people
    know who they are getting apps from, and allow them extra
n   Like the Java security model was *supposed* to work.
11/27/101                    Henry Minsky
What use is Java in a phone?
n   On Java devices, there's NO interface from Java to HTML --
    what's wrong with HTML? Because the Java guys say "we don't
    *DO* HTML".
n   Well, they are only in business because of HTML, so they
    should be a little less stuck up.
n   Industrial applications need I/O. Otherwise you are really stuck
    in a subset of your desktop (i.e., check your desktop mail, send
n   With peripherals, you get camera, microphone, GPS, RF tag
    reader, bar code,thermometer, geiger counter, local printing
    (bluetooth). Allows phone to be a more effective extension of
    your nervous system.
n   Java Bluetooth API.

11/27/101                    Henry Minsky
HQM‟s Java Picobrowser

n   The PicoBrowser is
    a tiny HTML
    browser and web
    server, which fits
    into 7.5 kbytes of
    Java, and runs on
    the NTT DoCoMo
    IAppli platform.
n   Now in MIDP, with
11/27/101            Henry Minsky
So you‟re a carrier
n   Provide the tools to make your service
    usefully extensible by the users and
    developers (e.g., real standards based
    HTML, iAppli, MIDP, J2ME)
n   You desperately need a large customer base.
    Target wide range of consumers by
    packaging a core set of services, with a
    memorable identity.
n   Lock in users with better services, not closed
11/27/101             Henry Minsky
So you‟re a developer

n   TCP/IP and standards means never
    having to be locked into a carrier.
n   You don‟t need sheer majority of
    customers as desperately as the
n   Make deals with all carriers.

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
What about WAP?
                I-mode is a ‘lubricant’
                  WAP is an ‘irritant’
n   Recent History: WAP: Let's add some
    barriers to developer entry!
n   Compare i-mode to WAP:
n   HTML, GIF, (and Java)
n   WAP: no HTML, no GIF, (no Java)
n   Online services wasteland
n   Say what?

11/27/101            Henry Minsky
n   You cannot do <a href="foo.php?x=10&y=20">foo</a>
n   because WML is XML, and the "&" always indicates a "entity" or you
    need "&amp;" or something, or else

n   <anchor>
n   <go href="foo.php">
n    <postfield name="x" value="10">
n    <postfield name=“y" value=“20">
n   </go>foo</anchor>
n   Syntax which runs on your emulator fails on half the phones anyway.
n   Phones will fail to display anything if there‟s a single parse error. (I can
    understand this mode for developers, but it is suicide for end-users).
n   No telling what the filesize limit is on your gateway or someone else‟s.
What about WAP?
n   It‟s not HTML. SETVAR? What is this, a
    scripting language?
n   But wait, you haven‟t seen WMLScript! Look,
    are you writing a web server that runs in the
    phone? If so, let's just do it for real.
n   Java on the phone! Servlet engine on the
    phone! Integrate the firmware browser !
    Implement your own browser! Picobrowser!
    It's a Java extensible browser! It's a servlet
11/27/101             Henry Minsky
    Economics of Wireless Billing
n      NTT model is more correct, in my opinion, than the existing Internet
      models; consumers pay by bandwidth. Now, we can argue about how
      the price may be too high, but that is *the* scalable model.
n     Except -- some traffic is orders of magnitude higher than others --
      consider, access your bank account or weather forecast, vs mpeg
      movie. How do the carriers bill? By time, not bandwidth? That bites.
      Then maybe logarithmic billing would be best. But if you‟re sitting on
      the airwaves you should get charged something.
n      But ... in the telecom world, when you call someone, you pay the
      bandwidth, not them (except with US cell phones). In the current
      internet environment, both parties pay. Bad business model for
      providers. Need the equivalent of a “collect call”.
n     It *is* micropayments, except it's all to NTT. Still…
n     As far as phone bills, people in Japan are used to high ones, and i-
      mode is priced fairly low compared to US mobile internet.

    11/27/101                      Henry Minsky
M-Commerce: Payment Systems

n    Payment systems - furikomi is fixed
    rate, couple of bucks. bad for small
    purchase. Great for large purchase. but
    checks in the US have smaller charges,
    but are slower to clear (paper!?!).

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
Who is DoCoMo‟s Customer?
n   A business must answer the question
    "Who is your customer?"
n   NTT Docomo answers "all Japanese
n   That's true for them - but they explicitly
n   Third-party content providers must
    answer that question.
11/27/101            Henry Minsky
In the US, they‟re still skeptical about
this whole cell-phone thing.
                                                         He: Give me only one really good reason why
He: So, you work in the Keitai business?
                                                         somebody should own a Keitai!
Me: Yes.
He: I for example don't have a Keitai. Nobody needs      Me: Maybe for the convenience to place a call
a Keitai. That's all hype.                               anytime?
                                                         He: For this there are public phones anywhere!
Me: I have a lot of Keitais and need them all.
                                                         Me: Hm, maybe for the convenience to get a call
He: I have a lot of friends who don't own a Keitai.
Me: So you have friends? Do you meet them                anytime?
sometimes?                                               He: I hate if somebody gets a call in public, or in the
He: For sure I meet my friends! We all have              train. It's even not allowed!
                                                         Me: You know that the new phones are also able to
telephone at home! We make our appointments in
                                                         send and receive emails, right?
advance or we meet at one of our apartments.
Me: You know that japanese people don't meet very        He: What's this for?
often at home, right?                                    Me: Maybe to stay in contact with friends?
He: Sometimes I meet my friends also in our favorite     He: But if you want to stay in contact with friends, you
                                                            can meet them!
                                                         Me: Yes, and you can make your appointments in
Me: Do you go also in other bar's than your favorite
one?                                                     advance via email.
He: Why should I? I meet my friends there.               He: Stupid. You can call them!
                                                         Me: With a Keitai...?
Me: Right, you don't need a Keitai.
                                                         He: Keitai, Keitai...give me one good reason why
                                                         somebody should own a Keitai!
  From keitai-l mailing list
11/27/101                                      Henry Minsky
Mobile Network: Today‟s Situation
n   We‟re at the very beginning. Like three
    years after the invention of the
n   High bandwidth, more powerful CPUs,
    better displays, all in the pipeline
n   Interoperable web server apps just
    starting (SOAP, .net, XML-RPC)
11/27/101           Henry Minsky
What Next?

11/27/101    Henry Minsky
The failure of the Web to
mechanize the handling of
n   This is the first alternate to HTML. HTML was
    supposed to be a semantic format. It was completely
    corrupted to be a page layout language.

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
Personal Virtual Server
n   A logical evolution of the telephone
    answering machine
n Replace the desktop machine

n We need a high-level virtual machine
    models of a server, and it‟s database,
    so people can easily pack up their
    personal server configuration and run it
    on another provider (no lock-in)
n Write Mobile apps for people‟s PVS
11/27/101            Henry Minsky
Improvements to Java profile
n   A Modest Proposal: Put a web server in the phone.
n   "Are you insane?".
n   A minimal Java web server, without a filesystem or
    CGI capability, takes up about 20 kbytes. (See Even desktop machines don't have
    web servers in them. Maybe they should. Then you
    can generate HTML interfaces to things. Next best
    thing, really equivalent, is to have hook from the Java
    API to the microbrowser. Not too hard to write a Java
    HTML widget, but it's still slow compared to browser
    firmware directly written in C.
11/27/101                Henry Minsky
Mobile means getting a useful
window to your desktop data
n    Mobile points out the need for XML-like generalized data
    access - XML-RPC isn't really needed for simple transactions
    HTTP works fine (key->value pairs)
n   But the idea is some new end-user browser technology comes
    along, and you should be able to easily grab data from existing
    services (calendar, etc) without having to add explicit support to
    the service itself.
n   You should be able to write gateways to older services easily.
    Keeps your existing investment in infrastructure and leverages

11/27/101                     Henry Minsky
Examples of Good Wireless

n   SFC Mode demo pages -screen shots.
n   ACES
n   - email is the killer app for i-mode - how does SFC Mode use it?
n     ImaHima, other services based around messaging- YYou
    need to communicate with others, the simplest form of
    "publishing", as stated in the premise of this talk.
n   "Peer to Peer" means being able to produce as well as
    consume, also means having your own "virtual" server, i.e.,
    something which takes your place to serve your info when you
    are not physically there.

11/27/101                    Henry Minsky
Don‟t Be an Idiot
n   I don‟t want my phone to yell out ads as
    I walk by stores (Virgin Atlantic).
n   Just because you can do it, doesn‟t
    mean it‟s a good idea.
n   I do want my phone to beep if I get near
    the friend I am trying to find in a crowd.

11/27/101            Henry Minsky
Need high-level actions

n   Since the UI sucks so badly on mobile
    devices, we need to enable high-level
    powerful commands
n   This requires that our cloud of web
    services can be operated on by

11/27/101          Henry Minsky
Who is making money?

n   NTT always makes money on packets
    and service
n   NTT doesn‟t supply content
n   NTT takes a cut of billing customers
n   i-mode photo-album service -- great for NTT,
    not so great for user - 15 cents each time you
    look? But fun to send to friends to view once.

11/27/101             Henry Minsky
Did I mention they solved the
Micropayments problem?
n   Japanese mobile internet carriers
    provide consolidated billing on the
    phone bill.

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
Random Slides
'Mobile' also means paper
n   Without a sufficiently high res screen or high
    bandwidth mobile data network…
n   I print out a map from a URL before I leave
    the house
n   Best interface to I-mode top menu is printed
    catalog from DoCoMo
n   I print out phone numbers, because I might
    be out of range and my phone‟s address
    book app doesn‟t play nice with my XML
    online address app. (Could customize a Java App if it
    were a little more powerful implementation)

11/27/101                     Henry Minsky
What make an application
n   Ergonomics

11/27/101        Henry Minsky
n    With mobile, it's weight, not size. 100g max.
    Remember Sony CD walkman-had to be size of CD
    case. Original walkman, size of cassette case.
n   People don't particularly want small screens,
    although they are good for privacy on the train.
n   You want a phone and a PDA. Hard to get both in the
    same device.
n   I am getting carpal tunnel in my thumb from the tiny
    keypad on the phone.

11/27/101               Henry Minsky
Inherent Artifacts of „Mobile‟
n   At the moment, cellular technology means that
    „mobile‟ trades off freedom of movement for low
    bandwidth and small-sized access device
n   Think „paperback book‟, not desktop computer
n   Data entry is hard, user can only read small amount
    of data
n   Suited to point tasks, and controlling other processes,
    not for bulk data entry or general browsing
n   It‟s more like a railroad switch than a railroad

11/27/101                Henry Minsky
Mobile and Fixed Can Be
n   Take home stereo and walkman
n   In Japan, much „free‟ time is spent on
    trains or on foot.

11/27/101           Henry Minsky
What Are You Doing When
You‟re Mobile?
n   When you are mobile, you are mostly
    interacting with other people or real
    things. That‟s why you‟re not in the
n   Mobile Network Access is made
    proportionally more useful by the
    amount of stuff you keep and do on the
11/27/101          Henry Minsky
Essentials of (Wireless) Web Communication

n   Java phones are good because you need every ounce of UI help with these
    things. But ... Java is beside the point.
n   The power of the web is users being able to "publish" info,not be passive
    consumers. So when the user gets to the point that they need to publish
    information, they need something as "simple" as HTML, i.e.,simple enough that
    they can publish info in a way that is universally accessible by others.
n   The power of HTML is not that you can view your own stuff, but that someone
    else in Siberia can view your content without having to download and run a
    special application. That applies equally to the wireless web.
n   SO: that means that users should get whatever help they need to publish info
    (i.e.,, etc), but that info needs to be viewable from the
    server in a universal form (HTML, XML, etc).
n   The (personal) server is responsible for converting and delivering the user‟s info
    in whatever formats or calling sequences are required by other users

11/27/101                           Henry Minsky
The “Network Effect”

n   The utility of the network is proportional
    to the square of the number of users.
n   .. But only if the users actively
    participate ..
n   How are they effectively contributors or
    publishers of information and services?

11/27/101            Henry Minsky
Appropriate Technology
n   Getting latest spot prices at Tsukiji fish
n    Foods Infomart. Japan has many small
    produce distributors, out in the field. Need
    mobile price and inventory information.
n   Vertical market, appropriate use of
n   Industrial users - low profile but very
n   DoPa mobile data telemetry - vending
    machines, sensors

11/27/101              Henry Minsky

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