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Past Perfect - DOC


									The past perfect is used to talk about an action that is finished before another action in the past. This form is especially useful for giving reasons for a decision that was made in the past. We use it to show that one action in the past occurred before another action in the past. For example, He didn't come because he had caught the flu. Use 1. A completed action before another activity in the past 2. Conditional sentences 3. Dissatisfaction with the past for e.g. I wish I hadn't gone there. Something that had happened before something else took place I had eaten lunch before they arrived. Susan had already finished the project when he asked for help. Something that had happened over a period of time in the past before another point in the of past I had lived abroad for twenty years when I received the transfer. Jane had studied in England before she did her master's at Harvard. Something that had happened as a precondition to something else I had prepared for the exams and was ready to do well. Tom had lost twenty pounds and could begin anew. Used to express imagined conditions If I had known that, I would have acted differently. She would have come to the party if she had been invited. With wish to express a desire about the past I wish you had told me. She wishes she had known about his problems. Common time expressions used with the past perfect: Already, just, before, when Past Perfect is used in reported speech (=saying someone else said): Ann: I was in the US 12 months ago. George: Ann said she had been in the United States 12 months earlier. OR Ann: I have searched all the rooms. George: Ann said she had searched all the rooms. So, the Past Simple and the Present Perfect are replaced with the Past Perfect.

Positive sentences: Subject I/a dog etc.        + Auxiliary verb Past participle + had Eaten/given/gone

When we arrived, the concert had already finished. (Use 1) It had got/gotten worse before it got better. (Use 1) By the time I watched my favorite program, I had drunk a glass of beer. (Use 1) If I hadn't taken my keys from the drawer, I would be able to get into my house. (Use 2) My mum asked me whether I had visited grandma the previous day. (Use 2) By the time I got to the market, most of the stalls had already been closed. (Use 1) I wish I had taken more food with me (Use 3)

Questions (interrogative sentences): Auxiliary verb Subject + had I/a dog etc.   + Past participle eaten/given/gone

Had he known some words before he started learning English? Had they had any pet before they bought the giraffe?

Negative sentences: Subject I/a dog etc.    + Auxiliary verb + not hadn't/ had not + Past participle eaten/given/gone

I hadn't seen Berlin before I flew there in the summer. He said Mr. Johnson hadn't mowed the lawn (Use 2) Brenda didn't call me before her plane had landed.

1. When their mother arrived home, the children __________________ (finish) their homework. 2. The meeting ____________ (start) when I arrived at the office. 3. Julie didn't watch the film because she _____________ (see) it before. 4. The mechanic ______________(repair) her car when Mary arrived at the garage. 5. Caroline was tired when she left the office because she ________________(work) all day. 6. David was playing tennis. When his father arrived, he __________________(play) for 2 hours. 7. When the dessert arrived, Anne wasn't hungry; she _______________(eat) too much. 8. It was my first flight. I ________________ (never fly) before. 9. The dentist was angry because John _______________ (forget) the time of his appointment. 10. On the day of his exam, Joe was ready. He ________________ (revise) for weeks.

1) had finished 2) had started 3) had seen 4) had repaired 5) had been working 6) had been playing 7) had eaten 8) had never flown 9) had forgotten 10) had been revising

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