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Visitor Experiences in Wilderness How They Vary With

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 74

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									Visitor Experiences in Wilderness: How They Vary With Amount of Use and
                              Length of Stay



                             David N. Cole
                Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute

                              Troy E. Hall
                           University of Idaho




                              February 2008


                                    1
                                    Table of Contents

Preface                                                  3

Executive Summary                                        6

Introduction                                             9

The Nature of Wilderness Experiences                    9

Methods                                                 13
      Study Instruments                                 13
      The Sample                                        13
      Data Analysis                                     14

Results                                                 15
          Sample Characteristics                        15
          Wilderness Related Experiences                17
          Recreation Experience Preferences             31
          Wilderness Privacy                            43
          Attention Restoration Theory                  50

Synthesis and Discussion                                53

Conclusions and Management Implications                 59

References                                              60

Appendix A: Pre-trip Questionnaire 1                    64

Appendix B: Pre-trip Questionnaire 2                    67

Appendix C: Post-trip Questionnaire                     70




                                              2
                                          Preface

This preface outlines the justification and approach taken in a series of research and
administrative studies, including the one reported here. It is followed by an
executive summary and then the complete project report.

There is considerable controversy about appropriate management of popular wilderness
trails and destinations areas. Much of the controversy stems from alternative
interpretations of the language from the 1964 Wilderness Act that describes what
wilderness should offer visitors: “outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and
unconfined type of recreation.” There is growing debate regarding what causes more
degradation of solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation: growing crowds of
visitors, or Forest Service imposed use limits or restrictions, especially limits on day use.
In the Pacific Northwest Region, this controversy has led to administrative reversals of
direction and successful appeals of Forest Service plans. In other regions it has led to
litigation. The controversy largely results from a lack of consensus among legitimate
wilderness stakeholders about how to balance the benefits of public access with concern
for maintaining outstanding opportunities for “solitude or a primitive and unconfined
type of recreation” (a wilderness experience). Controversy is inevitable, given the
disparate views of wilderness stakeholders. However, the intensity of the controversy is
aggravated by inconsistent decision-making and by the lack of an adequate informational
basis (science and monitoring data) for decision-making.

Tough, value-laden decisions must be made about appropriate management objectives
(including indicators and standards) regarding experiential conditions in wilderness and
about the management actions needed to keep conditions in compliance with standards.
Scientific information is needed as well, not because it will identify “the right decisions”
or that it will even make decisions easier. It is needed because it will make decisions
more informed. Scientific information will make it easier to explain and justify decisions,
because the likely consequences of a given decision or alternatives to it will have been
explored and can be articulated. Current scientific information related to these issues is
woefully inadequate.

Wilderness use, particularly in urban-proximate western wildernesses, is increasing, and
a large part of this growth comes from day use. Many wilderness management plans,
following a LAC-type process, specify indicators and standards related to experience
quality. This is guided by the Wilderness Act direction regarding solitude and experience
quality. A basic assumption is that as use levels (density -- the number of people per unit
space -- or direct encounters between groups) increase, experiences will be adversely
affected, for at least some segment of the visitor population. Because day use tends to
occur at scenic areas within a few miles of trailheads, certain areas within wilderness are
experiencing very heavy use. In several areas (e.g., Mt. Hood, Mt. Jefferson, Three
Sisters, Alpine Lakes), standards for number of encounters per day have been exceeded,
and managers have considered or proposed use limitations. These limitations are usually
explicitly intended to protect opportunities for appropriate experiences in wilderness and
prevent deterioration in this aspect of wilderness character. In the Pacific Northwest,



                                             3
management is also complicated by the popularity of several mountain climbs (e.g., Mt.
Hood, Mt. Baker and Mt. Adams). Glaciated peaks in the Pacific Northwest are virtually
all in designated wilderness, and these opportunities for physical challenge are in high
demand.

Recently, managerial effectiveness has been challenged on several fronts regarding the
provision of opportunities for appropriate experiences in wilderness. First, visitors and
researchers have both questioned whether the types of indicators that have been selected
for experience quality (almost always measures of encounters between groups) indeed
indicate what they are designed to indicate. Many question whether encounters is an
adequate proxy for “outstanding opportunities for solitude” or for “primitive and
unconfined” experiences. Apart from whether the indicator itself is appropriate, many
have questioned whether the particular standards selected (usually on the order of 10
encounters per day in the most popular places) are appropriate.

Other basic questions about experiences have arisen. Assuming that wildernesses should
provide unique “wilderness” experiences, some people have asserted that certain visitors,
for example, day users, do not seek “wilderness experiences,” while other types of
visitors (for example overnight users or purists) do seek them. Some people assert that
visitors cannot have “wilderness experiences” in high-density areas. Proponents of these
assertions argue that managers should restrict use to provide the experiences sought by
those who seek truly “wilderness” types of experiences. These assertions are underlain by
numerous untested assumptions, however, about the experiences sought by different
visitor types and attained in different settings.

Given the need for active management of heavy use, day use and climbing in wilderness,
the high degree of controversy and public scrutiny of wilderness management and the
substantial uncertainty created by sparse research and monitoring data, nine research and
administrative studies were conducted between 2002 and 2005. These studies collectively
were designed to develop knowledge and data to inform decisions managers must make
about (1) appropriate indicators of experiential (social) conditions in portions of
wilderness that receive heavy-use and substantial day visitation, (2) appropriate
standards for experiential (social) conditions in these situations, and (3) appropriate
management actions to take in order to maintain appropriate social conditions.

The nine studies that were conducted are as follows:
   1. Wilderness Trailhead Survey. Visitors at 36 trailheads in 13 different
       wilderness areas, ranging in use from very high to moderate, were given
       questionnaires as they exited in 2003 and 2004. Questionnaires addressed what
       visitors experienced, their evaluations of the experience and their opinions
       regarding management. Variation related to trailhead use levels and whether
       visitors were on day or overnight trips is examined.
   2. Regional Mail Surveys. Mailback questionnaires were sent to a systematic
       sample of all visitors to the region during 2002 who obtained mandatory self-
       issued permits at 234 trailheads in 17 wildernesses. Questions were similar to
       those in the wilderness trailhead survey. We drew two samples. One sample



                                            4
     targeted visitors to low use trailheads (excluded from the trailhead survey). The
     second sample was of all visitors, for comparison to the on-site trailhead survey.
3.   Trailhead Experience Survey. Visitors were given questionnaires at five
     trailheads at the Alpine Lakes Wilderness and five trailheads at the Three Sisters
     Wilderness, ranging in use from very high to moderate. Two questionnaires were
     given to samples of visitors entering the wilderness and two were given to
     samples of visitors exiting. These questionnaires differed from the general
     trailhead survey (study 1) in that they focused in more detail on desired and
     expected experiences, the experiences that occurred, and effects on the nature of
     the wilderness experience.
4.   Wilderness Displacement Study. Mailback questionnaires were sent to a
     systematic sample of all visitors to the region during 2002 who obtained
     mandatory self-issue permits at 234 trailheads in 17 wildernesses. Questions
     focused on the frequency and nature of displacement from wilderness, particularly
     due to crowding, but also in response to management regulations and biophysical
     impacts. Focused sections dealt with displacement from Mt. Hood, Mt. Adams,
     Mt. Jefferson, Three Sisters, Eagle Cap, and Alpine Lakes Wildernesses.
5.   Climber Displacement Study. Mailback questionnaires were sent to a systematic
     sample drawn from 2002 climbing permits for the Mt. Hood, Three Sisters, Mt.
     Jefferson, Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Washington Wildernesses. Questions
     focused on the frequency and nature of displacement, particularly due to crowding
     while climbing. A small number of climbers was also interviewed.
6.   Mount Baker Climbing Study. Visitors at the four primary climbing trailheads
     were given questionnaires as they exited. Questionnaires addressed climber
     characteristics, what climbers experienced, their evaluations of the experience and
     their opinions regarding management.
7.   Nature of the On-Site Experience Study. Visitors were contacted at three
     popular wilderness destinations: Marion Lake in the Mt. Jefferson Wilderness,
     Pete Lake in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness and the Lakes Basin (and on trails
     accessing the Basin) in the Eagle Cap Wilderness. They were interviewed or filled
     out a short questionnaire about their immediate experience. Variation related to
     use levels on particular days and whether visitors were on day or overnight trips
     were examined.
8.   Snow Lake Conflict Study. Snow Lake, in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, is one
     of the most heavily used places in Northwest wilderness. Visitor behavior and
     interactions were observed, interviews were conducted and questionnaires were
     administered as visitors left the Snow Lake Basin. Questions focused on
     crowding-related conflict at this very heavily-used destination, as well as
     behaviors used to cope with crowding. Variation in behavior, conflict and coping
     behavior are related to variation in use levels at the lake.
9.   Stakeholder Involvement Meeting Study. Four small 3-hour meetings of
     stakeholders were held in communities around the Three Sisters Wilderness.
     These meetings used in-depth discussion to assess the values and opinions of a
     broader range of the public regarding crowding-related issues and appropriate
     management of experiences in wilderness. The study focused on how deliberation
     affected people’s opinions about conditions and appropriate management.



                                          5
                                    Executive Summary
The objectives of this study were to describe the experiences that visitors have in
wilderness and the degree to which their experiences vary between (1) very high use and
moderate use places and (2) day users and overnight users. The study was conducted at
10 trailheads in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, WA, and the Three Sisters Wilderness, OR.
At Alpine Lakes, we worked at two very high use trailheads (Snow Lake and Pratt Lake),
as well as three moderate use trailheads (Cathedral Pass, Gold Creek and Waptus River).
At Three Sisters, we also worked at two very high use trailheads (Devils Lake and Green
Lakes) and three moderate use trailheads (Sisters Mirror Lake, Elk Lake and Six Lakes).
Visitation at the very high use trailheads, which are probably among the 10 most popular
trails in Forest Service wilderness in Oregon and Washington, was typically at least 100
people per day. This contrasts with typical use levels of 15-20 people per day at moderate
use trailheads.

Visitors were given one of three different questionnaires. Two focused on trip
motivations and were given to visitors at trailheads as they started their trip. One
questionnaire contained items drawn from Recreation Experience Preference (REP)
scales developed by Bev Driver and associates. The other asked about experiences
consistent with wilderness, including a number of items regarding the privacy functions
of solitude. The other questionnaire was given to visitors at trailheads as they exited. It
focused on the experiences people attained, using REP scales and items related to
privacy, Attention Restoration Theory (ART), and other wilderness-relevant experiences.
We asked visitors about 72 different experiences and the degree to which they had each
experience. We obtained 1,531 completed questionnaires, 1,010 at the very high use
trailheads and 521 at the moderate use trailheads. We obtained 380 completed
questionnaires from overnight visitors and 1,151 from day users.

The very high use places we studied are among the most heavily-used places anywhere in
wilderness. Crowds of people are common there and the impacts of use are conspicuous.
Crowds and impacts were uncommon in places accessed by the moderately-used
trailheads. Despite these differences in setting, visitor assessments of the nature of their
experiences were not very different in very high use places than in much more modestly
used places. We hypothesized that visitors to very high use trailheads would have lower
experience achievement for many of these experiences (e.g. solitude and privacy). We
also hypothesized that very high use visitors would have a harder time having the
experiences they wanted--that the difference between pre-trip motives and post-trip
experience achievement would be greater than for moderate use visitors. Our hypotheses
were both correct for only seven of the 72 experiences we asked about.

All seven of the items experienced less by visitors to very high use places are more
descriptors of the setting and conditions that are experienced than of the psychological
outcomes of those experiences. Five items refer explicitly to setting attributes conducive
to opportunities for solitude—having it, not having it interrupted, being away from
crowds and, consequently, being where it’s quiet. Closely related are a sense of
remoteness and being in a place that has not been impacted much by people. Even where
use level affected what people experienced, the magnitude of effect was not large.



                                             6
Differences in experience achievement between very high use and moderate use places
were generally small. Large differences in amount of use were typically associated with
small differences in experience.

None of the experiences that are clearly psychological outcomes were affected by amount
of use. Although solitude was affected by use, privacy functions—the purposes served by
solitude and privacy—were not affected. Personal and spiritual growth, feelings of awe,
humility and timelessness were not affected. Nor were the types of experience that
contribute to restoration of direct attention fatigue—the mental and physical rejuvenation
that comes from getting away from the stress, demands and routines of modern life.

More wilderness experiences were influenced by whether one had stayed overnight in the
wilderness than by use levels. For 15 of the 72 experiences, day users had both less
experience achievement and more difficulty having the experiences they desired. The
experiential domains that varied significantly with length of stay were diverse, with most
relating more to the psychological outcomes of experiences than the setting and
conditions that were experienced. Magnitudes of difference between day and overnight
visitors were similar to magnitudes of difference related to use level (typically small).

Visitors to very high use places experienced conditions that were not entirely consistent
with the wilderness ideal. They experienced crowds and surroundings that had been
impacted by people. This caused them to feel less remote and to experience less solitude
and quiet. However, these were the only experiences we studied that differed between
very high use and moderate use wilderness. The psychological outcomes derived from
wilderness visits were as substantial in very high use wilderness as they were in less
heavily used places. This suggests that the enduring personal and social benefits of a
wilderness trip may not be greatly diminished in very high use places. Experiences in
very high use wilderness were different—because a few attributes of the setting
differed—but it seems misleading to state, from the perspective of the visitor, that they
were substantially lower in quality.

Much more important to experience quality than amount of use was length of stay. Many
more experiences varied with length of stay than with use level. If the goal is to increase
opportunities for desired psychological outcomes of a wilderness trip, convincing people
to stay out overnight would be more effective and beneficial than reducing use levels.
But, even for length of stay, the magnitude of difference in experience was small.

Use has already been limited in some wildernesses and there are many advocates for
more widespread use limits. There are both biophysical and social reasons for such limits.
Research we have reported elsewhere suggests that visitors are more supportive of
biophysical reasons for limits (e.g., less impact on plants, soil and wildlife) than social
reasons (Cole and Hall 2005). If the reason for limits is social, our research suggests that
managers must use a rationale other than a desire to provide higher quality experiences.
Even in very high use wilderness places, visitors had high quality experiences, realizing
many desired psychological outcomes that are likely to have substantial enduring
personal and social benefits. What differed was primarily the setting that was



                                             7
experienced. In very high use wilderness, visitors experienced less of several attributes
that lie close to the core of what wilderness is. They experienced less remoteness,
solitude and quiet and they were confronted with more human impact.

Our research suggests that the primary experiential justification for use limits should be
to maximize opportunities to experience wilderness as a unique setting that
simultaneously provides a high degree of remoteness, primitiveness, solitude and
perceived naturalness. To paraphrase the Wilderness Act, use limits can increase
opportunities to experience wilderness “as wilderness.” This likely is justifiable—even
necessary—at least in some places. But there is little evidence that limits will consistently
lead to substantially different or higher quality experiences. Moreover, managers should
understand that most visitors do not consider the benefits of experiencing a wilderness
with fewer people and more solitude to be equal to the cost associated with being denied
access (Cole and Hall 2005). In part this is because even in very high use wilderness,
visitors find most of the attributes they are seeking and have most of the experiences they
desire (Hall et al. 2007). Moreover, they know that there are many other wilderness
destinations that provide less crowded conditions, where they can go when those
attributes are important to them (Cole and Hall 2007).




                                             8
                                       Introduction
Wilderness areas are to be managed such that they provide opportunities for high quality
visitor experiences, of a type appropriate for wilderness. Although the specific nature of a
wilderness experience is open to debate, there is general agreement about some of its
primary characteristics. The three experiential descriptors provided in the Wilderness Act
are “solitude”, “primitive recreation” and “unconfined recreation.” Wilderness writings
and deliberations (from writers such as Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Aldo Leopold
and Sigurd Olson) have also made frequent reference to experiences such as remoteness,
challenge, closeness to nature, physical and mental rejuvenation and opportunities for
personal and/or spiritual growth (Borrie and Roggenbuck 2001). These vary in the degree
to which they are unique to wilderness.

There is widespread concern that the quality of wilderness experiences is diminished in
places where high use levels lead to congested conditions. This raises the question, how
do wilderness experiences differ between high-use places in wilderness and places that
are less popular? Moreover, day use makes up an increasing proportion of total
wilderness visitation. Much of the concern about the “high-use problem” is a concern
about day use in these places. Thus there is considerable interest in how the experience of
day visitors differs from that of overnight visitors. Which accounts for more of the
variation in experience, use density or length of stay?

The primary objective of the research reported here was to explore certain types of
experience that people have on trips in wilderness—the experiences they were seeking,
the experiences they attained and the degree to which they were able to have the
experiences they were looking for. In particular, we were interested in the extent to which
experiences sought and attained varied between (1) very high and moderate use
wilderness and (2) people on day and overnight trips.

                        The Nature of Wilderness Experiences
For this study, we drew on four different sources to explore the nature of experience.
These sources vary in the uniqueness of their application to wilderness.

One source of experiential descriptors was the words of the Wilderness Act and concepts
common to those writing about wilderness experiences and their values and benefits
(Stankey and Schreyer 1987, Shafer and Hammitt 1995, Borrie and Roggenbuck 2001).
The language of the Wilderness Act suggests that visitors should experience a setting
characterized by:
    • solitude;
    • lack of confinement (sense of freedom)
    • primitiveness (away from modern world);
    • naturalness (including lack of human impact); and
    • remoteness (because wildernesses are large).

Moreover, visitors to wilderness should also have the opportunity to experience varied
physical responses and cognitive states. In articulating the values and purposes of



                                             9
wilderness, early wilderness advocates such as Bob Marshall and Howard Zahniser spoke
of such experiences as:
    • challenge;
    • physical revitalization;
    • growth (personal, spiritual);
    • connection to the natural world;
    • absorption (in present moment, timelessness); and
    • serenity (peace, tranquility).

Borrie and Roggenbuck (2001) studied the experiences visitors had on a trip to the
Okefenokee Wilderness, Georgia. They demonstrated that the experiences visitors had
varied over time during their trip. Certainly, some of this variation must be a result of
changing settings, but more work is needed on the influence of setting attributes on
experience.

Our second source of descriptors was the positive psychological outcomes or benefits that
visitors obtain as a result of their wilderness trip). To explore these, we drew on the work
of Bev Driver, associates and colleagues and their extensive work on psychometric scales
that measure the dimensions of people’s recreation experience. These scales, known as
the Recreation Experience Preference (REP) scales, have been used for varied purposes
in numerous studies (Manfredo et al. 1996). They can be used to assess motivations for or
the psychological outcomes desired from a specific trip, as well as the extent to which
outcomes were obtained. Motivations are best assessed pre-trip, while experiences
attained can only be assessed post-trip. The REP scales are specific to recreational
experiences, but not to wilderness. Some of these items are similar to the wilderness-
related experiences just described.

Of 19 experience domains, we explored 16 that seemed most relevant to typical
wilderness experiences:
    • Achievement/stimulation
    • Autonomy/leadership
    • Risk-taking
    • Family togetherness
    • Similar people
    • New people
    • Learning
    • Enjoy nature
    • Introspection
    • Creativity
    • Nostalgia
    • Physical fitness
    • Physical rest
    • Escape personal-social pressures
    • Escape physical pressure
    • Risk reduction


                                             10
The domains we excluded were equipment, social security and teaching-leading others.

Studies of wilderness visitors, using REP scales, have been used to describe the relative
importance of various motivations for taking wilderness trips (Brown and Haas 1980,
Manfredo et al. 1983, Driver et al. 1987). Less information is available about experience
attainment in wilderness and we are not aware of any work on the effects of use density
and length of stay on experience attainment.

The third source of descriptors came from an intensive exploration of the concept of
solitude, the descriptor most often associated with the wilderness experience and explicit
in the Wilderness Act. To psychologists, solitude means being alone, without intrusions,
where others cannot observe you (Westin 1967, Marshall 1974, Pedersen 1999), but few
wilderness visitors choose to be alone. Hammitt (1982) has argued that this is too strict a
definition of the experience opportunity mandated in the Wilderness Act. He suggests
that the broader psychological concept of privacy is more aligned with the likely intent of
the Act’s authors. Privacy refers to the ability to control the amount and type of access
one has with others (Altman 1975, Pedersen 1999). If there is a high degree of privacy,
wilderness visitors can freely choose how much and what type of interaction with others
they want. Freedom of choice and spontaneity of action are often considered important to
the wilderness experience (Stankey and Baden 1977). The unit of privacy can be one’s
self (being alone) or one’s group (alone together) (Altman 1975), so solitude (being
alone) is just one type of privacy.

There have been several attempts to identify different types of privacy, as well as the
different functions of privacy in society. Westin’s (1967) initial typologies have been
most widely adapted and explored in the wilderness recreation literature (Hammitt 1982,
Priest and Bugg 1991, Dawson and Hammitt 1996). However, factor analytic studies
have led to modifications of Westin’s dimensions by Marshall (1974) and Pedersen
(1999). Pedersen (1999) has identified six different types of privacy:
    • intimacy with family (being alone with family);
    • intimacy with friends (being alone with friends);
    • solitude (freedom from observation by others;)
    • isolation (being geographically removed from and free from observation by
        others);
    • anonymity (being seen but not identified or identifiable by others; and
    • reserve (not revealing personal aspects of one’s self to others).

In our work on experience, we were most interested in exploring the functions of these
varied types of privacy. These are more enduring psychological outcomes of
experiencing different types of privacy during a wilderness visit. Pedersen (1997) has
identified five functions of privacy:
    • contemplation (reflecting on one’s self);
    • autonomy (freedom of choice and behavior);
    • rejuvenation (recovery and refuge from others and outside world);
    • confiding (intimacy with trusted others); and
    • creativity (develop ideas, work on solutions).


                                            11
Most of these potential outcomes of privacy resonate with the types of benefits
articulated by early advocates arguing for wilderness preservation (see, for example,
discussions in Graber 1976, Stankey and Schreyer 1987).

The scales Hammitt developed to assess dimensions of wilderness privacy (based on
Westin’s work) have been field tested in several wilderness settings (Hammitt and
Madden 1989, Dawson and Hammitt 1996). Hammitt and Rutlin (1995) also showed that
wilderness visitors’ ratings of achieved privacy (on a simple 10-point scale) decreased as
number of encounters increased and as encounters exceeded individual normative
standards for encounters. But the multi-dimensional privacy scales have never been
employed to explore how various dimensions of achieved privacy vary with use
conditions.

The final conceptual basis for thinking about wilderness experience that we used is the
Attention Restoration Theory (ART) developed by Stephen and Rachael Kaplan,
associates and colleagues (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989, Kaplan 1995). This theory posits
that in their day-to-day lives, people experience mental fatigue as a result of a fatigue of
directed attention. Directed attention is attention to something that is not particularly
interesting but required (such as doing our work, driving in traffic, and so on).
Maintaining focus, under these circumstances, requires considerable energy and one’s
capacity to exert this type of attention is limited. Involuntary attention, in contrast,
requires little effort because stimuli are inherently interesting and involving (such as
listening to music or watching wildlife). ART suggests that restoration of fatigued
directed attention can occur by spending time in restorative environments, environments
that are conducive to involuntary attention and characterized by four properties:
     • being away: being distinctly different, either physically or conceptually, from the
         everyday environment;
     • fascination: containing patterns that hold one’s attention effortlessly;
     • extent: having scope and coherence that captures the mind, fosters exploration
         and allows one to remain engaged; and
     • compatibility: fitting with and supporting what one wants or is inclined to do
         (Kaplan 2001).

Restorative experiences are not exclusive to recreation; nor are they exclusive to
wilderness. However, they have much in common with some of the important benefits of
recreation and, in particular, of recreation in wilderness. It is not coincidental that one of
the Kaplans’ long-term research interests has been about experiences in wilderness
(Kaplan 1984). In addition, wilderness has often been described as a place to “be away”
from the hustle and bustle of everyday existence.

Although a number of studies have used rating scales based on ART to assess the
restorative qualities of various environments, no such studies have been conducted in
wilderness. Previous studies have found that natural environments are more restorative
than urban ones (e.g. Herzog et al. 2003), suggesting that wilderness might generally
possess substantial restorative qualities. The restorative qualities of wilderness have yet
to be empirically assessed, although Talbot and Kaplan (1995) interpret observed


                                              12
psychological outcomes of wilderness trips in the terminology of ART. Nor has there
been any work on how setting attributes, such as use density, might influence those
qualities.

                                          Methods
Study Instruments
We administered three different questionnaires. Two focused on trip motivations and
were given to visitors at trailheads as they started their trip. One used Recreation
Experience Preference (REP) items; the other asked about privacy and various
experiences consistent with wilderness. The other questionnaire was given to visitors at
trailheads as they exited. It focused on the experiences people attained, using REP scales
and items related to privacy, Attention Restoration Theory (ART), and other wilderness-
relevant experiences. Copies of the questionnaires are included in Appendices A-C.

The Sample
Our sampling was designed to efficiently characterize the experiences of visitors to
wilderness trails that receive very different levels of visitation, rather than to characterize
experiences at any particular place. The survey was conducted at 10 trailheads in the
Alpine Lakes Wilderness, WA, and the Three Sisters Wilderness, OR. At Alpine Lakes,
we worked at two very high use trailheads (Snow Lake and Pratt Lake), as well as three
moderate use trailheads (Cathedral Pass, Gold Creek and Waptus River). At Three
Sisters, we also worked at two very high use trailheads (Devils Lake and Green Lakes)
and three moderate use trailheads (Sisters Mirror Lake, Elk Lake and Six Lakes).
Visitation at the very high use trailheads, which are probably among the 10 most popular
trails in Forest Service wilderness in Oregon and Washington, was typically at least 100
people per day. Use on sunny weekend days sometimes exceeded 300 people. This
contrasts with typical use levels of 15-20 people per day at moderate use trailheads. At
these trailheads, there were summer weekdays when nobody visited. Even on peak
weekend days, use levels seldom exceeded 50 people. Because we were surveying people
at trailheads—as they entered or exited the wilderness—we were unable to study very
lightly used trailheads (due to the time required to obtain an adequate sample).

For reasons of efficiency, we sampled groups of trailheads close to each other. Typically,
each group of trailheads was sampled twice during the July-August summer season, each
time over a 9-day block of time. We sampled in both wildernesses in 2003 and just in the
Three Sisters in 2004. The total number of sample days was 8 to 13 per trailhead, except
at Cathedral Pass and Waptus River, which were only sampled on 3 days each and Six
Lakes, which was sampled on 28 days. The greater sampling effort expended at Three
Sisters meant that 74% of the moderate use sample was from that wilderness, with 50%
of the moderate use sample obtained at the Six Lakes trailhead. For very high use
trailheads, 52% of the sample was from the Three Sisters and no trailhead contributed
more than 37% of the sample.

Researchers were present for at least six hours per day (usually eight hours), with
sampling times adjusted to match the times of day that people were likely to be present.
Researchers attempted to contact all adult (16 years and older) members of all groups,



                                              13
either as they entered or exited the wilderness and asked them to participate. Nobody was
given both an entry and exit survey. Approximately 72% agreed. We obtained 1531
completed questionnaires, 1010 at the very high use trailheads and 521 at the moderate
use trailheads. We obtained 380 completed questionnaires from overnight visitors and
1151 from day users. Day users comprised a larger proportion of visitors at the very high
use trailheads (82%) than at the moderate use trailheads (63%). This provided a sample
size of about 500 for each questionnaire. When the sample was stratified by use level and
length of stay, the smallest sample size for the smallest stratum (overnight users at
moderate use trailheads) for any questionnaire was 49.

Data Analysis
We separately analyzed data from the four sources of experiential descriptors: the
wilderness-related experience descriptors, the Recreation Experience Preference
domains, the privacy functions and experiences related to Attention Restoration Theory
(ART). For each of these other than ART, we used factor analysis of pre-trip motivations
(principal components factor analysis with promax rotation) to identify clusters of related
individual experience items. Our purpose was more data organization than data reduction.
Then we used two-factor analysis of variance to assess the influence of trail use level and
length of stay on experience achievement (assessed post-trip). Specifically we
hypothesized that visitors to moderate use trails would have higher experience
achievement scores than visitors to very high use trails. We also hypothesized in most
(but not all) cases that overnight users would have higher experience achievement scores
than day use visitors. We present tables for each of the main factors (use level and length
of stay), including values for F and p based on two-tailed results. Differences were
generally considered significant at α = 0.10 if scores were higher for moderate use
visitors or overnight visitors. For the few items (e.g., getting exercise), where it was not
logical to hypothesize higher experience achievement for moderate use visitors,
differences were considered significant at α = 0.05. In the few cases where there was a
significant interaction between use level and length of stay, we assessed the effect of each
factor at both levels of the other factor.


We also used multiple regression to explore the effect of more precise estimates of
amount of use on experience achievement. Independent variables were four different
measures related to amount of use, as well as a dummy variable for length of stay. Two
measures were objective counts of the number of groups who entered the wilderness and
who exited from the wilderness during the period of time (usually 8 hours) that we were
handing out questionnaires. Although these measures should provide highly accurate
estimates of use density in the area during the sample day, they are not accurate estimates
of what visitors encountered. Depending on where and when they came and went, some
visitors might see most of the other groups in the area while others might see none. The
two other measures were judgments we asked the visitors to make. We asked them how
many other groups they encountered and we asked them the percent of time they were in
sight of other groups. Such judgments, if accurate, should be more meaningful estimates
of use density, from the perspective of influence on the visitor experience. However, such
estimates might not be very accurate, because they require remembering the number of



                                            14
other groups encountered and, in the case of the time estimate, the ability to factor in
time. Such estimates are likely to vary with attitudes, preferences and expectations. For
example, of two individuals encountering the same number of people, a person who felt
crowded or expected to see few people is likely to report more encounters than someone
who did not feel crowded or who expected to see lots of people.

The two objective counts were highly correlated (r = 0.84). The two judgments were less
highly correlated (r = 0.55). Estimates of the number of groups encountered were more
highly correlated than time estimates with trailhead counts. For number of groups
entering, correlations were 0.62 for encounter estimates and 0.41 for time estimates. For
groups exiting, correlations were 0.65 for encounters and 0.50 for time estimates.

We conducted two-factor analyses of variance using data on pre-trip motivations—the
experiences visitors desired--collected as people entered the wilderness (similar to our
analyses of post-trip experience achievement). We did this for the wilderness-related
experience descriptors, the Recreation Experience Preference domains and the privacy
functions but not the experiences related to Attention Restoration Theory. We used t-tests
to assess the significance of differences between pre-trip motivations and post-trip
experience achievement scores. Where post-trip scores are significantly lower than pre-
trip scores, we conclude that visitors were unable to have the experiences they desired.
Finally, we tested for significant interaction between use level and pre- and post-trip
differences (i.e. whether the degree to which desired experiences were achieved differed
between visitors to very high use and moderate use trails). We also tested interaction
between length of stay and pre- and post-trip differences. For this purpose we used
analyses of variance with the factors, pre-post trip, use level and length of stay.

                                          Results
Sample Characteristics
All participants were hikers and most came in small groups. The median group size was 2
and only 3% of groups were larger than 10. Trips were typically short. Day users made
up 77% of our sample. The mean length of a day hike was 4.4 hours. The mean length of
overnight hike was 2.0 nights; 50% of overnighters were out just one night and only 5%
were out for more than 5 nights. The median age of the sample was 39 years, although
people of all ages (16 to 84) were included. Males comprised 54% of the sample.

Most of the sample had quite a bit of wilderness experience. Only 3% were on their first
wilderness visit and 30% said that they had been to more than 20 other wilderness areas.
About 50% of the sample reported visiting wilderness at least 6 times per year. Although
40% were hiking at the place we contacted them for the first time, 20% had been there at
least 6 times before. Wilderness is important to most participants, with 60% of
participants agreeing with the statement, “I find that a lot of my life is organized around
wilderness use”; only 18% disagreed with the statement. Moreover, 80% agreed with the
statement “I feel like wilderness is a part of me.” In response to the statement, “I get
greater satisfaction out of visiting wilderness than other areas,” only 3% disagreed and
44% strongly agreed. When responses to these three statements are aggregated into a
single score for wilderness attachment, the mean score was 1.48 on a 7-point scale from



                                            15
-3 (very low attachment) to +3 (very high attachment). Finally, most participants (70%)
reported knowing at least “a little bit about what legally classified Wilderness is”; 24%
thought they knew “a lot.”

Some of these attributes varied with trail use level and between day and overnight visitors
(Table 1). The time spent on day trips was significantly longer (t = 8.3, p < 0.01) on very
high use trails (mean of 4.7 hours) than moderate use trails (mean of 3.8 hours), while the
mean number of nights spent on overnight trips was 2.0 regardless of use level. Mean age
was greater both for day users (F = 92.3, p < 0.01) and on moderate use trails (F = 7.5, p
< 0.01). Gender did not differ significantly with trail use level (χ2 = 0.1, p = 0.75), but
males were significantly more prevalent (χ2 = 16.8, p < 0.001) among overnight users
(63%) than day users (52%). Groups were significantly larger on very high use trails, but
this was only true for overnight users (t = 4.11, p < 0.001). Similarly, overnight groups
were significantly larger than day use groups, but only on the very high use trails (t =
4.95, p < 0.001).

Table 1. Variation in visitor attributes with trail use level and length of stay.

                                                              High         Moderate         Day     Overnight
Age (mean of those over 16 years)                                38a          40 b            42 a
                                                                                                         35b
                                                                                                 a
Male (%)                                                          54           55             52         63 b
Group size (mean number of people)                              3.5 a          3.0 b         3.2 a       3.8 b
On first wilderness trip (%)                                       3            2              2a         4b
Other wildernesses visited (median number)                    11-15 a         6-10 b       11-15  a
                                                                                                       6-10 b
Visit wilderness more than 5 times/yr (%)                         49           48             54 a       33 b
                                                                                                 a
Visited “this place” more than 5 times (%)                        21           19             23         12 b
Know “a little” or “a lot” about classified                      67 a         77 b            69 a       76 b
wilderness (%)
Wilderness attachment score (mean)*                              1.46            1.53         1.47               1.52
Values with different subscripts within a row are statistically different (p ≤ 0.05).
* Mean agreement with 3 items (“I find that a lot of my life is organized around wilderness use,” “I feel
like wilderness is a part of me” and “I get greater satisfaction out of visiting wilderness than other areas”,
on 7-point scale from strongly agree (+3) to strongly disagree (-3).

Day users generally had greater levels of wilderness experience. They were less likely to
be on their first trip (χ2 = 5.2, p = 0.02) and had been to more other wilderness areas
(gamma = 0.17, p < 0.001). They visited wilderness more frequently (gamma = 0.33, p <
0.001) and had visited the place we contacted them more often (gamma = 0.20, p <
0.001). Experience did not vary with trail use level except that visitors to the very high
use trails had been to more other wildernesses (gamma = -0.11, p = 0.01) than visitors to
the moderate use trails. In contrast, overnight users (gamma = -0.14, p = 0.001) and
visitors to moderate use trails (gamma = 0.20, p < 0.001) reported a higher level of
knowledge about wilderness. Wilderness attachment scores did not vary significantly
with use level or length of stay. With just one exception, these findings about how sample
attributes varied with trail use level and length of stay were consistent with what we
found in a study of visitors to 36 trailheads with a wide range of use levels in 13



                                                      16
wildernesses distributed across Oregon and Washington (Cole and Hall 2005). In that
study, group size did not vary significantly with use level or length of stay.

Wilderness Related Experiences
Using experiential descriptors from the language of the Wilderness Act and wilderness
writers, visitors were asked, before their trip, about the experiences they hoped to have
(motivations). Others were asked, after their trip, about the experiences they actually had
(experiences achieved). A factor analysis of pre-trip motivations suggested that the 23
individual items could be clustered into five factors (Table 2). Our purpose in the analysis
was simply to organize individual items—not to reduce the data to a smaller number of
constructs. All but one item had factor loadings of at least 0.4 on a single factor. “A sense
of being away from the modern world” loaded on two factors but was assigned to the
factor to which it was most conceptually related.

Table 2. Pre-trip motivationsa for wilderness-related experiences.
Factors and Individual Itemsb                         Factor    Mean    Standard     Factor   Factor
                                                     Loading            Deviation    Mean       αc
Wilderness Setting Attributes                                                         5.37     0.82
   A sense of being away from the modern world            .43     5.62        1.40
   A sense of freedom                                     .46     5.51        1.40
   A feeling of remoteness                                .86     5.36        1.45
   Sense that surroundings not impacted by people         .59     5.34        1.56
   Solitude                                               .83     5.26        1.44
   Wilderness opportunities                               .62     5.11        1.49
Physical Response                                                                       5.25    0.60
   To be physically revitalized                           .80     5.64        1.21
   To feel challenge                                      .79     4.86        1.57
Connection to the Natural World                                                         5.19    0.86
   To be fascinated with the natural environment          .78     5.64        1.34
   To feel connected with or part of wild nature          .78     5.56        1.40
   To feel at home in the natural world                   .75     5.41        1.43
   To sense the simplicity of life                        .63     5.28        1.47
   To feel free from reliance on modern technology        .45     4.70        1.73
   To sense the dominance of the natural world            .38     4.54        1.75
Serenity and Absorption                                                                 4.96    0.81
   To feel peace and tranquility                          .61     5.59        1.35
   To be living in present rather than past or future     .63     5.26        1.67
   To be totally absorbed in what I am doing              .79     5.00        1.57
   To feel solitude that is not interrupted by others     .62     4.83        1.64
   To feel an insignificant part of world around me       .58     4.13        1.74
Personal Growth                                                                         4.47    0.80
   To feel awe and humility                               .65     4.87        1.62
   To feel a sense of personal growth                     .66     4.45        1.66
   To focus on matters of importance to me                .78     4.42        1.64
   To feel a sense of spiritual growth                    .62     4.13        1.84
a
  Means for factors and individual items are for responses to questions about experience importance or how
much visitors would like the experience on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely or very much), asked
before the trip.
b
  Items are clustered by factor as derived from principal components factor analysis, promax rotation, with
factor loadings shown.
c
   α = Cronbach’s reliability alpha.



                                                    17
All individual experiences were at least moderately important to visitors, with mean
scores above the midpoint (4) of the 7-point scale. The cluster of items most important to
visitors was labeled Wilderness Setting Attributes because the items within this factor
are more descriptors of the setting that is experienced than of physical or psychological
outcomes of the experience. The factor contains six items that reflect the language of the
Wilderness Act (solitude, primitiveness, unconfinedness, naturalness, remoteness and
wilderness). The second most important factor was labeled Physical Response because it
consists of two items that describe a physical response to the wilderness setting—being
physically revitalized and experiencing challenge. The three remaining factors consist of
psychological outcomes or states of mind resulting from experiencing the wilderness
setting. The most important of these to visitors is Connection to the Natural World, six
items about being fascinated with, connected to, at home in or feeling the dominance of
the natural world, freedom from modern technology and sensing the simplicity of life. A
fourth factor, Serenity and Absorption, contains five items: peace and uninterrupted
solitude, living in and being absorbed in the present and feeling an insignificant part of
the world. The least important factor—still with a mean importance of almost 4.5 on the
scale from 1 to 7—is Personal Growth. This factor consists of four items, personal and
spiritual growth, awe and an ability to focus on important matters.

Experience Achievement--The ability to achieve some of these experiences varied with
use level (Table 3). Each of the five factors contained items that differed significantly
between very high use and moderate use trails; 10 of the 23 individual items differed
significantly. Visitors to very high use trails had significantly lower experience
achievement scores for four of the individual items under the Wilderness Setting
Attributes factor. Visitors to very high use trails, whether on day or overnight trips, were
less able than moderate use trail visitors to experience “a sense of being away from the
modern world” and “a sense that the surroundings haven’t been impacted by people.” For
the items “a feeling of remoteness” and “solitude,” there was a significant interaction
between use level and length of stay. Day users were more able to experience remoteness
and solitude on moderate use trails than on very high use trails; but overnight users were
equally able to find remoteness and solitude on very high and moderate use trails.

This suggests that visitors to very high use trails had a harder time than visitors to less
popular places experiencing the setting attributes that wilderness is supposed to provide.
However, differences were not particularly large. The largest difference between means,
for the item “solitude,” was 1.13 units (16%) on the 7-point scale. Even on the very high
use trails, experience achievement scores for these items were above the scale mid-point
of 4.




                                            18
Table 3. Use level effects on wilderness-related experiences achieveda.
                                                                 High Use         Mod. Use         ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean      S.E. Mean S.E.           F      pb
Wilderness Setting Attributes
   Being away from the modern world                            5.11      0.08    5.54 0.11        5.3   0.02
   A sense of freedom                                          5.21      0.07    5.51 0.12        2.1   0.15
   A feeling of remoteness                                     4.34      0.09    5.28 0.14 13.1 <0.01c
   Surroundings not impacted by people                         4.09      0.09    4.89 0.14 13.6 <0.01
   Solitude                                                    4.19      0.09    5.32 0.14 12.9 <0.01c
   Wilderness opportunities                                    4.80      0.10    5.13 0.15        0.1   0.71
Physical Response
   Physical revitalization                                     4.99      0.08    4.83 0.14        1.6    0.20
   Challenge                                                   4.87      0.09    4.53 0.14 10.2 <0.01
Connection to the Natural World
   Fascination with the natural environment                    5.56      0.08    5.26 0.13        7.9 <0.01
   Connection with or part of wild nature                      5.34      0.07    5.40 0.11        0.1    0.74
   Being at home in the natural world                          5.31      0.07    5.42 0.12        0.5    0.49
   The simplicity of life                                      5.06      0.09    5.20 0.15        0.4    0.54
   Free from reliance on modern technology                     4.87      0.10    5.25 0.14        0.8    0.37
   The dominance of the natural world                          4.70      0.09    4.50 0.16        2.9    0.09
Serenity and Absorption
   Peace and tranquility                                       5.28      0.07    5.73 0.11        3.0    0.09
   Living in present rather than past or future                5.20      0.09    5.25 0.15        0.3    0.58
   Being totally absorbed in what I am doing                   4.66      0.08    4.72 0.14        0.4    0.53
   Having solitude interrupted by others                       3.61      0.09    2.75 0.13 20.5 <0.01
   Feel insignificant part of world around me                  3.97      0.11    3.72 0.17        5.3    0.02
Personal Growth
   Awe and humility                                            4.72      0.10    4.11 0.17 13.6 <0.01
   Sense of personal growth                                    4.16      0.10    4.07 0.16        2.1    0.15
   To focus on matters of importance to me                     3.56      0.11    3.71 0.17        0.6    0.46
   Sense of spiritual growth                                   3.74      0.10    4.06 0.17        2.0    0.16
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much, most of the time). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation
factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “peace and tranquility,” where we hypothesized higher
scores for visitors to moderate use trails, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.
c
   Interaction between use level and length of stay is significant for these items. For solitude and
remoteness, use level is significant for day users only.

Surprisingly few of the physical and psychological outcomes of these experiences were
experienced to a greater degree by visitors to moderate use trails. Peace and tranquility,
one of the items under the Serenity and Absorption factor, was experienced more on
moderate use trails and moderate trail users were less likely to have had their solitude
interrupted (Table 3). However, visitors to very high use trails experienced challenge—
one of the items under Physical Response—to a greater degree than visitors to moderate
use trails. Visitors to very high use trails experienced more “fascination with the natural
environment” (Connection to the Natural World), more feeling of “being an insignificant
part of the world around me” (Serenity and Absorption) and more “awe and humility”
(Personal Growth).




                                                     19
There were more significant differences between day and overnight visitors than there
were between visitors to very high and moderate use trails. Overnight visitors had
significantly higher experience achievement scores for items under each of the five
factors and 13 of the 23 individual items (Table 4). Day users did not have higher scores
for any items.

Table 4. Length of stay effects on wilderness-related experiences achieveda.
                                                                 Day Use         Overn. Use       ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                 Mean       S.E. Mean S.E.           F       pb
Wilderness Setting Attributes
   Being away from the modern world                           5.17      0.08     5.47 0.14       1.4     0.23
   A sense of freedom                                         5.27      0.07     5.39 0.13       0.1     0.81
   A feeling of remoteness                                    4.46      0.09     5.20 0.15       6.3     0.01
   Surroundings not impacted by people                        4.25      0.09     4.56 0.17       0.3    0.56
   Solitude                                                   4.33      0.09     5.24 0.15       7.9 <0.01
   Wilderness opportunities                                   4.81      0.09     5.21 0.17       1.6    0.20
Physical Response
   Physical revitalization                                    4.93      0.08     4.99 0.16       0.2     0.67
   Challenge                                                  4.58      0.09     5.50 0.14 26.8 <0.01
Connection to the Natural World
   Fascination with the natural environment                   5.40      0.08     5.73 0.15       4.3     0.04
   Connection with or part of wild nature                     5.31      0.07     5.57 0.13       2.4     0.13
   Being at home in the natural world                         5.30      0.07     5.54 0.13       2.1     0.14
   The simplicity of life                                     5.01      0.09     5.46 0.15       5.2     0.02
   Free from reliance on modern technology                    4.84      0.09     5.56 0.15       9.6 <0.01
   The dominance of the natural world                         4.50      0.09     5.20 0.17 13.7 <0.01
Serenity and Absorption
   Peace and tranquility                                      5.35      0.07     5.69 0.12       1.9     0.17
   Living in present rather than past or future               5.16      0.09     5.42 0.17       1.2     0.28
   Being totally absorbed in what I am doing                  4.59      0.08     5.02 0.16       4.4     0.04
   Having solitude interrupted by others                      3.30      0.08     3.53 0.17       5.4     0.02
   Feel insignificant part of world around me                 3.71      0.10     4.65 0.21 17.5 <0.01
Personal Growth
   Awe and humility                                           4.41      0.09     5.09 0.19 13.8 <0.01
   Sense of personal growth                                   4.02      0.09     4.58 0.18       6.7     0.01
   To focus on matters of importance to me                    3.47      0.10     4.14 0.21       5.9     0.02
   Sense of spiritual growth                                  3.76      0.10     4.12 0.20       2.0     0.16
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much, most of the time). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation
factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests.

We explored these relationships in more detail with multiple regression analyses based on
the four measures of amount of use we had collected. These analyses should better
account for the variation in use levels experienced by different groups within the broad
categories of very high and moderate use trails, as well as the possibility that some hikers
on moderate use trails actually encountered more other people than a group using a very
high use trail (by going off trail or being there on a low use day). However, it is important
to remember that none of these measures are highly accurate estimates of the use density
each group experienced. Two measures are objective counts of groups in the general area
and two are judgments respondents made about number of groups seen and the percent of


                                                     20
time they were in sight of other groups. Both judgments require good memory and, in the
latter case, a good sense of time. We also included a dummy variable that accounted for
the effect of differences between day and overnight users.

Use level and length of stay were each significant variables for 11 of the 23 experiences
(Table 5). The negative values for the standardized beta coefficients indicate that
overnight users had higher experience achievement scores than day users and that
experience achievement declined as use increased. For the solitude interrupted item,
interruptions increased as use level increased (positive beta coefficients) and were more
common among overnight users. Although this suggests a more pronounced effect of
amount of use than was suggested by the analyses of variance, the magnitude of effect
was small. The change in R2 approximates the additional amount of variation in
experience achieved resulting from including that variable. The largest variance
explained by all use level variables and length of stay combined was 17% for solitude.

Table 5. Multiple regression resultsa relating various estimates of amount of use and
length of stayb to the extent wilderness-related experiences were achievedc.
                                                          Entering          Exiting           Groups               Time          Day/
                                                           Groups           Groups             Seen                Seen        Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                             ∆R2     β        ∆R2     β         ∆R2     β        ∆R2          β   ∆R2     β
Wilderness Setting Attributes
 Being away from the modern world                         -        -       .01     -.12      -        -      .04      -.13     -        -
 A sense of freedom                                       -        -        -        -       -        -      .03      -.18     -        -
 A feeling of remoteness                                 .02     -.14       -        -       -        -      .06      -.19    .02     -.13
 Surroundings not impacted by people                     .01     -.13       -        -       -        -      .04      -.14     -        -
 Solitude                                                .02     -.15       -        -       -        -      .11      -.27    .04     -.19
 Wilderness opportunities                                 -        -       .02     -.15      -        -       -         -      -        -
Physical Response
 Physical revitalization                                   -       -        -        -       -        -        -          -    -        -
 Challenge                                                 -       -        -        -       -        -        -          -   .05     -.22
Connection to the Natural World
 Fascination with the natural environment                  -       -        -        -       -        -       -         -      -        -
 Connection with or part of wild nature                    -       -        -        -       -        -      .01      -.11     -        -
 Being at home in the natural world                        -       -        -        -       -        -       -         -      -        -
 The simplicity of life                                    -       -        -        -      .01     -.10      -         -      -        -
 Free from reliance on modern technology                   -       -        -        -       -        -       -         -     .03     -.16
 The dominance of the natural world                        -       -        -        -       -        -       -         -     .02     -.15
Serenity and Absorption
 Peace and tranquility                                    -        -        -        -      .05     -.14     .01      -.13     -        -
 Living in present rather than past or future             -        -        -        -       -        -       -         -      -        -
 Being totally absorbed in what I am doing                -        -        -        -       -        -       -         -     .01     -.10
 Having solitude interrupted by others                   .03      .20       -        -       -        -      .09      .22     .01     -.09
 Feel insignificant part of world around me               -        -        -        -       -        -       -         -     .03     -.18
Personal Growth
 Awe and humility                                          -       -        -        -       -        -        -          -   .02     -.15
 Sense of personal growth                                  -       -        -        -       -        -        -          -   .01     -.12
 To focus on matters of importance to me                   -       -        -        -       -        -        -          -   .02     -.14
 Sense of spiritual growth                                 -       -        -        -      .01     -.10       -          -    -        -
a
  Values are (1) the change in R2 (variance explained) that results from adding significant variables to the stepwise model and (2)
standardized beta coefficients of the full model (illustrating directionality and magnitude of effect). Negative beta indicates experience
achievement declines as use increases or is higher for overnight than day users.
b
  Independent variables are (1) number of groups entering during the day, (2) number of groups exiting during the day, (3) visitor
estimates of number of groups seen, (4) visitor estimates of percent time in sight of other groups and (5) a dummy variable for day vs.
overnight use.
c
  Responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are
clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.



                                                                   21
The five experiences that were achieved more on moderate use trails (“being away from
the modern world,” “a feeling of remoteness,” “a sense that the surroundings haven’t
been impacted by people,” “solitude” and “peace and tranquility”) (Table 4), varied
significantly with one or more of the four measures of amount of use (Table 5). Having
one’s solitude interrupted (significantly more common on very high use trails) also varied
significantly with use level. In addition, experience achievement increased as amount of
use decreased for the two other items in the Wilderness Setting Attributes factor (“a sense
of freedom” and “wilderness opportunities”), for two items in Connection to the Natural
World (“connection with or being part of wild nature” and “the simplicity of life”), and
one item under Personal Growth (“sense of personal growth”).

However, amount of use did not explain much of the variation in experience achieved for
any of these experiences. Only for “solitude” and “having my solitude interrupted by
other people” did it explain more than 10% of the variation. On average, experience
achievement tends to decline as use increases, but there is substantial variation among
people. For example, eight of the 53 individuals who reported seeing other groups more
than 50% of the time assigned a score of 6 or 7 to the item “solitude” (on the 7-point
scale with 7 being an extreme level of achievement). Conversely, four of the 69 groups
that reported seeing other groups less than 1% of the time assigned a score of 1 or 2 to the
item, suggesting little ability to get away from crowds even though they only saw a few
others.

In addition to being highly variable, the relationship between use and experience was
weak—that is, large differences in amount of use resulted in quite small differences in
experience. To illustrate this graphically, we divided each measure of amount of use into
ten categories, each with roughly equivalent numbers of observations (about 50
individuals in each category). For each use category (e.g. 14 to 16 groups entering, 6-
10% of time in sight of others), we calculated means and standard deviations. These were
plotted on graphs, using the midpoint of each use category, and fitted with straight lines.
In effect this separated the variability associated with differences between respondents
(illustrated by the standard deviations) from the effect of use on experience (how well the
mean values can be fitted to a model—in our case a straight line).

Figures 1a-d show how the ability to have “solitude” varied with each of the four use
measures. This is one of the two experiences most influenced by amount of use. For each
measure, the high degree of variability is clear. However, there is clearly a tendency for
solitude to be more difficult to experience as use levels increase. This suggests that low r2
values reflect variability among people in the amount of solitude they experience given a
particular use density rather than the lack of a linear relationship between use and
solitude for each respondent. This is consistent with the findings of Stewart and Cole
(2001) at Grand Canyon National Park, where they were able to study how the same
person responded to different use densities.




                                             22
a)                    7                                               b)                        7


                      6                                                                         6
Experience Achieved




                                                                          Experience Achieved
                      5                                                                         5


                      4                                                                         4


                      3                                                                         3


                      2                                                                         2


                      1                                                                         1
                          0     10      20      30      40     50                                   0      20       40       60      80

                                 Groups Entering Per Day                                                  Groups Exiting Per Day




     c) 7                                                                 d)                    7


                      6                                                                         6
Experience Achieved




                                                                          Experience Achieved




                      5                                                                         5


                      4                                                                         4


                      3                                                                         3


                      2                                                                         2


                      1                                                                         1
                          0      20     40      60      80     100                                  0      10       20       30      40

                          Time Spent in Sight of Other Groups (%)                                       Groups Encountered Per Day

Figure 1. Relationship between various measures of amount of use and the extent to which
solitude was achieved on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much). Values are mean responses
and standard deviations within each of 10 use level classes.

Moreover, this relationship is surprisingly linear. Curvilinear models (quadratic and
cubic) fit the data slightly better—suggesting that the rate of decline in experience
achievement is greater where use levels are low than where use levels are high. But linear
models are statistically significant and nearly as good. It is also clear that the effect of
amount of use on solitude is small; most visitors experience at least a moderate sense of
solitude at the very highest use levels. These models estimate that, for the average visitor,
a solitude level of 4 (half way between none and very much) occurs with about 35 groups



                                                                     23
entering the area, 50 groups exiting, 24 encounters with other groups and being in sight
of other groups almost 47% of the time.

The weak relationship between amount of use and experience can be expressed by
calculating the magnitude of change in use that would typically result in a one unit loss of
experience achievement (on a 7-point scale). To improve the ability to achieve solitude
just one unit, the number of entering groups would have to be reduced by 27 groups. The
number of exiting groups would have to be reduced by 44 groups, the number of
encounters by 20 groups and the amount of time in sight of others by 47%. This suggests
that, for very high use trails, use levels would have to be reduced severely to even have
modest effects on solitude. Again, this is consistent with the findings of Stewart and Cole
(2001). Individuals vary greatly in their solitude experiences, but there is a consistent but
small adverse effect of use density on solitude.

Figure 2 shows how the relationship between amount of use and solitude achievement
varies between day and overnight users. Day users experience less solitude than
overnight users at all but the lowest use densities. Moreover, solitude declines more with
increasing number of encounters among day users. Consequently, differences between
day and overnight users are greater at the higher use levels. This difference may reflect
the ability of overnight users in popular places to have solitude at their camp, despite
encountering many other groups during the day.

                                             7



                                             6
                       Experience Achieved




                                             5



                                             4



                                             3



                                             2
                                                     Overnight Users
                                                     Day Users
                                             1
                                                 0        10            20        30    40

                                                         Number of Groups Encountered


Figure 2. Difference between day and overnight visitors in the relationship between group
encounters and the extent to which solitude was achieved on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very
much). Values are mean responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level classes.

The six experiences, in addition to solitude, that were achieved to a significantly higher
degree on moderate use trails (Table 3) are shown in Figure 3, using the measure of use
density with the most explanatory power. Clearly, increasing use has adverse effects on
experience achievement but the magnitude of effect is small. Even at the highest levels of
use, mean experience achievement scores are above the scale midpoint, except in the case
of surroundings that have not been impacted and remoteness. Some of these graphs also



                                                                       24
suggest a more curvilinear relationship. For solitude interrupted by other people,
interruptions clearly increase more rapidly at low levels of use than at high use levels.
                      7                                                                                   7
      a)                                                                          b)
                      6                                                                                   6
Experience Achieved




                                                                                   Experience Achieved
                      5                                                                                   5


                      4                                                                                   4


                      3                                                                                   3

                                     "a s e n s e th a t th e
                      2                                                                                   2         "a s e n s e o f b e in g
                                "s o s u rro u n d in g s h a ve n 't
                                     litu d e "                                                                     a w a y fro m th e m o d e rn w o rld "
                                     b e e n im p a c te d b y p e o p le "
                      1                                                                                   1
                          0         20         40        60        80       100                                 0         20         40        60        80       100

                              T im e in S ig h t o f O th e r P e o p le (% )                                       T im e in S ig h t o f O th e r P e o p le (% )
c)                                                                                     d)
                      7                                                                                   7


                      6                                                                                   6
Experience Achieved




                                                                                    Experience Achieved


                      5                                                                                   5


                      4                                                                                   4


                      3                                                                                   3


                      2                                                                                   2
                              "a s e n s e o f fre e d o m "                                                        "a fe e lin g o f re m o te n e s s "
                      1                                                                                   1
                          0         20         40        60        80       100                                 0          20        40        60        80           100

                              T im e in S ig h t o f O th e r P e o p le (% )                                       T im e in S ig h t o f O th e r P e o p le (% )

                      7                                                                                   7
 e)                                                                                  f)
                      6
                                                                                                          6
Experience Achieved




                                                                                    Experience Achieved




                      5
                                                                                                          5
                      4
                                                                                                          4
                      3

                                                                                                          3
                      2

                      1            "s o litu d e in te rru p te d                                         2
                                                                                                                      "p e a c e a n d tra n q u ility"
                                      b y o th e r p e o p le "
                      0                                                                                   1
                          0         20         40        60        80       100                                 0               10        20           30             40

                              T im e in S ig h t o f O th e r P e o p le (% )                                 N u m b e r o f G ro u p s E n c o u n te re d P e r D a y


Figure 3. Relationship between the time other groups were in sight (%) and the experiences (in
addition to solitude) that were most influenced by amount of use on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7
(very much). Values are mean responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level
classes.



                                                                                  25
Figure 4 shows the relationship between groups encountered and the ability to sense a
“connection with or being part of wild nature”, an experience significantly but very
weakly related to amount of use. This experience does tend to decline as use increases but
very slightly. Mean experience achievement is above 5 even at some of the highest use
levels that exist anywhere in wilderness.


                                              7




                                              6
                        Experience Achieved




                                              5




                                              4



                                                      "connection with or being part of wild nature"
                                              3
                                                  0           20           40            60            80   100

                                                                   Time in Sight of Other People (%)



Figure 4. Relationship between time in sight of other groups (%) and the extent to which visitors
experienced “connection with or being a part of wild nature” on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7
(very much). Values are mean responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level
classes.

For the experiences that vary most with amount of use, the subjective judgments of
amount of use explain more variation than the objective counts. This may mean that the
judgments are better approximations of what was actually experienced or it may reflect
biased estimation in which those feeling less solitude or more crowding report higher
encounter levels than those not feeling that way.

Relationship Between Desired and Achieved Experiences—Satisfaction with one’s
experience is a function of motivations and expectations (Manning 1999). Therefore, in
addition to interest in the ability to achieve certain experiences, we were also interested in
the relationship between desired experiences (motivations) and achieved experiences. A
low level of experience achievement is less problematic if there is little desire for that
experience.

An examination of how pre-trip motivations varied with use level indicated that visitors
to moderate use trails had significantly higher motivations for all six of the individual
items clustered under the Wilderness Setting Attributes, three of the six items under the
Connection to the Natural World Factor, and three of the five items under the Serenity
and Absorption Factor (Table 6). All six of the experiences that were more achieved on
moderate use trails were also more desired on moderate use trails. The only experience
more desired by very high use trail users (and achieved more by them) was “to be
challenged.” Differences are small, not exceeding 0.75 on a 7-point scale.



                                                                                26
Table 6. Use level effects on pre-trip motivations for wilderness-related experiencesa.
                                                                 High Use         Mod. Use        ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean       S.E. Mean S.E.         F        pb
Wilderness Setting Attributes
   Sense being away from the modern world                      5.48      0.08    5.88 0.09 10.0 <0.01
   A sense of freedom                                          5.41      0.08    5.65 0.10       2.8     0.09
   A feeling of remoteness                                     5.17      0.09    5.71 0.10 16.1 <0.01
   Sense surroundings not impacted by people                   5.23      0.09    5.71 0.11       4.7     0.03
   Solitude                                                    5.06      0.08    5.58 0.10       9.5 <0.01
   Wilderness opportunities                                    5.01      0.09    5.31 0.11       2.9     0.09
Physical Response
   To be physically revitalized                                5.63       0.07   5.65 0.09       0.2      0.67
   To be challenged                                            4.95      0.09    4.69 0.13       4.2      0.04
Connection to the Natural World
   Be fascinated with the natural environment                  5.64       0.08   5.62 0.10       0.1     0.82
   Feel connected with or part of wild nature                  5.44      0.08    5.76 0.10       5.8     0.02
   To feel at home in the natural world                        5.32      0.08    5.53 0.10       2.1     0.15
   To sense the simplicity of life                             5.14      0.09    5.51 0.10 11.1 <0.01c
   Free from reliance on modern technology                     4.60      0.10    4.83 0.13       3.3     0.07
   Sense the dominance of the natural world                    4.50       0.10   4.56 0.14       1.6     0.21
Serenity and Absorption
   To feel peace and tranquility                               5.48      0.08    5.76 0.10       4.7      0.03
   Living in present rather than past or future                5.13      0.10    5.47 0.12       4.4      0.04
   To be totally absorbed in what I am doing                   4.94      0.09    5.08 0.12       1.4      0.24
   Feel solitude not interrupted by others                     4.55      0.10    5.30 0.12 19.1 <0.01
   Feel an insignificant part of world                         4.04      0.10    4.30 0.13       4.3      0.04
Personal Growth
   To feel awe and humility                                    4.86      0.09    4.92 0.12       0.5      0.50
   To feel a sense of personal growth                          4.43      0.10    4.56 0.12       0.0      0.96
   To focus on matters of importance to me                     4.37      0.09    4.66 0.12       1.4      0.24
   To feel a sense of spiritual growth                         4.09      0.11    4.28 0.14       0.4      0.54
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about experience importance or how much visitors
would like the experience on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely or very much), asked before the trip.
Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For freedom, solitude and freedom from reliance on modern technology, where
we hypothesized higher scores for visitors to moderate use trails, differences are considered significant
when p ≤ 0.10.
c
   Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for these items. For sensing the simplicity of life,
use level is significant for overnight users only.

There were fewer significant motivational differences between day and overnight visitors
(Table 7). Overnight visitors had significantly higher motivations for two individual
items—“to be challenged and “to feel a sense of personal growth.” The finding that
overnight visitors had similar motivations to day users, but higher experience
achievement scores, suggests that day users were less able than overnight users to have
the experiences they desired.




                                                       27
Table 7. Length of stay effects on pre-trip motivations for wilderness-related
experiencesa.
                                                                 Day Use       Overn. Use     ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                  Mean     S.E. Mean S.E. F             pb
Wilderness Setting Attributes
   Sense being away from the modern world                      5.61    0.07    5.66 0.13 0.0 0.90
   A sense of freedom                                          5.46    0.07    5.60 0.12 0.4 0.55
   A feeling of remoteness                                     5.29    0.08    5.56 0.13 1.4 0.24
   Sense surroundings not impacted by people                   5.26    0.08    5.56 0.14 2.5 0.12
   Solitude                                                    5.18    0.08    5.44 0.11 0.9 0.34
   Wilderness opportunities                                    5.06    0.08    5.25 0.13 0.6 0.43
Physical Response
   To be physically revitalized                                5.63    0.07    5.66 0.11 0.1 0.80
   To be challenged                                            4.79    0.08    5.04 0.14 4.2 0.04
Connection to the Natural World
   Be fascinated with the natural environment                  5.62    0.07    5.67 0.12 0.1 0.74
   Feel connected with or part of wild nature                  5.52    0.07    5.66 0.13 0.3 0.61
   To feel at home in the natural world                        5.39    0.08    5.41 0.13 0.0 0.90
   To sense the simplicity of life                             5.29    0.08    5.23 0.14 0.6 0.44
   Free from reliance on modern technology                     4.71    0.09    4.61 0.17 0.6 0.45
   Sense the dominance of the natural world                    4.52    0.09    4.52 0.17 0.0 0.95
Serenity and Absorption
   To feel peace and tranquility                               5.54    0.07    5.68 0.13 0.3 0.56
   Living in present rather than past or future                5.20    0.09    5.42 0.15 0.8 0.36
   To be totally absorbed in what I am doing                   4.99    0.08    4.99 0.14 0.0 0.91
   Feel solitude not interrupted by others                     4.76    0.09    4.98 0.15 0.1 0.73
   Feel an insignificant part of world                         4.11    0.09    4.20 0.16 0.1 0.75
Personal Growth
   To feel awe and humility                                    4.82    0.09    5.04 0.15 1.7 0.20
   To feel a sense of personal growth                          4.37    0.09    4.78 0.15 4.4 0.04
   To focus on matters of importance to me                     4.39    0.09    4.70 0.15 1.9 0.17
   To feel a sense of spiritual growth                         4.12    0.10    4.27 0.18 0.3 0.59
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about experience importance or how much visitors
would like the experience on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely or very much), asked before the trip.
Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests.

We explored the relationship between motivations and experiences further by (1)
examining differences between mean pre-trip and post-trip scores and (2) testing for
interaction between these differences and use level, as well as length of stay. A
significant interaction suggests that the relationship between motivations and experiences
differs with use level or length of stay. For example, Figure 5a shows pre-trip and post-
trip data for “solitude.” Visitors on moderate use trails both desired and achieved more
solitude than visitors on very high use trails. But the difference between use levels was
greater for what was experienced than for what was desired. In statistical terms, the
interaction between pre-post trip differences and use level was significant, suggesting that
very high use trail visitors were less able to have the solitude experience they wanted.
Figure 5b shows similar data for “a sense of being away from the modern world.” Again,
visitors on moderate use trails both desired and achieved more sense of being away. In
this case, however, the interaction is not significant. Moderate use visitors were no more
able than very high use visitors to achieve the level of feeling away that they desired. For


                                                     28
solitude, very high use visitors both experienced less solitude and were less able to
experience what they desire. For feeling away from the modern world, very high use
visitors experienced less of a sense of being away but were no less able to experience
what they desire.
               a)                  7                                 b)   7
                                             "solitude"                       "being away from the modern world"
             Experience Achieved
                                                                                                   Very High Use
                                                     Very High Use
                                   6                                      6                        Moderate Use
                                                     Moderate use



                                   5                                      5




                                   4                                      4




                                   3                                      3
                                       Desired     Experienced                    Desired      Experienced
Figure 5. Difference between experience desired and experience achieved (mean, standard error),
for very high use and moderate use trail, for (a) solitude and (b) being away from the modern
world.

For nine of the 22 experiences, pre-trip motivations differed significantly from
experiences achieved (Table 8). The item about interrupted solitude is not included
because the fact that it was asked differently makes pre-post differences difficult to
interpret. Eight experiences were achieved less than they were desired. These included
items from each factor other than Serenity and Absorption. One experience was achieved
more than it was desired--feeling “free from reliance on modern technology.”

Table 8. Difference in wilderness-related experiences between pre-trip to post-trip
evaluations and interaction between this difference and use level and length of stay*.
                                                                               Pre-    Post-         Use              Length
                                                                               Trip    Trip      Interaction        Interaction
Factors and Individual Items                                                                      F       p         F        p
Wilderness Setting Attributes
 Sense being away from the modern world                                       5.62     5.24      0.1      0.71     0.7       0.40
 A sense of freedom                                                           5.51     5.29      0.0      0.88     0.0       0.95
 A feeling of remoteness                                                      5.36a    4.58b     2.7      0.10     1.9       0.17
 Sense surroundings not impacted by people                                    5.34 a   4.34b     3.5      0.06     0.5       0.49
 Solitude                                                                     5.26 a   4.52b     5.2      0.02     5.1       0.02
 Wilderness opportunities                                                     5.11     4.87      0.2      0.64     1.0       0.32
Physical Response
 To be physically revitalized                                                 5.64a    4.94b     1.4      0.24     0.1      0.82
 To be challenged                                                             4.86     4.76      0.5      0.49     7.4     <0.01
Connection to the Natural World
 Be fascinated with the natural environment                                   5.64     5.46      2.3      0.13     2.0      0.16
 Feel connected with or part of wild nature                                   5.56a    5.32b     1.7      0.19     0.3      0.58
 To feel at home in the natural world                                         5.41     5.32      0.2      0.64     0.8      0.36
 To sense the simplicity of life                                              5.28     5.09      1.1      0.29     3.7      0.05
 Free from reliance on modern technology                                      4.70a    4.96b     0.0      0.92     7.8     <0.01
 Sense the dominance of the natural world                                     4.54     4.62      2.3      0.13     6.6      0.01



                                                                     29
                                                             Pre-      Post-        Use            Length
                                                             Trip      Trip     Interaction      Interaction
Factors and Individual Items                                                     F       p       F        p
Serenity and Absorption
  To feel peace and tranquility                              5.59      5.40       0.5   0.50 0.7            0.39
  Living in present rather than past or future               5.26      5.24       1.8   0.18 0.3            0.60
  To be totally absorbed in what I am doing                  5.00      4.68       0.7   0.40 3.0            0.08
  Feel solitude not interrupted by others**                  4.83a     3.31b    54.8 <0.01 1.7              0.20
  Feel an insignificant part of world                        4.13      3.91       7.3 <0.01 9.2            <0.01
Personal Growth
  To feel awe and humility                                   4.87a     4.52b      7.0 <0.01 4.3             0.04
  To feel a sense of personal growth                         4.45 a
                                                                       4.09b      0.8   0.36 0.4            0.55
  To focus on matters of importance to me                    4.43a     3.61b      0.6   0.42 2.4            0.12
  To feel a sense of spiritual growth                        4.13      3.81       0.1   0.74 0.3            0.56
* Pre- and post-trip values are means for responses to questions about how much visitors desired or
experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items with different superscripts are
significantly different (p ≤ 0.05). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor. We hypothesized greater
ability to have desired experiences for overnight visitors and visitors to moderate use trails, so differences
are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.
**Before the trip, we asked about the desire to not have solitude interrupted; after the trip we asked about
experiencing interruptions of solitude. For this item, the larger the difference between pre-and post-trip, the
less solitude was interrupted.

For three of the six items under the Wilderness Setting Attribute factor and the individual
experiences “not having my solitude interrupted by other people,” “feel an insignificant
part of the world,” and “feel awe and humility,” there was a significant interaction
between pre-post trip differences and use level (Table 8). For the Wilderness Setting
Attribute items and for “not having my solitude interrupted,” very high use visitors were
less able to experience what they desire than moderate use visitors. For the experiences
“feel an insignificant part of the world” and “feel awe and humility”, very high use
visitors were more able to experience what they desire than moderate use visitors.

There were also eight experiences for which there was a significant interaction between
pre-post trip differences and length of stay. In all cases, the difference between desires
and experience achieved was greater for day users than overnight users. For “solitude,”
neither type of visitor had their desires met, but day users were less able to experience
what they desire. For “to be challenged, “sense the simplicity of life,” “sense the
dominance of the natural world,” “to be totally absorbed in what I am doing,” “feel and
insignificant part of the world” and “feel awe and humility,” overnight visitors achieved
more than they desired while day visitors were not able to meet their desires. For feeling
“free from reliance on modern technology,” experience achieved exceeded experience
desired for both groups, but pre-post trip differences were smaller for day users.

Summary—The most important motives for taking wilderness trips are experiencing the
setting attributes (physical, social and managerial) that are unique to wilderness—
remoteness, primitiveness, naturalness, solitude and freedom. For most of these most
important experiences, the ability to have them declines somewhat as amount of use
increases. Visitors to very high use places also have lower motivations for these
experiences, either because they truly desire them less or because they know they should
not expect them. However, for “remoteness,” “surroundings not impacted by people” and


                                                      30
“solitude,” very high use visitors are also less able than moderate use visitors to have
their desires met. It is notable that very high use levels adversely affect the ability to
experience wilderness as the language of the Wilderness Act suggests it should be
experienced.

Somewhat less important, but still valued, are a number of physical responses and
psychological outcomes resulting from experiencing wilderness landscapes—physical
revitalization and challenge, connection to the natural world, serenity and absorption and
personal growth. Visitors to very high use places were better able than moderate use
visitors to have some of these experiences. This suggests that very high use levels do not
always diminish experience opportunities.

The wilderness experience one has appears to be at least as strongly influenced by
whether one is on an overnight or a day trip as it is by use level. For 13 of the 23
experiences we studied, day users experience them to a lesser degree than overnight
visitors (Table 4). No items were experienced more by day users than by overnight
visitors. Day users also had lower motivations for a few of these experiences, either
because they truly desire them less or because they know they should not expect them.
However, for eight experiences—“solitude,” “challenge,” “to sense the simplicity of
life,” “freedom from reliance on modern technology,” “sense the dominance of the
natural world,” “to be totally absorbed in what I am doing,” “feel an insignificant part of
the world” and “awe and humility,” significant interactions indicate that day users were
less able to have their desires met than overnight visitors.

Recreation Experience Preferences
We explored the psychological outcomes and benefits of wilderness experiences further
by drawing on three different theoretical frameworks. One of these was the Recreation
Experience Preference (REP) scales developed by Driver et al. (1987). A number of the
items in these scales (e.g. having a sense of solitude) are similar to those described in the
previous section. We explore them separately here because these scales were developed
through a process not exclusive to examining wilderness experiences.

Using REP scale items, visitors were asked, before their trip, about the experiences they
hoped to have (motivations). Others were asked, after their trip, about the experiences
they had (experiences achieved). For purposes of data organization, a factor analysis of
pre-trip motivations suggested that the 27 individual items can be clustered within six
factors (Table 9). All but two items had factor loadings of at least 0.4 on a single factor.
“To feel isolated” loaded on two factors but much more highly (0.75) on the factor to
which it was assigned. To gain a better appreciation of nature” loaded on several factors
but was assigned to the factor to which it was most conceptually related.




                                              31
Table 9. Pre-trip motivationsa, using Recreation Experience Preference scale items
Factors and Individual Itemsb                         Factor    Mean     Standard    Factor    Factor
                                                     Loading             Deviation   Mean        α
Enjoy Nature and Learning                                                             5.63      0.77
   View the scenery                                       .85       6.27     0.89
   Be close to nature                                     .79       6.17     1.12
   Explore the area                                       .85       5.87     1.20
   Gain a better appreciation of nature                   .24       5.19     1.49
   Learn about this place                                 .48       4.69     1.53
Solitude and Autonomy                                                                   5.11     0.83
   Be where it’s quiet                                    .80       5.70     1.36
   Get away from crowded situations for awhile            .71       5.57     1.44
   Experience the open space                              .65       5.50     1.31
   Have a sense of solitude                               .84       5.06     1.53
   Be free to make my own choices                         .53       4.78     1.75
   Feel isolated                                          .75       4.03     1.85
Family and Friends                                                                      5.05     0.58
   Do something with my companions                        .78       5.54     1.64
   Do something with my family                            .77       4.55     2.26
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth                                           4.58     0.87
   Give my mind a rest                                    .52       5.69     1.36
   Get away from the usual demands of life                .47       5.08     1.64
   Relax physically                                       .47       5.05     1.48
   Grow and develop spiritually                           .64       4.35     1.87
   Think about who I am                                   .87       4.12     1.79
   Gain a new perspective on life                         .67       3.93     1.78
   Reflect on past memories                               .77       3.81     1.81
Achievement and Physical Fitness                                                        4.53     0.76
   Get exercise                                           .97       5.76     1.21
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                         .64       4.84     1.71
   Show myself I could do it                              .47       3.92     1.90
   Develop my skills and abilities                        .51       3.61     1.81
People and Risk                                                                         3.03     0.75
   Experience risky situations                            .87       3.22     1.74
   Feel that other people could help if I need them       .77       3.05     1.69
   Be with and observe other people using the area        .80       2.81     1.72
a
  Means for factors and individual items are for responses to the question “how important is the experience”
on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely), asked before the trip.
b
  Items are clustered by factor as derived from principal components factor analysis, promax rotation, with
factor loadings shown. α = Cronbach’s reliability alpha.

The factor most important to visitors, Enjoy Nature and Learning, contained items
from two of Driver’s experience domains: Enjoy Nature and Learning. Solitude and
Autonomy, contained items from two of Driver’s domains: Escape Physical Pressure and
Autonomy. The third factor, Family and Friends, contained two items from the domains
Family Togetherness and Similar People. A fourth factor, Introspection, Relaxation and
Personal Growth, contained seven items from the domains Driver called Introspection,
Escape Personal-Social Pressures, Nostalgia, Physical Rest and Creativity. A fifth factor,
Achievement and Physical Fitness, contained four items from the domains Driver called
Achievement and Physical Fitness. The final factor, People and Risk, contains three
items Driver called Risk-Taking, Risk-Reduction and New People.



                                                    32
Experience Achievement--The ability to achieve some of these experiences varied with
use level (Table 10). Visitors to very high use trails had significantly lower experience
achievement scores for four individual items related to Solitude and for the item “do
something with my family.” For the item “have a sense of solitude”, there was a
significant interaction between use level and length of stay. Overnight users were more
able to find solitude on moderate use trails than on very high use trails; but day users
were equally able to find solitude on very high and moderate use trails.

Table 10. Use level effects on experiences achieveda, using Recreation Experience
Preference scale items.
                                                                  High Use          Mod. Use        ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                    Mean      S.E. Mean S.E.           F      pb
Enjoy Nature and Learning
   View the scenery                                             6.33      0.05     6.27 0.08      0.1    0.72
   Be close to nature                                           5.77      0.07     5.93 0.06      0.1    0.70
   Explore the area                                             5.28      0.09     5.71 0.11      0.2    0.64
   Gain a better appreciation of nature                         5.33      0.08     5.33 0.14      0.9    0.35
   Learn about this place                                       4.33      0.10     4.57 0.15      1.1    0.30
Solitude and Autonomy
   Be where it’s quiet                                          5.36      0.08     5.97 0.11      6.7    0.01
   Get away from crowded situations awhile                      4.44      0.10     5.79 0.12 32.2 <0.01
   Experience the open space                                    5.79      0.07     5.92 0.10      0.0    0.99
   Have a sense of solitude                                     4.20      0.09     5.40 0.14 17.1 <0.01c
   Be my own boss                                               3.46      0.11     3.31 0.17      2.9    0.09
   Feel isolated                                                3.68      0.09     4.42 0.17      6.0    0.01
Family and Friends
   Do something with my companions                              5.36      0.11     5.78 0.14      3.1    0.06
   Do something with my family                                  3.72      0.13     4.46 0.21      6.4    0.02
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
   Give my mind a rest                                          4.92      0.09     5.28 0.13      1.0    0.31
   Get away from the usual demands of life                      5.03      0.10     5.28 0.14      1.4    0.25
   Relax physically                                             4.84      0.10     4.78 0.16      0.0    0.99
   Grow and develop spiritually                                 3.62      0.11     3.83 0.18      0.1    0.72
   Think about who I am                                         3.39      0.10     3.44 0.17      0.5    0.47
   Gain a new perspective on life                               3.66      0.10     3.70 0.17      0.4    0.55
   Reflect on past memories                                     4.13      0.10     3.96 0.16      3.9    0.05
Achievement and Physical Fitness
   Get exercise                                                 6.26      0.06     6.04 0.10      4.1    0.04
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                               5.15      0.09     4.72 0.15      9.8 <0.01
   Show myself I could do it                                    4.24      0.11     3.79 0.17      8.8 <0.01
   Develop my skills and abilities                              3.75      0.10     3.54 0.16      3.9    0.05
People and Risk
   Experience risky situations                                  3.10      0.10     2.76 0.14 14.6 <0.01c
   Feel other people could help if I need them                  3.20      0.11     2.85 0.16      0.9    0.35
   Be with and observe others using the area                    2.86      0.10     2.28 0.13 13.1 <0.01
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests.
c
   Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for these items. For solitude, use level is
significant for overnight users only; for risk, use level is significant only for day users.




                                                     33
Visitors to very high use trails had significantly higher experience achievement scores for
all four items in the factor Achievement and Fitness, as well as the individual items
“reflect on past memories,” “experience risky situations,” and “be with an observe others
using the area.” (Table 10). For the item “experience risky situations,” there was a
significant interaction between use level and length of stay. Day users on very high use
trails felt more risk than day users on moderate use trails; but overnight users’ sense of
risk did not vary with amount of use..

None of the items related to Enjoy Nature and Learning—the most important
motivation—varied significantly with use level. Neither did most of the items related to
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth.

More items differed significantly between day and overnight visitors. Overnight visitors
had significantly higher experience achievement scores for items in five of the six
factors: Enjoy Nature and Learning, Solitude and Autonomy, Introspection and Personal
Growth, Achievement and Physical Fitness and New People and Risk (Table 11).
Overnight visitors had significantly higher scores for 16 of the 27 individual items. Day
users had significantly higher scores for only one item—“being able to relax physically”.
The only factor that did not vary significantly with length of stay was Family and
Friends.


Table 11. Length of stay effects on experiences achieveda, using Recreation Experience
Preference scale items.
                                                      Day Use      Overn. Use      ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                         Mean   S.E.   Mean S.E.      F    pb
Enjoy Nature and Learning
  View the scenery                                   6.31   0.05   6.34   0.10    0.6    0.43
  Be close to nature                                 5.78   0.07   5.93   0.13    0.4    0.56
  Explore the area                                   5.28   0.08   5.89   0.11    5.9    0.02c
  Gain a better appreciation of nature               5.30   0.08   5.48   0.16    0.6    0.44
  Learn about this place                             4.22   0.10   5.10   0.18   11.0   <0.01c
Solitude and Autonomy
  Be where it’s quiet                                5.42   0.08   5.99   0.12    5.7    0.02
  Get away from crowded situations awhile            4.68   0.09   5.40   0.16    3.4    0.07
  Experience the open space                          5.79   0.07   5.99   0.11    1.0    0.32
  Have a sense of solitude                           4.38   0.09   5.28   0.15    8.1   <0.01c
  Be my own boss                                     3.26   0.10   4.03   0.21   10.8   <0.01
  Feel isolated                                      3.65   0.09   4.88   0.17   25.1   <0.01
Family and Friends
  Do something with my companions                    5.43   0.10   5.71   0.19    0.8    0.36
  Do something with my family                        3.95   0.13   3.89   0.27    0.7    0.42
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
  Give my mind a rest                                4.95   0.08   5.29   0.17    1.1    0.29
  Get away from the usual demands of life            5.01   0.10   5.67   0.16    7.5   <0.01
  Relax physically                                   4.94   0.09   4.37   0.20    7.2   <0.01
  Grow and develop spiritually                       3.55   0.10   4.18   0.21    5.9    0.02
  Think about who I am                               3.33   0.09   3.70   0.21    2.1    0.15
  Gain a new perspective on life                     3.59   0.09   3.99   0.20    2.7    0.10
  Reflect on past memories                           3.96   0.10   4.55   0.18    6.7    0.01



                                                34
                                                                  Day Use        Overn. Use        ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean      S.E. Mean S.E.           F       pb
Achievement and Physical Fitness
   Get exercise                                                 6.24     0.05    6.01 0.12       2.6     0.11
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                               4.91     0.09    5.52 0.15 11.9 <0.01
   Show myself I could do it                                    3.95     0.10    4.77 0.20 13.8 <0.01
   Develop my skills and abilities                              3.53     0.09    4.36 0.19 16.7 <0.01
People and Risk
   Experience risky situations                                  2.79     0.09    3.89 0.19 30.7 <0.01
   Feel other people could help if I need them                  3.05     0.10    3.32 0.20       3.5     0.09
   Be with and observe others using the area                    2.60     0.09    3.07 0.20       8.1 <0.01
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “get away from crowded situations for awhile” where we
hypothesized higher scores for overnight users, differences are considered significant when p ≤, 0.10.
c
  Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for these items. For each, length of stay is
significant on high use trails only.

Multiple regression analyses, using the four measures of amount of use we had collected
and a dummy variable for length of stay, also suggest that whether one is on a day trip or
an overnight trip affects more of these experiences than amount of use (Table 12). Length
of stay was a significant variable for 17 of the 27 experiences, while amount of use was
significant for 13 of the experiences. The magnitude of effect was small, however. The
largest variance explained by length of stay was 6% for “experience risky situations.” For
most experiences, variance explained was just 1-2%. The negative values for most
standardized beta coefficients indicate that overnight users had higher experience
achievement scores than day users. Day users had higher achievement for “relax
physically” and “get exercise.”



Table 12. Multiple regression resultsa relating various estimates of amount of use and
length of stayb to experiences achievedc.

                                               Entering      Exiting       Groups           Time          Day/
                                                Groups       Groups         Seen            Seen        Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                  ∆R2     β    ∆R2     β     ∆R2     β     ∆R2         β   ∆R2     β
Enjoy Nature and Learning
 View the scenery                              -      -      -      -     -      -      -          -    -      -
 Be close to nature                            -      -     .02   -.14    -      -      -          -    -      -
 Explore the area                              -      -     .03   -.16    -      -      -          -   .02   -.14
 Gain a better appreciation of nature          -      -      -      -     -      -      -          -    -      -
 Learn about this place                        -      -     .03   -.15    -      -      -          -   .02   -.14
Solitude and Autonomy
 Be where it’s quiet                           -      -      -      -    .02    -.15   .07     -.18    .02   -.13
 Get away from crowded situations awhile      .01   -.13     -      -    .20    -.24   .04     -.22    .02   -.11
 Experience the open space                     -      -      -      -    .02    -.13    -        -      -      -
 Have a sense of solitude                     .02   -.15     -      -     -       -    .11     -.27    .04   -.19
 Be my own boss                                -      -      -      -     -       -     -        -     .02   -.16
 Feel isolated                                 -      -     .03   -.15    -       -     -        -     .02   -.14
Family and Friends
 Do something with my companions              .01   -.10     -      -     -      -      -          -    -       -
 Do something with my family                   -      -     .01   -.09    -      -      -          -    -       -



                                                     35
                                                     Entering         Exiting         Groups          Time           Day/
                                                      Groups          Groups           Seen           Seen        Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                       ∆R2       β     ∆R2      β      ∆R2      β     ∆R2      β     ∆R2       β
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
   Give my mind a rest                              -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
   Get away from the usual demands of life          -        -      -       -      .01    -.12      -      -     .02     -.12
   Relax physically                                 -        -      -       -      .01    -.12      -      -     .01      .13
   Grow and develop spiritually                     -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .01     -.10
   Think about who I am                             -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
   Gain a new perspective on life                   -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
   Reflect on past memories                         -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .02     -.12
Achievement and Physical Fitness
   Get exercise                                     -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .01      .09
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                   -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .02     -.13
   Show myself I could do it                        -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .03     -.17
   Develop my skills and abilities                  -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .03     -.18
People and Risk
   Experience risky situations                      -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .06     -.24
   Feel other people could help if I need them      -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
   Be with and observe others using the area        -        -      -       -      .01     .12      -      -     .01     -.13
a
 Values are (1) the change in R2 (variance explained) that results from adding significant variables to the stepwise
model and (2) standardized beta coefficients of the full model (illustrating directionality and magnitude of effect).
Negative beta indicates that experience achievement declines as use increases and is higher for overnight users than day
users.
b
  Independent variables are (1) number of groups entering during the day, (2) number of groups exiting during the day,
(3) visitor estimates of number of groups seen, (4) visitor estimates of percent time in sight of other groups and (5) a
dummy variable for day vs. overnight use.
c
 Responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely).
Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.


The five experiences that were achieved more on moderate use trails (“be where it’s
quiet,” “get away from crowded situations for awhile,” “have a sense of solitude,” “feel
isolated” and “do something with my family”), varied significantly with one or more of
the four measures of amount of use (Table 12). In addition, experience achievement
increased as amount of use decreased for the fifth of the five items Driver called Escape
Physical Pressures (“experience the open space”), for the second item in the factor
Family and Friends (“do something with my companions”), for three items in Enjoy
Nature and Learning (“be close to nature,” “explore the area” and “learn about this
place”), and for two items related to Introspection and Relaxation (“get away from the
usual demands of life” and “relax physically’).

However, amount of use did not explain much of the variation in experience achieved for
any of these experiences. Only for “get away from crowded situations for awhile” and
“have a sense of solitude” did it explain more than 10% of the variation—25% in the case
of crowded situations and 13% in the case of solitude. On average, experience
achievement tends to decline as use increases, but there is substantial variation among
people.

The relationship between use and experience was also weak; large differences in amount
of use resulted in quite small differences in experience. Figure 6 shows the relationship
between number of encounters and ability to “get away from crowded situations for
awhile,” the experience most influenced by use level. Even for this variable, a 13 group



                                                            36
reduction in encounters per day results in only a 1 unit increase (on the 7-unit scale) in
experience achievement.


                                               7



                                               6




                     Experience Achieved
                                               5



                                               4



                                               3



                                               2
                                                       "be away from crowds of people"
                                               1
                                                   0            10          20           30   40

                                                               Groups Encountered Per Day

Figure 6. Relationship between group encounters and the extent to which visitors experienced “to
be away from crowds of people” on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much). Values are mean
responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level classes.

Figure 7 shows the relationship between groups encountered and ability to “experience
the open space,” an experience significantly but very weakly related to amount of use.
This experience does tend to decline as use increases but very slightly. Mean experience
achievement is above 5 even at some of the highest use levels that exist anywhere in
wilderness.



                                               7



                                               6
                         Experience Achieved




                                               5



                                               4



                                               3



                                               2         "experiencing the open space"

                                               1
                                                   0            10          20           30   40

                                                               Groups Encountered Per Day

Figure 7. Relationship between group encounters and the extent to which visitors experienced
“the open space” on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much). Values are mean responses and
standard deviations within each of 10 use level classes.



                                                                          37
As was the case with the wilderness-dependent experiences, for the experiences that vary
most with amount of use, the subjective judgments of amount of use explain more
variation than the objective counts. This may mean that the judgments are better
approximations of what was actually experienced or it may reflect biased estimation in
which those feeling less solitude or more crowding report higher encounter levels than
those not feeling that way.

Only one experience, “be with and observe others using the area,” was positively related
to amount of use. Although the analyses of variance indicated that visitors on very high
use trails were more able to experience Achievement and Physical Fitness than visitors
on moderate use trails, none of these experiences varied significantly with amount of use
in the regression analyses. This reinforces our speculation, noted above, that differences
between high and moderate use visitors reflect visitor characteristics (particularly
perceptions of risk and challenge) more than differences in amount of use. Figure 8
illustrates one of these relationships-- the relationship between groups encountered and
the ability to “gain a sense of accomplishment.” Overnight visitors were significantly
more able to experience accomplishment than day users but for neither group did amount
of use make much difference.


                                           7



                                           6
                     Experience Achieved




                                           5



                                           4



                                           3

                                                                                          Overnight Users
                                           2                                              Day Users
                                                   "gain a sense of accomplishment"
                                           1
                                               0             10             20            30                40

                                                               Number of Groups Encountered


Figure 8. The relationship between group encounters and the extent to which visitors experienced
“a sense of accomplishment” on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much), for day and overnight
visitors. Values are mean responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level classes.




                                                                          38
Relationship Between Desired and Achieved Experiences—Visitors to moderate use
trails had significantly higher motivations for four of the six individual items in the
Solitude and Autonomy factor, as well as the individual items, “do something with my
family” and “get away from the usual demands of life” (Table 13). In fact, four of the
five experiences that were more achieved on moderate use trails were also more desired
on moderate use trails. As was the case with experiences achieved, differences were not
large. No experiences were more desired by very high use trail users.

Table 13. Use level effects on pre-trip motivationsa, using Recreation Experience
Preference scale items.
                                                                 High Use          Mod. Use        ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean       S.E. Mean S.E. F                pb
Enjoy Nature and Learning
   View the scenery                                            6.32      0.05     6.21 0.07 1.2 0.27
   Be close to nature                                          6.11      0.07     6.27 0.08 1.5 0.22
   Explore the area                                            5.78      0.07     5.99 0.08 1.7 0.20
   Gain a better appreciation of nature                        5.13      0.08     5.19 0.11 0.0 0.89
   Learn about this place                                      4.62      0.09     4.77 0.11 0.0 0.86
Solitude and Autonomy
   Be where it’s quiet                                         5.62      0.08     5.91 0.10 1.6 0.21
   Get away from crowded situations awhile                     5.48      0.08     5.79 0.10 2.7 0.10
   Experience the open space                                   5.38      0.08     5.69 0.09 4.3 0.04
   Have a sense of solitude                                    4.89      0.09     5.36 0.11 2.9 0.09
   Be free to make my own choices                              3.60      0.10     3.99 0.15 2.2 0.14
   Feel isolated                                               3.89      0.10     4.36 0.14 4.0 0.05
Family and Friends
   Do something with my companions                             5.47      0.10     5.65 0.11 0.0 0.84
   Do something with my family                                 4.24      0.14     4.99 0.15 6.3 0.01c
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
   Give my mind a rest                                         5.64      0.08     5.82 0.09 0.6 0.42
   Get away from the usual demands of life                     4.96      0.09     5.36 0.12 2.9 0.09
   Relax physically                                            5.04      0.09     5.04 0.11 0.2 0.66
   Grow and develop spiritually                                4.27      0.10     4.46 0.12 0.0 0.83
   Think about who I am                                        4.12      0.10     4.07 0.13 2.0 0.16
   Gain a new perspective on life                              3.87      0.11     4.01 0.12 0.2 0.69
   Reflect on past memories                                    3.74      0.10     3.84 0.13 0.0 0.95
Achievement and Physical Fitness
   Get exercise                                                5.80      0.07     5.67 0.09 1.1 0.31
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                              4.90      0.10     4.73 0.12 3.6 0.06
   Show myself I could do it                                   3.98      0.11     3.81 0.14 3.0 0.09
   Develop my skills and abilities                             3.59      0.10     3.61 0.13 0.9 0.34
People and Risk
   Experience risky situations                                 3.21      0.10     3.27 0.12 0.4 0.55
   Feel other people could help if I need them                 3.05      0.10     3.03 0.12 1.6 0.20
   Be with and observe others using the area                   2.88      0.10     2.72 0.12 1.7 0.20
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about the importance of each item or how much
visitors were seeking or would like to experience it, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are
clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items, such as “get away from the usual demands of life,” where we
hypothesized higher scores for moderate use trails, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.
c
   Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for this item. Use level is significant for day users
only.



                                                       39
More motivational differences between day and overnight visitors were statistically
significant (Table 14). Overnight visitors had significantly higher motivations for items in
all of the factors other than Family and Friends. They had higher motivations for 14
experiences, while day users had significantly higher motivations for one experience—
“to get exercise.” Most of the experiences that day users were less able to have were also
experiences that they had less desire for.

Table 14. Length of stay effects on pre-trip motivationsa, using Recreation Experience
Preference scale items.
                                                                  Day Use        Overn. Use           ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean      S.E. Mean S.E.             F       pb
Enjoy Nature and Learning
   View the scenery                                             6.27     0.05    6.31 0.07         0.7      0.41
   Be close to nature                                           6.12     0.06    6.29 0.08         1.5      0.23
   Explore the area                                             5.75     0.07    6.12 0.08         7.7     <0.01
   Gain a better appreciation of nature                         5.15     0.08    5.15 0.12         0.0      0.88
   Learn about this place                                       4.54     0.09    5.01 0.11         7.9     <0.01
Solitude and Autonomy
   Be where it’s quiet                                          5.63     0.08    5.96 0.10         3.5      0.06
   Get away from crowded situations awhile                      5.50     0.08    5.82 0.11         3.0      0.08
   Experience the open space                                    5.45     0.07    5.60 0.10         0.4      0.51
   Have a sense of solitude                                     4.91     0.09    5.44 0.11         7.4     <0.01
   Be free to make my own choices                               3.64     0.10    4.00 0.17         2.2      0.14
   Feel isolated                                                3.87     0.10    4.54 0.15 10.1            <0.01
Family and Friends
   Do something with my companions                              5.45     0.09    5.75 0.11         2.1      0.15
   Do something with my family                                  4.49     0.12    4.59 0.20         0.2      0.66
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
   Give my mind a rest                                          5.62     0.08    5.92 0.09         3.8      0.05
   Get away from the usual demands of life                      4.96     0.09    5.47 0.11         6.7      0.01
   Relax physically                                             5.07     0.08    4.97 0.12         0.7      0.39
   Grow and develop spiritually                                 4.19     0.10    4.72 0.15         6.4      0.01
   Think about who I am                                         3.97     0.05    4.42 0.07         5.8      0.02
   Gain a new perspective on life                               3.81     0.10    4.19 0.15         3.3      0.07
   Reflect on past memories                                     3.72     0.09    3.93 0.16         1.0      0.31
Achievement and Physical Fitness
   Get exercise                                                 5.91     0.06    5.36 0.11 21.2            <0.01
   Gain a sense of accomplishment                               4.77     0.09    4.98 0.13         1.6      0.21
   Show myself I could do it                                    3.76     0.10    4.29 0.15         8.6     <0.01
   Develop my skills and abilities                              3.41     0.10    4.05 0.15 11.9            <0.01
People and Risk
   Experience risky situations                                  3.05     0.09    3.67 0.14 11.9            <0.01
   Feel other people could help if I need them                  2.92     0.09    3.34 0.14         5.5      0.02c
   Be with and observe others using the area                    2.76     0.09    2.96 0.14         1.6      0.20
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about the importance of each item or how much
visitors were seeking or would like to experience it, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are
clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “get away from crowded situations for awhile,” where we
hypothesized higher scores for overnight users, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.
c
  Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for this item. Length of stay is significant on high
use trails only.



                                                      40
For 14 of the 27 experiences, pre-trip motivations differed significantly from experiences
achieved (Table 15). Nine experiences were achieved less than they were desired. These
included particularly items in the Solitude and Autonomy and the Introspection,
Relaxation and Personal Growth factors. Five experiences were achieved more than they
were desired. These were mostly items related to Achievement and Physical Fitness.

Table 15. Difference between pre-trip and post-trip experience evaluations, using
Recreation Experience Preference scale items, and interaction between this difference
and use level and length of stay*.
                                                             Pre-     Post-         Use           Length
                                                             Trip     Trip      Interaction     Interaction
Factors and Individual Items                                                     F       p      F        p
Enjoy Nature and Learning
  View the scenery                                          6.27      6.28      0.1     0.74 0.1           0.76
  Be close to nature                                        6.17a     5.78b     0.1     0.95 0.1           0.70
  Explore the area                                          5.87a     5.32b     0.5     0.48 1.3           0.26
  Gain a better appreciation of nature                      5.19      5.22      0.7     0.40 2.2           0.14
  Learn about this place                                    4.69      4.37      0.3     0.56 2.0           0.16
Solitude and Autonomy
  Be where it’s quiet                                       5.70      5.48      2.9     0.09 0.6           0.46
  Get away from crowded situations awhile                   5.57a     4.79b 23.3 <0.01 0.3                 0.60
  Experience the open space                                 5.50a     5.78b     1.6     0.20 0.9           0.34
  Have a sense of solitude                                  5.06 a
                                                                      4.52b     6.2     0.01 1.1           0.29
  Be my own boss/free to make own choices                   3.56      3.18      7.8 <0.01 7.0            <0.01
  Feel isolated                                             4.03      3.83      0.0     0.87 3.9           0.05
Family and Friends
  Do something with my companions                           5.54      5.49      1.5     0.23 0.2           0.68
  Do something with my family                               4.55a     3.94b     0.0     0.93 0.1           0.72
Introspection, Relaxation and Personal Growth
  Give my mind a rest                                       5.69a     5.03b     0.5     0.48 0.2           0.63
  Get away from the usual demands of life                   5.08      5.10      0.1     0.79 0.1           0.80
  Relax physically                                          5.05a     4.81b     0.0     0.84 2.1           0.15
  Grow and develop spiritually                              4.35a     3.69b     0.2     0.68 0.0           0.87
  Think about who I am                                      4.12 a
                                                                      3.41b     0.2     0.64 0.2           0.68
  Gain a new perspective on life                            3.93      3.65      0.3     0.61 0.0           0.88
  Reflect on past memories                                  3.81a     4.09b     1.0     0.32 2.2           0.14
Achievement and Physical Fitness
  Get exercise                                              5.76a     6.19b     0.4     0.53 3.8           0.05
  Gain a sense of accomplishment                            4.84 a
                                                                      5.04b     2.5     0.11 3.1           0.08
  Show myself I could do it                                 3.92a     4.11b     1.1     0.30 2.0           0.16
  Develop my skills and abilities                           3.61      3.71      1.6     0.21 1.0           0.32
People and Risk
  Experience risky situations                               3.22      3.00      4.3     0.04    5.1        0.02
  Feel other people could help if I need them               3.05      3.11      1.4     0.23    0.2        0.65
  Be with and observe others using the area                 2.81      2.68      3.2     0.07    2.7        0.10
* Pre- and post-trip values are means for responses to questions about how much visitors desired or
experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items with different superscripts are
significantly different (p≤0.05). For items such as “be where it’s quiet,” where we hypothesized higher
ability to experience what was desired for moderate trail users, differences are considered significant when
p ≤ 0.10. Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.




                                                     41
For three of six individual items within the Solitude and Autonomy factor and the
individual item “to experience risky situations,” there was a significant interaction
between pre-post trip differences and use level (Table 15). For “have a sense of solitude”
and “get away from crowded situations awhile,” very high use visitors were less able to
experience what they desire than moderate use visitors. For “be my own boss” (asked
pre-trip as “be free to make my own choices”) and “experience risky situations,” very
high use visitors were more able to experience what they desire than moderate use
visitors. There were also four experiences for which there was a significant interaction
between pre-post trip differences and length of stay. For “be my own boss,” overnight
visitors achieved more than they desired while day visitors were not able to meet their
expectation. For “feel isolated” and “experience risky situations,” neither type of visitor
had their desires met, but day users were less able to have their desires met. For “get
exercise,” experience achieved exceeded experience desired for both groups, but pre-post
trip differences were smaller for overnight users.

Summary—The most important motives for taking wilderness trips, as measured with the
Recreation Experience Preference scales, were enjoying and learning about nature,
solitude, escaping physical, personal and social pressures, autonomy, the companionship
of friends and family and just getting exercise. This conclusion is reinforced by
knowledge gained in our exploration of wilderness experience items and from in-depth
interviews with wilderness visitors (Hall et al. 2007). For a number of these most
important experiences, the ability to have them declined as amount of use increased. Very
high use visitors also had lower motivations for most of these experiences, either because
they truly desire them less or because they know they should not expect them. However,
for “get away from crowded situations” and “have a sense of solitude,” very high use
visitors were also less able than moderate use visitors to have their desires met. Very high
use levels adversely affect the ability to have the type of experience most closely
described in the language of the Wilderness Act—opportunities for solitude.

Somewhat less important, but still valued, were introspection, personal growth and
achievement. High use visitors were better able than moderate use visitors to have some
of these experiences. This suggests that high use levels do not always diminish
experience opportunities. However, those experiences more achieved in high use places
were not among the more important experiences. Many of them were achieved more than
they were desired and none were very unique to wilderness. Finally, although this is
speculation, these results may be more reflective of the type of person who selects a more
popular trail than of the influence of use level on experience achievement. For example,
if more self-assured wilderness hikers select less popular trails, it is not surprising that
they did not feel such a sense of accomplishment or risk.

The wilderness experience one had was much more strongly influenced by whether one
was on an overnight or a day trip than by use level. For 16 of the 27 experiences we
studied, day users experienced them to a lesser degree than overnight visitors. These
included many of the motivations most important to visitors, although not the two most
important ones—“view the scenery” and “be close to nature.” They also included five of
the six items in the factor--Solitude and Autonomy--that is most unique to wilderness.



                                            42
The only item experienced more by day users than by overnighters was “relax
physically.” Day users also had lower motivations for these experiences, either because
they truly desire them less or because they know they should not expect them. Cole
(2001) also found that day users often had lower motivations for wilderness trips than
overnight visitors. However, for “be my own boss,” “feel isolated,” and “experience risky
situations,” significant interactions indicate that day users were less able to have their
desires met than overnight visitors.

Wilderness Privacy
In addition to exploring the degree to which visitors experienced solitude in wilderness,
we were also interested in the functional outcomes of such experiences. For this purpose,
we explored the extent to which visitors desired and experienced various privacy
functions. Factor analyses of motivations aligned closely with Pedersen’s (1997) five
privacy functions (Table 16). The most important of the privacy functions was
Rejuvenation. The mean score of the two items under this function was 5.5 on a scale of
1 (not at all important) to 7 (extremely important). Somewhat less important were the
functions Autonomy and Confiding. The least important functions, Contemplation and
Creativity, did not load on separate factors; their mean importance was slightly above the
midpoint of 4.

Table 16. Pre-trip motivationsa for experiences related to privacy functions.
Factors and Individual Itemsb                         Factor    Mean     Standard    Factor    Factor
                                                     Loading             Deviation   Mean        αc
Rejuvenation                                                                          5.53      0.77
   To release stress and tension                          .88       5.54     1.36
   To feel mentally rejuvenated                           .78       5.52     1.44
Autonomy                                                                                4.80     0.80
   Gain sense of personal freedom or independence         .83       4.61     1.62
   To feel free to behave as I want                       .94       4.05     1.79
Confiding                                                                               4.22     0.70
   To feel close to my companions                         .98       4.84     1.76
   To confide in others I trust                           .64       3.59     1.73
Contemplation and Creativity                                                            4.06     0.86
   To meditate and reflect                                .86       4.63     1.73
   To develop and explore new thoughts and ideas          .87       4.38     1.66
   To discover who I am                                   .78       3.70     1.79
   To work on solutions to personal problems              .82       3.53     1.79
a
  Means for factors and individual items are for responses to the question “how important is the experience”
on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely), asked before the trip.
b
  Items are clustered by factor as derived from principal components factor analysis, promax rotation, with
factor loadings shown.
c
   α = Cronbach’s reliability alpha.

Experience Achievement--Although visitors to moderate use trails achieved a higher
degree of solitude than visitors to very high use trails, they did not experience the
functional outcomes of privacy to a higher degree. None of the privacy function factors
and none of the individual items differed significantly between visitors to very high and
moderate use trails (Table 17).




                                                    43
Table 17. Use level effects on experiences achieveda for experiences related to privacy
functions.
                                                                 High Use         Mod. Use       ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean     S.E. Mean S.E. F             pb
Rejuvenation
   To release stress and tension                                5.16    0.08     5.26 0.13 0.1 0.71
   To feel mentally rejuvenated                                 4.81    0.09     4.89 0.14 0.1 0.75
Autonomy
   Sense of personal freedom/independence                       4.39    0.09     4.89 0.14 0.6 0.45
   To feel free to behave as I want                             4.31    0.09     4.74 0.15 0.7 0.42
Confiding
   To feel close to my companions                               4.31    0.11     4.67 0.17 0.5 0.50
   To confide in others I trust                                 3.27     0.11 3.44 0.17 0.1 0.79
Contemplation and Creativity
   To meditate and reflect                                      4.19    0.09     4.26 0.16 0.2 0.66
   Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas                       4.23    0.09     4.30 0.13 0.4 0.51
   To discover who I am                                         3.39    0.09     3.35 0.15 1.8 0.18
   To work on solutions to personal problems                    3.15    0.10     3.45 0.17 0.4 0.51
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests.



The multiple regression analyses suggested more of a relationship between use level and
privacy functions. Five of the 10 items declined significantly as use increased (Table 18).
This was the case for both of the items related to Autonomy, both of the items related to
Confiding and one of the items related to Creativity. But neither of the items related to
Rejuvenation or Contemplation varied significantly. For these items, encounter estimates
were better predictors of experience achieved than estimates of time in sight of other
groups or counts of groups entering and exiting the area. However, for none of these
items did use level explain much of the variance in experience achievement (R2 exceeded
1% for only one item where it was 3%).



Table 18. Multiple regression resultsa relating various estimates of amount of use and
length of stayb to experiences achievedc.

                                             Entering      Exiting      Groups           Time          Day/
                                              Groups       Groups        Seen            Seen        Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                ∆R2     β    ∆R2     β    ∆R2     β     ∆R2         β   ∆R2     β
Rejuvenation
 To release stress and tension               -      -     -      -      -     -      -          -    -      -
 To feel mentally rejuvenated                -      -     -      -      -     -      -          -    -      -
Autonomy
 Sense of personal freedom/independence      -      -     -      -     .01   -.11    -          -   .02   -.13
 To feel free to behave as I want            -      -     -      -     .03   -.15    -          -   .02   -.13
Confiding
 To feel close to my companions              -      -     -      -     .01   -.11    -          -   .02   -.11
 To confide in others I trust                -      -     -      -     .01   -.11    -          -   .04   -.18



                                                   44
                                                    Entering         Exiting        Groups           Time           Day/
                                                     Groups          Groups          Seen            Seen         Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                       ∆R2     β       ∆R2     β      ∆R2     β       ∆R2      β     ∆R2     β
Contemplation and Creativity
   To meditate and reflect                          -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .03     -.16
   Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas           -        -     .01     .16     .01    -.21      -      -     .01     -.11
   To discover who I am                             -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .01     -.11
   To work on solutions to personal problems        -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .03     -.17
a
 Values are (1) the change in R2 (variance explained) that results from adding significant variables to the stepwise
model and (2) standardized beta coefficients of the full model (illustrating directionality and magnitude of effect).
Negative beta indicates that experience achievement declines as use increases and is higher for overnight users than day
users.
b
  Independent variables are (1) number of groups entering during the day, (2) number of groups exiting during the day,
(3) visitor estimates of number of groups seen, (4) visitor estimates of percent time in sight of other groups and (5) a
dummy variable for day vs. overnight use.
c
 Responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely).
Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.


Whether one was on a day or an overnight trip, in contrast, did have a significant effect
on the functional outcomes of privacy. For all of the items other than those related to
Rejuvenation, overnight users had higher experience achievement scores than day users
(Table 19). Findings from the multiple regression analyses were identical. Day users were
less able to have experiences for all functions other than Rejuvenation (Table 18).

Table 19. Length of stay effects on experiences achieveda for experiences related to
privacy functions.
                                                                  Day Use        Overn. Use       ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean     S.E. Mean S.E.           F    pb
Rejuvenation
   To release stress and tension                                5.19    0.08     5.21 0.17       0.0  0.97
   To feel mentally rejuvenated                                 4.81    0.09     4.89 0.14       0.4  0.53
Autonomy
   Sense of personal freedom/independence                       4.35    0.09     4.96 0.17       7.8 <0.01
   To feel free to behave as I want                             4.31    0.09     4.95 0.17       5.5  0.02
Confiding
   To feel close to my companions                               4.30    0.10     4.89 0.19       5.3  0.02
   To confide in others I trust                                 3.14     0.10 4.05 0.21 15.3 <0.01
Contemplation and Creativity
   To meditate and reflect                                      4.07    0.09     4.77 0.17 11.8 <0.01
   Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas                       4.17    0.08     4.60 0.17       3.1  0.08
   To discover who I am                                         3.28    0.08     3.76 0.17       4.8  0.03
   To work on solutions to personal problems                    3.09    0.09     3.84 0.19       8.4 <0.01
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “develop and explore new thoughts and ideas,” where we
hypothesized higher scores for overnight users, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.

Figure 9 illustrates the influence of both number of encounters and length of stay on
feeling “free to behave as I want,” the experience most affected by use level. Overnight
users experienced freedom more than day users, except where use was very high.
Freedom generally declined slightly as use increased, although this tendency was dwarfed
by the magnitude of variation among individuals.




                                                            45
                                                 7
                                                            "to feel free to behave as I want"

                                                 6                                            Overnight Uers
                                                                                              Day Users




                           Experience Achieved
                                                 5



                                                 4



                                                 3



                                                 2



                                                 1
                                                     0     10             20             30                    40

                                                         Number of Groups Encountered Per Day

Figure 9. Difference between day and overnight visitors in the relationship between group
encounters and the extent to visitors experienced feeling “free to behave as I want” on a scale
from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much). Values are mean responses and standard deviations within
each of 10 use level classes.

Relationship Between Desired and Achieved Experiences—Although moderate use trail
users did not experience privacy functions to a greater degree than very high use trail
users, their motivations for some of these experiences was higher (Table 20).

Table 20. Use level effects on pre-trip motivationsa for experiences related to privacy
functions.
                                                                 High Use          Mod. Use        ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean       S.E. Mean S.E. F               pb
Rejuvenation
   To release stress and tension                               5.47      0.08     5.67 0.10 4.7 0.03
   To feel mentally rejuvenated                                5.43      0.09     5.66 0.11 3.1 0.08
Autonomy
   Sense of personal freedom/independence                      4.59      0.09     4.65 0.13 0.6 0.43
   To feel free to behave as I want                            3.97      0.10     4.20 0.14 5.6 0.02c
Confiding
   To feel close to my companions                              4.86      0.10     4.79 0.14 0.3 0.59
   To confide in others I trust                                3.59       0.10 3.59 0.14 0.0 0.91
Contemplation and Creativity
   To meditate and reflect                                     4.62      0.10     4.66 0.14 0.3 0.57
   Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas                      4.38      0.10     4.37 0.13 0.1 0.74
   To discover who I am                                        3.69      0.10     3.72 0.14 0.0 0.93
   To work on solutions to personal problems                   3.50      0.10     3.59 0.13 0.0 0.95
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about the importance of each item or how much
visitors were seeking or would like to experience it, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are
clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “to feel mentally rejuvenated,” where we hypothesized
higher scores for visitors on moderate use trails, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.
c
   Interaction between use and length of stay is significant for this item. For “to feel free to behave as I
want”, use level is significant for overnight users only.

They had significantly higher pre-trip desires for the Rejuvenation function of privacy
and for at least one of the items under the Autonomy function. This suggests that visitors


                                                                       46
to moderate use trails may have been less able than visitors to very high use trails to have
the experiences they desired. Despite statistical significance, however, differences were
small (Figure 10).



                                                     6.0
                                                                 'to release stress and tension"
                                                                               Very High Use
                                                     5.5                       Moderate Use




                               Experience Achieved
                                                     5.0



                                                     4.5



                                                     4.0



                                                     3.5



                                                     3.0

                                                           Desired                  Experienced
Figure 10. Difference between experience desired and experience achieved (mean, standard
error), for very high use and moderate use trail, for “to release stress and tension.”

In contrast, overnight and day users differed significantly in their desire for the
Confiding, Contemplation and Creativity functions of privacy, rather than the
Rejuvenation and Autonomy functions (Table 21). For each of these functions, overnight
users had higher motivations than day users.

Table 21. Length of stay effects on pre-trip motivationsa for experiences related to
privacy functions.
                                                                 Day Use        Overn. Use       ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                  Mean      S.E. Mean S.E. F                pb
Rejuvenation
   To release stress and tension                               5.54     0.07    5.55 0.12 0.0 0.97
   To feel mentally rejuvenated                                5.49     0.08    5.60 0.13 0.1 0.82
Autonomy
   Sense of personal freedom/independence                      4.57     0.09    4.73 0.15 0.6 0.43
   To feel free to behave as I want                            4.07     0.08    4.02 0.18 0.1 0.73
Confiding
   To feel close to my companions                              4.87     0.09    4.73 0.18 0.4 0.54
   To confide in others I trust                                3.50     0.08 3.85 0.17 4.1 0.04
Contemplation and Creativity
   To meditate and reflect                                     4.55     0.09    4.88 0.15 3.1 0.08
   Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas                      4.34     0.09    4.50 0.15 1.0 0.33
   To discover who I am                                        3.59     0.09    4.01 0.18 4.7 0.03
   To work on solutions to personal problems                   3.53     0.09    3.54 0.15 0.0 0.85
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about the importance of each item or how much
visitors were seeking or would like to experience it, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are
clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests. For items such as “to meditate and reflect,” where we hypothesized higher
scores for overnight visitors, differences are considered significant when p ≤ 0.10.




                                                                       47
Overnight users also achieved these privacy functions to a higher degree. In contrast to
items such as “to meditate and reflect,” where day users had lower motivations and
achievement (Fig. 11a), for items in the Autonomy function (such as “to feel free to
behave as I want—Fig. 11b), day users desired the experiences as much as overnight
users but achieved them less.

                 a)                                                      b)   5.5
                                     5.5   'to meditate and reflect"                'to feel free to behave as I want"
                                                       Overnight                            Overnight
               Experience Achieved


                                     5.0               Day                    5.0           Day


                                     4.5                                      4.5



                                     4.0                                      4.0



                                     3.5                                      3.5



                                     3.0                                      3.0
                                           Desired        Experienced                 Desired           Experienced

Figure 11. Difference between experience desired and experience achieved (mean, standard
error), for very high use and moderate use trail, for (a) “to meditate and reflect” and (b) to feel
free to behave as I want.”

Results from the analysis of interaction between pre-and post-trip differences and use
level and length of stay, suggests that these variables had little effect on the ability to
have the experiences that one desires (Table 22). Overall, visitors were generally unable
to experience the functions of Rejuvenation, Contemplation and Creativity to quite the
degree desired, but for none of these functions were interactions statistically significant.
In other words, differences between desired and achieved experiences were similar
whether one was on very high use or moderate use trails and whether one was a day or an
overnight visitor. For the function of Confiding, as well as the individual items “to feel
free to behave as I want” and “to work on solutions to personal problems,” overnight
users had higher post-trip achievement scores than pre-trip motivation scores. In contrast,
day users had these experiences less than they were desired.




                                                                        48
Table 22. Difference in experiences related to privacy functions from pre-trip to post-trip
evaluations, and interaction between this difference and use level and length of stay*.
                                                            Pre-      Post-        Use          Length
                                                            Trip      Trip     Interaction    Interaction
Factors and Individual Items                                                    F      p      F       p
Rejuvenation
  To release stress and tension                             5.54 a    5.19 b    0.4 0.55 0.0        0.84
  To feel mentally rejuvenated                              5.52 a
                                                                      4.80b     0.6 0.46 0.2        0.68
Autonomy
  Sense of personal freedom/independence                    4.61      4.47       0.5 0.49 2.4       0.13
  To feel free to behave as I want                          4.05a     4.44b     0.1 0.76 5.8        0.02
Confiding
  To feel close to my companions                            4.84      4.42       0.2 0.69 3.3       0.07
  To confide in others I trust                              3.59      3.32      0.1 0.79 0.1        0.80
Contemplation and Creativity
  To meditate and reflect                                   4.63 a    4.21 b    0.0 0.89 1.9        0.16
  Develop/explore new thoughts and ideas                    4.38      4.25      0.0 0.85 1.0        0.32
  To discover who I am                                      3.70a     3.38b     0.1 0.77 0.1        0.77
  To work on solutions to personal problems                 3.53      3.24       0.1 0.72 6.5       0.01
* Pre- and post-trip values are means for responses to questions about how much visitors desired or
experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items with different superscripts are
significantly different (p ≤ 0.05). Items are clustered by pre-trip motivation factor.

Summary—Most visitors felt that experiencing the five functions of privacy was at least
moderately important to their wilderness visit. Rejuvenation was particularly important.
Privacy functions were generally achieved, although in the case of Rejuvenation and
certain Contemplation items, not to the degree that they were desired. In contrast, one of
the items in the Autonomy function, “to feel free to behave as I want,” was achieved
more than it was desired. Earlier, we reported finding that visitors to very high use trails
were less able to experience solitude. Despite this, very high use visitors were just as able
as moderate use visitors to experience the varied functions of privacy. The most
substantial evidence of a use level effect on privacy functions was the significant but very
weak relationships between encounters with groups and five of these ten items (Table
18).

Privacy functions were more affected by whether one was on a day or an overnight trip.
Overnight visitors were better able than day users to achieve all privacy functions other
than Rejuvenation. They wanted some of these experiences more than day users as well.
However, for some items differences between motivations and experiences were greater
for overnight users—suggesting that overnight users were more able than day users to
have the experiences they wanted.




                                                      49
Attention Restoration Theory
Visitors were asked how much they experienced the wilderness in ways theorized to
allow for recovery from directed attention fatigue. However, they were not asked about
their pre-trip motivations—their desire to have these experiences. Therefore, we could
not factor analyze their motivations as we could for other experiences. When we factor
analyzed the extent to which these experiences were achieved, the resultant factors were
not very illuminating (data not shown). Of the hypothesized domains, only the Being
Away items clustered well.

Since conceptual consistency has been demonstrated elsewhere (e.g., Korpela and Hartig
1996, Laumann et al. 2001), we chose to report findings of items clustered under the four
hypothesized domains. All individual items were experienced at a level above the
midpoint (4) of the 7-point scale (Table 23). Of the four domains, visitors were most able
to achieve the experiences associated with Fascination. Three items (“I felt bored by the
environment,” “I was focused on things I had to get done after the trip” and “A feeling
that there was too much going on”) were asked in a reverse format—where a high score
indicates low achievement. For these items, values in tables have been recalculated to be
consistent with other items (by subtracting scores from 7).

Table 23. Experience achievement for experiences related to attention restoration theorya.
Factors and Individual Itemsb                                     Mean     S.E.   Factor
                                                                                  Mean
Fascination                                                                        5.26
   There was much to attract and hold my attention                  5.30    0.07
   I was absorbed in my immediate surroundings                      5.25    0.07
   I felt bored by the environmentc                                 5.24    0.06
Being Away                                                                           4.69
   I felt removed from my daily routines                            5.15    0.08
   I was away from other people’s demands and expectations          4.70    0.09
   I was focused on things I had to get done after the tripc        4.21    0.08
Compatibility                                                                        4.62
   I felt I could easily handle the problems that arise here        4.85    0.08
   I sensed that I belong here                                      4.82    0.08
   What I wanted to do was what needed to be done here              4.18    0.10
Coherence                                                                            4.60
   I sensed that the elements around me fit together                4.67    0.08
   I felt my immediate surroundings were part of a larger whole 4.58        0.09
   A feeling that there was too much going onc                      4.56    0.07
a
  Means for factors and individual items are for responses to a question about the extent to which each item
was experienced on the trip on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much), asked after the trip.
b
  Factors are theoretically rather than empirically derived.
c
  For items asked inversely to other items, scores were subtracted from 7 (i.e. higher scores indicate less
agreement with the item)




                                                     50
There was no evidence that visitors to very high use places in wilderness were less able to
experience environments in ways that are conducive to the restoration of attention. None
of the domains varied significantly with use level; only one individual item did and, for
this item, experience achievement increased as use level increased (Table 24). Visitors to
the very high use trails had significantly higher scores for “there was much to attract and
hold my attention” than visitors to moderate use trails.

Table 24. Use level effects on achievement of experiences related to attention restoration
theorya.
                                                               High Use        Mod. Use       ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean S.E. Mean S.E. F                 pb
Fascination
   There was much to attract and hold my attention             5.37     0.09 5.12       0.13 5.5 0.02
   I was absorbed in my immediate surroundings                 5.28     0.08 5.20       0.12 1.1 0.29
   I felt bored by the environmentc                            5.27     0.07 5.19       0.12 0.2 0.62
Being Away
   I felt removed from my daily routines                       5.05     0.10 5.39       0.14 0.8 0.36
   Away from other people’s demands and expectations           4.57     0.11 5.01       0.15 0.4 0.55
   I was focused on things I had to get done after the tripc 4.16       0.09 4.34       0.15 1.5 0.23
Compatibility
   I felt I could easily handle the problems that arise here    4.69    0.10 5.08       0.14 0.5 0.47
   I sensed that I belong here                                 4.84     0.10 4.70       0.15 3.3 0.07
   What I wanted to do was what needed to be done here         4.18     0.11 4.18       0.17 1.0 0.31
Coherence
   I sensed that the elements around me fit together           4.67     0.09 4.71       0.15 0.0 0.85
   I felt immediate surroundings were part of larger whole 4.58         0.10 4.69       0.16 0.2 0.68
   A feeling that there was too much going onc                 4.50     0.09 4.65       0.14 0.9 0.35
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by theoretical property.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests.
c
  For items asked inversely to other items, scores were subtracted from 7 (i.e. higher scores indicate less
agreement with the item)



Results from the multiple regression analyses were consistent with this. Use levels
affected experience achievement for only two of the 12 items (Table 25). Two of the
items in the Being Away domain (“I felt removed from my daily routines” and “I was
away from other people’s demands and expectations”) were negatively correlated with
increasing use but amount of use explained little of the variance in experience (1%).




                                                    51
Table 25. Multiple regression resultsa relating various estimates of amount of use and
length of stayb to experiences achievedc..
                                                                          Entering          Exiting        Groups    Time      Day/
                                                                           Groups           Groups          Seen     Seen    Overnight
Factors and Individual Items                                             ∆R2     β        ∆R2     ∆R2
                                                                                                  β      ∆R2
                                                                                                           β     β          ∆R2     β
Fascination
   There was much to attract and hold my            -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
attention
   I was absorbed in my immediate                   -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
surroundings
   I felt bored by the environment                  -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
Being Away
   I felt removed from my daily routines            -        -      -       -      .01    -.10      -      -     .02     -.13
   I was away from other people’s demands           -        -      -       -      .01    -.10      -      -     .01     -.10
and expectations
   I was focused on things I had to get done        -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
after the trip
Compatibility
   I felt I could easily handle the problems that   -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .03     -.16
arise here
   I sensed that I belong here                      -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
   What I wanted to do was what needed to be        -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -     .01     -.10
done here
Coherence
   I sensed that the elements around me fit         -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
together
   I felt my immediate surroundings were part       -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
of a larger whole
   A feeling that there was too much going on       -        -      -       -       -       -       -      -      -        -
a
 Values are (1) the change in R2 (variance explained) that results from adding significant variables to the stepwise
model and (2) standardized beta coefficients of the full model (illustrating directionality and magnitude of effect).
Negative beta indicates that experience achievement declines as use increases and is higher for overnight users than day
users.
b
  Independent variables are (1) number of groups entering during the day, (2) number of groups exiting during the day,
(3) visitor estimates of number of groups seen, (4) visitor estimates of percent time in sight of other groups and (5) a
dummy variable for day vs. overnight use.
c
 Responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely).
Items are clustered by theoretical property. For items asked inversely to other items, scores were subtracted
from 7 (i.e. higher scores indicate less agreement with the item)

Figure 12 shows the relationship between number of encounters and the feeling of being
“away from other people’s demands and expectations.”
                                                          7



                                                          6
                                    Experience Achieved




                                                          5



                                                          4



                                                          3



                                                          2       "I was away from other people's
                                                                     demands and expectations"
                                                          1
                                                              0          10          20             30    40

                                                                        Groups Encountered Per Day
Figure 12. Relationship between group encounters and the extent to which visitors experienced
being “away from other people’s demands and expectations” on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7
(very much). Values are mean responses and standard deviations within each of 10 use level
classes.


                                                                                   52
Whether one was on a day trip or an overnight trip affected more of these experiences.
The regression analyses suggest that day users were less able than overnight users to have
five of the 12 experiences. These are all items within the domains Being Away and
Compatability. Results of the analyses of variance were consistent in suggesting that
overnight visitors were better able to experience Being Away and Compatability. Five of
the six individual items in these domains differed significantly with length of stay (Table
26). One item in the domain Fascination was also better achieved by overnight visitors
than day users, although day users reported a sense of boredom with the environment
than was even lower than that reported by overnight users. Day users also felt even less
that “there was too much going on.”

Table 26. Length of stay effects on achievement of experiences related to attention
restoration theorya.
                                                               Day Use         Overn. Use      ANOVA
Factors and Individual Items                                   Mean S.E. Mean S.E. F                 pb
Fascination
   There was much to attract and hold my attention              5.26 0.08        5.45 0.14 1.4       0.23
   I was absorbed in my immediate surroundings                  5.18 0.08        5.53 0.14 4.1       0.04
   I felt bored by the environmentc                             5.30 0.07        5.02 0.15 3.3       0.07
Being Away
   I felt removed from my daily routines                        5.05 0.09        5.58 0.16 4.7       0.03
   Away from other people’s demands and expectations            4.59 0.10        5.15 0.17 3.5       0.06
   I was focused on things I had to get done after the tripc    4.29 0.09       3.92 0.19 4.2        0.04
Compatibility
   I felt I could easily handle the problems that arise here    4.66 0.09        5.40 0.13 9.7 <0.01
   I sensed that I belong here                                  4.75 0.09        4.97 0.18 0.7       0.40
   What I wanted to do was what needed to be done here          4.07 0.11        4.60 0.19 4.2       0.04
Coherence
   I sensed that the elements around me fit together            4.65 0.09        4.78 0.17 0.2       0.62
   Felt immediate surroundings were part of larger whole        4.54 0.10        4.90 0.18 1.8       0.18
   A feeling that there was too much going onc                  4.62 0.08       4.25 0.18 4.9        0.03
a
  Means for individual items are responses to questions about how much visitors experienced each item, on
a scale from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Items are clustered by theoretical property.
b
  p based on two-tailed tests, both for entire factor and individual items. For items such as “away from other
people’s demands and expectations”, where we hypothesized higher scores for overnight visitors,
differences are considered significant for p < 0.10.
c
  For items asked inversely to other items, scores were subtracted from 7 (i.e. higher scores indicate less
agreement with the item).

Overall, we conclude that visitors varied in their ability to experience the wilderness
environment in ways that are conducive to restoring attention. But staying overnight in
wilderness was much more important to experiencing restorative environments than
visiting a place that was not heavily used.

                                Synthesis and Discussion
The objective of this study was to explore the nature of visitor experiences in wilderness
and the degree to which experience varies with use levels and length of stay. The very
high use places we studied are among the most popular, heavily-used places anywhere in
wilderness. Crowds of people are common there and the impacts of use are conspicuous.


                                                     53
Despite these differences in setting, visitors’ assessments of the nature of their
experiences were not very different in very high use places than in much more modestly
used places.

We asked visitors about 72 different experiences and the degree to which they had each
experience. We hypothesized that visitors to very high use trailheads would have lower
experience achievement for many of these experiences. We also hypothesized that very
high use visitors would have a harder time having the experiences they wanted--that the
difference between pre-trip motives and post-trip experience achievement would be
greater than for moderate use visitors. We assessed this latter hypothesis by examining
the degree of interaction between pre-post trip assessments and use level in analyses of
variance.

Our hypotheses were both correct only for the following seven of the 72 experiences:
   • feeling of remoteness
   • sense that surroundings are not impacted by people
   • solitude (from the general wilderness experience questions)
   • feel that solitude is not interrupted by others
   • be where it’s quiet
   • get away from crowded situations while
   • have a sense of solitude (from the Recreation Experience Preference scales)

There were no experiences for which (1) achievement was lower for visitors to moderate
use trails (compared to very high use trail visitors) and (2) it was more difficult for
moderate use trail visitors to have the experience to the degree desired.

There were 15 experiences for which (1) achievement was lower for day users than
overnight users and (2) it was more difficult for day users to have the experience to the
degree desired. These were:
   • solitude
   • challenge
   • to sense the simplicity of life
   • to feel free from reliance on modern technology
   • to sense the dominance of the natural world
   • to be totally absorbed in what I’m doing
   • to feel an insignificant part of the world around me
   • to feel awe and humility
   • to be my own boss
   • to feel isolated
   • to experience risky situations
   • to feel free to behave as I want
   • to feel close to companions
   • to confide in others I trust
   • to work on solutions to personal problems



                                            54
There were no experiences for which achievement was lower for overnight users and it
was more difficult for them to have the experience to the degree desired.

Driver and Brown (1975) proposed the idea of a recreation demand hierarchy—that it
important to think about recreation demand in terms of activities, settings, experience
(psychological) outcomes and enduring benefits. Visitor experience can also be usefully
described in these same terms--activities, settings, experience (psychological) outcomes
and enduring benefits. In wilderness (as elsewhere), visitors experience the activities they
are doing; they also experience the setting (physical, social and managerial) they are
doing these activities in. The hiking experience is different from the boating experience
and hiking in an urban park is a different experience from hiking a wilderness trail.
Engaging in a particular activity (such as hiking) in a particular setting (a remote
wilderness without trails) results in psychological outcomes—both transitory (e.g., a
momentary sense of awe) and enduring (e.g., spiritual growth). The more enduring
outcomes are often thought of as benefits.

Of these four classes of experiential descriptors, our study focused primarily on
experiences expressed in terms of the setting that was experienced (e.g., surroundings not
impacted by people) or of psychological outcomes (e.g., to meditate and reflect). All
seven of the items experienced less by visitors to very high use places are more
descriptors of the setting and conditions that are experienced than of the psychological
outcomes of those experiences. Five items refer explicitly to setting attributes conducive
to opportunities for solitude—having it, not having it interrupted, being away from
crowds and, consequently, being where it’s quiet. Closely related are a sense of
remoteness and being in a place that has not been impacted much by people.

Even where use level affected what people experience, the magnitude of effect was not
large. The largest difference between very high use and moderate use trails, for any of
these variables, is 1.3 units on a 7-unit scale. In multiple regression analyses, use never
explained more than 25% of the variation in experience achievement and seldom
explained more than a few percent. Even where use explained substantial variation, large
decreases in amount of use were associated with quite modest increases in experience
achievement. One of the common explanations for amount of use not having much effect
on visitor satisfaction has been the multi-faceted nature of satisfaction (Manning 1999).
In this study, we separated this multi-faceted concept into its individual components and
experiences. Use level still had little effect.

None of the experiences that are clearly psychological outcomes were affected by amount
of use. Although solitude was affected by use, privacy functions—the purposes served by
solitude and privacy—were not affected. Nor were the types of experience that contribute
to restoration of direct attention fatigue—the mental and physical rejuvenation that comes
from getting away from the stress, demands and routines of modern life. In interviews
with wilderness visitors about their experiences, most visitors characterized their
experience as doing an activity in a natural environment with their companions (Hall et
al. 2007). These experiences—along with peace and quiet—were the most important pre-
trip motivations. They were not affected substantially by use level. Nor did use affect the



                                            55
ability to grow personally or spiritually or to experience such attributes as timelessness,
simplicity, awe, and humility. What was affected was the ability to experience the setting
attributes that are most unique to wilderness--remoteness, lack of human impact, lack of
crowds and solitude.

Wilderness experiences were determined more by whether one was staying overnight in
the wilderness than by use levels. For 15 of the 72 experiences, day users had both less
experience achievement and more difficulty having the experiences they desired. The
experiential domains that varied significantly with length of stay were diverse, with most
relating more to the psychological outcomes of experiences than the setting and
conditions that were experienced. Magnitudes of difference were similar (typically small)
to magnitudes of difference related to use level.

We consistently found that visitors to very high use places had lower motivations (and
perhaps expectations) for experiences than visitors to moderate use places, in addition to
having lower experience achievement. Consequently, there were a few experiences for
which experience achievement was lower for very high use visitors but the ability to have
the experience that was desired was not lower (i.e., the difference between experience
desired and experience achieved was the same for visitors to very high use and moderate
use trails). In addition to the seven items mentioned above, another three experiences
were achieved less by very high use visitors than moderate use visitors, although lower
motivations meant that very high use visitors were no less able to have the experiences
they wanted than moderate use visitors.

Very high use visitors were less able than moderate use visitors to experience:
   • a sense of being away from the modern world
   • to feel isolated
   • to do something with my family
Again, these items are more related to the setting (particularly being away from the
modern world, being with your family) than to psychological outcomes.

Very high use visitors were more able than moderate use visitors to experience:
   • being with and observing others in the area
This is an experience that is generally not considered desirable in wilderness.

Day users also consistently had lower motivations (and perhaps expectations) for
experiences than overnight users. In addition to the 15 items mentioned above (for which
experiences were both less achieved and it was more difficult to have the experience to
the degree desired), another 23 experiences were less achieved by day users.

Day users were less able than overnight users to experience:
   • a feeling of remoteness
   • to feel a sense of personal growth
   • to focus on matters of importance to me
   • explore area
   • learn about this place


                                            56
   •   be where it’s quiet
   •   get away from crowded situations for awhile
   •   have a sense of solitude
   •   get away from the usual demands of life
   •   grow and develop spiritually
   •   reflect on past memories
   •   gain a sense of accomplishment
   •   show myself I could do it
   •   develop my skills and abilities
   •   be with and observe others in the area
   •   sense of personal freedom or independence
   •   meditate and reflect
   •   develop and explore new thoughts and ideas
   •   discover who I am
   •   I felt removed from my daily routines
   •   away from other peoples’ demands and expectations
   •   I felt I could easily handle problems that arise here
   •   what I wanted to do was what needed to be done here

Day users were more able than overnight users to experience:
   • not having solitude interrupted by others
   • to relax physically

Again, more experiences differed between day and overnight visitors than with use
levels. For 23 experiences, experience achievement was lower for day users, although
lower motivations meant that they were no less able to have the experiences they wanted.
Combining these 23 with the 15 experiences for which day users had both less experience
achievement and more difficulty having the experiences they desired, more than one-half
of the experiences we asked about (38 of 72) were experienced to a significantly lesser
degree by day users. In contrast, only 14% (10 of 72) varied with use.

For a number of experiences, the conclusions of the analyses of variance and the
regression analyses were inconsistent. For 16 psychological outcomes, experience
achievement decreased significantly as use level increased, but visitors to very high use
trails were not significantly different from visitors to moderate use trails. These
experiences were:
     • feel connected with or part of wild nature
     • sense the simplicity of life
     • feel a sense of spiritual growth
     • be close to nature
     • explore the area
     • learn about this place
     • experience the open space
     • do something with my companions
     • get away from the usual demands of life


                                            57
     • relax physically
     • gain sense of personal freedom or independence
     • feel free to behave as I want
     • feel close to my companions
     • confide in others I trust
     • develop and explore new thoughts and ideas
     • away from other peoples’ demands and expectations
For these experiences, if use had any effect, the magnitude was small (i.e., use explained
little variance and large differences in use were associated with small differences in
experience).

There were also 11 experiences for which visitors to very high use trails had higher
achievement than visitors to moderate use trails but experience achievement was not
significantly linearly related to amount of use. These were:
    • feel challenge
    • be fascinated with the natural environment
    • feel an insignificant part of the world around me
    • feel awe and humility
    • reflect on past memories
    • get exercise
    • gain a sense of accomplishment
    • show myself I could do it
    • develop my skills and abilities
    • experience risky situations
    • there was much to attract and hold my attention

For decades, scientists and managers have been concerned that heavy use changes the
nature of recreational experiences and diminishes their quality (Manning 1999). Our
research suggests that visitors to very high use wilderness places have experiences that
are very similar in nature to those of visitors to less popular wildernesses. Where there is
any difference, it is one of degree of achievement.

In relation to Driver and Brown’s (1975) proposed hierarchy of experiences, our research
suggests that the primary experiential effect of amount of use is on how the setting is
experienced. Previous research suggests that the activities visitors participate in do not
vary much with use level (Roggenbuck and Lucas 1987). We found surprisingly little
effect on psychological outcomes—either transitory (e.g., a sense of awe) or longer-
lasting (e.g., physical revitalization). Although we did not study enduring benefits, there
is little reason to think they would differ given the lack of difference in psychological
outcomes. Indeed, Patterson et al. (1998) and Glaspell (2002) explored the meanings of
wilderness experience (on the basis of in depth interviews) in highly divergent wilderness
settings (the heavily-used, mostly day use Juniper Springs Wilderness in Florida and the
remote Gates of the Arctic Wilderness in Alaska). Although the details of what was
experienced obviously differed, the domains of meaning that visitors drew from those




                                             58
experiences (such as challenge and being close to nature) were remarkably similar
between the two wildernesses.

Most previous studies of day and overnight visitors have concluded that the trip
motivations of the two groups differ, with day users being less interested in a “true”
wilderness experience. In Montana wilderness, Grossa (1979, p. 125) concluded that “day
users…are visiting the wilderness for recreational activities and other pursuits which are
not dependent exclusively on a truly wilderness environment.” In the Shenandoah
Wilderness, in Virginia, Papenfuse et al. (2000, pp. 152 and 153) conclude that “few day
visitors see the trip as primarily a wilderness one” and that “day visitors were seeking
something other than a wilderness trip.” Cole (2001) speculated that expectations may
differ more than motivations—that day users may want most of the same experiences as
overnight visitors (including true wilderness experiences), but that they know from
previous experience that they are less likely to achieve them. In our study, we did not
assess expectations. However, we did find that day and overnight users differed more in
experience achievement than in experience motivation. Motivations were significantly
different for 20 items, while achievement was significantly different for 38 items. Clearly
day users had less intense desires than overnight users for many of the experiences we
asked about; they were also less able to have most of these experiences to the degree that
overnight users did.

                        Conclusions and Management Implications
Very popular places in wilderness had a very different social setting from less popular
places. For example, visitors to our very high use places reported a mean of 16
encounters with other groups per day and being in sight of other groups 30% of the time.
In contrast, visitors to moderate use places had a mean of 5 encounters per day and were
in sight of others 8% of the time. Visitors to very high use places experienced conditions
that were not entirely consistent with the wilderness ideal. They experienced crowds and
surroundings that had been impacted by people. This caused them to feel somewhat less
remote and to experience somewhat less solitude and quiet. However, these were the only
experiences we studied that differed between very high use and moderate use wilderness.
The psychological outcomes derived from wilderness visits were as substantial in very
high use wilderness as they were in less heavily used places. This suggests that the
enduring personal and social benefits of a wilderness trip may not be greatly diminished
in very high use places. Experiences in very high use wilderness were different—because
a few attributes of the setting differed—but it seems misleading to state, from the
perspective of the visitor, that they were substantially lower in quality.

Much more important to experience quality than amount of use was length of stay. Many
more experiences varied with length of stay than with use level. If the goal is to increase
opportunities for desired psychological outcomes of a wilderness trip, convincing people
to stay out overnight would be more effective and beneficial than reducing use levels.
But, even for length of stay, the magnitude of difference in experience was small.

Use has already been limited in some wildernesses and there are many advocates for
more widespread use limits. There are both biophysical and social reasons for such limits.



                                            59
Research we have reported elsewhere suggests that visitors are more supportive of
biophysical reasons for limits (e.g., less impact on plants, soil and wildlife) than social
reasons (Cole and Hall 2005). If the reason for limits is social, our research suggests that
managers should provide a rationale other than to provide higher quality experiences.
Even in very high use wilderness, visitors had high quality experiences, realizing many
desired psychological outcomes that are likely to have substantial enduring personal and
social benefits. What differed was primarily the setting that was experienced. In very
high use wilderness, visitors experienced less of several attributes that lie close to the
core of what wilderness is. They experienced less remoteness, solitude and quiet and they
were confronted with more human impact.

Our research suggests that the primary experiential justification for use limits should be
to maximize opportunities to experience wilderness as a unique setting that
simultaneously provides a high degree of remoteness, primitiveness, solitude and
perceived naturalness. To paraphrase the Wilderness Act, use limits can increase
opportunities to experience wilderness “as wilderness.” This obviously is justifiable—
even necessary—at least in some places. But there is little evidence that limits will
consistently lead to substantially different or higher quality experiences. Moreover,
managers should understand that most visitors do not consider the benefits of
experiencing a wilderness with less people and more solitude to be equal to the cost
associated with being denied access (Cole and Hall 2005). In part this is because, even in
very high use wilderness, visitors find most of the attributes they are seeking and have
most of the experiences they desire (Hall et al. 2007). Moreover, they know that there are
many other wilderness destinations that provide less crowded conditions, where they can
go when those attributes are important to them (Cole and Hall 2007).


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day visitor in wilderness: should managers be concerned? Pp. 148-154 in Wilderness
science in a time of change conference—Volume 4: wilderness visitors, experiences and
visitor management. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT.

Patterson, Michael E., Alan E. Watson, Daniel R. Williams and Joseph R. Roggenbuck.
1998. An hermeneutic approach to studying the nature of wilderness experiences. Journal
of Leisure Research 30: 423-452.

Pedersen, Darhl M. 1997. Psychological functions of privacy. Journal of Environmental
Psychology 17: 147-156.




                                            62
Pedersen, Darhl M. 1999. Model for types of privacy by privacy functions. Journal of
Environmental Psychology 19: 397-405.

Priest, Simon and Richard Bugg. 1991. Functions of privacy in Australian wilderness
environments. Leisure Sciences 13: 247-255.

Roggenbuck, Joseph W. and Robert C. Lucas. 1987. Wilderness use and user
characteristics: a state-of-knowledge review. Pp. 204-245 in Proceedings—national
wilderness research conference: issues, state-of-knowledge, future directions. USDA
Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General Technical Report INT-220.
Ogden, UT.

Shafer, C. Scott and William E. Hammitt .1995. Congruency among experience
dimensions, conditions indicators, and coping behaviors in wilderness. Leisure Sciences
17: 263-279.

Stankey, George H. and John Baden. 1977. Rationing wilderness use: methods, problems,
and guidelines. USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Research Paper
INT-192. Ogden, UT.

Stankey, George H. and Richard Schreyer. 1987. Attitudes toward wilderness and factors
affecting visitor behavior: a state-of-knowledge review. Pp. 246-293 in Proceedings—
national wilderness research conference: issues, state-of-knowledge, future directions.
USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General Technical Report INT-
220. Ogden, UT.

Stewart, William P. and David N. Cole. 2001. Number of encounters and experience
quality in Grand Canyon National Park: consistently negative and weak relationships.
Journal of Leisure Research 35: 106-120.

Talbot, Janet Frey and Stephen Kaplan. 1995. Perspectives on wilderness: re-examining
the value of extended wilderness experiences. Pp. 137-148 in Landscape perception.
London: Academic Press.

Westin, Alan F 1967. Privacy and freedom. New York: Atheneum.




                                           63
                                     APPENDIX A:

                                Pre-trip Questionnaire 1

Section 1: Trip Characteristics

1.1   How long is your trip? (Mark one.)
      ○ Overnight. How many nights total will you spend in the wilderness? __________
      ○ Day trip. About how many hours will you spend in the wilderness?
      ______________

1.2 How many people (including yourself) are in your group? ____________

1.3   What is your primary destination on this trip?
___________________________________

Section 2: Your Motivations for This Trip

2.1   The following are experiences that people sometimes seek in wilderness. Thinking
      about today's wilderness trip, please indicate how important each experience is to
      you.

                                                                    How important is it?
                                                       Not at all                      Extremely
      A sense of freedom                               1       2       3    4     5     6     7
      Solitude                                         1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      To think about who I am                          1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      Closeness to nature                              1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      To learn about this place                        1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      Wilderness opportunities                         1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      A feeling of remoteness                          1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      A sense that the surroundings haven’t been       1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      impacted by people
      To be away from crowds of people                 1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      A sense of challenge                             1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      A sense of being away from the modern            1       2       3    4     5        6   7
           world
      To be near others who could help if I need       1       2       3    4     5        6   7
           them
      To be my own boss                                1       2       3    4     5        6   7
      To develop personal, spiritual values            1       2       3    4     5        6   7




                                            64
2.2   The following are feelings or experiences that people sometimes seek in wilderness.
      For each item, please indicate the extent to which you would like to experience it
      on this trip. While some items may seem similar, please respond to all of them.

                                                         I would like to experience it ….
                                                    Not at                             Very
                                                    All                                Much
To discover who I am                                0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel challenge                                   0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To be physically revitalized                        0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel awe and humility                            0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To focus on matters of importance to me             0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel a sense of personal growth                  0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel connected with or part of wild nature       0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To confide in others I trust                        0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel free from reliance on modern technology     0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To sense the simplicity of life                     0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To develop and explore new thoughts and ideas       0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel at home in the natural world                0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To meditate and reflect                             0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel free to behave as I want                    0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To gain a sense of personal freedom or              0        1   2   3     4     5    6
independence
To work on solutions to personal problems           0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel a sense of spiritual growth                 0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To be fascinated with the natural environment       0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel mentally rejuvenated                        0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To be living in the present moment, rather than     0        1   2   3     4     5    6
past or future
To feel close to my companions                      0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel solitude that is not interrupted by other   0        1   2   3     4     5    6
people
To feel an insignificant part of the world around   0        1   2   3     4     5    6
me
To feel peace and tranquility                       0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To be totally absorbed in what I am doing           0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To sense the dominance of the natural world         0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To release stress and tension                       0        1   2   3     4     5    6
To feel close to the creator                        0        1   2   3     4     5    6




                                           65
Section 3: Some Information About You.
3.1 Have you ever been to a wilderness (here or elsewhere) before this trip?
    ○ No. (Go to Question 3.8)
    ○ Yes.
3.2 Since your first wilderness trip, about how often have you gone on wilderness trips
    (including this and other wildernesses)? (Mark one.)
    ○ Less than once every 2 years                ○ 2-5 times a year
    ○ Less than once a year                       ○ 6-10 times a year
    ○ Once a year                                 ○ More than 10 times a year
3.3 About how many other wilderness areas, besides this wilderness, have you visited?
    ○ None                       ○ 6-10                    ○ 16-20
    ○ 1-5                        ○ 11-15                   ○ More than 20

3.4   About what percent of your wilderness trips (either here or elsewhere) during a
       typical year are overnight trips? (Make a mark on the scale below.)
          0---5---10---15---20---25---30---35---40---45---50---55---60---65---70---75---80---85---90---95---100%


3.5 How many times have you been to this destination or area before?
      ○ Never. (First trip.)          ○ 3-5                           ○ 11-20
      ○ 1-2                           ○ 6-10                          ○ More than 20
3.6 Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following
    statements about the importance of wilderness to you personally.
                                                                         Strongly                                Strongly
                                                                         agree    Agree       Neutral   Disagree disagree
      I find that a lot of my life is organized around                    +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      wilderness use
      I feel like wilderness is a part of me                              +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      I get greater satisfaction out of visiting wilderness               +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      than other areas


3.7   How familiar are you with the legal definition of Wilderness? (Mark one.)
      ○   I have no idea -- I didn’t even know there was a land classification of “Wilderness.”
      ○   I have heard of Wilderness areas, but I don’t know anything about the specific definition.
      ○   I know a little bit about what legally classified Wilderness is.
      ○   I think I know a lot about the legal definition of Wilderness.

3.8 What is your age? _______

3.9   Approximately how many miles (one-way) do you live from this wilderness?

3.10 What is your zip code? _______________________

3.11 Are you ___ male or ___ female?


                                                           66
                                      APPENDIX B:

                                 Pre-trip Questionnaire 2

Section 1: Trip Characteristics
1.1 How long is your trip? (Mark one.)
      ○ Overnight. How many nights total will you spend in the wilderness? __________
      ○ Day trip. About how many hours will you spend in the wilderness? __________
1.2 How many people (including yourself) are in your group? ____________

1.3   What is your primary destination on this trip? _______________________

Section 2: Your Motivations for This Trip

2.1    Please check one of the responses below to indicate how important a sense of
      solitude is to you on this visit.

      ○ A sense of solitude is not important to me on this visit.
      ○ I hope to find solitude but do not expect it on this visit.
      ○ Solitude is important to me on this visit and I expect to find it.
2.2   The following are experiences that people sometimes seek in wilderness. Thinking
      about today's wilderness trip, please indicate how important each experience is to
      you.

                                                          How important is the experience?
                                                      Not at
                                                      All                              Extremely
To develop my skills and abilities                    0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To be free to make my own choices                     0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To have a sense of solitude                           0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To do something with my family                        0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To give my mind a rest                                0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To have a sense of freedom                            0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To explore the area                                   0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To be close to nature                                 0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To gain a sense of accomplishment                     0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To view the scenery                                   0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To think about who I am                               0        1   2    3     4    5     6
To reflect on past memories                           0        1   2    3     4    5     6


                                             67
2.2 Continued                                         How important is the experience?
                                                      Not at
                                                      All                                Extremely
To get exercise                                       0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To have a wilderness experience                       0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To gain a better appreciation of nature               0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To relax physically                                   0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To have a sense of challenge                          0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To be in a place without much human impact            0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To gain a new perspective on life                     0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To do something with my companions                    0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To get away from crowded situations for awhile        0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To be where it is quiet                               0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To be away from modern technology                     0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To grow and develop spiritually                       0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To be with and observe other people using the         0        1   2     3       4   5     6
area
To get away from the usual demands of life            0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To experience risky situations                        0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To feel isolated                                      0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To experience the open space                          0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To learn about this place                             0        1   2     3       4   5     6
To feel that other people could help if I need        0        1   2     3       4   5     6
them
To feel remote                                        0        1   2     3       4   5     6
Showing myself I could do it                          0        1   2     3       4   5     6


Section 3: Some Information About You.

3.1   Have you ever been to a wilderness (here or elsewhere) before this trip?
      ○ No. (Go to Question 3.8)
      ○ Yes.
3.2   Since your first wilderness trip, about how often have you gone on wilderness trips
      (including this and other wildernesses)? (Mark one.)
      ○ Less than once every 2 years                ○ 2-5 times a year
      ○ Less than once a year                       ○ 6-10 times a year
      ○ Once a year                                 ○ More than 10 times a year


                                             68
3.3   About how many other wilderness areas, besides this wilderness, have you visited?
      ○ None                   ○ 6-10                     ○ 16-20
      ○ 1-5                    ○ 11-15                    ○ More than 20
3.4   About what percent of your wilderness trips (either here or elsewhere) during a
       typical year are overnight trips? (Make a mark on the scale below.)
          0---5---10---15---20---25---30---35---40---45---50---55---60---65---70---75---80---85---90---95---100%

3.5 How many times have you been to this destination or area before?
    ○ Never. (First trip.)      ○ 3-5                           ○ 11-20
    ○ 1-2                       ○ 6-10                          ○ More than 20
3.6 Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following
    statements about the importance of wilderness to you personally.

                                                                         Strongly                                Strongly
                                                                         agree    Agree       Neutral   Disagree disagree
      I find that a lot of my life is organized around                    +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      wilderness use
      I feel like wilderness is a part of me                              +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      I get greater satisfaction out of visiting wilderness               +3      +2     +1     0       -1    -2    -3
      than other areas

3.7   How familiar are you with the legal definition of Wilderness? (Mark one.)
      ○   I have no idea -- I didn’t even know there was a land classification of “Wilderness.”
      ○   I have heard of Wilderness areas, but I don’t know anything about the specific definition.
      ○   I know a little bit about what legally classified Wilderness is.
      ○   I think I know a lot about the legal definition of Wilderness.

3.8 What is your age? _______

3.9   Approximately how many miles (one-way) do you live from this wilderness?
                                         _______

3.10 What is your zip code? _______________________

3.11 Are you ___ male or ___ female?




                                                           69
                                      APPENDIX C:

                                 Post-trip Questionnaire

Section 1: Trip Characteristics

1.1   How long was your trip? (Mark one.)
      ○ Overnight. How many nights total did you spend in the wilderness? __________
      ○ Day trip. About how many hours did you spend in the wilderness?
      ______________

1.2 How many people (including yourself) were in your group? ____________

1.3   What was your primary destination on this trip?
__________________________________

Section 2: Your Motivations for This Trip

2.1   The following are feelings or experiences that people sometimes seek in wilderness.
      For each, please indicate how much you hoped to get it from this trip AND how
      much you actually got it on this trip. (Circle two numbers for each item.)
                                              How much were you seeking it?      How much did you
                                                                                     experience it?
                                                    Not                 Very     Not                  Very
                                                   at all               much    at all                much
      A sense of freedom                           1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      Solitude                                     1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      To think about who I am                      1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      Closeness to nature                          1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      To learn about this place                    1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      Wilderness opportunities                     1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      A feeling of remoteness                      1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      A sense that the surroundings haven’t        1 2      3   4   5   6 7     1 2 3 4 5             6 7
      been impacted by people
      To be away from crowds of people             1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7
      A sense of challenge                         1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7
      A sense of being away from the modern        1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7
           world
      To be near others who could help if I        1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7
           need them
      To be my own boss                            1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7
      To develop personal, spiritual values        1   2    3   4   5   6   7   1   2   3   4    5    6   7




                                              70
2.2     Please check one of the responses below to indicate how important a sense of
        solitude was to you on this visit.
        ○ A sense of solitude was not important to me on this visit.
        ○ I hoped to find solitude, but did not expect it on this visit.
        ○ Solitude was important to me on this visit, and I found it.
        ○ Solitude was important to me on this visit, but I didn’t find it.
Section 3: The following questions are more concerned with what you DID
experience on this trip. While some items may seem similar, please
respond to all of them.
3.1 About how many other groups did you see today? (Make a mark on the line.)
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 >40
3.2 About what percent of the time were you in sight of other groups of visitors today?
_______%

3.3 We are interested in better understanding what you got out of this wilderness trip.
     For each of the following items, please indicate the extent to which the item added
     to your trip.
                                                       How much did it add to your trip?
                                                    Not at                               Very
                                                    All                                 Much
Developing my skills and abilities                  0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Doing something with my family                      0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Giving my mind a rest                               0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Exploring the area                                  0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Experiencing the open space                         0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Gaining a sense of accomplishment                   0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Viewing the scenery                                 0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Reflecting on past memories                         0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Getting exercise                                    0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Having a wilderness experience                      0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Gaining a better appreciation of nature             0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Relaxing physically                                 0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Gaining a new perspective on life                   0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Doing something with my companions                  0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Being where it is quiet                             0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Showing myself I could do it                        0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Being with and observing other people using the 0         1     2     3     4     5   6
area
Getting away from the usual demands of life         0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Experiencing risky situations                       0     1     2     3     4     5   6
Feeling isolated                                    0     1     2     3     4     5   6


                                                               71
3.4   The following are experiences that people sometimes seek in wilderness. For each item, please
      indicate the extent to which you experienced it on this trip.

                                                                       How much did you experience it?
                                                                      Not at                                    Very
                                                                      All                                       Much
Sense of self-discovery                                       0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Physical revitalization                                       0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Release of stress and tension                                 0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Sense of personal growth                                      0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Intimacy with my companions                                   0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Mental rejuvenation                                           0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Sense of spiritual growth                                     0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Personal freedom or independence                              0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Opportunity to confide in others I trust                      0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Opportunity to work through problems                          0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
Ability to focus on matters of importance to me               0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I felt removed from my daily routines                         0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I was focused on the things I had to get done after this trip 0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I felt my immediate surroundings were part of a larger whole  0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
There was much to attract and hold my attention               0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I sensed that I belong here                                   0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
What I wanted to do was what needed to be done here           0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I was away from other people’s demands and expectations       0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
A feeling that there was too much going on                    0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I sensed that the elements around me fit together             0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I felt bored by the environment                               0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I felt I could easily handle the problems that arise here     0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
I was absorbed in my immediate surroundings                   0     1     2      3      4                  5       6
3.5 The following are feelings that people sometimes have when in wilderness. For each item,
        please indicate how often you felt it on this trip.
                                                                        How often did you experience it?
                                                                                                                Most of
                                                                          Never                                the Time
Peace and tranquility                                                     0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Connection with or being part of wild nature                              0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Being at home in the natural world                                        0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Developing and exploring new thoughts and ideas                           0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Feeling free to behave as I wanted                                        0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Freedom from reliance on modern technology                                0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Challenge                                                                 0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Being an insignificant part of the world around me                        0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Awe and humility                                                          0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Fascination with the natural environment                                  0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Living in the present moment, rather than past or future                  0       1    2     3        4    5       6
The simplicity of life                                                    0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Having my solitude interrupted by other people                            0       1    2     3        4    5       6
The dominance of the natural world                                        0       1    2     3        4    5       6
Meditation and reflection                                                 0       1    2     3        4    5       6


                                                  72
Section 4: Some Information About You.

4.1     Have you ever been to a wilderness before this trip?
        ○ No. (Skip to Question 4.8)
        ○ Yes.
4.2     Since your first wilderness trip, about how often have you gone on wilderness trips
        (including this and other wildernesses)? (Mark one.)
        ○ Less than once every 2 years                ○ 2-5 times a year
        ○ Less than once a year                       ○ 6-10 times a year
        ○ Once a year                                 ○ More than 10 times a year
4.3     About how many other wilderness areas, besides this wilderness, have you visited?
        ○ None                   ○ 6-10                     ○ 16-20
        ○ 1-5                    ○ 11-15                    ○ More than 20
4.4     About what percent of your wilderness trips (either here or elsewhere) during a
         typical year are overnight trips? (Make a mark on the scale below.)
         0---5---10---15---20---25---30---35---40---45---50---55---60---65---70---75---80---85---90---95---
      100%

4.5 How many times have you been to this destination or area before?
    ○ Never. (First trip.)      ○ 3-5                           ○ 11-20
    ○ 1-2                       ○ 6-10                          ○ More than 20
4.6     Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following
        statements about the importance of wilderness to you personally.

                                                                   Strongly                              Strongly
                                                                   agree    Agree     Neutral   Disagree disagree
        I find that a lot of my life is organized around             +3    +2    +1     0       -1   -2       -3
        wilderness use
        I feel like wilderness is a part of me                       +3    +2    +1     0       -1   -2       -3
        I get greater satisfaction out of visiting wilderness        +3    +2    +1     0       -1   -2       -3
        than other areas




4.7     How familiar are you with the legal definition of Wilderness? (Mark one.)



                                                      73
      ○   I have no idea -- I didn’t even know there was a land classification of “Wilderness.”
      ○   I have heard of Wilderness areas, but I don’t know anything about the specific definition.
      ○   I know a little bit about what legally classified Wilderness is.
      ○   I think I know a lot about the legal definition of Wilderness.

4.8 What is your age? _______

4.9   Are you ___ male or ___ female?
4.10 Approximately how many miles (one-way) do you live from this wilderness?
                                        _______

4.11 What is your zip code? _______________________



                                     Thank you for your help!

            Dr. David Cole                                                   Dr. Troy Hall
Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute                                 University of Idaho
             Missoula, MT                                                     Moscow, ID

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                                                   74

								
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