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					STANDARD WHII.2a                                         •       Spread of the Renaissance from the
                                                         Italian city states to northern Europe
The student will demonstrate an understanding
of the political, cultural, and economic conditions      Contributions of the Renaissance
in the world about 1500 A.D. by                          •      Accomplishments in the visual arts—
a)     locating major states and empires.                Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci
                                                         •      Accomplishments in literature
By 1500 A.D., major states and empires had               (sonnets, plays, essays)—Shakespeare
developed in various regions of the world.               •      Accomplishments in intellectual ideas
                                                         (humanism)—Erasmus
On the world political map, where were some of
the major states and empires located around              STANDARD WHII.2c
1500 A.D.?
                                                         The student will demonstrate an
Location of some of the major states and                 understanding of the political, cultural, and
empires in the Eastern Hemisphere                        economic conditions in the world about 1500
•      England                                           A.D. by
•      France                                            c)      describing the distribution of major
•      Spain                                             religions.
•      Russia
•      Ottoman Empire                                    By 1500 A.D., the five world religions had
•      Persia                                            spread to many areas of the Eastern
•      China                                             Hemisphere.
•      Mughal India
•      Songhai Empire                                    Where were the five world religions located
                                                         around 1500 A.D.?
Location of major states and empires in the
Western Hemisphere                                       Location and importance of world religions in
•      Incan Empire                                      1500 A.D.
•      Mayan Empire                                      •      Judaism—Concentrated in Europe and
•      Aztec Empire                                      the Middle East
                                                         •      Christianity—Concentrated in Europe
STANDARD WHII.2b                                         and the Middle East
                                                         •      Islam—Parts of Asia, Africa, and
The student will demonstrate an understanding            southern Europe
of the political, cultural, and economic conditions      •      Hinduism—India and part of Southeast
in the world about 1500 A.D. by                          Asia
b)     describing artistic, literary, and intellectual   •      Buddhism—East and Southeast Asia
ideas of the Renaissance.
                                                         STANDARD WHII.2d
New intellectual and artistic ideas that developed
during the Renaissance marked the beginning of           The student will demonstrate an
the modern world.                                        understanding of the political, cultural, and
                                                         economic conditions in the world about 1500
What were the artistic, literary, and intellectual       A.D. by
ideas of the Renaissance?                                d)    analyzing major trade patterns.

Renaissance                                              By 1500, regional trade patterns had
•     ―Rebirth‖ of classical knowledge, ―birth‖ of       developed that linked Africa, the Middle East,
the modern world                                         Asia, and Europe.

                                                                                                        1
What were the regional trading patterns around        including the views and actions of Martin
1500 A.D.?                                            Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII.

Traditional trade patterns linking Europe with        For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church
Asia and Africa                                       had little competition in religious thought and
•      Silk roads across Asia to the                  action. The resistance of the church to
Mediterranean basin                                   change led to the Protestant Reformation,
•      Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean        which resulted in the birth of new political and
•      Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa       economic institutions.
•      Northern European links with the Black
Sea                                                   What were the problems and issues that
•      Western European sea and river trade           provoked religious reforms in Western
•      South China Sea and lands of Southeast         Christianity?
Asia
                                                      Conflicts that challenged the authority of the
Why were the regional trading patterns                Church in Rome
important?                                            •       Merchant wealth challenged the
                                                      Church’s view of usury.
Importance of trade patterns                          •       German and English nobility disliked
•     Exchange of products and ideas                  Italian domination of the Church.
                                                      •       The Church’s great political power and
STANDARD WHII.2e                                      wealth caused conflict.
                                                      •       Church corruption and the sale of
The student will demonstrate an understanding         indulgences were widespread and caused
of the political, cultural, and economic conditions   conflict.
in the world about 1500 A.D. by
e)     citing major technological and scientific      What were the beliefs of Martin Luther, John
exchanges in the Eastern Hemisphere.                  Calvin, and Henry VIII?

By 1500 A.D., technological and scientific            Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
advancements had been exchanged among                 •      Views—Salvation by faith alone, Bible
cultures of the world.                                as the ultimate authority, all humans equal
                                                      before God
What technological and scientific advancements        •      Actions—95 theses, birth of the
had been made and exchanged by 1500 A.D.?             Protestant Church

Advancements exchanged along trade routes             John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
•     Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China)         •       Views—Predestination, faith revealed
•     Textiles, numeral system (India and             by living a righteous life, work ethic
Middle East)                                          •       Actions—Expansion of the Protestant
•     Scientific transfer—Medicine, astronomy,        Movement
mathematics
                                                      King Henry VIII (the Anglican tradition)
STANDARD WHII.3a                                      •     Views—Dismissed the authority of the
                                                      Pope in Rome
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the         •     Actions—Divorced; broke with Rome;
Reformation in terms of its impact on Western         headed the national church in England;
civilization by                                       appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman
a)      explaining the effects of the theological,    Catholic Church in England
political, and economic differences that emerged,

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STANDARD WHII.3b                                        STANDARD WHII.3c
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the
Reformation in terms of its impact on Western           The student will demonstrate knowledge of
civilization by                                         the Reformation in terms of its impact on
b)      describing the impact of religious conflicts,   Western civilization by
including the Inquisition, on society and               c)      describing changing cultural values,
government actions.                                     traditions, and philosophies, and assessing
                                                        the role of the printing press.
The Reformation had its roots in theology, but it
led to important economic and political changes.        At first the Reformation divided the countries
Religious differences and hatreds caused war            of Europe on religious principles, leading to
and destruction.                                        religious intolerance.

What were the major economic, political, and            Power in most European states was
theological issues involved in the Reformation?         concentrated in the monarch.

Reformation in Germany                                  Gradually religious toleration emerged, along
•       Princes in Northern Germany converted to        with democratic thought.
Protestantism, ending authority of the Pope in
their states.                                           What were some of the changing cultural
•       The Hapsburg family and the authority of        values, traditions, and philosophies during
the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the          the Reformation?
Roman Catholic Church.
•       Conflict between Protestants and                Changing cultural values, traditions, and
Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g.,           philosophies
Thirty Years’ War).                                     •      Growth of secularism
                                                        •      Growth of individualism
Reformation in England                                  •      Growth of religious tolerance
•      Anglican Church became a national
church throughout the British Isles under               What was the role of the printing press in the
Elizabeth I.                                            spread of new ideas?
•      The Reformation contributed to the rise of
capitalism.                                             Role of the printing press
                                                        •     Growth of literacy was stimulated by
Reformation in France                                   the Gutenberg printing press.
•       Catholic monarchy granted Protestant            •     The Bible was printed in English,
Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of            French, and German.
Nantes (later revoked).                                 •     These factors had an important impact
•       Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of         on spreading the ideas of the Reformation
the Thirty Years’ War from a religious to a             and Renaissance.
political conflict.
                                                        STANDARD WHII.4a
Catholic Counter Reformation
•      Catholic Church mounted a series of              The student will demonstrate knowledge of
reforms and reasserted its authority.                   the impact of the European Age of Discovery
•      Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was               and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and
founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the          Asia by
world.                                                  a)    explaining the roles of explorers and
•      Inquisition was established to reinforce         conquistadors.
Catholic doctrine.

                                                                                                         3
The expanding economies of European states           •      Conversion of indigenous peoples
stimulated increased trade with markets in Asia.
With the loss of Constantinople in 1453,
European nations fronting the Atlantic sought        STANDARD WHII.4c
new maritime routes for trade.
                                                     The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Why were Europeans interested in discovering         the impact of the European Age of Discovery
new lands and markets?                               and expansion into the Americas, Africa, and
                                                     Asia by
Factors contributing to the European discovery       c)      explaining migration, settlement
of lands in the Western Hemisphere                   patterns, cultural diffusion, and social classes
•      Demand for gold, spices, and natural          in the colonized areas.
resources in Europe
•      Support for the diffusion of Christianity     Europeans migrated to new colonies in the
•      Political and economic competition            Americas, creating new cultural and social
between European empires                             patterns.
•      Innovations in navigational arts (European
and Islamic origins)                                 Europeans established trading posts and
•      Pioneering role of Prince Henry the           colonies in Africa and Asia.
Navigator
                                                     What was the effect of European migration
Who were some important explorers?                   and settlement on the Americas, Africa, and
                                                     Asia?
Establishment of overseas empires and
decimation of indigenous populations                 Americas
•      Portugal—Vasco da Gama                        •      Expansion of overseas territorial
•      Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando          claims and European emigration to North and
Cortez, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan        South America
•      England—Francis Drake                         •      Demise of Aztec, Maya, and Inca
•      France—Jacques Cartier                        Empires
                                                     •      Legacy of a rigid class system and
STANDARD WHII.4b                                     dictatorial rule in Latin America
                                                     •      Forced migration of some Africans into
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the        slavery
impact of the European Age of Discovery and          •      Colonies’ imitation of the culture and
expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by     social patterns of their parent country
b)    describing the influence of religion.
                                                     Africa
One motive for exploration was to spread the         •      European trading posts along the
Christian religion.                                  coast
                                                     •      Trade in slaves, gold, and other
How did the expansion of European empires into       products
the Americas, Africa, and Asia affect the religion
in those areas?                                      Asia
                                                     •     Colonization by small groups of
Means of diffusion of Christianity                   merchants (India, the Indies, China)
•     Migration of colonists to new lands            •     Influence of trading companies
•     Influence of Catholics and Protestants,        (Portuguese, Dutch, British)
who carried their faith, language, and cultures to
new lands                                            STANDARD WHII.4d

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The student will demonstrate knowledge of the       What was the impact of precious metal
impact of the European Age of Discovery and         exports from the Americas?
expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by
d)    defining the Columbian Exchange.              Export of precious metals
                                                    •     Gold and silver (exported to Europe
The discovery of the Americas by Europeans          and Asia)
resulted in an exchange of products and             •     Impact on indigenous empires of the
resources between the Eastern and Western           Americas
Hemispheres.                                        •     Impact on Spain and international
                                                    trade
What was the impact of the Columbian
Exchange between European and indigenous            STANDARD WHII.5a
cultures?
                                                    The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Columbian Exchange                                  the status and impact of global trade on
•       Western Hemisphere agricultural products    regional civilizations of the world after 1500
such as corn, potatoes, and tobacco changed         A.D. by
European lifestyles.                                a)     describing the location and
•       European horses and cattle changed the      development of the Ottoman Empire.
lifestyles of American Indians (First Americans).
•       European diseases like smallpox killed      The Ottoman Empire emerged as a political
many American Indians (First Americans).            and economic power following the conquest
                                                    of Constantinople.
Impact of the Columbian Exchange
•      Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led     The Ottomans brought much of Muslim
to the use of African slaves.                       territory in Southwest Asia and North Africa
•      Slavery was based on race.                   under their rule.
•      European plantation system in the
Caribbean and the Americas destroyed                Where was the Ottoman Empire located and
indigenous economics and damaged the                how did it expand?
environment.
                                                    Original location of the Ottoman Empire
STANDARD WHII.4e, f                                 •     Asia Minor

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the       Expansion and extent of the Ottoman
impact of the European Age of Discovery and         Empire
expansion into the Americas, Africa, and Asia by    •     Southwest Asia
e)    explaining the triangular trade;              •     Southeastern Europe, Balkan
f)    describing the impact of precious metal       Peninsula
exports from the Americas.                          •     North Africa

The European nations established a trade            Development of the Ottoman Empire
pattern known as the triangular trade and           •     Capital at Constantinople renamed
exported precious metals from the Americas.         Istanbul
                                                    •     Islamic religion as a unifying force that
What was the triangular trade?                      accepted other religions
                                                    •     Trade in coffee and ceramics
The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and
the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were           STANDARD WHII.5b
traded.

                                                                                                     5
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the       •      Imperial policy of controlling foreign
status and impact of global trade on regional       influences and trade
civilizations of the world after 1500 A.D. by       •      Increase in European demand for
b)      describing India, including the Mughal      Chinese goods (tea, porcelain)
Empire and coastal trade.
                                                    Japan
Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim Mughal       •      Characterized by powerless emperor
(Mogul) rulers established an empire in northern    ruled by military leader (shogun)
India.                                              •      Adopted policy of isolation to limit
                                                    foreign influences
The Mughal Empire traded with European
nations.                                            STANDARD WHII.5d

What were the contributions of the Mughal           The student will demonstrate knowledge of
emperors of India?                                  the status and impact of global trade on
                                                    regional civilizations of the world after 1500
Location of the Mughal Empire                       A.D. by
•     North India                                   d)     describing Africa and its increasing
                                                    involvement in global trade.
Contributions of Mughal rulers
•        Spread of Islam into India                 The exportation of slaves and demand for
•        Art and architecture—Taj Mahal             imported goods began to alter traditional
•        Arrival of European trading outposts       economic patterns in Africa.
•        Influence of Indian textiles on British
textile industry                                    How did Africa become involved in foreign
                                                    trade?
How did the Mughal Empire trade with European
nations?                                            African exports
                                                    •     Slaves (triangular trade)
Trade with European nations                         •     Raw materials
•      Portugal, England, and the Netherlands
competed for the Indian Ocean trade by              African imports
establishing Coastal ports on the Indian sub-       •     Manufactured goods from Europe,
continent.
                                                    Asia, and the Americas
STANDARD WHII.5c                                    •      New food products (corn, peanuts)

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the       STANDARD WHII.5e
status and impact of global trade on regional
civilizations of the world after 1500 A.D. by       The student will demonstrate knowledge of
c)      describing East Asia, including China and   the status and impact of global trade on
the Japanese shogunate.                             regional civilizations of the world after 1500
                                                    A.D. by
China and Japan sought to limit the influence       e)     describing the growth of European
and activities of European merchants.               nations, including the Commercial Revolution
How did the Chinese and Japanese attempt to         and mercantilism.
limit the influence of European merchants?
                                                    European maritime nations competed for
China                                               overseas markets, colonies, and resources,
•     Creation of foreign enclaves to control       creating new economic practices, such as
trade
                                                                                                     6
mercantilism, linking European nations with their      •      William Harvey: Discovered
colonies.                                              circulation of the blood

What were the roles of the Commercial                  What were some of the effects of these new
Revolution and mercantilism in the growth of           theories?
European nations?
                                                       Importance of the scientific revolution
Terms to know                                          •     Emphasis on reason and systematic
•      Mercantilism: An economic practice              observation of nature
adopted by European colonial powers in an effort       •     Formulation of the scientific method
to become self-sufficient; based on the theory         •     Expansion of scientific knowledge
that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother
country                                                STANDARD WHII.6b

Commercial Revolution                                  The student will demonstrate knowledge of
•     European maritime nations competed for           scientific, political, economic, and religious
overseas markets, colonies, and resources.             changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth,
•     A new economic system emerged.                   and eighteenth centuries by
–     New money and banking systems were               b)      describing the Age of Absolutism,
created.                                               including the monarchies of Louis XIV,
–     Economic practices such as mercantilism          Frederick the Great, and Peter the Great.
evolved.
–     Colonial economies were limited by the           The Age of Absolutism takes its name from a
economic needs of the mother country.                  series of European monarchs who increased
                                                       the power of their central governments.
STANDARD WHII.6a
                                                       Characteristics of absolute monarchies
The student will demonstrate knowledge of              •     Centralization of power
scientific, political, economic, and religious         •     Concept of rule by divine right
changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and
eighteenth centuries by                                Who were the absolute monarchs?
a)      describing the Scientific Revolution and its   What effect did the absolute monarchs have
effects.                                               on their countries?

With its emphasis on reasoned observation and          Absolute monarchs
systematic measurement, the scientific                 •      Louis XIV—France, Palace of
revolution changed the way people viewed the           Versailles as a symbol of royal power
world and their place in it.                           •      Frederick the Great—Prussia,
                                                       emphasis on military power
What were some new scientific theories and             •      Peter the Great—Russia,
discoveries?                                           westernization of Russia

Pioneers of the scientific revolution                  STANDARD WHII.6c
•      Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed
heliocentric theory                                    The student will demonstrate knowledge of
•      Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary           scientific, political, economic, and religious
motion                                                 changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth,
•      Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support      and eighteenth centuries by
heliocentric theory                                    c)      assessing the impacts of the English
•      Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of                Civil War and the Glorious Revolution on
Gravity                                                democracy.
                                                                                                        7
                                                   •     Fueled democratic revolutions around
Political democracy rests on the principle that    the world
government derives power from the consent of
the                                                Who were some Enlightenment thinkers, and
governed. The foundations of English freedoms      what were their ideas?
included the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and
common law. The English Civil War and the          Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
Glorious Revolution prompted further               •      Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan—The
development of the rights of Englishmen.           state must have central authority to manage
                                                   behavior.
How did the English Civil War and the Glorious     •      John Locke’s Two Treatises on
Revolution promote the development of the          Government—People are sovereign;
rights of Englishmen?                              monarchs are not chosen by God.
                                                   •      Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws—
Development of the rights of Englishmen            The best form of government includes a
•      Oliver Cromwell and the execution of        separation of powers.
Charles I                                          •      Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social
•      The restoration of Charles II               Contract—Government is a contract between
•      Development of political parties/factions   rulers and the people.
•      Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)      •      Voltaire—Religious toleration should
•      Increase of parliamentary power over        triumph over religious fanaticism; separation
royal power                                        of church and state
•      English Bill of Rights of 1689
                                                   How did the Enlightenment promote
STANDARD WHII.6d                                   revolution in the American colonies?

The student will demonstrate knowledge of          Influence of the Enlightenment
scientific, political, economic, and religious     •      Political philosophies of the
changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and     Enlightenment fueled revolution in the
eighteenth centuries by                            Americas and France.
d)      explaining the political, religious, and   •      Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of
social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways     Independence incorporated Enlightenment
in which they influenced the founders of the       ideas.
United States.                                     •      The Constitution of the United States
                                                   of America and Bill of Rights incorporated
Enlightenment thinkers believed that human         Enlightenment ideas.
progress was possible through the application of
scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law   STANDARD WHII.6e, f
and government.
                                                   The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of      scientific, political, economic, and religious
the American Revolution and the writing of the     changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth,
Declaration of Independence.                       and eighteenth centuries by
                                                   e)      describing the French Revolution;
How did philosophers of the Enlightenment          f)      identifying the impact of the American
influence thinking on political issues?            and French Revolutions on Latin America.

The Enlightenment                                  The ideas of the Enlightenment and French
•       Applied reason to the human world, not     participation in the American Revolution
just the natural world                             influenced the French people to view their
•       Stimulated religious tolerance             government in new ways. They overthrew the
                                                                                              8
absolute monarchy, and a new government was
established.                                        Who were some artists, philosophers, and
                                                    writers of the period?
These ideas and examples of the American and
French Revolutions influenced the people of         Representative artists, philosophers, and
Latin America to establish independent nations.     writers
                                                    •       Johann Sebastian Bach— Composer
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment              •       Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart—
contribute to causing the French Revolution?        Composer
                                                    •       Eugène Delacroix—Painter
Causes of the French Revolution                     •       Voltaire—Philosopher
•    Influence of Enlightenment ideas               •       Miguel de Cervantes—Novelist
•    Influence of the American Revolution
                                                    New forms of art and literature
Events of the French Revolution                     •      Paintings depicted classical subjects,
•     Storming of the Bastille                      public events, natural scenes, and living
•     Reign of Terror                               people (portraits).
                                                    •      New forms of literature evolved—the
Outcomes of the French Revolution                   novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote).
•    End of the absolute monarchy of Louis
XVI                                                 What improved technologies and institutions
•    Rise of Napoleon                               were important to European economies?

How did the French and American Revolutions         Technologies
influence Latin American independence               •      All-weather roads improved year-
movements?                                          round transport and trade.
                                                    •      New designs in farm tools increased
Influence of the American and French                productivity (agricultural revolution).
Revolutions on the Americas                         •      Improvements in ship design lowered
•      Independence came to French, Spanish,        the cost of transport.
and Portuguese colonies
•      Toussaint L’Ouverture—Haiti                  STANDARD WHII.7a
•      Simon Bolivar—South America
                                                    The student will demonstrate knowledge of
STANDARD WHII.6g                                    political and philosophical developments in
                                                    Europe during the nineteenth century by
The student will demonstrate knowledge of           a)      assessing the impact of Napoleon and
scientific, political, economic, and religious      the Congress of Vienna, including changes in
changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and      political boundaries in Europe after 1815.
eighteenth centuries by
g)      describing the expansion of the arts,       The French Revolution left a powerful legacy
philosophy, literature, and new technology.         for world history: secular society, nationalism,
                                                    and democratic ideas.
The Enlightenment brought a new emphasis on
order and balance in the arts as artists borrowed   Napoleon’s attempt to unify Europe under
heavily from classical Greece and Rome, and         French domination was unsuccessful.
new forms of literature were established.
                                                    The Congress of Vienna attempted to restore
The Age of Reason witnessed inventions and          Europe as it had been before the French
innovations in technology that stimulated trade     Revolution and Napoleonic conquests.
and transportation.
                                                                                                    9
What was the legacy of Napoleon?                     STANDARD WHII.7c, d

Legacy of Napoleon                                   The student will demonstrate knowledge of
•     Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe           political and philosophical developments in
under French domination                              Europe during the nineteenth century by
•     Napoleonic Code                                c)      explaining events related to the
•     Awakened feelings of national pride and        unification of Italy and the role of Italian
growth of nationalism                                nationalists;
                                                     d)      explaining events related to the
What was the significance of the Congress of         unification of Germany and the role of
Vienna?                                              Bismarck.

Legacy of the Congress of Vienna                     Italy and Germany became nation-states long
•     ―Balance of power‖ doctrine                    after the rest of Europe.
•     Restoration of monarchies
•     New political map of Europe                    What events led to the unification of Italy?
•     New political philosophies (liberalism,
conservatism)                                        Unification of Italy
                                                     •       Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
STANDARD WHII.7b                                     •       Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern
                                                     Italy to northern Italy.
The student will demonstrate knowledge of            •       The Papal States (including Rome)
political and philosophical developments in          became the last to join Italy.
Europe during the nineteenth century by
b)      describing the influence of revolutions on   What role did Otto von Bismarck play in the
the expansion of political rights in Europe.         unification of Germany?

The rise of nationalism was a powerful force         Unification of Germany
behind European politics during the nineteenth       •      Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the
century.                                             unification of Germany through war and by
                                                     appealing to nationalist feelings.
Widespread demands for political rights led to       •      Bismarck’s actions were seen as an
revolutions and legislative actions in Europe.       example of Realpolitik, which justifies all
                                                     means to achieve and hold power.
How did nationalism and democracy influence          •      The Franco-Prussian War led to the
national revolutions?                                creation of the German state.

National pride, economic competition, and            STANDARD WHII.8a
democratic ideals stimulated the growth of
nationalism.                                         The student will demonstrate knowledge of
                                                     the effects of the Industrial Revolution during
The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to           the nineteenth century by
widespread discontent in Europe.                     a)     citing scientific, technological, and
Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased           industrial developments and explaining how
nationalistic tensions.                              they brought about urbanization and social
                                                     and environmental changes.
In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain
expanded political rights through legislative        The Industrial Revolution began in England,
means and made slavery illegal in the British        spreading to the rest of Western Europe and
Empire.                                              the United States.

                                                                                                    10
With the Industrial Revolution, came an            •     Increased standards of living for many,
increased demand for raw materials from the        though not all
Americas, Asia, and Africa.                        •     Improved transportation
                                                   •     Urbanization
Advancements in technology produced the            •     Environmental pollution
Industrial Revolution, while advancements in       •     Increased education
science and medicine altered the lives of people   •     Dissatisfaction of working class with
living in the new industrial cities. Cultural      working conditions
changes soon followed.                             •     Growth of the middle class

Why did the Industrial Revolution originate in     STANDARD WHII.8b
England?
                                                   The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Why did the spread of industrialism to Europe      the effects of the Industrial Revolution during
and the United States accelerate colonialism and   the nineteenth century by
imperialism?                                       b)     explaining the emergence of
                                                   capitalism as a dominant economic pattern,
Industrial Revolution                              and subsequent development of socialism
•      Origin in England, because of its natural   and communism.
resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention
and improvement of the steam engine                Capitalism and market competition fueled the
•      Spread to Europe and the United States      Industrial Revolution. Wealth increased the
•      Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel     standard of living for some.
industries
•      Relationship to the British Enclosure       Social dislocations associated with capitalism
Movement                                           produced a range of economic and political
•      Rise of the factory system and demise of    ideas, including socialism and communism.
cottage industries
•      Rising economic powers that wanted to       What was the role of capitalism and market
control raw materials and markets throughout the   competition in the Industrial Revolution?
world
                                                   Capitalism
Technological advances that produced the           •      Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations
Industrial Revolution                              •      Role of market competition and
•      James Watt—Steam engine                     entrepreneurial abilities
•      Eli Whitney—Cotton gin                      •      Impact on standard of living and the
•      Henry Bessemer—Process for making           growth of the middle class
steel                                              •      Dissatisfaction with poor working
                                                   conditions and the unequal distribution of
Advancements in science and medicine               wealth in society
•     Edward Jenner—Developed smallpox
vaccination                                        What were some theories opposed to
•     Louis Pasteur—Discovered bacteria            capitalism?

How did the Industrial Revolution produce          Socialism and communism
changes in culture and society?                    •       Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto
                                                   (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on            Capital
industrialized countries                           •       Response to the injustices of
•      Population increase                         capitalism

                                                                                                 11
•     Importance of redistribution of wealth to
the communists                                       Why did workers organize into labor unions?

STANDARD WHII.8c                                     The rise of labor unions
                                                     •      Encouraged worker-organized strikes
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the        to increase wages and improve working
effects of the Industrial Revolution during the      conditions
nineteenth century by                                •      Lobbied for laws to improve the lives
c)     describing the evolution of the nature of     of workers, including women and children
work and the labor force, including its effects on   •      Wanted worker rights and collective
families, the status of women and children, the      bargaining between labor and management
slave trade, and the labor union movement.
                                                     STANDARD WHII.8d, e
Agricultural economies were based on the family
unit. The Industrial Revolution had a significant    The student will demonstrate knowledge of
impact on the structure and function of the          the effects of the Industrial Revolution during
family.                                              the nineteenth century by
                                                     d)      explaining the rise of industrial
The Industrial Revolution placed new demands         economies and their link to imperialism and
on the labor of men, women, and children.            nationalism;
Workers organized labor unions to fight for          e)      assessing the impact of European
improved working conditions and workers’ rights.     economic and military power on Asia and
                                                     Africa, with emphasis on the competition for
How did the Industrial Revolution impact the         resources and the responses of colonized
lives of women, children, and the family?            peoples.

The nature of work in the factory system             Industrial nations in Europe needed natural
•       Family-based cottage industries displaced    resources and markets to expand their
by the factory system                                economies.
•       Harsh working conditions with men
competing with women and children for wages          These nations competed to control Africa and
•       Child labor that kept costs of production    Asia to secure their economic and political
low and profits high                                 success.
•       Owners of mines and factories who
exercised considerable control over the lives of     Imperialism spread economic, political, and
their laborers                                       social philosophies of Europe throughout the
                                                     world.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect slavery?
                                                     Resistance to imperialism took many forms
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery       including armed conflict and intellectual
•      The cotton gin increased demand for           movements.
slave labor on American plantations.                 Why did European countries participate in
•      The United States and Britain outlawed        imperialism and a race for colonies?
the slave trade and then slavery.
                                                     What were some responses of colonized
Social effects of the Industrial Revolution          peoples to European imperialism?
•      Women and children entering the
workplace as cheap labor                             Nationalism motivated European nations to
•      Introduction of reforms to end child labor    compete for colonial possessions. European
•      Expansion of education                        economic, military, and political power forced
•      Women’s increased demands for suffrage        colonized countries to trade on European
                                                                                                  12
terms. Industrially-produced goods flooded             •     Nationalistic feelings
colonial markets and displaced their traditional       •     Diplomatic failures
industries. Colonized peoples resisted European        •     Imperialism
domination and responded in diverse ways to            •     Competition over colonies
Western influences.                                    •     Militarism

Forms of imperialism                                   What were the major events of the war?
•     Colonies
•     Protectorates                                    Major events
•     Spheres of influence                             •     Assassination of Austria’s Archduke
                                                       Ferdinand
Imperialism in Africa and Asia                         •     United States enters war
•      European domination                             •     Russia leaves the war
•      European conflicts carried to the colonies      Who were the major leaders?
•      Christian missionary efforts
•      Spheres of influence in China                   Major leaders
•      Suez Canal                                      •     Woodrow Wilson
•      East India Company’s domination of              •     Kaiser Wilhelm II
Indian states
•      American opening of Japan to trade              What were the outcomes and global effects
                                                       of World War I?
Responses of colonized peoples
•      Armed conflicts (Events leading to the          Outcomes and global effects
Boxer Rebellion in China)                              •      Colonies’ participation in the war,
•      Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist   which increased demands for independence
party founded in the mid-1800s)                        •      End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman,
                                                       German, and Austro-Hungarian empires
STANDARD WHII.9a, b                                    •      Enormous cost of the war in lives,
                                                       property, and social disruption
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the
worldwide impact of World War I by                     What were the terms of the Treaty of
a)     explaining economic and political causes,       Versailles?
major events, and identifying major leaders of
the war, with emphasis on Woodrow Wilson and           Treaty of Versailles
Kaiser Wilhelm II;                                     •     Forced Germany to accept guilt for
b)     explaining the outcomes and global effect       war and loss of territory and pay reparations
of the war and the Treaty of Versailles.               •     Limited the German military

World War I (1914-1918) was caused by                  STANDARD WHII.9c
competition among industrial nations in Europe
and a failure of diplomacy. The war transformed        The student will demonstrate knowledge of
European and American life, wrecked the                the worldwide impact of World War I by
economies of Europe, and planted the seeds for         c)    citing causes and consequences of the
a second world war.                                    Russian Revolution.

What were the factors that produced World War          Tsarist Russia entered World War I as an
I?                                                     absolute monarchy with sharp class divisions
                                                       between the nobility and peasants. The
Causes of World War I                                  grievances of workers and peasants were not
•    Alliances that divided Europe into                resolved by the Tsar. Inadequate
competing camps                                        administration in World War I led to revolution
                                                                                                    13
and an unsuccessful provisional government. A
second revolution by the Bolsheviks created the     STANDARD WHII.10b
communist state that ultimately became the          The student will demonstrate knowledge of
U.S.S.R.                                            political, economic, social, and cultural
                                                    developments during the Interwar Period by
Why did Russia erupt in revolution while fighting   b)      citing causes and assessing the
in World War I?                                     impact of worldwide depression in the 1930s.

Causes of 1917 revolutions                          A period of uneven prosperity in the decade
•     Defeat in war with Japan in 1905              following World War I (1920s) was followed
•     Landless peasantry                            by worldwide depression in the 1930s.
•     Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II              Depression weakened Western democracies,
•     Military defeats and high casualties in       making it difficult for them to challenge the
World War I                                         threat of totalitarianism.

How did communism rise in Russia?                   Why did the world experience depression in
                                                    the 1930s?
Rise of communism
•      Bolshevik Revolution and civil war           Causes of worldwide depression
•      Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy         •      German reparations
•      Lenin’s successor—Joseph Stalin              •      Expansion of production capacities
                                                    and dominance of the United States in the
STANDARD WHII.10a                                   global economy
                                                    •      High protective tariffs
The student will demonstrate knowledge of           •      Excessive expansion of credit
political, economic, social, and cultural           •      Stock Market Crash (1929)
developments during the Interwar Period by
a)      describing the League of Nations and the    What political changes resulted from the
mandate system.                                     worldwide depression?

After World War I, international organizations      Impact of world depression
and agreements were established to avoid future     •      High unemployment in industrial
conflicts.                                          countries
What was the League of Nations and why did it       •      Bank failures and collapse of credit
fail?                                               •      Collapse of prices in world trade
                                                    •      Nazi Party’s growing importance in
League of Nations                                   Germany; Nazi Party’s blame of European
•     International cooperative organization        Jews for economic collapse
•     Established to prevent future wars
•     United States not a member                    STANDARD WHII.10c
•     Failure of League because it did not have
power to enforce its decisions                      The student will demonstrate knowledge of
                                                    political, economic, social, and cultural
Why was the mandate system created?                 developments during the Interwar Period by
                                                    c)      examining events related to the rise,
The mandate system                                  aggression, and human costs of dictatorial
•      The system was created to administer the     regimes in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy,
colonies of defeated powers on a temporary          and Japan, and identifying their major
basis.                                              leaders, i.e. Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler,
•      France and Great Britain became              Benito Mussolini, Hirohito, and Hideki Tojo.
mandatory powers in the Middle East.
                                                                                                  14
Economic dislocations following World War I led       •       Industrialization of Japan, leading to
to unstable political conditions. Worldwide           drive for raw materials
depression in the 1930s provided opportunities        •       Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the
for the rise of dictators in the Soviet Union,        rest of China
Germany, Italy, and Japan.
                                                      STANDARD WHII.11a
A communist dictatorship was established by
Vladimir Lenin and continued by Joseph Stalin in      The student will demonstrate knowledge of
the Soviet Union.                                     the worldwide impact of World War II by
                                                      a)     explaining economic and political
The Treaty of Versailles worsened economic and        causes, major events, and identifying leaders
political conditions in Europe and led to the rise    of the war, with emphasis on Franklin D.
of totalitarian regimes in Italy and Germany.         Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight D.
                                                      Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George
Japan emerged as a world power after World            Marshall, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin,
War I and conducted aggressive imperialistic          Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, and Hirohito.
policies in Asia.
                                                      Many economic and political causes led
Why did dictatorial governments emerge in             toward World War II. Major theaters of war
Germany, Italy, Japan, and the U.S.S.R. after         included Africa, Europe, Asia, and the Pacific
World War I?                                          Islands. Leadership was essential to the
                                                      Allied victory.
How did these regimes affect the world following
World War I?                                          What were the causes of World War II?

U.S.S.R. during the Interwar Period—Joseph            Economic and political causes of World War
Stalin                                                II
•       Entrenchment of communism                     •      Aggression by totalitarian powers
•       Stalin’s policies (five-year plans,           (Germany, Italy, Japan)
collectivization of farms, state industrialization,   •      Nationalism
secret police)                                        •      Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
•       Great Purge                                   •      Weakness of the League of Nations
                                                      •      Appeasement
Germany during the Interwar Period—Adolf              •      Tendencies towards isolationism and
Hitler                                                pacifism in Europe and the United States
•      Inflation and depression
•      Democratic government weakened                 What were the major events of World War II?
•      Anti-Semitism
•      Extreme nationalism                            Major events of the war (1939-1945)
•      National Socialism (Nazism)                    •     German invasion of Poland
•      German occupation of nearby countries          •     Fall of France
                                                      •     Battle of Britain
Italy during the Interwar Period—Benito               •     German invasion of the Soviet Union
Mussolini                                             •     Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
•       Rise of fascism                               •     D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe)
•       Ambition to restore the glory of Rome         •     Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima
•       Invasion of Ethiopia                          and Nagasaki

Japan during the Interwar Period—Hirohito and         Who were the major leaders of World War II?
Hideki Tojo
•      Militarism                                     Major leaders of the war
                                                                                                  15
•      Franklin D. Roosevelt—U.S. President         •      The educated, artists, technicians,
•      Harry Truman—U.S. President after death      former government officials, monks, and
of President Roosevelt                              minorities by Pol Pot in Cambodia
•      Dwight D. Eisenhower—U.S. general            •      Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda
•      Douglas MacArthur—U.S. general               •      Muslims and Croats by Bosnian Serbs
•      George Marshall—U.S. general                 in former Yugoslavia
•      Winston Churchill—British prime minister
•      Joseph Stalin—Soviet dictator                STANDARD WHII.11c
•      Adolf Hitler—Nazi dictator of Germany
•      Hideki Tojo—Japanese general                 The student will demonstrate knowledge of
•      Hirohito—Emperor of Japan                    the worldwide impact of World War II by
                                                    c)     explaining the terms of the peace, the
STANDARD WHII.11b                                   war crimes trials, the division of Europe,
                                                    plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the       creation of international cooperative
worldwide impact of World War II by                 organizations.
b)    examining the Holocaust and other
examples of genocide in the twentieth century.      The outcomes of World War II included the
                                                    war crimes trials, the division of Europe,
There had been a climate of hatred against Jews     plans to rebuild Germany and Japan, and the
in Europe and Russia for centuries.                 establishment of international cooperative
                                                    organizations.
Various instances of genocide have occurred
throughout the twentieth century.                   What were the outcomes of World War II?

Why did the Holocaust occur?                        What were the war crimes trials?

What are other examples of genocides in the         Outcomes of World War II
twentieth century?                                  •     European powers’ loss of empires
                                                    •     Establishment of two major powers in
Terms to know                                       the world: The United States and the
•      Genocide: The systematic and purposeful      U.S.S.R.
destruction of a racial, political, religious, or   •     War crimes trials
cultural group                                      •     Division of Europe—Iron Curtain
                                                    •     Establishment of the United Nations
Elements leading to the Holocaust                   •     Marshall Plan
•     Totalitarianism combined with nationalism     •     Formation of North Atlantic Treaty
•     History of anti-Semitism                      Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Pact
•     Defeat in World War I and economic
depression blamed on German Jews                    How did the Allies promote reconstruction of
•     Hitler’s belief in the master race            the defeated powers?
•     Final solution—Extermination camps, gas
chambers                                            What were the international cooperative
                                                    organizations created after World War II?
Examples of other genocides
•     Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman           Efforts for reconstruction of Germany
Empire                                              •      Democratic government installed in
•     Peasants, government and military             West Germany and West Berlin
leaders, and members of the elite in the Soviet     •      Germany and Berlin divided among
Union by Joseph Stalin                              the four Allied powers

                                                                                                16
•    Emergence of West Germany as
economic power in postwar Europe                    What was the impact of nuclear weapons?

Efforts for reconstruction of Japan                 Characteristics of the Cold War (1948-1989)
•      U.S. occupation of Japan under               •      North Atlantic Treaty Organization
MacArthur’s administration                          (NATO) v. the Warsaw Pact
•      Democracy and economic development           •      Korean Conflict
•      Elimination of Japanese offensive military   •      Vietnam War
capabilities; United States’ guarantee of Japan’s   •      Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall
security                                            •      Cuban Missile Crisis
•      Emergence of Japan as dominant               •      Nuclear weapons and the theory of
economy in Asia                                     deterrence

STANDARD WHII.12a, b                                      What were the causes and
                                                    consequences of the collapse of the Soviet
The student will demonstrate knowledge of major     Union?
events and outcomes of the Cold War by
a)     explaining key events of the Cold War,       Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union
including the competition between the American      and Eastern Europe (1989-)
and Soviet economic and political systems and       •     Soviet economic collapse
the causes of the collapse of Communism in the      •     Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries
Soviet Union and Eastern Europe;                    •     Tearing down of Berlin Wall
b)     assessing the impact of nuclear power on     •     Breakup of U.S.S.R.
patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945.    •     Expansion of NATO

Competition between the United States and the       STANDARD WHII.12c
U.S.S.R. laid the foundation for the Cold War.
                                                    The student will demonstrate knowledge of
The Cold War influenced the policies of the         major events and outcomes of the Cold War
United States and the U.S.S.R. towards other        by
nations and conflicts around the world.             c)     describing conflicts and revolutionary
                                                    movements in eastern Asia, including those
The presence of nuclear weapons influenced          in China and Vietnam, and their major
patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945.    leaders, i.e. Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang
                                                    Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh.
Communism failed as an economic system in the
Soviet Union and elsewhere.                         Japanese occupation of European colonies in
                                                    Asia heightened demands for independence
What events led to the Cold War?                    after World War II.

Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948)               After World War II, the United States pursued
•      The Yalta Conference and the Soviet          a policy of containment against communism.
control of Eastern Europe                           This policy included the development of
•      Rivalry between the United States and the    regional alliances against Soviet and Chinese
U.S.S.R.                                            aggression. The Cold War led to armed
•      Democracy and the free enterprise            conflict in Korea and Vietnam.
system v. dictatorship and communism
•      President Truman and the Policy of           How did the Cold War influence conflicts in
Containment                                         Eastern Asia after World War II?
•      Eastern Europe—Soviet satellite nations;
the Iron Curtain                                    What was the policy of containment?
                                                                                                  17
                                                    •     Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)
Terms to know                                       What were the outcomes of the Indian
•     Containment: Policy for preventing the        independence movement?
expansion of communism
                                                    Evolution of the Indian independence
Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China      movement
•      Division of China into two nations at the    •       British rule in India
end of the Chinese civil war                        •       Leadership of Mohandas Ghandi
•      Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)—              •       Role of civil disobedience and passive
Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)                resistance
•      Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong)—                   •       Political division along Hindu-Muslim
Communist China (mainland China)                    lines, Pakistan/India
•      Continuing conflict between the two
Chinas                                              STANDARD WHII.13b
•      Communist China’s participation in
Korean Conflict                                     The student will demonstrate knowledge of
                                                    political, economic, social, and cultural
Conflicts and revolutionary movements in            aspects of independence movements and
Vietnam                                             development efforts by
•      Role of French Imperialism                   b)      describing Africa’s achievement of
•      Leadership of Ho Chi Minh                    independence, including Kenyatta’s
•      Vietnam as a divided nation                  leadership of Kenya.
•      Influence of policy of containment
•      The United States and the Vietnam War        The charter of the United Nations guaranteed
•      Vietnam as a reunited communist country      colonial populations the right to self-
today                                               determination.
                                                    Independence movements in Africa
STANDARD WHII.13a                                   challenged European imperialism.

The student will demonstrate knowledge of           Why did independence movements in Africa
political, economic, social, and cultural aspects   gain success after World War II?
of independence movements and development
efforts by                                          What was Kenyatta’s leadership role in
a)      describing the struggles for self-rule,     Kenya?
including Gandhi’s leadership in India.
                                                    The independence movement in Africa
British policies and the demand for self-rule led   •      Right to self-determination (U.N.
to the rise of the Indian independence              charter)
movement, resulting in the creation of new states   •      Peaceful and violent revolutions after
in the Indian sub-continent.                        World War II
                                                    •      Pride in African cultures and heritage
Who was a leader of the Indian independence         •      Resentment toward imperial rule and
movement, and what tactics did he use?              economic exploitation
                                                    •      Loss of colonies by Great Britain,
Regional setting for the Indian independence        France, Belgium, and Portugal Influence of
movement                                            superpower rivalry during the Cold War
•     Indian sub-continent
•     British India                                 Examples of independence movements and
•     India                                         subsequent development efforts
•     Pakistan (former West Pakistan)               •     West Africa—Peaceful transition
•     Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)
                                                                                                 18
•      Algeria—War for Independence from             Five world religions have had a profound
France                                               impact on culture and civilization.
•      Kenya (Britain)—Violent struggle under
leadership of Kenyatta                               What are some characteristics of the five
•      South Africa—Black South Africans’            major world religions?
struggle against apartheid                           Judaism
                                                     •       Monotheism
STANDARD WHII.13c                                    •       Ten Commandments of moral and
                                                     religious conduct
The student will demonstrate knowledge of            •       Torah—Written record and beliefs of
political, economic, social, and cultural aspects    Hebrews
of independence movements and development
efforts by                                           Christianity
c)      describing the end of the mandate system     •      Monotheism
and the creation of states in the Middle East.       •      Jesus as Son of God
                                                     •      Life after death
The mandate system established after World           •      New Testament—Life and teachings of
War I was phased out after World War II. With        Jesus
the end of the mandates, new states were             •      Establishment of Christian doctrine by
created in the Middle East.                          early church councils

What were the results of the United Nations’         Islam
decision to end the mandate system in terms of       •       Monotheism
states created (locations) and their subsequent      •       Muhammad the prophet
problems?                                            •       Koran
                                                     •       Five Pillars of Islam
Mandates in the Middle East                          •       Mecca and Medina
•       Established by the League of Nations
•       Granted independence after World War II      Buddhism
•       Resulted in Middle East conflicts created    •     Founder—Siddhartha Gautama
by religious differences                             (Buddha)
                                                     •     Four Noble Truths
French Mandates in the Middle East                   •     Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
•     Syria                                          •     Spread of Buddhism from India to
•     Lebanon                                        China and other parts of Asia, resulting from
                                                     Asoka’s missionaries and their writings
British Mandates in the Middle East
•       Jordan                                       Hinduism
•       Palestine (part became independent as        •     Many forms of one deity
the State of Israel)                                 •     Caste system
                                                     •     Reincarnation
STANDARD WHII.14a                                    •     Karma—Future reincarnation based
                                                     on present behavior
The student will demonstrate knowledge of the
influence of Judaism, Christianity, Islam,           STANDARD WHII.14b
Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary
world by                                             The student will demonstrate knowledge of
a)      describing their beliefs, sacred writings,   the influence of Judaism, Christianity, Islam,
traditions, and customs.                             Buddhism, and Hinduism in the contemporary
                                                     world by

                                                                                                   19
b)      locating the geographic distribution of      •     Middle East
religions in the contemporary world.                 •     Northern Ireland
                                                     •     Balkans
Five world religions have had a profound impact      •     Africa
on culture and civilization. These religions are     •     Asia
found worldwide, but their followers tend to be
concentrated in certain geographic areas.            What new technologies have created
                                                     opportunities and challenges?
Where are the followers of the five world
religions concentrated?                              Impact of new technologies
                                                     •     Widespread but unequal access to
Geographical distribution of world’s major           computers and instantaneous
religions                                            communications
•       Judaism—Concentrated in Israel and           •     Genetic engineering and bioethics
North America
•       Christianity —Concentrated in Europe,        STANDARD WHII.15b
North and South America
•       Islam—Concentrated in the Middle East,       The student will demonstrate knowledge of
Africa, and Asia                                     cultural, economic, and social conditions in
•       Hinduism—Concentrated in India               developed and developing nations of the
•       Buddhism—Concentrated in East and            contemporary world by
Southeast Asia                                       b)     assessing the impact of economic
                                                     development and global population growth on
STANDARD WHII.15a                                    the environment and society, including an
                                                     understanding of the links between economic
The student will demonstrate knowledge of            and political freedom.
cultural, economic, and social conditions in
developed and developing nations of the              Developed and developing nations are
contemporary world by                                characterized by different levels of economic
a)     identifying contemporary political issues,    development, population characteristics, and
with emphasis on migrations of refugees and          social conditions.
others, ethnic/religious conflicts, and the impact
of technology, including chemical and biological     Economic development and the rapid growth
technologies.                                        of population are having an impact on the
                                                     environment.
Both developed and developing nations face
many challenges. These include migrations,           Sound economic conditions contribute to a
ethnic and religious conflict, and new               stable democracy, and political freedom
technologies.                                        helps foster economic development.

What are some challenges faced by the                How does the developing world compare with
contemporary world?                                  the developed world in terms of economic,
                                                     social, and population characteristics?

Migrations of refugees and others                    What impact are economic development and
•       Refugees as an issue in international        rapid population growth having on the
conflicts                                            environment?
•       Migrations of ―guest workers‖ to European
cities
                                                     Contrasts between developed and
Ethnic and religious conflicts                       developing nations
                                                                                                 20
•      Geographic locations of major developed      How is economic interdependence changing
and developing countries                            the world?
•      Economic conditions
•      Social conditions (literacy, access to       Economic interdependence
health care)                                        •     Role of rapid transportation,
•      Population size and rate of growth           communication, and computer networks
                                                    •     Rise and influence of multinational
Factors affecting environment and society           corporations
•     Economic development                          •     Changing role of international
•     Rapid population growth                       boundaries
                                                    •     Regional integration (European Union)
Environmental challenges                            •     Trade agreements—North American
•     Pollution                                     Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World
•     Loss of habitat                               Trade Organization (WTO)
•     Ozone depletion                               •     International organizations— United
                                                    Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund
Social challenges                                   (IMF)
•      Poverty
•      Poor health
•      Illiteracy
•      Famine
•      Migration

      What are the links between economic
development and political freedom?

Relationship between economic and political
freedom
•       Free market economies produce rising
standards of living and an expanding middle
class, which produces growing demands for
political freedoms and individual rights. Recent
examples include Taiwan and South Korea.

STANDARD WHII.15c

The student will demonstrate knowledge of
cultural, economic, and social conditions in
developed and developing nations of the
contemporary world by
c)     describing economic interdependence,
including the rise of multinational corporations,
international organizations, and trade
agreements.

The countries of the world are increasingly
dependent on each other for raw materials,
markets, and financial resources, although there
is still a difference between the developed and
developing nations.

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