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					The AP Literary Analysis




        Geschke/English IV AP
          Literary Analysis
            What Exactly Is A
            Literary Analysis?

•   Makes an argument
•   Is not a summary
•   Deals with interpretation
•   Supported by evidence




                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
             Don’t Forget the
             Writing Process!

•   Prewriting
•   Rough Draft
•   Revising/Editing
•   Publishing




                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
             MLA Format

• Information on the MLA format taken from
  the OWL at Purdue:
• http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource
  /747/01/




                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
                MLA Format
•   Type your paper
•   Use 8.5 x 11-inch paper
•   Double space the paper
•   Use a legible font
    – For this class, please use Times New Roman
• Use 12 pt. font size


                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
              MLA Format
• Leave only one space after periods or
  other punctuation marks (unless otherwise
  instructed by your instructor).
• Use 1 inch margins on all sides
• Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-
  inch from the left margin. MLA
  recommends that you use the Tab key as
  opposed to pushing the Space Bar five
  times.
                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
             MLA Format

• Use italics throughout your essay for the
  titles of longer works and, only when
  absolutely necessary, providing emphasis.




                Geschke/English IV AP
                  Literary Analysis
  MLA Format—The First Page
• Do not make a title page for your paper
  unless specifically requested.
• In the upper left-hand corner of the first
  page, list your name, your instructor's
  name, the course, and the date. Again, be
  sure to use double-spaced text.



                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
  MLA Format—The First Page
• Double space again and center the title.
  Do not underline, italicize, or place your
  title in quotation marks; write the title in
  Title Case (standard capitalization), not in
  all capital letters.
• Use quotation marks and/or italics when
  referring to other works in your title, just as
  you would in your text

                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
  MLA Format—The First Page
• Double space between the title and the
  first line of the text.
• Create a header in the upper right-hand
  corner that includes your last name,
  followed by a space with a page number;
  number all pages consecutively with
  Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half
  inch from the top and flush with the right
  margin.
                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
Sample First Page




     Geschke/English IV AP
       Literary Analysis
           In-Text Citations
• Cite the Author’s last name and the page
  number(s)
  – Benjy says, ―Our shadows were on the grass.
    They got to the trees before we did. Mine got
    there first‖ (Faulkner 54).




                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
            In-Text Citations
• When citing verse, be sure to include act
  (in upper-case Roman numerals), scene
  (in lower-case Roman numerals), and line
  numbers.
• Separate act, scene and line numbers with
  periods.
  – Othello suggests that ―It is the cause, it is the
    cause, my soul. / Let me not name it to you,
    you chaste stars! / It is the cause‖(V.ii.1-3).
                    Geschke/English IV AP
                      Literary Analysis
           Short Quotations
• To indicate short quotations (fewer than
  four typed lines of prose or three lines of
  verse) in your text, enclose the quotation
  within double quotation marks.
• Punctuation marks such as periods,
  commas, and semicolons should appear
  after the parenthetical citation


                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
           Short Quotations
• Question marks and exclamation points
  should appear within the quotation marks
  if they are a part of the quoted passage
  but after the parenthetical citation if they
  are a part of your text.




                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
            Short Quotations
• Mark breaks in short quotations of verse
  with a slash, /, at the end of each line of
  verse: (a space should precede and follow
  the slash)
  – Shakespeare romantically says, ―Shall I
    compare thee to a summer’s day? / Thou art
    more lovely and more temperate‖(1-2).
     • ***Do not forget to provide the line numbers


                     Geschke/English IV AP
                       Literary Analysis
           Long Quotations
• For quotations that are four or more lines
  of verse or prose: place quotations in a
  free-standing block of text and omit
  quotation marks.
• Start the quotation on a new line, with the
  entire quote indented one inch from the
  left margin; maintain double-spacing.


                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
           Long Quotations
• Only indent the first line of the quotation by
  a half inch if you are citing multiple
  paragraphs.
• Your parenthetical citation should come
  after the closing punctuation mark. When
  quoting verse, maintain original line
  breaks. (You should maintain double-
  spacing throughout your essay.)

                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
Long Quotations




    Geschke/English IV AP
      Literary Analysis
          Long Quotations
• When citing long sections of poetry, keep
  formatting as close to the original as
  possible




                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
            Long Quotations
• Single-Speaker Passages (Drama)
  – Cite the quoted text exactly like prose fiction
  – If it is written in verse form, include line
    divisions
  – Block the text if it is four lines or longer




                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
            Long Quotations
• Multiple Speaker Passages (Drama)
  – Block Text
  – Identify the speaker (all capital letters,
    followed by a period)
  – Type the lines of dialogue
  – If the lines are written in verse form, type them
    exactly as they appear in the text



                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
          Long Quotations
• Example of a multiple-speaker quotation




                Geschke/English IV AP
                  Literary Analysis
       The Thesis Statement
• Found in the introduction
• Clearly states the argument you are trying
  to validate
• Your entire paper should focus on
  defending and proving the thesis




                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
             What Makes A
            Thesis Effective?
• Clear
• Specific
• Debatable (not a statement of fact)
  – In the play, Iago plays the role of the villain.

     • Notice how this is a statement of fact and not a
       debatable argument.



                     Geschke/English IV AP
                       Literary Analysis
          What Makes A
         Thesis Effective?
• Original
• Stated as a complete sentence (in some
  cases, especially with longer papers,
  multiple sentences will be necessary)
• Appropriate to the assignment




                Geschke/English IV AP
                  Literary Analysis
            Helpful Hints

• Assume your readers have read the
  literature
• Do not summarize the plot




                Geschke/English IV AP
                  Literary Analysis
               Helpful Hints
• It is proper to use the present tense when
  writing about literature
• Incorrect:
  – Othello believed that Iago was honest.

• Correct:
  – Othello believes that Iago is honest.


                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis
             Helpful Hints

• Titles of poems, stories and essays should
  be put in quotation marks
• Titles of books, plays and periodicals
  should be underlined or italicized




                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
                Helpful Hints
• The first time you mention an author, use
  his or her full name
• For all later references, the last name is
  sufficient
• Do not reference the author by first name
  only
  – William Shakespeare is the author of Othello.
    William is an excellent writer.
     • Avoid this
                    Geschke/English IV AP
                      Literary Analysis
              Helpful Hints
• Avoid the use of great praise when
  discussing the author or the text.
  – William Shakespeare, England’s greatest
    writer, addresses the theme of racism in many
    of his works.
  – The Sound and the Fury is the most brilliant
    American novel.



                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
            Helpful Hints

• Avoid writing in the first person
• The use of the first person shifts the
  reader’s focus towards you and away from
  your argument




                Geschke/English IV AP
                  Literary Analysis
                Helpful Hints
• Avoid writing in the passive voice
• Passive constructions hide the question of
  who is doing the action
  – INCORRECT
     • Iago is described as a villain by Shakespeare.
  – CORRECT
     • Shakespeare describes Iago as a villain.



                     Geschke/English IV AP
                       Literary Analysis
                 Helpful Hints
• Distinguish between the author’s voice
  and the character’s voice
  – INCORRECT
     • Shakespeare says, ―It is the cause, it is the cause,
       my soul‖ (V.ii.1).

  – CORRECT
     • Othello says, ―It is the cause, it is the cause, my
       soul‖ (V.ii.1).

                      Geschke/English IV AP
                        Literary Analysis
              Helpful Hints

• Give your paper a title
• A title gives your reader a clue as to what
  the paper will be about
• Avoid restating the name of the
  assignment (i.e. Literary Analysis)
• Avoid restating the name of the particular
  piece of literature (i.e. Othello)

                  Geschke/English IV AP
                    Literary Analysis
             Helpful Hints
• Your voice should be your most articulate
  conversational tone
• Conversational tone is not equivalent to a
  casual tone
• Avoid using an inflated vocabulary—this
  makes you sound pompous and often
  creates an unnecessary complexity to your
  writing
                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
             Helpful Hints

• Avoid the use of contractions in formal
  writing
• Do not use slang




                 Geschke/English IV AP
                   Literary Analysis
                Helpful Hints
• Focus on organization
• Focus on development
• Focus on clarity
• Focus on providing evidence to validate
  your argument
• Focus on fine-tuning your argument
    – A paper that discusses one issue will always
      be superior to a paper that superficially
      examines many
                    Geschke/English IV AP
                      Literary Analysis
              Helpful Hints
• BE ORIGINAL
 – The last thing an instructor wants is a written
   description of a class discussion.
 – Avoid writing the ―safe‖ paper. At the same
   time, do not write on a topic that is so ―off-the-
   wall‖ that it can not be supported with
   evidence.



                   Geschke/English IV AP
                     Literary Analysis

				
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