Africa and the Slave Trade I European Contact With Africa  Late 1400s Portugal established factories forts and trading posts along coast of Africa  Often traded w

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Africa and the Slave Trade I European Contact With Africa  Late 1400s Portugal established factories forts and trading posts along coast of Africa  Often traded w Powered By Docstoc
					Africa and the Slave Trade
              I. European Contact With Africa

   Late 1400s, Portugal established factories (forts and
    trading posts) along coast of Africa
       Often traded with local rulers and provided military support
       Missionaries attempted to convert rulers of Benin, Kongo, and
        other Africa kingdoms
 17th century – Dutch, French, English begin competing
  with Portugal in Africa
 Initial contact concerned commerce, not permanent
 Slave trade developed slowly, along with other aspects of
       Gold, pepper, ivory
                           II. Slave Trade

 While slavery had all but disappeared in most of
 Europe, Portugal had kept the institution alive
    Transferred practice to New World
 Between 1450 and 1850, 12 million Africans shipped to
    10-20% died along the way
        Middle Passage – name of slave voyage to Americas
          Overcrowded, unsanitary conditions

          Often led to death, suicide, rebellions

    Mostly men were shipped
    Local African rulers worked with Europeans for trade of
                      II. Continued…

 Directly linked to plantation and mining economies
 of Americas
    Triangular trade – slaves to America, goods to Europe,
     European goods to Africa
                    III. African Societies

 Slave trade had profound effect on African societies
 Had already developed many forms of servitude, Europeans
 exploited systems
    Women were center of African slavery
    Nonbelievers sold into slavery in Muslim lands
    Widely used form of labor control and wealth
 African rulers anxious to acquire more slaves and trade with
 Europeans for goods/weapons
    Societies of interior sought to expand to reach coasts, where slave
     trade was centered
    Conflicts emerge among African societies
 Many strong states emerged during time period as result of
 contact with Europeans and slave trade
    Examples: Asante, Dahomey
                          III. Continued…

   Southern Africa felt little affect from Atlantic slave trade
       But created blueprint for colonization of Africa
       By late 1600s, Dutch had established a colony and began
        enslaving Africans for local labor
         The Great Trek – Dutch settlers (Boers) came into contact with
          Bantu-speaking peoples
         1834 – slavery abolished by Great Britain (who by then
          controlled area)
           Conflicts continued between white settlers and Africans

         Zulu people were strong military force
           Began mfecane – wars of crushing and wandering

         Eventually British overcome during the Zulu Wars in late
          1800s thanks to advances in technology
        IV. Diaspora and End of Slave Trade

 Diaspora – scattering of people from homelands
 Affected lives of Africans all over world, linked Africa
 to rest of world
    African culture was brought to new areas, mixed with other
      Religion – slaves converted to Catholicism by
       Spaniards/Portuguese, converted to Protestant religions in
       North America
         African religions did not disappear – practices called obeah
          in English Caribbean islands
          Vodun in Haiti, candomble in Brazil
                       IV. Continued…

 End of Slave Trade
    Abolition of the slave trade occurred for a variety of reasons:
      Enlightenment thinking
      Christian humanitarianism – William Wilberforce
      Industrial revolution
      Slave trade less important than trade of other commodities
    Brazil last to abolish slavery in 1888
     Chapter 20 – Further Exploration I

 What impact did increased European contact have
 on the Africa prior to, and during, the time period of
 the slave trade. Focus on the 5 Social Studies themes:
 politics, religion, economics, social, technological.
     Chapter 20 – Further Exploration II

 In your assigned group:
  Read the information about the abolitionist group
  Discuss the reasons and strategies for ending the slave
  Make a group argument from the point of view of your
   assigned abolitionist group for ending the slave
   trade…present it to the class
           Chapter 20 – Key Vocabulary

 Factories
                           Creole slaves
 Luanda
                           Obeah
 Royal African Company
                           Candomble
 Indies piece
                           Vodun
 Triangular trade
                           Palmares
 Mfecane
                           William Wilberforce
 Great Trek
 Middle Passage
 Saltwater slaves

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