PART II NCC Officers Training Academy Gwalior by mikeholy

VIEWS: 206 PAGES: 190


S.NO                             SUBJECT                        PAGE

                               MAP READING

1      INTRODUCTION AND LAYOUT OF MAP                           1

3      SCALES AND ITS CONVERSION                                7
4      METHODS OF FINDING OUT NORTH                             9
6      SERVICE PROTRACTOR AND ITS USES                          15
8      FINDING OWN POSITION                                     20
9      GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)                          21
10     NIGHT NAVIGATION                                         26

                              WEAPON TRAINING

11     INTRODUCTION TO .22 RIFLE                                34

12     STRIPPING, ASSEMBLY AND CLEANING OF RIF                  36

13     LOADING AND UNLOADING OF RIFLE                           37
14     PRINCIPLE OF AIMING                                      39
15     HOLDING, AIMING AND TRIGGER OPERATION                    41
16     AIMING BOX EXERCISE                                      44
17     THEORY OF SMALL ARMS                                     45
18     THEORY OF GROUPING                                       50
19     ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF GROUP                         53
20     ZEROING OF .22 RIFLE                                     55
21   COACHING ON RANGE                                         57


     ANPRC-25 )
25   RADIO TELEPHONY (RT) PROCEDURE                            72
26   LINE COMMUNICATION                                        81
27   TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS                                   86
28   COMMUNICATION MEDIA                                       89
29   LATEST TRENDS IN COMMUNICATION                            91

                      TACTICS & FIELD ENGINEERING

30   CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT                                96
32   BATTLE CRAFT - FIRE AND MOVEMENT                          107
33   FIELD SIGNALS                                             110
34   SECTION FORMATIONS                                        112
35   SECTION AND PLATOON BATTLE DRILLS                         114

36   GLOSSARY OF MILITARY TERMS                                117
37   FIRE CONTROL ORDERS                                       121

38   FIELD DEFENCES                                            123
39   MINES AND TYPES OF MINE FIELDS                            128
40   KNOTS AND LASHES                                          134
41   NBC WARFARE                                               138
42   WATER SUPPLY IN FIELD                                     143
43   IMPROVISED WATER CROSSING EXPEDIENTS                      145

44      PRINCIPLES OF GOOD INSTRUCTION                                                  148
45      PREPARATION OF A LESSON PLAN                                                    152
46      USE OF TRG AIDS AND SENSES                                                      154
47      CONDUCT OF LESSON AND LECTURE                                                   156
48      LEADERSHIP TRAITS                                                               160

49      STYLES OF LEADERSHIP                                                            164
50      MAN MANAGEMENT                                                                  173
51      OFFICER LIKE CONDUCT – DO’S AND DON’T’S                                         179
52      DUTIES OF A GOOD CITIZEN                                                        186
54      CHARACTER/PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT                                               192
55      TIME MANAGEMENT                                                                 196
56      STRESS MANAGEMENT                                                               204
57      COMMUNICATION                                                                   212
58      PERCEPTION                                                                      223

59      MOTIVATION                                                                      231
60      PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING                                             238

                              INTRODUCTION AND LAYOUT OF MAP


1.     Man has resorted to pictorial representation of ground since times immemorial, to find his way from
Place A to Place B. A soldier has always required a map, not only to go to new places but also to find his
way safely back to his base. Modern maps provide a foolproof method of navigation.

Introduction to Map

3.      It is almost impossible to inspect each piece of ground and then remember them accurately with each
detail. Some representation of the area involved must be prepared in a convenient size. Such a
representation must be prepared of each area / surface of ground on earth's surface as viewed from above
and represented on a flat surface. This is called a map. "A Map is the proportional representation of the
whole or a part of the earth on a flat surface such as a sheet of paper and it represents a bird's eye view of
the area concerned".

4       Military Uses of Maps.
       (a)     Detailed military information of far off places can be obtained.
       (b)     Assists commanders to formulate their operational plan.
       (c)     To control operations over a wide frontage.
       (d)     Helps in maintaining communication over a wide frontage.
       (e)     Instills confidence in troops.
       (f)     Ensures co-operation between the three services.
       (g)     Enables planning and execution of operations overseas.

5.     Limitation of Maps.

       (a)    It is very difficult to always keep the maps up to date, due to constant changes on ground.
       (b)    Complete representation of objects on ground not possible.
       (c)    Gives out only two dimensional representation.

Layout of Maps

6.     Info on Margins of the Map
         (a) Title: Name of State.
         (b) Sub Title: Which districts are covered in this map.
         (c) Security Classification: Restricted means it is meant for official purposes only.
         (d) Year of Survey: Based on this we can judge the accuracy & magnetic variation etc.
         (e) Edition Number: Of the survey map.
         (f) Magnetic Declination.
         (g) Reference Box.
         (h) Map Sheet Number.
         (j) Year of Publication.
         (k) Conventional Signs: These are given below the maps.
         (i) Name of Publisher.
         (m) Scale & Scale lines.
         (n) Contour interval:
         (o) Notice on Map reading: Pertains to reading & giving reference.
         (p) Administrative Index.

Longitude, Latitude and Grid Lines.

7.    Longitude.     These lines are static and depicted on the survey maps by black lines. These lines
converge on the North and South Poles. They are not parallel to each other but make an angle of 90
degrees on the equator.

8.      Latitudes.      These are also static lines and depicted in black colour. These are imaginary lines
that run parallel to the equator and to each other.

9.     Grid Lines. On a small scale map, a place can be accurately described if the latitude and
longitude are given. While dealing with maps of a sufficiently large scale for normal military use, the use of
simple latitudes and longitudes would be inconvenient due to reasons of expediency and accuracy in
calculation. The usual practice is to superimpose a series of lines on the map which act in the same way
as lines of latitude and longitude and provide a simple and convenient way of locating features and points
on the map. These are called grid lines.
       (a)     The grid lines are superimposed on the maps and run parallel to each other. They are static
       and depicted on the survey maps in purple colour. These are of two types:-
               (i)    Eastings.        Run in North- South direction and increase in number towards the East
               or right.
               (ii)     Northings.     Run in the East-West direction and increase in number towards the
               North or upward.
       (b)     All grid lines are numbered and this numbering is done on the margins and also on the face
       of the map. It is important to know the following about grid lines,
               (i)      Whole country is divided into large lettered squares of 100,000 m each. It is
               further sub divided into 10 smaller squares each of 10,000 m. These are represented on
               the map in thick lines e.g. 10,20,30,40 etc.
               (ii)     These squares are further divided into squares of 1000 m each, numbered eg. 41 to
               49, 51 to 59 etc.
               (iii)    Maps have adopted metric system of scale with effect from Dec 88.The distance
               between two purple lines is 1 Km. One square covers an area of 1 square km.

Preservation of Maps

10.    Preservation of maps is not only a time consuming process, it involves a lot of efforts and
expense. Map should therefore be stored and handled with care. Following points must be borne in mind
to preserve the maps:-
       (a)    Wet ground, improper folds and cracks are great enemies of map. Save them from these.
       (b)    Do not open a map fully in the open area or in a restricted space like inside the bus. Fold
       the map properly before proceeding outdoors to avoid damage to them.
       (c)    Learn the proper way to fold a map which involves:-
              (i)    Fold the margin backwards.
              (ii)   Fold it half down its length with the map showing outwards.
              (iii)  Finally fold across the other way in concertina fashion.
              (iv)   Open only the appropriate fold when required for reference.
       (d)    Once a map is folded leave it folded. Details at creases are bound to suffer, but it will be
       worse if the map is folded and unfolded frequently.
       (e) You must consider carefully, as to what area must appear and how the map can be folded
       with least number of creases. Mount it on a board and put talc sheet on it.
       (f)    Use soft china graph pencils for marking a map. All marking should only be done on talc
       sheet and not on the map sheet.
       (g)    Save the map from getting wet. If it does get wet, it must be opened at the earliest and


11.     The map is a document that represents ground on a piece of paper. The latitudes, longitudes and
the grid lines are depicted on the map which helps in map reading.


1.     Study of conventional signs, terrain features, contour lines and knowledge about scales helps
us in better understanding of maps, and is of great assistance during Map Reading.

Conventional Signs.

2.    Definition.    These are symbols used to indicate on map, the features or objects that exist on

3.     Characteristics:-
       (a)   Depicts ground features realistically.
       (b)   Easy to make.
       (c)   Standard signs for all maps and sketches.

4.      Making of Conventional Signs         Conventional signs are drawn so as to look similar to things
they represent. Since a map is drawn in plain, i.e. two dimensional, therefore, most of the
conventional signs are also drawn in plain. Some signs would not be distinguishable if they are drawn
in plain; hence they are drawn in elevation. The conventional signs on a map are denoted as follows:-
        (a)    By making Signs / Features.
               (i)     In Plain.       These look as if seen from top. For e.g Roads, rivers, canals, water
               bodies, cities etc.
               (ii)    In Elevation. As they would appear from a side or when looking from the front.
               For     e.g. Temple, mosque, church etc.
               (iii)   In General. These depict the characteristics of a landmark. For e.g., two cross
               swords represent a battle field.
        (b)    By Writing Alongside Signs.           In this method an abbreviation is written next to the
        conventional sign. E.g., PO (Post Office), IB (Inspection Bungalow), RS (Railway Station), PS
        (Police Station) etc.
        (c)    By Shading with Colours. Different colours represent different landmarks or objects.
        e.g., water in blue, fields in yellow, forest in green etc.

5     Scales of Conventional Signs.      The conventional signs are not always as per scale due to
problems in their depiction. Based on size scale, the conventional signs of two types:-
      (a)    As per Scale.        City, Villages, canals and rivers etc.
      (b)    Larger than Scale. Power houses, roads, bridges, wells, mule & foot track, railway
      lines etc.

Terrain Features

6.    To explain the relief and topographical features on ground, a few terms have been used. They
       (a)    Spur or Salient.     A piece of ground jutting out from a range of a hill into lower
       (b)    Re-entrant. A narrow valley, closed at one end, separating two spurs.
       (c)    Saddle. A narrow ridge of high land joining two higher hills.
       (d)    Crest. The highest part of a hill or mountain range that lie on a range of hills or
       mountains, from which the ground slopes down in various directions.
       (e)    Defile. Any feature whether natural or artificial, which would cause a body of troops to
       contract its frontage, when passing through it. An example of a natural defile is a mountain
       pass, while a bridge is an artificial defile.
       (f)    Plateau.      Level ground on top of a mountain.
       (g)    Knoll. A small isolated hill.
       (h)    Ridge. The line along a hill or range of hills or mountains, from which water flows in
       opposite directions.
       (j)    Watershed. The line separating the water flowing into two different river systems. e.g.,
       the edge of a river basin.
       (k)    Ravine. A long deep valley formed by a stream.
       (l)    Valley. Low lying area between the mountains.
       (m) Dead Ground. Ground which by reasons of undulations or hills, is not visible to the
       (n)    Escarpment. The steep hillside formed by a sudden drop in the general ground level,
       usually from a plateau.
       (o)    Basin. An area of fairly level ground, surrounded or nearly surrounded by hills, or the
       area surrounded by a river and its tributaries.

Contour Lines

7.     Contour lines are one of the methods of showing relief on the map. They effectively depict the
height of a place on the map and have been used in Survey Maps since 1895. "These lines which join
places of similar heights above sea level are called contours."

8.     Characteristics.
       (a)     Do not exist on ground.
       (b)     These are made by joining places of equal ht.
       (c)     Difference between two contours shows the degree of slope, If they are close by, slope
       is steep, and if they are distant, slope is gradual.
       (d)     Contour lines are uneven as per layout of ground.
       (e)     The ends of contour lines are open on a map sheet's edge.
       (f)     If two contours having same height are near each other, one should not
       presume that the ground is plain between them. Most probably there will be depression or a
       rise in ground between them.

9.     Contour Value. The height of a contour line is called its contour value. In survey maps,
contour value is given on every fifth contour. This line is slightly thicker than the rest. If 200 is written
on a thick line, on a metric scale map it means 200 m, and on an inch scale it means 200 ft.

10.    Contour Interval.       The vertical distance between two adjacent contour lines is called contour
interval. In metric scale it is given in metres, and in inch scale in feet. Generally the contour interval is
20 m in metric scale and 50 ft in inch map.

11.   Vertical Interval. This is the same as contour interval and represents the rise in level
between successive contour lines. The vertical interval is generally the same for any given scale.

12.   Conventional signs, terrain features and contour lines are part of all maps used in the services.
A good understanding of these will facilitate better understanding of Map Reading as a whole.

                                  SCALES AND ITS CONVERSION


1.     Every map has a scale. This scale helps us to relate the map to ground, as it is the
proportionate distance between two points on the map related to actual distance between the
corresponding points on the ground.

Method of Expressing Scale and Types of Scale

2.     There are two methods of expressing the scale. These are :-
       (a)     In Words.    The scale may be expressed in words, e.g., 1 inch to 1 mile or 2 cms to I km
       etc. The distance measured on the map in terms of inches or cms can thus be easily converted
       into actual distance on ground. E.g., in such maps, a distance of 2 inches will correspond to 2
       miles while 3 cms will correspond to 1.5 kms on the ground, respectively.
       (b)    B y Representative Fraction (RF). This is the scale expressed in the form of a fraction. If
       the scale is given as 1 / 100,000, it means that one unit on the map represents 100,000 of the
       same unit on the ground. Thus 1 / 63,360 means that 1 inch on the map will correspond to 63,360
       inches on the ground (one mile).
       (c)    The scale is always written in the centre of the bottom margin of the map and both methods
       are given.

3.    Scale Lines      The scale line is drawn along with the method of representation of scale on
the map. With the help of scale lines, the distance on the map can be measured accurately.

4.      Types of Scale.       There are small, medium and large sizes of scales used in maps, based on
the requirement of details by the user. The larger the scale, greater are the details shown on the map and
vice versa. The most common maps used in the military are of the scale 2 cms to 1 km, called the metre
map, and 1 inch to 4 miles, or quarter inch map. The metre map shows most of the details on the
ground, while most of the planning is done on the quarter inch map. Air Force uses 'Million Map1, since
pilots have to fly-over vast areas and need continuous update from much larger landmarks than used by
the ground forces.

5.   Choice of Scale.    It depends on the following: -
     (a)   Purpose for which the map is required.
     (b)   Amount of details required.
     (c)   Area to be covered.
Conversion of Scale

6.     Question No I.
       (a)   What is the length represented in inches for one mile if the scale of the map is 1:50,000?
       (b)   Answer.       On ground, 1 mile           =      63,360 inches on ground.
                           1 inch on map               =      50,000 inches on ground.
                           Therefore, 1 mile on ground =      63,360/50000=1.26 inches on map.
7.     Question No 2.
      (a)     What distance is represented by one inch on a map with 1: 25,000 scale?
      (b)     Answer.     1 inch on map         =     25,000 inches on ground

8.    Question No 3.
      (a)     What distance in km is represented by 3.5 cms on a map with scale of
      1: 50,000?
      (b)    Answer.      1 cm on map      = 50,000 cms on ground.
                          3.5 cms on map = 50,000 X 3.5 = 1,75,000 cms on ground.
                                          = 1.75 kms.

9.     Question No 4.
      (a)    What will be the distance between two points on a map of 1:25,000 scales, if they are 1
      km apart on the ground?
       (b)    Answer.      25,000 cms on the ground    = 1 cm on map.
                           1 km on ground (100,000cms) = 1 X 100,000 / 25,000 km.
                                                       = 4 cms.

Measuring Distance on the Map

10. BY Paper Strip.       A piece of paper can be used to measure the gap between two points on
the map. Now this paper is kept next to the scale line drawn on the map and the distance between the
points can be measured.

11. By Service Protractor.   Scale is marked on the reverse of the protractor.

12. By Thread.      For measuring distances involving bends.


13. Maps are of great use in military service, as also for many activities of the NCC. It is therefore
necessary, to learn about the various scales of map and the method of converting distances on the map to
ground and vice versa.

                               METHODS OF FINDING OUT NORTH


1.     The first step in map reading is to set a map, in order to correlate the North of the map with
that on ground. For doing this, it is important for us to not only know how to find out North, but also
the procedure to align the map with North.

Types of North and Their Relationship

2.      Cardinal Directions.      It is important for us to know the cardinal directions. The four
cardinal directions are North, South, East and West. The area between them can denote the
directions of North-East, South-East, South West and North-West as shown below :-
3.    True North (TN).   It is the direction of the North Pole from the observer and is also known as
the geographical North. All longitudes converge at the North Pole or true North, which is always

4.    Magnetic North (MN). This is the direction towards which the compass needle points. The
needle does not point to true North, but a little to the West or East of True North.

5.      Grid North (GN).   It is the direction to which the grid lines on the map point. These lines are
static and shown in purple colour on the map.

Relationship Between Different Types of North

6.    Magnetic Variation. It has been brought out that the compass does not point towards the
True North. The difference between TN and the MN is called 'Magnetic Variation' (MV). The MV
depends on the following two factors: -
      (a)     Time.     MV at Place 'A' was 45' East in 1980. Variation is not constant but gradually
      decreasing, or increasing. Therefore, for calculation of MV, the changes during the time since
      1980 have to be incorporated. MV is found on the top margin of the map. To find the value of
      MV appropriate change annually must be subtracted or added as the case may be.
      (b)     Place.     MV changes with change of place. MV of various towns of India in 1946 was
      as follows:-
              (i)    Chennai             -     2* 35' W
              (ii)   Calcutta            -     1* 17' W
              (iii)  Sri Nagar           -     1* 55' W

7.    Angle of Convergence.       It is the angle formed between TN and GN. At a particular place it is
always constant in a particular map sheet.

8.     Local Variation.   It is the angle formed between GN and MN, at a particular place. It is
calculated from True North.

Finding Out North

9.    Finding North During Day. North during day can be found out by the following means: -
      (a)   By compass.
      (b)   By wind direction.
      (c)   By weather cock.
      (d)   By sand dunes
      (e)   By the sun.
      (f)   By sundial / shadow.
      (g)   By watch.
      (h)   By graveyard, mosque, mandir.
      (j)   By leaves.
      (k)   By floating blade.

10.   Finding out North During Night.
      (a)   By moon.
      (b)   By star constellations such as great bear, Cassiopeia etc.
11.     Deviation.   It is an angle to an object expressed in degrees, measured in a clockwise
direction from North, which is assumed at zero degrees.

12.    Types of Bearing. Since there are three different types of North, there would be three types
of bearing, which correspond to respective North, from which they are measured.
       (a)    Magnetic Bearing. Also known as the compass bearing, is measured with the help of a
       compass since the compass needle always points towards the magnetic North.
       (b)    Grid Bearing. This bearing is measured on the map by a service protractor and
       corresponds to the Grid North depicted by grid lines.
       (c)    True Bearing.       The True bearing cannot be measured directly but must be
       calculated from one of the above two.

13.     Back Bearing and its Calculation.         Back bearing is the bearing from the object or the
target, to the observer. It can be calculated from the forward bearing of object from the observer.
        (a)    When the Forward Bearing is < 180 Deg.          For calculation of back bearing, 180 deg
        is added to the forward bearing.
        (b)     When the Forward Bearing > 180 Deg.         Back bearing can be calculated by
        subtracting 180 deg from the forward bearing.


14.    To conclude, there are three types of North and three types of bearings that correspond to
these Norths. However, we generally deal with Magnetic and Grid bearings, while True bearing is
used to arrive at the correct value of each. MV is the difference between MB and TB and angle of
convergence is the angle between TN and GN. We have also learnt about various methods of finding
North during day and night, the three types of bearings corresponding to three Norths, and calculation
of back bearing. All these are required during Map reading classes and outdoors.



1.      The rising and setting of the sun, along with star constellations in the sky were the most dominant
navigational aids, in ancient days. In the absence of the modern surveyed maps, compass and other
direction f in din g gadgets, man relied on the knowledge of stars and his memory. This is how
Alexander the Great started from Macedonia in Europe and crossed almost the entire Asian continent - yet
his army found its way back to home.

2.      There is a mention of some direction-finding instrument in Mahabharata. The great warrior
Arjuna's chariot was considered to be fitted with one of these gadgets. Once man discovered the
properties of magnet, he started suspending the magnet from a thread to find out North. The modern
compass is nothing but an encased magnetic needle, which can be used for finding the bearing to an

Description of Compass Prismatic

3.      Definition. Compass is an instrument housed in a casing, which assists in indicating
directions, giving degrees and recording bearings of an object.

4.    Types of Compasses. There are basically two types of prismatic compasses.
       (a)   Dry compass.
       (b)    Liquid compass.

5.    The dry compass consists of a card, which moves on a pivot, the liquid compass is easier to use
though it is less sensitive vis a vis dry compass. The compass that we will be using is the liquid prismatic

6.      Parts of Compass. Various components in the compass prismatic are :-
      (a)      Lid. Protects the compass from top and is used to close the casing.
      (b)      Window.       The circular glass window is within the lid. Objects are seen through the
      window while reading bearing.
      (c)      Hair line. This line is engraved on the window. The centre of the object is coincided with this
      line while taking a bearing .
      (d)     Tongue. That portion of the lid that protects the prism is called tongue.
      (e)     Notch. It is engraved on the centre of the lid of the tongue and the thumb ring .
      (f)      Luminous Strip.        This is on both sides of hairline. One slot each on both these strips is
      engraved on top and bottom, to tie a thread or hair, when the window glass breaks.
      (g)      Hinge. This joins the lid to the main casing.
      (h)      C|amping_Screw. It is located on the right hand side of the compass. When loosened,
      the milled vane can move freely. After the desired degree is set, the screw is tightened.
      (j)      Milled Vane. Circular disc placed on casing with a brass outer ring. Inner position of
      glass has figures up to 360 deg written on it. Figures are written as per every tenth degree.
      e.g., 12,13,14 represent 120 deg, 130 deg and 140 deg etc. Between them, the black dot
      represents 5 deg.
      (k)      Setting Vane. Cuttings on the brass portion of the milled vane, which helps to tighten
      or loosen it. The cutting for 360 deg or 0 deg is setting vane.
      (l)      Arrowhead. The needle tip is called the arrowhead, and it is luminous as well.
      (m)      Direction Marks.       This is a simple luminous mark on the dial. While marching with
      the help of compass, arrowhead is kept under the direction mark.
      (n)      Card or Dial.          It is a floating disc of celluloid, connected to casing by a pivot. Two
      concentric circles are marked on it. The Inner circle has graduations at every 20deg. The
      figures on this increase clockwise. While reading bearing, the figures are inverted and give back
      bearing. The outer circle has figures inverted and written at every 20 deg. The figures increase
      clockwise. While reading bearing, the figures appear straight. The dial floats, and stops when
      the arrow mark points towards the North.
      (o)      Lubber Line. A thin black line on the dial, beneath the milled vane is called lubber line.
      It extends up to inner circle on the dial. With this we can read the back bearing,
      (p)      Pivot. The axis on which the dial rotates.
      (q)      Magnifying Prism. Enclosed within a case. When prism case rests on the milled vane,
      the degree can be read through the eyehole. Forward bearing digits are straight while back
      bearing are inverted.
      (r)      Prism Case. A triangular metal which is joined with the case. When the compass is
      closed the tongue saves it. Has a magnifying prism inside. When we see through the eyehole,
      straight figures look inverted while the inverted look straight.
      (s)      Thumb Ring. The compass can be secured by a lanyard/cord through this. Also
      secured by thumb while taking bearing.
        (t)    Glass Protector.       This protects the window glass from breaking.

Use of Compass Prismatic

7.     The compass prismatic is brought in use by the following method : -
       (a)   Open the lid so that it is roughly at right angles to the body of the compass.
       (b)     Move the prism casing so that it lies flat on the milled vane. Put your thumb through the
       ring, and forefingers underneath, so as to hold it level.
       (c)    Bring compass near the eyes. Two things will be visible:-
               (i)     Through the slot in the case, the hairline on the window can be seen.
               (ii)    Through the prism, a set of figures is seen.
       (d)     Align the object with the hairline and look through the prism for the bearing of the object
       from your location.

Compass Error

8.     Individual Compass Error. It means that the needle or the arrow mark of the compass may
point slightly away from the magnetic North. This implies that a correction has to be incorporated while
converting MB to GB or vice versa,

9.      Reasons.     Manufacturing defects and mishandling of compass are causes of compass

10.    How to find Compass Error.
       (a)    Select a prominent point or feature, whose six figure GR is known.
       (b)    Take bearing with compass of three other places which can be identified on map.
       (c)    From the map take out the grid bearing (GB) of these places and convert them into
       magnetic bearing (MB).
       (d)    Compare both these sets of bearing , the difference is the compass error.
       (e)    Error is noted on the inside of the lid in white luminous paint.

11.    When to Add or Subtract Compass Error.
       (a)    If Compass Error is on West, the error is subtracted from the magnetic bearing.
       (b)    If Compass Error is on East, them the compass error will be added to the magnetic

12.     Local Magnetic Attraction. All compasses are affected by the presence of iron and its proximity
may cause the compass needle to point away from magnetic North. Therefore, objects such as barbed
wire, electric cables, corrugated iron nuts, and in fact anything which might affect the compass, should, if
possible, be avoided. Minimum distances which should be maintained from objects are as follows:-
         (a)    Tanks                                 -      75 yards
         (b)    Heavy Guns                            -      60 Yards
         (c)    Telephone wire                        -      40 Yards
         (d)    Barbed wire                           -      10 Yards
         (e)    Steel Helmet/Rifle                    -      03 Yards
         (f)    Cap badge                             -      0.5 Yards

Setting of Compass for Night March

13.    It may be necessary to march by night or in thick jungle area, in the direction of a certain point.
Since this point will not be visible due to darkness or thick vegetation, marching on a compass bearing
becomes essential. Calculate the bearing from the map, convert it to the magnetic bearing (Say, 240
degree). The compass now must be set to this figure.

14.     Loosen the clamping screw. Rotate the milled vane so that the figure of 24 comes exactly on
the "Lumber Line", Tighten the clamping screw. The compass is now set at 240 degree. To obtain the
direction of march, open the lid fully and keep the compass on your palm. Now turn left or right till the
arrowhead comes under the direction mark. Once this happens, the direction of march is given by the
direction in which the tongue is pointing.


15.     It is very important for all trainees to know about the prismatic compass and be proficient in using
the same. They should know how to take the bearing, set the compass and then march on the bearing
set on the compass. The compass should be checked for correctness and error if any, be noted on the
inside of the lid. While using the compass ensure there are no iron objects nearby. The compass will never
fail you, if you have confidence on it.
                                  SERVICE PROTRACTOR AND ITS USES


1.       In map reading, we are always required to find the distance and direction between two places
on the map. For this purpose, there is an instrument called the ‗ServiceProtractor‘. It acts as an essential
link between the compass and the map, as with this instrument, the MB, after being converted into GB,
is plotted to the map.

General Construction

2.     General Construction.       It is made of metal, ivory, plastic or cardboard. It is of size 6 in x 2 in.

3.     Degree Graduation. The 360 degrees of a circle are graduated on the three sides of the service
protractor. Degrees are marked as 0 deg to 180 deg and 180 deg to 360 deg. clockwise, starting from
the right side. These are in an inner and outer set of figures. Outer set has figures from 0 to I80 deg, and
inner set from 1 80 to 360 deg. The centre of the bottom edge has an arrow called arrowhead.

Measuring a Bearing

4      For measuring the bearing between two points on a map, the following is done :-
       (a)      If we need to measure bearing of two points, join them with a pencil.
       (b)      Lay the protractor on the map, so that the zero edge lies parallel to the North and South
       grid line, along which the object is shown. The arrowhead must be on the object.
       (c) To find the bearing, read where the pencil line cuts the graduated line of the protractor.

5.     It is not necessary to lay the protractor on the actual point from which the bearing is required.
Bearing can be read by placing the arrowhead anywhere along the pencil line. It is important that correct
degrees are read in the appropriate set depending on whether the object is less than I8O deg or more.

Uses Of Service Protractor

6.      A number of common map scales are shown on both faces of the protractor. In all, it has six
different scales. The other uses are:-
        (a)    Up to 6" long straight lines can be drawn.
        (b) Can plot and read bearing up to 360 deg.
        (c)    Bearing and back bearing in maps can be read.

7.   Service protractor is an invaluable instrument , which greatly facilities map reading by enabling
measurement of distances, as well as reading of bearings off the map. It also helps in accurate
measurement of grid reference, with the help of the Romer that is inscribed on it.



1.      There are four cardinal directions, North, South, West and East. While North represents 0 deg or
360 deg, East South and West represent 90 deg , 180 deg and 270 deg respectively. North on a map is
always on top off the map sheet. We have already learnt about the three types of North, viz. True
North, Magnetic North, and Grid North. Angle or bearing is always measured from North in a clockwise
direction. This gives rise to three types of bearing i.e. true bearing, magnetic bearing and grid bearing.
These bearings can be inter converted by simple subtractions and additions.

2.       Also, if you look at a Survey of India one inch map, probably the first thing that strikes you is
the fact that it is covered with a network of pink/purple lines, some running North - South, others East
- West, the result being a series of small squares all over the map. These lines are known as ―Grid
Lines‖ and their purpose is to make possible map references. They make no difference to the map, in
that, if they were removed, the map would not suffer in any way. These grid lines are superimposed in
order to make it possible to give a reference to a desired point.

3.     If a platoon commander wants to describe to his platoon havildars, an exact position to which
he is to take his men, he will find that to describe this position in ordinary terms will be both lengthy
and ambiguous. Some method has to be used to overcome this and by making use of the grid
system, a set of figures can be quoted which will refer to one exact point on the map.

Magnetic Variation

4.     Types of North.       We will recapitulate the types of North, which you have already learnt. The
three types are as follows:-
       (a)   True North.
              (i)     Direction of the North pole.
              (ii)    On the map, it is the line of longitude.
       (b) Magnetic_North.
              (i)     Direction shown by the needle of a compass.
              (ii)    Needle does not point to true North.
              (iii) Time & place have an effect on the magnetic needle and hence there is some
              variation in bearing.
              (iv)    This variation is given on the map, on top right hand corner.
       (c)     Grid_North.
              (i)     Grid is a system of referring the map to indicate / identify a place or object
              (ii)    There is an inclination of grid lines running from North to South, either West or
              East of ‗True North. This is called angle of convergence, grid convergence or Grid
              variation. This variation is noted on the map on top right hand side.
              (iii)   Angle between the Grid North and object on the map is grid bearing and it is
              measured on the map with a service protractor.
       (d)     True bearing can never be measured. It is always calculated either from magnetic
       bearing or grid bearing.
5.     Magnetic Variation (MV). It is the angle formed between True North and Magnetic North, at
a particular place. It is always mentioned as East / West of True North. It is also known as Magnetic

Conversion of Bearing

6     Convert Magnetic Bearing (MB) to True Bearing (TB). As explained in the class.

7.    Convert Grid Bearing (GB) to TB.    As explained in the class.

8.     Example 1.
       (a)    Question.    MV on a map is 2 deg East and angle of convergence is 1 deg West. If the
       MB of a Temple from Point T' is 150 deg, what will be the TB and GB?
       (b)     Answer.
              TB = MB+MV
              TB = 150 deg + 2 deg = 152 deg
              GB = TB – Angle of Covergence
              GB = 152 deg (– 1 deg) = 153 deg
10.    Example 2.
       (a)    Question.    MV on a map is 2 Deg 45‘ West and angle of convergence is 1 deg 45‘
       East. Calculate other bearings if the en piquet from B Coy is measured at 105 deg.
       (b)    Answer.
              TB = MB- MV
              TB = 105 deg – 2 deg 45‘ = 102 deg 15 ‗
              GB = TB – Angle of convergence
              GB= 102 deg 15‘ - 1 deg 45‘ = 100 deg 30‘

Grid System

11.   The modified grid system has been in use since 1927 and since it is the one used on modern
maps, the system will be described as applied to 1 inch to 1 mile, and larger scale maps.

12.    The whole country is divided into large lettered squares each measuring 100,000 yards. The
lettered squares are sub divided into 10 smaller squares each measuring 10,000 yards. The sides of
10,000 yards are thickened and they are further sub divided into smaller squares measuring 1000
yards. A 100,000 yards lettered square is much larger than the whole of normal map sheet and for all
practical purposes they are ignored.

13.   A normal sheet contains several squares with sides 10,000 yards (with their sides thickened),
sub divided into 1,000 yards squares. All the lines which form these squares are numbered in the
margin and some also at intervals on the face of the map. See Fig -1.

14.    Eastings and Northings.
       (a)   Eastings.      Vertical Lines running North - South are called Eastings as they increase
       towards East , for eg., 45,46 are Eastings in Fig-1 below.
       (b)   Northings. Horizontal lines drawn West to East, which are increasing towards the
       North are called Northings, for eg., 57,58,59 are Northings in Fig 1.

Types of Grid Reference (GR)

15.    In giving a grid reference there are two rules to remember: -
       (a)     A reference must always contain an even number of figures. In the modified system it
       will contain six figures.
       (b)     Always count along Eastings first, and then, Northings.

16.    Example.       To give a reference to point marked as a Well (Black Circle) in Fig. 1.
       (a)    First count Easting until you come to the vertical line immediately West of this point.
       This is line 46. Now estimate how far across the small 1,000 yards square, the Well is. To do
       this you must mentally divide the small square into 10 still smaller divisions. It is about 9 of
       these small divisions across.
       (b)    The position of the Well from West to East is now fixed and now, do the same thing
       from South to North.
       (c)    Counting upwards along the horizontal lines, i.e. Northings, the one immediately South
       of the Well is line 64. Estimating again, it appears to be 3 / 10 ths of the way up the small
       (d)    The full reference to the point marked as a Well is therefore, 464643. The first half of
       the reference applies to the position of the well eastwards, while the second half refers to its
       position northwards, i.e., 463/643.
       (e)    The third and last figures are the ones, which have to be estimated, and for these
       figures a slight error is permissible.

17.     The above example shows how a six figure Grid Reference is arrived at. A more general
reference can be given by means of a four-figure reference to a point lying in a small square,
provided that it is not likely to be confused with another object in the same square. The same Well in
Fig. 1 could be referred to as: ―Well in Square 4664‖. This figure refers to the point of intersection at
the bottom left hand corner of the square. If there was more than one Well in the square, a six figure
grid reference would have to be given.

The Romer

18.    The Romer is an instrument whereby a pinpoint grid reference can be given. It is given on
service Protractor for six figures GR, which fits exactly in the 1000 yards square, and along the edge
are marked ten graduations.

19.    To find out exact reference of Point P in the diagram, (Fig-2) lay the corner of the Service
Protractor on the Easting. By counting towards East from the Easting in question, i.e., 58, 7 th division
corresponds to point P in square 5846. Now place the corner of the Service Protractor on the
Northing ‗46‘ and read the division corresponding to Point P. This would be ‗s‘, so the exact GR is

20.    Different Romers must be used according to the scale of the map. On the 1-inch to 1-mile
scale 1000 yard squares are small enough to enable the estimated figures to be judged by the eye
with reasonable accuracy. On large-scale maps, however, such as the 1/25,000 (Approx 1.5 inches
to 1 mile), 1,000 yard squares are very much larger, and consequently the Romer is more likely to be

                                                 FIG- 2

14.   Understanding magnetic variation, conversion of bearing, the grid system used in maps and
the method at arriving at grid references of various points, is an essential part of Map Reading.

                                      FINDING OWN POSITION

1.     Finding own position. The art of finding own position on the map is not difficult but requires
practice. Own position can be found by the following methods:-
       (a)   Resection Method.
       (b)   Inspection Method.
       (c)   Continuous Map Reading.

2.     Resection Method. It is the most accurate method of fixing ones own position on the map by
drawing rays from two or more fixed points. The objects chosen should not be more than 100
degrees, or less than 30 degrees apart. Measure their magnetic bearing and convert them into grid
back bearing (Add 180 to readings less than 180 degrees and subtract 180 degree from readings
more than 180). Now plot on the map, grid back bearing of the object chosen. Draw a line
backwards from the object through the point marked with a service protractor. The point at which the
rays intersect is your own position. If the third point is also taken then a triangle called the ―Triangle
of Error‖ is formed and own position is generally the centre of the triangle.

3.     Inspection Method. By inspection is meant, a careful and detailed study of the ground and
features both on the map and on ground. The method consists of setting the map, recognition of the
general area of own position on the map by identifying major features and ground formations in the
area on the map, close study of ground details in the immediate vicinity and their identification on the
map, Thereafter, from own position in relation to ground details, fix the grid reference of own position.

4.     Continuous Map Reading. In thick jungle or desert, few identifiable features exist to enable
resection or inspection to be carried out. To prevent getting lost, map reading must begin from a
known position and must be continuous. One must consult and read the map from the time of leaving
the known position and follow progress on the map by measuring bearing and distance. Even
otherwise, in any country, learn to follow the map as you march or travel in a vehicle.

                                  GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


1.     In the modern day environment, technology seems to have taken over day-to-day function that
a human being has to under go in daily life. So much so that, today‘s youth cannot write a hand
written letter but type in computers. The cellular services provider updates you regularly about the
location in town where one resides with the help of Global Positioning system (GPS). Even the
modern armies have taken cue from this and have started using GPS extensively in operations. In
NCC, GPS assumes great importance in view of the task assigned to it in relation to disaster
management and other contingencies.

Global Positioning System

2.    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a
network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally
intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for
civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. There are
no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.

Method of Functioning of a GPS

3.     GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal
information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's
exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a satellite
with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is.
Now, with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the receiver can determine the user's
position and display it on the unit's electronic map.

4.     A GPS receiver must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellites to calculate a 2D
position (latitude and longitude) and track movement. With four or more satellites in view, the receiver
can determine the user's 3D position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once the user's position has
been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip
distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.

Accuracy of GPS

5.     Today's GPS receivers are extremely accurate, thanks to their parallel multi-channel design.
Garmin‘s 12 parallel channel receivers are quick to lock onto satellites when first turned on and they
maintain strong locks, even in dense foliage or urban settings with tall buildings. Certain atmospheric
factors and other sources of error can affect the accuracy of GPS receivers. Garmin‘s GPS receivers
are accurate to within 15 meters on average. Capability can improve accuracy to less than three
meters on average. No additional equipment or fees are required to take advantage of WAAS.

Garmin GPS 12

6.     GPS 12 is the most used GPS in the Armed Forces and meets the requirement of a soldier
without much complications and easy to operate. Various operational aspects of GPS12 are as
under: -
       (a)     Turning The GPS 12 On. Press until the receiver turns on. The welcome page will
       appear while the unit conducts a self-test. Once testing is complete, the Satellite Page will
       appear. When sufficient satellite signals have been acquired, the Position Page will replace the
       Satellite Page.
       (b)     Marking a Position with Defaults. GPS is really about marking and going to places
       called waypoints. Before we can use GPS 12 to guide us somewhere, we have to mark a
       position as a waypoint (Your GPS 12 can hold up to 500 waypoints).
       (c)     To Mark Your Present Position. Press the MARK key. The mark position page will
       appear, with a default three- digit name for the new waypoint in the upper-left portion of the
       page. You can save the waypoint with default name and symbol at this time by highlighting
       ‗SAVE‘ and pressing ENTER.
       (d)     To Rename the Waypoint. Highlight the name field, and press ENTER. Enter the
       waypoint name ‗HOME‘, and press ENTER. The waypoint symbol field will become
       highlighted. Each waypoint may also be assigned a custom waypoint symbol for easy waypoint
       recognition on the map.
       (e)     To change the waypoint symbol.
               (i)   Highlight the waypoint symbol field and press ENTER.
               (ii)  Select the house symbol and press ENTER.
               (iii) Move the cursor to the ‗DONE‘? prompt and press ‗Enter‘.
       (f)     Using the Position Page. Walk for 3-4 minutes and watch the position page. The
       direction you are moving (Track). Your speed, trip distance and altitude are shown on the
       upper half of the screen, the latitude and longitude of your position are displayed in the middle
       of the page, with the time of day shown below.
       (g)     Map Page. The next page is the ‗Map Page‘. To ensure we can see our entire trip on
       the map lets change the map scale from 0.2mi (default) to 1.2mi.
               (i)     Use the arrow keys to highlight the ‗ZOOM‖ field located directly to the
               magnifying glass at the top of the ‗Map Page‘ and press ‗ENTER‘.
               (ii)    Press the arrow until 1.2mi is shown and press ‗ENTER‘. The Map Page shows
               your present position as a diamond icon in the center of the map. The house symbol
               labeled ‗HOME‘ is the waypoint you created and the line connecting the two is your
               track log. Now turn approximately 900 to your right and continue walking for another 2-3
               minutes. Notice how the display changes, always keeping the direction you are moving
               at the top of the map.

       (h)     Going to a waypoint.        Once you‘ve stored a waypoint in memory you may return to
       it by performing a ‗GO TO‘. A ‗GO TO‘ is a straight-line course from your present position to
       the destination you‘ve selected. Let‘s navigate back to our starting position, the HOME
       (j)     To select a GO TO Destination. Press GO TO. Highlight the ‗HOME‘ waypoint and
       press ENTER. You‘ll notice that you‘ll automatically return to the Map Page, and a straight line
       will connect your current position to the position of the destination waypoint.

7.    Function. Various functions of navigation that can be performed by the Garmin 12 are outlined
as under (Refer attached appendix): -
      (a) Finding Out Own Position.       Switch on the GPS12 and permit it to link it to satellite. Once
      logged on to the satellite, it gives out the ten-figure grid reference of the own position. In the
      eventuality of own position not being displayed on the screen, please press the Page button to
      know the own position.
      (b) Helps in Point to Point March. Press the Page switch to go to main menu and then high
      light Set Up Menu by using the scroll switch. Then enter the set up menu by Enter button and
      select navigation by use of Enter switch. This should then be followed by entering the waypoint
      menu and highlighting new waypoint. Then enter the data as selected from the map for one-
      way point. Continue this for as much number of waypoints as desired. (Max of 500 waypoints).
      After this procedure, select the way point from way point list and use the GO TO button to
      march to that particular point.
      (c) Helps in Marking Route, Speed, Distance and Alarm.          GPS12 can be used to mark the
      route on the map accurately by following similar procedures as was done in the case of point
      to point march. Distances can be accurately found out by usage of the GPS 12 and alarm
      feature can be activated to alert the reader as soon as he nears the point/landmark that has
      been set in the GPS12.
      (d) Gives Direction. GPS 12 helps in giving direction to the advancing column/ body of troops.
      The method of operating the GPS 12 is similar to the earlier process.


8.      GPS in some way has become an inseparable part of daily life of a human being, as well as
that of a soldier. None of the military operation can be undertaken without any help from GPS.

                                         NIGHT NAVIGATION


1.     Surprise is one of the most important principles of war. It is easier to achieve surprise by
conducting movements during night rather than during day. However maintenance of direction during
the night is difficult but possible, and becomes easy with practice.

Methods of Navigation

2.     Navigation by stars (Astro Navigation).
       (a)   Knowledge of imp stars & constellations is essential.
       (b)   Use of these as directional aids is important.
       (c)   One does not have to be an astronomer to know about stars & constellations.
       (d)   Stars can be used as navigational aid by themselves, or in combination with the
       (e)    Stars rise in East and set in the West.

3.     Navigation by Compass & Bounds / Reference Points.
       (a)   Compass used as main aid.
       (b)   In conjunction with map and reference points/ bounds selected during the day
       (c)   Navigation chart prepared of points that need to be traversed during night navigation,

4.     Using a Guide.
       (a)   Carry out navigation with the help of a guide.
       (b)   Can compromise security
       (c)   May not follow tactical considerations, but follow ground convenience.

Astro Navigation

5.      Navigation by stars is an important method. That is why the knowledge of some important
stars and constellations, and their use as directional aids, is considered to be of great value to
soldiers, particularly to commandos and to para troopers. It is not necessary to be an astronomer to
acquire the basic knowledge of stars and constellations. Anyone with a little interest and practice can
identify the principal stars and constellations in the sky.

6.      Directional Stars and Constellations.    The stars remain more or less fixed in relation to one
another. They provide a fixed background against which the sun, the moon and the planets appear to
move. To the observer on earth different stars and planets are visible at different times of the night,
and they appear to change their position in the sky with the change of seasons. This is due to the
rotation of the earth on its axis and its revolution around the sun. Identification of celestial bodies,
therefore, calls for proper acquaintance with the skies. This acquaintance can be attained through a
study of stellar constellations at different times of the year. Of the large number of stars and
constellation, soldiers use some, as directional aids. These, which are of particular value in navigation
and are comparatively easy to identify, have been described in the succeeding paragraphs, and
illustrated in the appendix.

7.      Pole Star. The Pole star is by far, the most important aid for navigation. It is always above
the horizon in the Northern hemisphere and remains almost fixed in direction. It can be easily
identified by means of two constellations known as the GREAT BEAR (THE PLOUGH or URSA
MAJOR) and the CASSIOPEIA. It is visible almost throughout the year and gives the direction of
TRUE NORTH correct upto two degrees.
     (a)    The Great Bear or Ursa Major.         This is the most familiar constellation of seven stars
     popularly known as the PLOUGH or as Sapt Rishi. It is important, because a line drawn
     through its pointers (Mirk and Dubhe) carries the eye to the POLESTAR. The Star Chart I (Fig1
     in appx)) shows the position of the PLOUGH in relation to other constellations. It must,
     however, be borne in mind that this position of the plough in the visible sky is not fixed. When it
     is below the POLE STAR, it will appear as shown in Fig-1. When it is above the POLESTAR, it
     will appear as shown in Fig-2 in appx. If one follows the line joining the pointers of the
     PLOUGH over about five times the distance between the pointers, one would see a relatively
     bright star visible in the fairly sparse region - the POLESTAR.
     (b)    Cassiopeia. The Cassiopeia is a constellation of five stars. It looks like the letter ‗W‘ in
     the sky. The open side of ‗W‘ roughly points towards the POLESTAR. It lies at about the same
     distance from the STAR as the GREAT BEAR, but in exactly the opposite direction as shown
     below in fig 3.
     (c)    The POLESTAR remains fixed and the GREAT BEAR and the CASSIOPEIA revolve
     around it in anti-clockwise direction as shown in Fig-3, When they are East and West of the
     POLESTAR, both are visible. When they are above and below, only the one above is visible
     (the other being below the horizon). However, since one or both will be visible at any one time,
     we can locate the POLESTAR with their help.
     (d)    It is possible to move by night in any general direction with the help of the POLESTAR.
     One has to keep it to one‘s LEFT when moving Eastward, directly behind when going South, to
     the RIGHT when going Westward, and in front when moving North. The POLESTAR therefore,
     is the most important star to identify. The altitude of the POLESTAR above the horizon is
     always equal to the latitude of the place from which it is observed.
     (e)    Although the POLESTAR remains the principal directional aid, it may sometimes get
     obscured by clouds or by mist, It is, therefore, necessary to know some other stars and

8.      Capella.      The CAPELLA is a very bright star in the constellation AURIGA. Being fairly high
up in the sky it is visible almost throughout the year. It is easily identified by the acute isosceles
triangle formed by three faint stars lying quite close to it. It lies in a kind of irregular semicircle of
bright stars, and is situated almost half way between the POLE STAR and the ORION. The CAPELLA
rises about NORTHEAST and sets almost NORTHWEST. When at its maximum altitude, it is due
NORTH (See Fig-4 in appx))

9.      Vega. Exactly opposite the CAPELLA and on the other side of the POLE STAR lies another
brilliant star, the VEGA, in the constellation LYRA. This is visible during summer and autumn nights. It
rises about EAST-NORTH-EAST, is due NORTH when at its maximum altitude and sets
approximately WEST-NORTH-EAST. A part from its brilliance, It is identified easily by a parallelogram
of faint stars lying close to it. (See Fig-5 in appx)

10.   The VEGA and the CAPELLA are useful, because they fill up the gaps in the Northern sky
between the CASSIOPEIA and the GREATBEAR. These four constellations from the four corners of
huge square at the centre of which lies the POLESTAR. (See Fig-6 in Appx)

11.     Orion‘s Belt. Orion‘s Belt in the quadrilateral of bright stars, is by far the most conspicuous
object in the Southern sky during winter and spring nights. It rises in the EAST, is at its maximum
altitude due SOUTH and sets in the WEST. Four conspicuous stars form a box around the belt. To
the SOUTH is RIGEL, one of the bluest of stars, in contrast with the red, BETELGEUSE, at
approximately an equal distance to the NORTH. BELLATRIX, overshadowed by its more brilliant
neighbors, is a few degrees WEST of BETELGEUSE in one of the corners of the quadrilateral. A line
extending Eastward from the belt of ORION and curving towards the SOUTH leads to SIRIUS, the
brightest star in the entire sky. This is part of the constellation CANIS MAJOR, the large hunting dog
of ORION. Starting at SIRUS a curved line extends Northwards through a bright star PROCYON in
the Constellation to CANIS MINOR, the small hunting dog, POLLUX and CASTOR, the twins of
GEMINI, brilliant CAPELLA in AURIGA, the Charioteer, and back to a red star ALDEBERAN, which is
the brightest star in the head of TAURUS, the bull. The ORION BELT is shown in Fig-7 in appx.

12.   Stars As Navigational Aids.
      (a)     Stars may be used as a navigational aid either alone or in combination with a compass.
      Marching with the help of a star cannot be as accurate as marching on a compass bearing.
      The normal method of measuring degrees with the outstretched hand is most useful for taking
      the bearing of any star. An open hand subtends an angle of 19 degrees approximately.
      (b)     For navigational purposes, any star on the sky can be utilized as an aid. All stars appear
      to rise approximately four minutes earlier every night. These four minutes are to be taken into
      account while using the stars as navigational aids. The direction (bearing) on which one
      wishes to march, and the time of start and finish of the march, determines the selection of stars
      for the purpose.
      (c)     Stars appear to rise in the EAST and set in the WEST. During this passage, the stars at
      one place and time reach maximum altitude. This altitude is attained half way between rising
      and setting. Suppose a certain star reaches maximum height at 2300 hrs on a given night.
      From the time this star rises above the horizon in the EAST, it will remain in the EAST until
      2300 hrs, at which time it will be on the TRUE NORTH-SOUTH line. After 2300 hrs, the same
      star will be in the WEST until it finally disappears below the western horizon. Keeping these
      two factors in view, stars are selected for navigational purpose. It is also essential to observe
      the relative position of the principal stars and constellations vis-à-vis the selected star at its
      maximum attitude.

Preparation of a Night Navigation Chart

13.   (a)   Select the route during day.
      (b)    Select bounds that need to be utilised during the night navigation.
      (c)    Take bearing of the first bound from the start point; can be grid / magnetic, based on
      opportunity provided.
      (d)    Measure the distance on map.
      (e)   Mark the distance on chart.
      (f)    Constitute Night Navigation Parties.
            (i)     Guide.
            (ii)    Pacer.
            (iii)   Navigator.
            (iv)    Recorder.
      (g)   Execute navigation as per prepared chart.

14.   Example of a Night Navigation Chart.

      Finish Point (Rd Track Junction)

      Survey Tree          310 Degrees                 1200 Yds

      Fort                 86 Degrees                   900 Yds

      SP (Temple)          230 Degrees                  700 Yds
15.    Points to be Remembered During Night March.
       (a)    Compass must be calibrated.
       (b)    Should carry different compass for different pts.
       (c)    Night navigation chart must be prep on black chart paper and entries perforated.
       (d)    As far as possible follow bounds.
       (e)    Proper record of dist traversed must be maintained.
       (f)    Muffed torch light must be carried.
       (g)    Study of maps a must during day.
       (h)    Movement should be conspicuous
       (j)    Security of column a must during night navigation.
       (k)    Alternate methods must be ready in the eventuality of failure of the selected methods.


16.   Importance of night navigation is obvious from the operations conducted during Op Vijay,
where in all ops were executed during night. The column that did night navigation correctly had
success while those who did not do navigation correctly suffered losses.

                                                   NORTH POLE

             MIZAR                      Z

      ALKAID                            PHECDA

                                                    FIG 1


        PHECDA                                 MIZAR
           MEGREZ                       URSA MAJOR OR
   MIRAK                                THE GREAT BEAR
                                        ABOVE THE POLE


FIG2                                    STAR


           POLE STAR







                            FIG 5


                POLE STAR




                GREAT BEAR
                                                 FIG 6

         BETELGEUSE                               BELLATRIX

               ORION                              RIGEL

                                                     FIG 7

                                    INTRODUCTION TO .22 RIFLE

Part I

Introduction to the rifle

1.     .22 Rifle No 2 Mark IV. .22 Delux and .303 Rifle No 1 Mark III are all bolt action rifles. The
Chinese used guns for the first time by filling gunpowder in bamboos. In 1867 Paul Mauser invented
bolt-action rifles. Till a few years back our army was using 7.62 mm SLR. Presently the army is
using 5.56 INSAS Rifles. The endeavour for improving weapon systems is constantly on in all

2.       Safety. 22 and .303 rifles have two types of safety arrangements:-
         (a)    Mechanical.
         (b)    Applied.

3.     Accuracy. Since the bolt is already ahead at the time of firing, it does not affect the sight
picture at all. Incase the bolt was not ahead; the sight picture would have been affected during
feeding and forward movement of the bolt which would have adversely affected accuracy.

4.    Weather Effect.      This weapon has been made in such a way that it can fire without any
stoppages in all weather conditions.

5.    Maintenance. This weapon can be stripped and cleaned very easily and hence it‘s
maintenance is very easy.


Inspection of Chamber (Nirikshan Ke Liye Jaanch Shastra)

6.       Following actions should be taken on order to prepare weapon for inspection:-
         (a)    Make sure that the safety catch is on ‗S‘.
         (b)     Move left leg forward and to the left. Simultaneously hold he weapon in such a way
         that the forehand guard is held in left hand and the pistol grip in right hand. Muzzle should be
         pointing towards the sky at 45 degrees angle.
         (c)    Change position of safety catch from ‗S‘ to ‗R‘.
         (d)     Pull the bolt rearwards, apply holding opening catch and check if the chamber is empty.
         On orders to release the moving parts, release the moving parts by pressing holding opening
         (e)    On orders of Baju Shastra, bring the left foot back towards, hold the weapon in right
         hand and stand in attention (Savdhan).

Safety Precautions

7.       Inspection of chamber should be carried out on the following occasions:-
         (a)   Before and after weapon training class, practice and firing on range.
         (b)   Before and after being placed on guard/sentry duty.
         (c)   During handing /taking over of weapons.


Ser                       Rif No 2 MK IV         Delux Rif              Rif No 1 MK IV
No                        Bolt Action            Bolt Action            Bolt Action
1.       Length           45‖                    43‖                    45‖
2.       Weight           8 Lbs 10.5 Oz          8 Lbs 2 Oz             8 Lbs 10.5 Oz
3.       No of Grooves 06                        06                     05
         in Barrel
4.       Direction     of Lt to rt               Lt to rt               Lt to rt
         Turns of Groove
5.       Caliber          .22‖                   .22‖                   .303‖
6.       Muzzle Velocity 2700 Feet/Sec           2700 Feet/Sec          2700 Feet/Sec
7.       Effective Range 25 Yards                25 Yards               300 Yards
8.       Magazine         Nil                    05 Rounds              05 rounds
9.       Ammunition       .22‖ Rim Long          .22‖ Rim Long          .303 Ball
10.      Rate of Fire     Normal –    5 RPM      Normal –    5 RPM      Normal –    5 RPM
                          Rapid - 10-15 RPM      Rapid - 10-15 RPM      Rapid - 10-15 RPM
11.      Registration     Magazine       and     Fore hand guard        Back Sight and Bolt
         Nos on           barrel                 and body               lever.

                           STRIPPING, ASSEMBLY AND CLEANING OF RIF

Part I

1.       Stripping of Rif.:-
         (a)    Make sure that there is no round in the chamber and position of safety catch is on ‗F‘.
         (b)    Stripping sequence:-
                (i)    Sling. Remove the sling by opening ‗Sling Kadi‘.
                 (ii)    Magazine. Remove magazine by pressing magazine catch.
                 (iii)   Bolt.

Part II

2.        Cleaning.
          (a)    Cleaning of Barrel. Place a flannel of size x         cm in the central loop of pull through.
          Draw the pull-through through the barrel till the barrel is fully clean. Make sure that no part of
          the pull-through touches the barrel.
          (c)    Cleaning in Difficult Areas:-
                 (i)      Humid Areas. Rifle should be cleaned in the normal way, however it must be
                 inspected frequently as barrel and body parts are more prone to get rusted.
                 (ii)     Sandy/Dusty Areas. The rifle should be kept dry, particularly the firing pin, i.e.
                 rifle oil should not be applied after cleaning.
                 (iii)    Cold Areas. Rifle should be kept as dry as possible. Whenever required only
                 ‗Low Cold Test Oil‘ should be applied to the weapons.

Part III

3.     Assembling of Rifle.  Rifle is to be assembled in exactly opposite sequence of stripping.
Registered numbers on various parts should however be checked to ensure that they are of the same

                                     LOADING AND UNLOADING OF RIFLE


Filling and Emptying Of Magazines

1.    Inspection of Magazine and Rounds. Before filling the magazine the magazine and rounds
(Ammunition) must be inspected to rule out damage or manufacturing defect. Following aspects must
be checked:-
      (a)    There should be no dents or cracks in the body of magazine or the rounds.
      (b)    Body of magazine or the rounds should not be rusted.
      (c)    Spring should be working properly.
      (d)    Lips of the magazine should not be bent.
      (e)    Head of the round(Lead) should not be bent or loose.

2.      Filling of Magazine. The magazine should be kept on ground sheet, toe of boot or on thighs.
Rounds should be filled in to the magazine carefully. In case a round falls down it should be filled only
after cleaning.

3.     Emptying of Magazines. The magazine should be held in such a way that the bullet (Lead)
portion of the round faces downwards. Second round from outside should be pressed with another
round or any other pointed object so that the outer round fall down. Incase a round is being used to
press the rounds in magazine it should be changed after every two – three rounds.

4.        Care should be taken to ensure that the rounds coming out of the magazine fall in clean area.

Loading of Rifle (Bhar)
5.     Procedure for loading of rifle will be as under:-
       (a)   Ensure that the ‗Safety Catch‘ is on ‗S‘.
       (b)   Remove the empty magazine.
       (c)   Take a filled magazine, inspect it for breakages/dents, if found fit fit the magazine into
       the magazine bay.
       (d)   Check if the magazine is fit.

6.     On orders for ‗Ready‘, take following actions:-
       (a)   Cock the rifle.
       (b)   Check if round has gone into the chamber.

Unloading of Rifle (Khali Kar)

7.     On orders of Unload rifle (Khali Kar) under mentioned actions should be taken:-
       (a)   Bring the rifle down from shoulder.
       (b)   Remove magazine from rifle.
       (c)   Cock the rifle twice and press trigger while aiming at target.

Part II : States of Readiness of Rifle

8.     A rifle is considered to be in ‗Loaded State‘ if a filled magazine is fitted on if and safety catch is
on ‗S‘ position.

9.     A rifle is considered in ―Ready State‘ if it has been cocked, a round is in chamber and position
of safety catch is on ‗R‘.

10.    If the rifle is cocked, round is in chamber and safety catch is on ‗S‘, it is considered in the state
of ‗Make Safe‘.

11.  If there is no round in magazine or chamber and safety catch is on ‗S‘ the rifle is considered to
be empty (Khali).

Part III ; Setting of Range

12.     Range at which the weapon is required to fire is set on the ‗Range Scale‘. Range scale
consists of a ‗Bed‖ on which certain figures are engraved which commensurate to range on ground. In
.303‖ rifle figures from 2 to 20 are engraved representing range from 20 to 200 meters. Similarly on
.22‖ Rifle (Deluxe) range from 20 to 100 meters is marked. The firer has to set desired range by
shifting the sleeve to the figure corresponding to the desired range.
                                        PRINCIPLE OF AIMING

PART I : Principle

1.      Non adherence of the basic principals of firing leads to incorrect aiming and consequent
adverse effect on the result of firing. Relevance and meaning of under mentioned aspects must be
fully understood and borne in mind while aiming:-
        (a)     Sight Alignment. It is alignment of the firers eye, top – center of Back-sight U and tip of
        the foresight. Incase these three, particularly top-center of backsight and tip of foresight are
        correctly aligned the rounds will hit correctly at the point of aim on target. However, any
        deflection in alignment of the foresight and backsight will result in deflection of axis of barrel
        from the point of aim, and hence the rounds will hit away from the point of aim. Such deflection
        will increase proportionately with increase in range.
        (b)     Sight Picture. It is essentially the picture formed on target by the aiming point, tip of
        foresight and the top-center of back-sight.

2.     A firer rarely commits both mistakes together. Error in sight alignment occurs due to peculiar
characteristics of human eye. Human eye can focus on only one object at a time When there are
more than one objects in line with each other in front of the eye, it is possible to focus on only one of
the objects while the others can be seen with peripheral. In case you raise your thumb of your hand
and focus on it you will be able to do so very comfortably, but when you keep the thumb in line with
some other object at a further distance and try to concentrate on both of them you will observe that
you are able to focus on only one object at a time while the other object looks blurred. Similarly it is
not possible to focus on aiming point, foresight tip and top of back-sight ‗U‘ simultaneously. At any
given time firer can focus only on one of the three, and while the firer is focusing on of them it is
possible that the alignment between foresight and back-sight gets disturbed resulting in error of sight

3.     Correct Method of Aiming.
       (a)   Hold rifle correctly.
       (b)   Close one of the eyes and bring the open eye behind back-sight in such a way that it is
       approximately four fingers away from the bolt and both eyes are parallel to the ground.
       (c)   Align top center of back sight with foresight tip and point of aim.
       (d)   Focus on foresight tip while seeing point of aim and backsight with peripheral vision.

4.     How to Ensure Correct Alignment. Correct alignment can only be ensured by concentrating on
the foresight tip prior to operating trigger. The firer should also ensure that his eye is always at same
distance from back sight at all times.

Part II : Aim Correction

5.     Eliminating Errors of Aiming. Errors of aiming can be eliminated by the exercises given below.

6.     Aim Corrector Exercise. In order to conduct this exercise a cocked rifle is placed on a long
aiming rest. Aim corrector is fitted on small of the butt of the rifle. The firer and the coach occupy
position behind the rifle in such a way that the firer aims through backsight and foresight while the
coach checks his aim through the aim corrector. The coach directs the firer to correct his aim and
press the trigger once the aim is correctly taken. The coach also checks trigger operation of the firer
and corrects it if required.
7.     Aiming Box Exercise.        A rifle is placed on a short aiming rest. An aiming box is placed 15
yards in front of the rifle along with aiming disk, pencil and an eraser. A blank white paper is fixed on
the aiming box.

8.     The firer takes lying position behind the rifle and the coach sitts astride the aiming box.

9.     Firer takes aim and directs coach to shift the aiming disk till it comes exactly in front of the
point of aim. Once the firer signals to the coach that the aiming disk is in front of the point of aim, the
coach marks position of the disk with the pencil. This procedure is repeated thrice. At the end of the
exercise three positions marked byu the coach should be within a diameter of 8 cm, which is known
as a short group.

                            HOLDING, AIMING AND TRIGGER OPERATION

1.     Correct holding of rifle, correct aiming and proper trigger operation are extremely essential for
obtaining good results in firing. In fact if a firer lacks in either of them his/her firing will be erratic and
inconsistent. Hence it is necessary that everyone understands these aspects clearly without any
ambiguity. However, before we discuss holding, aiming and trigger operation it would be prudent to
learn about lying position.

Lying Position

2.     There are four positions of firing. However in this course you would be firing in lying position
only. This is the most comfortable and easy position and one can fire for prolonged duration in this
position. By occupying this position firer presents a very small target to the enemy.

3.    Occupying Lying Position. When the firer is in standing position with rifle, he/she would be
ordered to occupy lying position. On receiving the order the firer should take following actions:-
      (a)    Shifts left feg a little to the front.
      (b)    Springs the rifle in such a way that the front hand guard is held by left hand.
      (c)    Lye on the ground by taking support of the right hand.
      (d)    Rifle should be held under the right armpit.
      (e)    Legs should be open as per hight.
      (f)    Body should be at an angle with the line of fire.

4.     Points to borne in mind while occupying lying position:-
       (a)    Barrel should not touch the ground.
       (b)    Position should be comfortable.
       (c)    Rifle should be naturally aligned with the target.
       (d)    To make the position comfortable legs may be brought closer if required.
       (e)    Heels of both legs should preferably touch the ground, however incase a firer can not
       do so, force should not be used unnecessarily.
       (f)    Incase of lying supported fire wrist of left hand should rest on the sand bag.

5.     Occupying Standing Position.        In order to change from lying to standing position following
actions should be taken:-
       (a)   Hold the rifle with left hand and pull it under right armpit.
       (b)   Bend the left leg at knee and bring it forward,
       (c)   Place palm of right hand on ground and raise upper part of the body.
       (d)   Push body up by using left leg and right hand.
      (e)    Stand in ‗Baju Shastra‘ position.

6.    Limber Up.      The process of correctly aligning body and weapon with target and occupying
comfortable position is known as limber up process.


7.    The body parts involved in ensuring strong hold on rifle are as under:-
      (a)   Left Hand.
            (i)    Form a ‗V‘ by your thumb and other fingers.
            (ii)   Hold fore hand guard of the rifle in the ‗V‘ formed by left hand.
            (iii)  Pull the rifle rearwards (Towards shoulder) with left hand.
            (iv)   Elbow of left hand should be under the magazine.
            (v)    In order to raise or lower the point of aim, hold of left hand may be shifted
            forward or rearward.

      (b)   Right Hand. Pistol grip of rifle is held in right hand. Points to be borne in mind are:-
            (i)    Pistol grip should be held in such a way that thumb is on left side and other
            fingers on the right side.
            (ii)   Forefinger should be out side of the trigger guard.
            (iii)  Pistol grip should be held firmly and the rifle should be pulled into the shoulder.
      (c)   Shoulder.      Butt plate of rifle should be placed firmly onto the fleshy part of right
      shoulder. Shoulder should be able to absorb the recoil completely.
      (d)   Head. Head should be placed on left side of the butt. Points to be borne in mind are:-
            (i)    Right cheek should rest on the butt in such a way that the cheekbone is just
            above the butt.
            (ii)   Head should not be tilted too much on any side.
            (iii)  Neck should not be craned or stretched too much.
      (e)   Eyes.
            (i)    Eyes should be parallel to the ground.
            (II)   Eye should maintain same distance from backsight at all times.
            (iii)  Should preferably be at a distance of approximately four fingers from the


8.    As learnt in the previous lesson, sight alignment and sight picture are the basic principals of
      (a)    Sight Alignment. The process of aligning eye of the firer, center of backsight and
      foresight tip is known as sight alignment.
      (b)    Sight Picture. When the sight is correctly aligned and the tip of foresight is on the point
      of aim, correct sight picture is formed.

9.    Procedure of Taking Aim.
      (a)   Occupy desired firing position.
      (b)   Hold the rifle correctly.
      (c)   Close one eye.
      (d)   See through back sight. Align top-center of backsight with foresight tip and point of
10.    Ensuring Correct Sight Alignment.     Align top-center of backsight ‗U‘ with tip of the foresight.
While maintaining this alignment, align the foresight tip with point of aim on target.          Recheck
alignment of backsight with foresight tip and alignment of foresight tip with point of aim. Focus on
foresight tip. While maintaining focus on foresight tip, using peripheral vision, recheck its alignment
with backsight and point of aim. Maintain focus on foresight tip while pressing trigger.

11.    Position of Eye with Respect to Backsight. Distance of eye from backsight will depend upon
neck length of the firer. The aiming eye should preferably be at a distance of four fingers from the
backsight. In case of firers having lesser height this distance may increase, which is acceptable.
However it must be ensured that there is no strain on the neck, I,e. it should neither be too stretched
nor should it be strained.

12.   Clean and Dark Sight.      The sights must be clean and dark. If the sight is shining it should
be darkened by black paint or soot.

Trigger Operation

13.     Trigger is operated by right hand index finger. While holding small of the butt with thumb and
other fingers the index finger is placed on the trigger. Once aim has been taken, pressure on the
trigger is slowly increased by second section of the index finger. Barrel of the rifle should not move at
all during trigger operation.

14.    Faults in Trigger Operation. Under mentioned faults generally occur in trigger operation:-
       (a)    Flinch. Due to fear or in anticipation of recoil, at times the firer flinches i.e, he/she take
       one or more of the following actions:-
              (i)      Close eyes and dip his/her head.
              (ii)     Tightens grip of left hand.
              (iii)    Pulls the shoulder backwards.
       (b)    As a result of flinch bullets hit in 11 ―O‖ clock line.
       (c)    Buck. In order to counter recoil of the rifle, some firers stiffen up the shoulder and push
       it ahead. This results in rounds hitting in 7 ―O‖ Clock line.
       (d)    Jerk.     If the trigger is not operated properly, i.e. if the trigger pressure is not increased
       gradually, it results into jerky trigger operation. It causes rhe rounds to hit in 4 ―O‖ Clock line.

                                        AIMING BOX EXERCISE

1.       This exercise is carried out by two persons at a time, one as a firer and the other as coach.
The rifle is placed on short aiming rest and aiming box is placed at a distance of 15 yards from the
rifle. A blank white paper is fixed on the front portion of the aiming box.

2.    Coach sits on top of the aiming box facing the firer. Coach holds aiming dick in one hand and
a pencil in the other hand. Range of 200 m is set on the rifle. Firer takes lying position behind the rifle
and places both elbows on ground. He/She places his/her chin in palm of the left hand. The firer
should not touch any part of the rifle.

3.     Coach places aiming disk on one side of the blank paper. Firer aligns backsight and foresight
and with his right hand signals to the coach to shift aiming disk to the point of aim. When aiming disk
is exactly at the point of aim firer signals to the coach by closing his fist. Coach marks the position
with pencil.
4.     This exercise is repeated thrice. The group of three pencil marks is known as ‗Short Group‘.
Size of this short group should be less than 8 cm.

Questions and Answers

Q 1. What are the advantages of aiming box exercise?

A 1.   Aiming box exercise helps in learning correct aiming and to make a small group on target.

Q2. What will position of firer and coach vis-à-vis aiming rest and aiming box?

A2     Firer will be behind aiming rest and coach will be sitting on the aiming box.

                                       THEORY OF SMALL ARMS


1.      Since times immemorial we human beings have been finding ways and means of adding to our
collection, property, ownership and what not. In doing all this we have been constantly seeking better
methods to win over others. Look at the Neolithic age wherein mankind used spears carved out of
stones to fight each other to the present day environment where in we are talking about use of laser
wpn and star wars. Introduction of a weapon capable of throwing out gunpowder sufficient to injure/kill
other person can be traced back to invasion of India by the Mogul‘s wherein for the first time any such
wpn was used. It is often contemplated that this factor alone had a big role in defeat of forces of
Indian states.

2.      As Associate NCC Offrs you would be required to assist in organizing camps for cadets where
firing would be a major fact. Knowledge though elementary about functioning of a wpn would boost up
your confidence. With this backdrop in mind I shall be conducting the class for Theory of Small Arms.


3.     To acquaint you with Theory of Small Arms.


4.     I shall be conducting my lecture as under: -
       (a)     Part I :         Definitions – Technical terms.
       (b)     Part II: Classification of Small Arms.
       (c)     Part III:       Principle of Gas Operation.
       (d)     Part IV:        Principle of Auto Operation.
       (e)     Part V:         Latest concept.

Part I : Definitions – Technical Terms

5.     Axis of Barrel. It is the imaginary line formed inside the barrel between the breech and muzzle

6.     Line of Departure. It is the path followed by the bullet on leaving the muzzle.

7.     Jump. It is the angle formed between the axis of the barrel and line of departure.
8.     Trajectory.    Parabolic path traversed by the bullet during its flight.

9       Angle of Descent.    Angle formed between the trajectory and the line of sight before the bullet
hits the tgt.

10     First Catch.   Pt where bullet hits the tgt first.

11     First Graze.   Pt where bullet hits the ground after passing through the tgt.

12     Danger Space. The area between the first catch and first graze is called danger space.

13     Cartridge Case.      Case housing the propellant.

14.    Propellant. Explosive material, which burns at very high rate to produce energy.

15     Projectile. Mass which leaves the barrel. Popularly known as bullet.

16.   Tangent Elevation. It is the angle formed between line of sight and axis of bore. It is imparted
to ensure that the projectile reaches the tgt in spite of gravitational pull and air resistance.

17.    Extract.   Pulling out of fired cartridge case.

18.    Spin Stabilized. Stability to projectile for travel through space till it hits the tgt by way of spin
before leaving the barrel.

19     Rifled Bore. Barrel having rifling inside.

20.    Smooth Bore. Plain barrel from inside. No grooves.

21     Accuracy. Ability to apply rds to the pt of aim.

22.    Consistency. Ability to prevent successive rds from spreading out in dispersed fashion.

Part II : Classification of Small Arms

23.   Definition of a Small Arm. Any direct firing wpn up to 1‖ of bore is termed as a Small Arm. In
these wpn propellant on being ignited burns at a very high rate into gases and provides the required
energy for propulsion of the projectile.

24     Classification of Small Arms. Small Arms are classified as per their characteristics and role in
battle. Further classification is done as per its methods of op and MG as per its tactical employment.
       (a)    Rifle         - .22MM, 5.56MM & 7.62MM
       (b)    Pistol        - 9MM Auto & Berretta
       (c)    Revolver - 7.62MM
       (d)    LMG           - 5.56MM & 7.62MM
       (e)    MMG         - 7.62MM

Part III : Principle of Gas Operation
25.    Gas Operation. On firing, produced gases are trapped some where in the barrel and allowed
to enter the gas cylinder where in piston is pushed backward which pushes in turn the breech back.
Gases can be tapped near breech and muzzle end. The flow of gases can also be controlled by a gas

26.    The advantages/disadvantages of having gas tap off pt near/far from the muzzle end are as
under: -
       (a)   Gas tap Off Pt near Breech End:
             (i)   Advantages:
                   (aa) Gases very hot.
                   (ab) Gases very powerful.
                   (ac) Less fouling, Carbon sublimated state.
                   (ad) Less gas required.
             (ii)  Disadvantages :
                   (aa) More erosion of gas vent. Accident likely.
                   (ab) Frequent changes of gas vent.
                   (ac) Pressure-heavier parts.
       (b)   Gas tap Off Pt near Muzzle End.
             (i)   Advantages :
                   (aa) Less erosion of gas vent.
                   (ab) Less frequent change gas vent.
                   (ac) Working parts - Lighter wt.
             (ii)  Disadvantages :
                   (aa) Gas at low pressure – more gas needs to be trapped. May affect muzzle
                   (ab) More fouling. Carbon in de-sublimated state.
                   (ac) Working parts lighter, which may lead to problems in transfer of energy to
                   the breech.
       (c)   Thus    gas     trap   off  chosen    at   a    distance    of   20   to    30    cm
from the muzzle end.

Part IV: Principle of Auto Operation

27.   Auto Op.     Basically two sources of energy available to complete the cycle of operation: -
      (a)   Recoil Energy
      Muzzle Blast

28.   Basic Auto Systems. There are only three basic auto systems of operation as under: -
      (a)   Blow back op.
      (b)   Recoil op.
      (c)   Gas op.

29.   Basic Operating Cycle –

                Firing pin              Breech unlocked
       Next rd fed in posn                   Breechblock retracted

              Firing pin is cocked
                                                       Empty case extracted
                                                      From chamber

                             Return spring
                             Compressed to
                             Store energy

Part V: Latest Concepts

30.   Small Caliber Concept
      (a)   Manufacturing of wpn of smaller caliber.
      (b)   Easier to handle.
      (c)   Most of the engagements of rif at 400m.
      (d)   Lethality-81 Joules of energy imparted enough to incapacitate.
      (e)   Smaller caliber-greater wound.
      (f)   More accurate.
      (g)   Higher rate of fire.
      (h)   Low recoil to firer.


33.    Knowledge of theory and functioning of small arms enhances one‘s confidence while dealing
with such wpn. It also trains an ANO to handle certain awkward questions thrown at by a cadet.


                                DIAGRAM SHOWING IMP TECH TERMS



1.     A firer can bring down accurate fire at the point of aim only after his weapon has been zeroed
correctly. Prior to zeroing, the ability of firer to fire accurately can be judged from size and type of
group formed by hits on the target. It is necessary for every coach to understand theory of grouping
in order to coach the firers being trained by him/her.


2.     Group. It is the pattern of hits formed by two or more rounds fired by same firer with same
weapon, same hold and same point of aim at the same range and in same position on same day is
called a group.
3.    General Group (Aam Group). The pattern of hits formed by three or more rounds fired by
same firer at the same range with same hold but on different days is known as a general group (Aam
Group in Hindi)

Theory of Grouping

4.     Two bullets can not pass through same hole on a target. Hence, more than one rounds fired
from same weapon with same point of aim forms a pattern of hits on the target which is known as a
group.     A firer should be able to make as small a group as possible. Other important issues
connected with grouping are as under:-
       (a)    Size of group depends upon weapon, firer and range.
       (b)    Group may be formed at any place on the target.
       (c)    In grouping fire there should be no change in firing position, hold and point of aim.
       (d)    MPI of the group is affected by range on sight and range applied on the weapon.
       (e)    During grouping firing, corrections due to breeze, light conditions etc should not be
       (f)    Size of group increases proportionally with the range.
       (g)    MPI of a group can be shifted/adjusted through zeroing.

4.    Methods of Finding MPI .
      (a)  By Calculation.

                                                                    I- Two parts
                                             2                      II- Three parts
                            3                        MPI            III-Four parts
                                                                    IV- Five parts


      (b)    Area of Dispersion.





             Make a square to cover all hits on the target. Divide the square into four equal sized
             smaller squares. Center of the four squares will be MPI.

      (c)    Graphics Method.
      Ser             Hits No              Vertical Line   Horizontal Line
     1.                  01                    1 cm              2 cm
     2.                  02                    1 cm              4 cm
     3.                  03                    3 cm              3 cm
     4.                  04                    4 cm              4 cm
     5.                  05                    3 cm              2 cm
     6.                  06                    9 cm              0 cm
     Total               06                   15 cm             15 cm

5.     Short Release. When a firer fires a round he should not release the trigger immediately but
keep it pressed for some time (Till the round hits the target). If the firer does not do so ,i.e, if he
releases the trigger immediately it is known as short release.

6.    Reasons for all Bullets Not Passing Through One Hole.
      (a)  Difference in temperature of barrel.
      (b)  Difference in bullets:-
           (i)     Variation in propellant in the bullets.
           (ii)    Shape and size of bullets.
      (c)  Jump.
      (d)  Effect of Weather:-
           (i)     Wind.
           (ii)    Light conditions.
           (iii)   Humidity.
           (iv)    Errors of the firer.


7.       It is extremely important to understand the correct process and theory of grouping. Unless a
firer is able to make a short group and understand the theory of grouping, he/she will not be able to
zero the weapon and fire application and classification fire.

                              ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF GROUP


1.      Standard of firing of a learner depends on the standard of coaching received by him. Unless
the coach has in depth knowledge of coaching he will not be able to detect faults being committed by
the firers and correct them. As in sports, achievements of a sportsman depends upon ability of his
coach, in firing to achievement results of the firer depend upon coaching ability of the coach.

PART I : Types of Groups

2.    Various types of groups may be formed during small arms firing. These are explained below:-
      (a)    Long Vertical Group.      A long vertical group is formed when the firer commits error in
      sight alignment, in which he/she aligns the fore sight tip in center of backsight U but errs in
      vertical alignment i.e. At times he keeps the foresight tip high and at times keeps it low.
       (b)    Long Horizontal Group. Such a group is formed when vertical alignment of foresight tip
       is correct but the firer errs in horizontal alignment.       As a result the rounds form a long
       horizontal group on the target.
       (c)    Small Vertical Group. A small vertical group is formed when the firer aims a little above
       or below the point of aim. This occurs due to error in sight picture.
       (d)    Small Horizontal Group. Such a group is formed when the firer aims a little besides
       the point of aim. This also occurs due to error in sight picture.
       (e)    Low Right Group. If the firer presses trigger with a jerk the rounds hit low and on right
       hand side i.e. in 4 ―O‖ Clock line.
       (f)    High Left Group.         When the firer flinches, i.e. closes eyes and/or dips head in
       anticipation of recoil of the rifle the rounds hit in 11 ―O‖ Clock line i.e. high and towards left
       hand side.
       (g)    Bi Focal Group. A bifocal group is formed when some rounds are fired while focusing
       on the foresight tip and some rounds are fired while focusing on the backsight.
       (h)    Scattered Group. If the firer does not follow basic teachings of small arms firing and
       does not have a firm hold on the rifle it leads to hiits all over the target, known as scattered

PART II : Corrective Exercises

3.    There are various exercises for correcting the errors being committed by firers. Some of them
are explained below:-
       (a)    Blank Target Ex. This exercise in conducted to correct the error of sight alignment. In
       this the firer is made to fire on blank target. Since there is no aiming point the firer per force
       concentrates on foresight tip. Coach should show the group formed to the firer, explain
       reasons to him and advice him to concentrate on the foresight tip while pressing the trigger.

       (b)    Aiming Box Ex.         Aiming Box Ex should be carried out to correct errors in sight
       alignment. Procedure for conduct of the ex has already been explained in Lesson No 6.
       (c)    Aim Corrector Ex. This ex is conducted to correct errors in sight alignment and sight
       picture. An aim corrector is fitted on butt of the weapon. Aim corrector works like a periscope.
       The firer is made to take aim normally, while the coach checks the aim through the periscope
       sight and guides the firer to correct his aim.
       (d)    Tin Disk Ex. This ex is conducted to correct faults in holding and trigger operation.
       The ex also helps in tightening muscles of the firer. Procedure for conducting the ex is as
              (i)     Firer should occupy desired position, load and ready the weapon.
              (ii)    Tin disk is placed on the barrel.
              (iii)   Firer is made to operate the trigger.
       (e)    The disk should not fall from the barrel. The firer should be given at least three
       (f)    Trigger Control.
              (i)     Firer should take aim and press trigger. Sight alignment should be checked after
              the trigger is pressed.
              (ii)    the coach should go through the same action and show that there is no change
              in sight alignment.

       (g)    Ball & Dummy Ex.         Ball & dummy ex is conducted to rid the firers habit of bucking,
       jerking and flinching. Procedure for conduct of the ex is as under:-
              (i)     Fill ball and dummy rounds in the magazines in random order.
              (ii)    Make the firer fire on target.
               (iii)  If the firer has the habit to flinch, buck or jerk, he will do so also when the blank
               round is in chamber, However since there will be no fire the error of the firer will be
               pronounced. Same should be brought to the notice of the firer and advised to correct
               the error.


4.      All errors of firer in holding, aiming and trigger operation can be corrected if the coach is able
to correctly detect the error and put the firer through appropriate corrective ex.

                                         ZEROING OF .22 RIFLE


1.     The process of bringing MPI of group of rounds fired by a firer at the point of aim is known as
―Zeroing‖. Results of application/classification firing and firing during competitions depend upon
zeroing of the weapon. An expert firer may be able fire a very small group on target but unless the
rounds hit in the center of the target he/she will not score desired points. It is imperative that all firers
should be able to zero their weapons correctly so that they obtain good results in firing.

2.     Advantages of Zeroing:-
       (a)     Firer develops confidence in himself and in his rifle.
       (b)     Aim of ―One round – One man‖ can be achieved.
       (c)     Improvement in results of classification and application firing, thereby saving time,
       efforts and ammunition.

3.     Occasions for Zeroing:-
       (a)   On issue of new weapon.
       (b)   On transfer of rifle from one person to another.
       (c)   Prior to classification firing.
       (d)   Before taking part in a competition.
       (e)   Before entering an operational area or war zone.
       (f)   After moving to high altitude area and after leaving the area.
       (g)   After any repair of the weapon.

Factors to be Considered While Zeroing

4.     Tuning Up and Stocking Up. Tightening of all metal parts of the weapon is known as ―Tuning
Up‖ and tightening of wooden parts is called ―Stalking Up‖. During the course of daily use and firing,
the metal and wooden parts of weapons become loose. It leads to vibration in the weapon on being
fired which adversely affects accuracy of the weapon. Hence, it is necessary to get tuning up and
stalking up done before zeroing.

5.     Weather. Zeroing should be carried out in clear weather and when it is not very windy.

6.     Range. .22 rifle is zeroed at the range of 25 yards. 303, 7.62 and 5.56 INSAS rifles should
preferably be zeroed at 100 yards range. Zeroing should not be carried out at longer range at wind
and sun shine have considerable effect at longer ranges.

7.     Target. Grouping target should be used for zeroing.
8.    Firer. The firer should preferably zero his/her own weapon, provided he/she is able to fire a
group of max 16 cm at 100 yards or 4 cm at 25 yards. If the firer is not confident of firing desired
group his/her weapon may be zeroed by a good firer. The firer must however fire a check group.

9.     A sand bag must be used as a rest while for zeroing.

10.     Before firing rounds on target for zeroing, firer must fire two rounds on stop butt to warm up the

11.    Rifle.
       (a)    Sights of rifle must be blackened before firing to avoid effect of sun shine on it.
       (b)    barrel of the rifle must be dried by removing oil before firing.

12.     MPI.    In case of 7.62 m SLR at the range of 100 yards MPI is 2‖ above the point of aim and
in an area of 4‖ diameter. At 25 yards MPI is ¼ ―down and in an area of 1‖ diameter. Incase of .22
rifle the MPI should be exactly at the point of aim at 25 meters.

13.    Adjustments for Shifting of MPI for Zeroing.
       (a)     Elevation. In .22 rifles foresight is required to be changed to change elevation of MPI.
       To raise the MPI a smaller foresight is fitted while to lower the MPI a longer/higher foresight is
       (b)     Deviation.    MPI can be shifted to left or right by shifting the backsight towards left or
       right. To shift the MPI right the backsight should be shifted to right and vise-versa. In 7.62
       mm SLR half turn of the screw of backsight shifts MPI by 2‖ at the range of 100 yards and ½ ‗
       at 25 yards.


14.    zeroing of rifle is extremely crucial to obtain good results in firing. Every firer should be able to
zero his/her own rifle.

                                        COACHING ON RANGE


1.     Every sportsperson requires a good coach to bring out the best in him/her. Similarly a firer also
requires a good coach to help him understand nuances of firing. A good coach possessing requisite
knowledge, expertise and will to impart training can convert a poor firer to good firer in no time.

2.     Aim of Coaching. Coaching is aimed at developing confidence of a firer in his ability to fire
and in accuracy of his weapon.

Part I : Stages of Coaching

3.     Squad Post Training.      Squad post training is considered as basic stage of coaching. If a
trainee is made to fire on range without basic training, he/she may not be able produce desired
results. Hence, the basic training is imparted at the squad post. In the basic training firer is provided
preliminary information about weapons, he/she is practiced in handling of the weapon and taught
about important aspects concerning firing.
4.      Coaching During Firing. On completion of squad post training firer is taken to firing range for
firing. At firing range coaching is carried out in three stages:-
        (a)     Coaching for Grouping Fire. Grouping fire is the bedrock of firing. If a firer is not able
        to make a small group on target it would not be possible for him to do well in application or
        classification fire. Adequate emphasis must be laid on coaching for grouping fire.
        (b)     Coaching for Elementary Application Fire.
        (c)     Coaching for Advanced Application Fire.

5.     Sequence of Coaching.      For any type of firing on range sequence of coaching should be as
under: -
       (a)  Before firing.
       (b)  During firing.
       (c)  After firing.

6.     Aspects to be included in each of above depend upon the type of firing being carried out.

7.     Aspects that a coach should be aware of are as under:-
       (a)   Principals of marksmanship.
       (b)   Theory of grouping fire.
       (c)   Reasons for bad firing.
       (d)   Theory of small arms.
       (e)   Effect of weather conditions on Small arms firing.
       (f)   Analysis of group.
       (g)   Fault finding ability conduct of corrective exercises.

8.    Principals of Marksmanship.      For a person to be a marksman he must complete knowledge
of under mentioned important aspects: -
      (a)    Correct firing positions.
      (b)    Holding of rifle.
      (c)    Aiming.
      (d)    Natural alignment.
      (e)    Short release.
      (f)    Follow through.

9.     Theory of Grouping Fire. Following points must be kept in mind:-
       (a)   Group is formed because it is not possible for two bullets to pass through same hole.
       (b)   Firer should aim at making smallest possible group.
       (c)   Size of group depends on weapon, ammunition, range and firer.
       (d)   Group may be formed anywhere on the target.
       (e)   Firing position, hold and aim can not be changed during grouping fire.
       (f)   During grouping fire corrections for wind, light conditions and other aspects are not
       (g)   Size of group increases proportionately with increase in range.
       (h)   With correct zeroing MPI of a group can be brought at the point of aim.

10.    Reasons for Bad Firing.
       (a)  Factors in control of the Firer: -
            (i)    Not following principals of marksmanship.
            (ii)   Weapon and ammunition not being prepared.
            (iii)  Lack of will.
       (b)  Factors not in control of Firer:-
             (i)     Inclement weather.
             (ii)    Physical deformity/shortcomings.
             (iii)   Bad coaching.

11.   Theory of Small Arms. A coach must be aware of effect of various factors on small arms firing.

12.   Effect of Weather on Small Arms Fire. Effect of weather conditions on fire of small arms must
be understood by the coach, so that he can explain the same to firers.

13.   Fault Finding Ability and Corrective Measures. This is the most important job of a coach. A
good coach should be capable of spotting mistakes instantly and then get the mistakes rectified
through corrective exercises.

Coaching for Grouping Fire

14.   Before Firing.
      (a)     Inspection of Firing Record. Coach must inspect firing record card of the firer before
      the firer fires at the range. Incase the firer is firing for the first time, the coach must fill in the
      records in a fresh record card.
      (b)     Confirming Target No. Many times the novice firers fire on other targets. Hence, the
      coach must ensure that the firer is aware of his target No and fires on the same.
      (c)     Point of Aim. For grouping fire, the firer should aim at the bottom and center of the 1‖ x
      1‖ white aiming mark on the target.
      (d)     Firing Position and Hold. The coach should check position occupied by the firer and
      his/her hold on the rifle.

15.   During Firing.
      (a)   Detection of faults and getting them corrected.
      (b)   Before correcting the firer of conducting corrective exercises, firer must be made to
      occupy comfortable position.
      (c)   Fill firing progress card and enter details of mistakes being commited.
      (d)   Complete progress result sheet.

16.   After Firing.
      (a)    Measure size of the group.
      (b)    Note position of MPI.
      (c)    Identify the type of group.
      (d)    Suggest corrective exercises.
      (e)    Correct problem of flinch, buck and jerk.
17.   Qualities of a Good Coach.
      (a)    Should be dependable.
      (b)    Patient and self confident.
      (c)    Expert in fault finding.
      (d)    Understanding.
      (e)    Should have firm resolve.
      (f)    Should have in-depth knowledge of theory of small arms, theory of grouping and group
      (g)    Should be interested in coaching.
      (h)    Should encourage the firers.
      (Remark – firer should be intelligent, interested, communicative, motivated, faithful,
      industrious, hardworking and farsighted.)
16.   Reasons for Bad Firing.
      (a)  Not following principals of marksmanship.
      (b)  Incorrect zeroing.
      (c)  Lack of interest in firing.
      (d)  Inability to improve firing.

17.  Detecting Faults. Corrective action can be taken only if the fault is detected. Fault finding can
be made easy if the following actions are taken:-
     (a)   Check position and group.
     (b)   Check knowledge and technique of position and natural alignment.
     (c)   Check knowledge and technique of sight alignment and sight picture.
     (d)   Check stability of sight.
     (e)   Check wind direction.

18.   Types of Faults.
      (a)   Faulty position and hold.
      (b)   Faulty aiming.
      (c)   Faulty trigger operation.



1.      ANPRC -25 is man portable FM, VHF Transreceiver, meant to provide communication in the
field from Division HeadquarterS down to Company level.


                                                      7        8
                                 11                                 12

Key :- 1. Antenna Connector           2. Antenna Power Connector
       3. Body Cover                  4 & 6. Mhz and Khz Knob
       5. Frequency dial unit.        7. Audio Socket
       8. Carrying handle             9. Antenna mounting base
      10. Volume Control Knob         11. Band Switch
      12. Function Switch


2.    Major characteristics of this set are :-
      (a)   It is portable, hence easy to carry.
      (b)   Provides R T Communication.
      (c)    It can be used in manpack, ground or vehicle mode.
      (d)   Has remote operation and rebroadcast facility.
      (e)   Can also be used as a Relay station.
      (f)   Communication range can be increased / decreased by the use of booster unit.
     (g)   Frequency range is from 30 Mhz to 75.95 Mhz, divided into two bands as under: -
           (i)    Band I - Low band        - 30 Mhz to 52.95 Mhz.
           (ii)   Band II - High band      - 53 Mhz to 75.95 Mhz.
            (iii) No of channels           - 920 with channel spacing 50 Khz
     (h)   Antenna System. The following antenna can be used :-

           (i) Tape antenna.
           (ii) Whip Antenna.
           (iii) Rod aerial.
           (iv) Ground Plane antenna.

     (j)   Communication Range.        The Communication range of the radio set    with different
     antenna is as under: -
           (i)    Tape Antenna                -     08 Kms
           (ii)   Whip Antenna                -     13 to 16 Kms
           (iii ) Rod Antenna                 -     13 to 16 Kms
           (iv)   Ground plain Antenna        -     26 to 32 Kms
           (v)    With Booster                -     60 to 65 Kms
     (k)   Power Supply Unit.      Can be run on either :-
           (i)    15/3 Volt D C , Battery Dry HT/LT1A.
           ii)    24 Volt D C, Secondary battery or nickel Cadmium bty.
     (l)   Dimensions.
           (i)    Length               -28 Cms
           (ii)   Breadth              -10 Cms
           (iii)  Height               -27.5 Cms

     (m)   Weight
           (i)   Set                         - 6.10 Kgs
           (ii)  Battery dry with Box       - 1.97 Kgs
           (iii) Tape Antenna               - 0.27 Kgs
           (iv)  Whip Antenna               - 0.29 Kgs
           (v)   Carrying harness           - 1.32 Kgs
           (vi)  Hand Set H-138/U            - 0.61 Kgs
           (vii) Total weight with
                 accessories                - 10.56 Kgs


3.   Function Switch.   It has five positions ;-.
     (a)   OFF – Set is switched off.
     (b)   ON- Set is ready for operation in normal mode .

     (c)   SQUELCH – Noise level in hand set is reduced when no signal is being received.
     (d)   RETRANS – Set ready to be used as part of a relay station.
     (e)   LITE – It is spring loaded & used to illuminate the frequency dial.

4.   Band Switch.   It has two positions.
     (a)   Band No.I - 30 Mhz to 52.95 Mhz.
     (b)   Band No.II – 53 Mhz to 75.95 Mhz.

5.   Antenna Socket.    Used to mount tape / multi section antenna.
6.    Power Socket.         To connect power from external sources.

7.    Antenna Connector Socket.           To connect GPA or a vehicle based antenna.

8.    Preset Levers.        It has to preset levers for fixing any frequency.

9.    Preset Knobs.      It has two positions :-
      (a)   Mhz knob – for selecting the Mhz frequency.
      (b)   Khz knob - for selecting the Khz frequency.

10.    Frequency Dial.      Indicates the operating frequency and has a light which glows during

11.    Audio Output Socket.       Two audio sockets are wired in
parallel. Any one of them can be used for connecting the hand set.
Both the plugs are used when the radio set used in Radio Re-broadcast

12.    Volume Control.      Used to adjust the sound level in the hand set and has figures from 0 to 10
for adjusting the volume.

13.   Carrying Handle.

14.   Battery Plug & Battery Locking Clamp.

Connecting Up, Operating & Closing Down

15.   (a)    Check the function switch in off position.
      (b)    Check battery life and connect it.
      (c)    Connect the hand set to the audio socket
      (d)    Connect the required antenna.
      (e)    Change the band switch as per given frequency range.
      (f)    Fix the given frequency.
      (g)    Open the volume control on full.
      (h)    Put on the function switch.
      (j)    Establish communication.
      (k)    Adjust the volume as per requirement and if required, put the function switch on squelch

16.   Setting up as a Relay Station (Two radio sets are used to relay – Sets 2 & 3, in addition to the
two used to communicate with each other – Sets 3 & 4).
      (a)     Select a suitable place to set up the relay station – this should have no ‗line of sight‘
      (b)     Fix Frequency No 1 in Sets No 1(let us say, the Calling station) & Set No 2, &
      Frequency 2 in Set No 4 (let us say, the receiving station) & Set No 3.
      (c)     Place Set Nos 2 & 3 close to each other & connect the re-transmission cable, between
      (d)     Connect the antenna of both these sets.
      (e)     Put on their function switch.
      (f)     Connect the hand set to Set No 2 & establish communication with Set No 1(they are
      both on the same frequency – F1) & tell Set No 1 to keep on ‗listening watch‘ for
      retransmission from Set No 4.
      (g)    Disconnect the hand set and connect it in Set No 3 and establish communication now
      with Set No. 4 (Set Nos 3 & 4 are on the same frequency – F2), & tell the operator of Set No 4
      to make a transmission to Set No 1 after one minute.
      (h)    Within this minute, shift the function knob of both Sets No 2 & 3 to ‗Retrans‘ position.
      (j)    Once transmissions between Set No 1 & 4 are over, or on being ordered so, put the
      function switch of Sets No 2 & 3 back on ‗On‘ position.

17.   Closing Down Drill.
      (a)   Test the set.
      (b)   Switch off the function switch.
      (c)   Close the volume control.
      (d)   Remove the hand set and fit its rubber cap.
      (e)   Remove the antenna and put on its dust cap.
      (f)   Disconnect the battery and record its usage.



1.     Radio set Star-V is a secure tactical VHF Combat Radio. It operates in the frequency band of
30.000 to 87.975 Mhz with 25khz channel spacing. This radio provides clear and secure voice
communication, & is compatible with several secrecy devices in use.

             Display window     Hand Set

                                                                    Function switch
Connector          Function Switch                                 Audio Socket

Antenna                                                            Volume Control

                            Key Pad           Channel Switch

2.    The major characteristics of this set are :-
      (a)  It is portable.
      (b)  Can be used as manpack, ground station or mounted in a vehicle.
      (c)  Secure communication is possible.
      (d)  Can preset frequencies in eight channels.
      (e)    Can preset frequencies or can program them manually. Programming can be erased.
      (f)    Can control the R F output.
      (g)    Can be operated remotely.
      (h)    Can communicate in data mode, can scan preset channels & has the facility for
      selective calls jn the secure mode. Has whisper mode of communication.
      (j)    Has secure key selection & manual key setting.
      (k)    Has BITE (Built in Test Equipment).
      (l)    Can save power by using in Standby Mode.
      (m) Power supply- Battery Secondary NiCd 12 Volt 7 AH.
      (n)    Weight .       Only Radio Set - 5.5 Kgs, as manpack with two Ni Cd Bty -15.5 kgs
      (Including all spares & accessories).
      (o)    Dimensions. Ht – 104 mm, Width – 260 mm, Depth – 220mm.
      (p)    Frequency Range. The frequency range of the set is from 30 Mhz to
      87.975 Mhz divided into two bands as under :-
             (i) Low Band                -     30 Mhz to 54.975 Mhz.
             (ii) High band              -     54.975 Mhz to 87.975 Mhz.
             (iii) Channel Spacing       -     25 Khz.
             (iv) Total No of channes l-       2320.
      (q)    Antenna System. Can use 1.5 m steel tape type antenna, 3.2 m whip antenna or
      Antenna GPA (for static comn).
      (r)    Communication Range.
             (i)     1.5 mtr tape type antenna       - 5 to 7 Km.
             (ii)    3.2 mtr whip antenna            - 9 to 12 Km.
             (iii)   GPEA                            - 25 Km.


3.     Ground Connector.         For earthing when used as aground station. Earthed to chassis of
vehicle when used in a vehicle mounted role.

4.     Antenna Socket.     1.5 Mtr tape antenna and 3.2 Mtr whip antenna are directly connected to
this socket. Connected to the GPA co- axial feeder when used as a static station.

5.    Display Window.     Shows the preset channel and frequency.

6.    Key Pad.       In the Key Pad,a total No of 15 keys in letters and figures are available for
frequency setting, channel selection and many other functions such as:-
      (a)    Figure 0 TO 9.         With this preset frequencies, manual frequencies and crypto keys
      can be selected.
      (b)    KEY. Is pressed when feeding the crypto key.
      (c)    P.      With this we can control the R F out put without changing the height of the
      (d)    F.      with this we can fix both manual & preset frequency.

7.    Second Function Keys.
      (a)  A To F.        Used to enter manual secure key data (Letters A to F, Fig 0-9).
      (b)  Z.      This key erases all preset frequencies and the crypto keys with function switch in
      ERS position.
      (c)  S. To select the squelch mode.
      (d)    Up ward arrow. Increments the manual channel frequency by 25 khz.
      (e)     Downward Arrow.       Decrements the manual channel frequency by 25 khz.
      (f)   Y.     This key selects the sulk mode. Press the key, the display window shows TX ON
      or TX OFF. When TX OFF selected, the set will only receive.
      (g)   R.     Role selection display, i.e., man pack, Truck/Ground (T/G) role.
      (h)   T.     This key initiates the BITE Function, i.e., for testing and fault finding.
      (j)    * Star Key. Turns display ON and OFF
      (k)   # Hype Key.         For selective calls (SCL) mode.
      (l)   Key. To display Net ID , GP ID and check sum of load in secure mode.

8.    Function Switch.    Function switch has 10 positions for communication in Voice, Clear,
Secrecy and Data mode. These are :-
      (a)   OFF. To switch off the set.
      (b)   ON. To switch on the power to the set. This is the normal working position in the clear
      (c)   SQ. To reduce the noise level of set.
      (d)   SEC. To select the secrecy mode of operation.
      (e)   SCL. For Selective call in secrecy mode.
      (f)   PGM. In this position manual frequency & preset frequencies can be loaded.
      (g)   REM. To select the remote control mode of operation.
      (h)   IC.    To select the intercom mode of operation.
      (j)   DAT. To select the data communication mode.
      (k)   ERS. To destroy the crypto code and preset frequency.

9.    Channel SW.         To fix manual and preset frequency. It has ten positions.
      (a)    Manual.      In this position any manual frequency from 30 Mhz to 87.975 Mhz can
be preset.
      (b)    Fig 1 to 8.  With the function switch on PGM, we can set 8 frequencies using this
      (c)    SCAN.        When put on, the set starts scanning & the ‗Active Channel‘ starts flashing
      in the display window.

10.  Volume Control.       It controls the incoming signals & allows the facilities of Standby, ,
Whisper, Local Rebroadcast and RR. It has 10 positions.
     (a)    STAND BY. In this position the set is in standby mode and also searches for the
     frequency . Function remains 2 seconds on and 8 seconds off for this.
     (b)    WS. When in whisper mode, low audio in the in the mike will be increased.
     (c)    1 to 6. For volume selection. Normal position of volume is 4.
     (d)    RL. For local re-broadcast the switch position should on RL. Both sets are connected
     by a 10 m cable.
     (e)    RR. When required to remotely re-broadcast, the switch should be on RR position.
     RR provides only voice, clear mode operation. The two sets are connected wih a 2 km cable.

11.   Audio Socket. It has two audio sockets connected in parallel. Hand set and relay cable kit
are connected to them.

12.     Auxilary Socket. It is a 19pin socket. Control extender, external data plug, audio interface
plug, fill gun, comet connecting cable and auto test equipment are connected on this socket.

13.   Remote Terminals. These are two on right side of the set. When the set is to be operated on
remote, one is connected to RCU and the other with the WD 1 cable.

14.   Carrying Handles & Straps.
15.   Fuse. Fitted on left side of the set. It has capacity of 4 Amps.

Connecting and Operating

16.   Connecting up Drill.
      (a)    Clean the set and check all controls are working properly.
      (b)    Keep the set on a plain surface with the front panel of the set facing down ward.
      (c)    Connect the battery.
      (d)    Lock the set and battery with locking clamp.
      (e)    With the front panel of the set facing upwards, put on thefunction switch. On the display
      window ‗GO‘ will be displayed. Now put the function switch back in the Off position.
      (f)    Fit the radio set on the carrying harness and lock the set with locking hooks.
      (g)    Connect the handset / head gear on the audio socket.
      (h)    Connect control extender and aux socket with cable, when required.
      (j)    Connect antenna 1.5 m or 3.1 m in antenna socket directly as per communication

17.   Operating Drill.
      (a)   Pre Setting Frequencies. 8 channels per frequency can be preset in STAR-V. The
      method of doing so is as follows :-
            (i)    Put function switch on ‗PGM‘ Position.
            (ii)   Turn Channel switch to Channel No-1.
            (iii)  Press ‗F‘ button on the key pad . Display window should read ‗P‘.
            (iv)   Enter the four digits of the frequency with help of figure 0-9 - the fifth digits is fed
            automatically. For example, to set frequency 40.000Mhz, press Fig                 ‗4‘ and #,
            frequency will be fed.
            (v)    The display window will read ‗ STORED‘ for a short while and then displays the
            entered frequency.
            (vi)   Turn channel switch from 2 to 8 channels and feed the frequency one by one in
            the same manner.
            (vii) Put the function switch ‗ON‘, mush noise will be heard in the hand set. Press the
            ‗PTT‘ switch & speak on the micro phone, the same will be heard on the ear phone.
            (viii) Turn the volume control knob to the Figure 4 position.
            (ix)   Turn the function switch position to clear or secure mode and select the crypto
            key as per mode of communication.
            (x)    Turn the function switch position on ‗SQL‘ to select the tone/ carrier mode.
            (xi)   Keep the set on the back of the operator and secure with the straps.
            (xii) Establish communication.
      (b)   Setting Manual Channel Frequencies.
            (i)    Put the function switch in ‗ON‘ position.
            (ii)   Put the channel switch on ‗M‘.
            (iii)  Press ‗F‘ button on the keypad. Display window will read ‗P‘.
            (iv)   Set the frequency as in presetting procedure.
            (v)    Manual channel frequency can be shifted by 25 Khz with help of upward arrow
            and downward arrow .
            (vi)   With the function switch in ‗ON‘ position, a mush noise will be heard in the hand
            (vii) Press the ‗PTT‘ switch, speak on the micro phone & side tone will be heard in the
            ear phone.
            (viii) Turn the volume control knob to the Figure 4 position.
            (ix)   Turn the function switch position on ‗SQL‘ toselect SQL mode.
            (x)    Communication will be established.


1.     GP 338 is a portable radio working in VHF/UHF range for establishing quick communication
between two persons or group of persons operating in an area. It is a 2-way radio, which works in
simplex mode. Professional radio service organization offer communication to users, which can
simplify their work life and provide level of contact needed to meet their operational needs.


2.      Radio GP 338 is designed to provide short-range radiotelephony communication to mobile as
well as static users.

3.     Facilities.    It has following facilities: -
      (a)      128 programmable channels in 8 zones.
      (b)      Low bty indication.
      (c)      Selective call, call alert and radio check facility.
      (d)      Emergency alarm.
      (e)      Scanning facility/prioritization of scan list member.
      (f)      Phone list
      (g)      Secure facility

Technical Data

4.    Physical Design.
      (a)   Rugged Construction.
      (b)   Small in size and of lightweight.
      (c)   Easy to use.
      (d)   Improved mechanical Design.

5.    Types of Battery.
      (a)   NiMH High Capacity (Min-11 hrs, Max-08 hrs)
      (b)   NiCd High Capacity (Min-11 hrs, Max- 08 hrs)
      (c)   Lithium (Min-11 hrs, Max- 08 hrs)

6.    Weight.
      (a)   Total weight of set with NICD battery is 420 gms.
      (b)   Total weight of set with Lithium battery is 380 gms.

7.    Convention Bands and Frequencies.
      (a) VHF (Very High Frequencies)-136 to 174 Mhz (30-300 Mhz)
      (b) UHF (Ultra High Frequencies)-403-470 Mhz ( 300-30,000 Mhz)

8.     Communication Range.        Communication range of Radio        is 3 to 5 Km depending on line of

9.    Types of Aerial.
      (a)   Helical Antenna.
      (b)   Bunker Antenna.
      (c)    Vehicle Antenna.


10.     Motorola GP-338 is a widely used radio set in the Army. The same has been authorized to
Girls Battalion of NCC and facilitates communication over small distances. The cadets must be aware
of its usage so as to handle them during times of contingencies.

                             RADIO TELEPHONY (RT) PROCEDURE

PART I : General

Principles of RT Procedure

1.    These are :-
      (a)   Brevity.
      (b)   Accuracy.
      (c)   Security.
      (d)   Speed.

2.    These principles can be remembered by the word BASS.

3.      RT Procedure.        This is usually a series of alternate RT transmissions between users who
may discuss certain subjects, ask and answer questions, or exchange information subject to
restrictions imposed for reasons of security. The transmissions must be as brief as possible. RT is
primarily provided for this purpose.

4.    Communication Security.
      (a)    Every user or operator, who transmits, carries a great responsibility, Radio
      transmissions are one of the most valuable sources of enemy intelligence. Telephone calls
      connected over radio links are subject to the same security precautions as radio transmissions.
      (b)    Users and operators must always remember that every transmission is liable to
      interception by the enemy. Whichever radio set the speaker uses, irrespective of its range,
      security must always be ensured. The enemy uses direction finding (DF) devices to locate our
      headquarters and long transmissions make this task simpler.
      (c)    Despite the comparatively short range of sets used by units in the forward areas, it must
      always be assumed that transmissions made by these units are liable to interception. The
      speaker must therefore, presume that he is being intercepted.
      (c)    The user must observe the following rules in the interest of security:-
             (i)    Examine the security classification of a message.
             (ii)   Think before speaking.
             (iii)  Be brief.
             (iv)   Use correct procedure.
             (v)    Send in clear language only if the message has no value for the enemy.
             (v)    Use official codes and no others.
             (vi)   Remember that a formal message can provide a degree of security if proper
             procedure is followed.

Phonetic Alphabets
5.      Phonetic Alphabets.        In RT Procedure, the various alphabets are referred to as under,
particularly when there is a need to spell words :-
A – Alfa, B – Bravo, C – Charlie, D – Delta, E – Echo, F – Foxtrot, G – Golf, H – Hotel, I – India, J –
Juliet, K – Kilo, L – Lima, M – Mike, N – November, O – Oscar, P – Papa, Q – Quebec, R – Romeo, S
– Sierra, T – Tango, U – Uniform, V – Victor, W – Whisky, X – X Ray, Y _ Yankee, Z – Zulu.

Code Words

6.     A code word is a single word used to provide security cover for reference to a classified matter.
The allocation of code words is controlled by the Army Headquarters who issue a group of code
words to Headquarters Commands for further sub allotment as required. Although used for
concealing a meaning, a code word is normally given security classification ‗Secret‘. All letters and
messages containing a code in the context of other matter which divulge its purpose, will be classified

Appointment Codes

7.    The purpose of appointment code is :-
      (a)    To avoid disclosing of the nature of Headquarters by referring to specific appointments
      such as OC, Adjt, QM and so on. Thus by the use of ‗Tiger‘ for Corps Commander, Divisional
      Commander or Unit and Sub unit Commanders, the nature of the Headquarters concerned
      would not be apparent to the intercepting agency, though obvious to both the originator and
      the recipient concerned.
      (b)    To facilitate recognition of the RT users during bad speech condition as the codes are
      easily pronounceable and recognizable over RT.
      (c)    To exclude the use of officer‘s names and their nick names which must on no account
      be used.

8.    The Codes used and their equivalent appointments are given below :-

      Army Appointment                             Appointment Codes
      (a)   Commander                                    Tiger
      (b)   Second in Command                            Lamb
      (c)   Army Representative of Commander             Peacock
            or Liaison Officer of Commander of Formation
      (d)   ‗G‘ Staff Officer                            Lion
      (e)   ‗I‘ (Intelligence) Staff Officer             Pigeon
      (f)   ‗A‘ & ‗Q‘ Staff Officer                      Panther
      (g)   Armour Adviser/Rep/Liaison Officer           Bison
      (h)   Artillery Adviser                            Bull
      (j)   Engineer Adviser                             Stork
      (k)   Signal Adviser                               Sparrow
      (l)   Supplies and Transport Adviser               Rabbit
      (m) Medical Adviser                                Sheep
      (n)   Ordnance Adviser                             Elephant
      (o)   EME Adviser                                  Eagle
      (p)   Air Force rep                                Hawk

Radio Net

9.  The number of radio stations operating on the same frequency for the purpose of
communication with one another on radio are called a radio net.

10.   One station of a radio net, normally the one serving as the senior headquarters is appointed
Control Station of the net.

Code Sign

11.   A code sign is a secret and exclusive group of three letters designed to conceal the identity of
a formation/unit during transmission of message over radio. These are allotted by higher HQs.

Link Sign

12.    A link sign is a secret group of letters or letters and figures, allotted to a station on radio net,
signal communication network for concealing the identity of the station calling and answering calls.

Types of Calls

13.    (a)    Single Call. A call to only one station on a net.
       (b)    Multiple Call. A call to two or more stations, but not to all stations   on the net.
       (c)    Net Call.      A call to all stations on the radio net.

PART II : RT Procedure

14.    Talking on radio is different from talking on line, the main difference being : -

       (a)    Radio is easier to intercept.
              (b)    Radio transmissions are liable to atmospheric disturbances and interference from
              other stations.
              (c)    Radio sets are not normally provided with facilities for simultaneous, two way
              (d)    Radio sets are liable to be jammed.

15.   Hence, a user needs constant practice to accustom her self to the use of a standard
procedure, free from peculiarities.

How to Speak

16.    RT message must be spoken in a way that will ensure maximum intelligibility to the receiver.
The following are important: -
       (a)    Rhythm.       Any phrase spoken in ordinary conversation has a natural rhythm which
       helps to make it intelligible. This rhythm must be preserved when the phrase is spoken on RT,
       & the following rules must be followed :-
              (i)    The message must be spoken in short, complete phrases that make sense, and
              not word by word.
              (ii)   Care must be taken not to say ―Er‖ after a word or to insert it between phrases.
       (b)    Speed.
               (i)    The user must speak steadily at medium speed. If a user speaks too fast, his
               speech will be received as an unintelligible jumble of words. If he speaks too slowly, he
               will waste time and exasperate the receiver.
               (ii)   The speed of speech must be constant throughout.
               (iii)  The less important words must not be hurried over.
               (iv)   If the message has to be written down by the receiver, pauses between the
               transmission of phrases must be longer.
       (c)     Volume.
               (i)    The user must speak louder than in ordinary conversation, but must not shout.
               (ii)   The mouth must be kept close to the microphone. If the head is turned when
               speaking, for example to look at a map, the volume of the speech received at the other
               end will drop and words may be lost.
       (d)     Pitch. High pitched voices are transmitted by RT more successfully than those of a
       lower pitch. The voice must be pitched higher than usual, but there should be no discomfort.
       In normal conversation the voice is allowed to drop in pitch on the last syllable of each word
       and the last word in each phrase. This must be prevented from happening on RT, by raising
       the pitch of the voice slightly at end of each word and phrase.
       (e)     The four points given above i.e. rhythm, speed, volume and pitch must always be borne
       in mind, when speaking on RT ; Remember RSVP.

Rules for Spelling

17.    (a)    Where necessary a word, abbreviation, a series of letters, and so on can be spelt.
       Before spelling a word or an abbreviation or sending a letter or series of letters the sender will
       say ‗I spell‘. Whenever one or more words or abbreviation occur together in the text and
       require to be spelt out in the phrase, ‗I spell‘ will be used before transmitting each of these
       words or abbreviations. For example ―recce troop‖ will be transmitted as I spell Romeo, Echo
       Charlie Charlie Echo I spell Tango, Papa.
       (b)    Words or abbreviations should not be pronounced either before or after spelling them.
       (c)    Neither ‗I spell‘ nor ‗letters‘ are used before sending out: -
              (i)     Code signs.
              (ii)    Link signs.
       (d)    If a code sign occurs in the text of a message the phrase, code sign, is used before it is
       (e)    For one word appearing in capitals and requiring to be spelt, use of phrase ―Blocks
       ON/OFF‖ in conjunction with ‗I spell‘ will be made. For example ―DELHI Station‖ will be
       transmitted as ―Blocks on, I spell Delta, Echo, Lima, Hotel, India, Blocks off, Station.‖

Rules for Transmitting Figures

18.    Figures sent on RT are preceded by the phrase ―figures‘ except while transmitting link signs,
grid references in figures and fire orders. Each digit is pronounced separately as shown below,
except in exact multiples of hundred, or a thousand or a lakh.
       (a)     0      Zero                  5     Fiyiv
               1      Wun                   6     Six
               2      Too                   7     Seven
               3      Thuhree               8     At
               4      Fower                 9     Niner
       (b)     If the originator of a written message writes, for example, ‗Sixteen‘ instead of ‗16‘ this
       will be transmitted as a word and not a digit.
      (c)   Exact multiples of a hundred, a thousand and a lakh are permitted as spoken in normal
      usage, e.g., 100 as figures one hundred, 1000 as figures one thousand and so on. The
      exceptions to this rule are: -
            (i)     In case of time, multiples of only hundred are pronounced e.g., 1000 hrs, figures
            one zero hundred hours.
            (ii)    In case of grid reference, figures are spoken individually, e.g., grid reference
            4200, will be spoken as ―Grid reference four two zero zero.‖ The phrase ―Grid reference‖
            will precede all figure grid references.
            (iii)   Figures less than hundred, which are not exact multiples of hundred, thousand
            and lakh, will be pronounced individually in terms of these units, e.g 76000 as ―Figure
            seven six thousand‖ and not ―Figures seventy six thousand.‖
            (iv)    Some other examples are, 1 to 9 – As one to nine, 10 – Figures one zero, 16 -
            Figures one six, 40,000 rounds – Figures four zero thousand rounds, 40,001 rounds –
            Figures four zero zero one rounds, 52,00,000 rounds – Figures five two hundred
            thousand rounds, 0700 hrs – Figures zero seven hundred hours etc.

Mixed Group

19.     In giving a mixed group of letters and figures, the phrases ‗Figures‘ and ―I spell‖ are used as
in the following example: -
        The mixed group, ‗31AB7,‘ is sent as, ―Figures three one, blocks on, I spell alfa, bravo, blocks
        off, figure seven.‖

Standard Phrases and their Meanings

20.     A set of standard procedural phrases have been framed, the universal use of which will ensure
the following :-
        (a)    The exact meaning of the sender is conveyed to the receiver.
        (b)    The identity of the formation/unit is not disclosed by local variations in the method of
        sending messages or conducting conversation.
        (c)    No time is wasted in lengthy transmissions.

21.   A list of such phrases with their meaning is given below :-
      Action         :     Addressed for action to the main addressee who is supposed to take
                           action on it.
      All After      :     Used to identify part of a message.
      All Before     :     (a)     When asking for repetition or verification.
                           (b)     In conjunction with the phrase ‗ WRONG‘ when correcting a
                           mistake in a message, which has just been read back.
                           (c)     When a portion of a message is missed by the receiving operator or
                           when the sender considers it necessary to repeat ―All After‖ and ―All
                           Before‖ are used as part of a message.
      Blocks on      :     Whatever follows will be written in block capital letters.
      Blocks Off :         ‗Stop writing in block capital letters‘.
      Check Back :         Used by control after giving time signal when he wishes the time to be
                           checked back.
      Correction :         Cancel the last word or phrase sent or cancel word or phrase
                           indicated and substitute. It is used by the sender to cancel a word or
                           phrase that he has spoken incorrectly.
      Figures        :     Normally used before every figure or group of figures sent by RT.
      I Say Again :        Used by the sender :-
                             (a)     If he sends a word or phrase more than once, either for emphasis
                             or because working conditions are bad.
                             (b)     When giving repetitions.
       I spell       :       Used when spelling out a word, letter or series of
       Message from:         Used when relaying a message.
       Nothing Heard:        Used in establishing communication meaning, ‗No
                     signal is heard.‘
       OK            :       (a)     ‗Correct.‘
                             (b)     ‗Reception is satisfactory.‘
                             (c)     ‗I am ready to receive your message, Carry on.‘
       Out           :       ‗My transmission is ended and I do not expect you to
                     make any further transmission.‘
       Out to you :          ―I have finished with you and I am about to call
                     another station.‖
       Over          :       ‗My transmission has ended and I expect to hear a
                     further transmission from you on this subject.‘
       Report my Signals: Used by control station normally when calling for
                     report on his signals from other stations on the net.
        Report Signal Strength: Used by control to ascertain the Signal Strength at
                     which the out stations on the net are receiving each other.
       Roger         :       Message received correctly and understood.
       Roger so far :        ‗Give a receipt for what has been sent so far.‘ Used
                     in the transmission of a long message‘.
       Say Again :           Used by the receiver to obtain a complete repetition of
                     transmission. The word ―Repeat‖ must not be used
               because of its special meaning to Artillery.
       Strength Five :       Used in establishing communication, meaning ‗Very
       Strength Four:        ‗Signals are clear.‘
       Strength Three:       ‗Signals are fairly audible.‘
       Strength Two :        ‗Signals weak. Readable now and then.‘
       Strength One :        ‗Signals very weak.‘
       Wait          :       Pause of a few Seconds.
       Wait Out      :       ‗ I have finished for the time being and will call you
                     again later. Other stations may transmit.‘
       Wilco         :       ‗Message received, understood, and will be complied

PART III : Establishing Communication – Tuning and Netting

Radio Diagram

22.   In the given diagram the three stations working with the Control station on a net are ABC,
BCD, and DEF. The Control (marked +) uses the Call Sign of the senior most station ABC as his Link
Sign. While working on the net ABC would be called ABC; BCD would be called ABC 2, and DEF as
ABC 3.

 ABC                                     BCD                    DEF
Tuning & Netting Procedure

From                  To                         Action

+            All Stations          ―Hello all stations. Alfa Bravo Charlie
                                   Alfa Bravo Charlie (for 30 secs) – Hear
                                   netting call net now (Presses the pressel
                                   switch for 30 secs and releases it)
                                   Netting call ends.‖

+            All Stations          ―All stations Alfa Bravo Charlie, report my
             signals over.‖

ABC             +                  ―Alfa Bravo Charlie One, Alfa Bravo Charlie
             one, OK over.‖

BCD               +                ―Alfa Bravo Charlie Two, Alfa Bravo
                                   Charlie Two, OK over

DEF               +                ―Alfa Bravo Charlie Three, Alfa Bravo
                                   Charlie Three, OK over.‖

+            All Stations          ―All stations Alfa Bravo Charlie, OK
                                   report signal strength, over.‖

ABC               +            ―Alfa Bravo Charlie One, Strength Four, over.‖

BCD               +            ―Alfa Bravo Charlie Two, Strength Five over.‖

DEF               +           ―Alfa Bravo Charlie Three, Strength Three over‖.

+          All Stations       ―All stations Alfa Bravo Charlie, Roger out‖.

Examples of Calling and Answering on Radio Telephony

                                     (SEE RADIO-NET DIAGRAM)

Single Call                        ―Alfa Bravo Charlie, message for you, over.‖
ABC                                ―Alfa Bravo Charlie, OK, Over.‖
Control Station                    ― Alfa Bravo Charlie, send rations, over.‖
ABC                                ― Alfa Bravo Charlie, Roger, out.‖

Multiple Call
Control Station                    ―Alfa Bravo Charlie and Bravo Charlie Delta,
                                   Message for you, over.‖
ABC                               ― Alfa Bravo Charlie OK over‖
BCD                               ― Bravo Charlie Delta OK over.‖
Control Station                   ― Alfa Bravo Charlie and Bravo Charlie Delta
              move at fig one zero hundred hours, over.‖
ABC                               ―Alfa Bravo Charlie Roger out.‖
BCD                               ―Bravo Charlie Delta Roger out.‖

Net Call
Control Station                    ―All Stns Alfa Bravo Charlie, message for you
ABC                             ―Alfa Bravo Charlie one, OK Over.‖
BCD                             ― Alfa Bravo Charlie Two, OK Over.‘
CDE                             ― Alfa Bravo Charlie Three, OK over.‖
Control Station                 ― All stns Alfa Bravo Charlie, collect arms and
                            ammunition from Headquarters, over.‖
ABC                             ―Alfa Bravo Charlie one, Roger out.‖
BCD                             ― Alfa Bravo Charlie Two, Roger out.‘
CDE                             ― Alfa Bravo Charlie Three, Roger out.‖

                                       LINE COMMUNICATION

PART I - Magneto Exchange 15 Lines

Description & Facilities

1.      The 15 line magneto switchboard accommodates 15 lines & is a portable manpack set used in
field area. . A separate operator‘s telephone is required, normally Telephone set ‗J‘, used, but any
magneto telephone may be used. The switched board is fitted with drop indicators to give visible
indication of a call while an alarm buzzer gives indication at night . A protector is fitted to each line
wire. Earthling is effected by means of a five ft copper braid, attached to the back of the switchboard,
and an earth pin.

2.     Night Alarm .  A buzzer is housed in the rear lid and can be removed and connected in
series with a three volt battery across the ALARM terminals. When a shutter falls, the buzzer

3.     Jacks and Indicators.      Two point jacks are used & a label marked with luminous paint is
provided under each, to aid operation at night. The label holder under each indicator shutter is also
treated with luminous paint. Transparent labels for these shutters are fitted.

4.    Plugs and Cords. All the cords are rubber covered, the operator‘s cord being marked by
colored sleeves. During transport they are stored in the space between the front lid and the panels.

5.     Lightning Protector. The switch board is fitted with twenty protectors, each consisting of two
blocks of moulded carbon. Films of insulating varnish prevent contact between the carbon surfaces.

Constructional Details

6.     These are as under :-
       (a)    The switch board is contained in a case of mild steel having two hinged lids. The
       provision of rubber gaskets ensures that the switchboard is waterproof when lids are firmly
        secured to the case by means of the captive screws for the purpose provided. The case is
        fitted with a carrying strap, to which the earth pin is attached when not in use.
        (b)     Access to the front panel is gained by unscrewing the two captive screws and raising
        the lid. This lid may be locked in any desired position by a knurled nut, at the right hand side.
        The panel carries the drop indicators, line jacks, storage sockets and single plug ended rubber
        covered cords. A guard strip attached to the front panel can be slid over the indicator shutters
        to prevent damage in transit.
        (c)     The back panel is also opened by unscrewing two captive type screws and raising the
        lid. The panel, made of bakelite, bears twenty LINE Terminals, two ALARM Terminals, an
        EARTH Terminal, and a cord marked TELE for connection to the operator‘s telephones set.
        The switchboard can be withdrawn from its case if the two yellow screws on both the front and
        back panels are first loosened and the earth braid disconnected from the EARTH Terminal.


7.      (a)    Cord and plug Test. Connect the magneto exchange with the operator‘s telephone and
        the subscriber‘s telephone. Take operator plug and insert in the connected subscriber‘s jack
        and ring up from the operator‘s telephone. The subscriber‘s telephone bell will ring. Take the
        subscriber‘s cord one by one and insert in the operator‘s jack and ring up from operator‘s
        telephone. The shutter will fall.
        (b)    Indicator/Incoming Test. Connect the operator‘s telephone with magneto exchange.
        Take one telephone and connect with L1 and L2 of No. 1 Subscriber and ring up from the
        subscriber‘s telephone. The shutter of that indicator will fall. This process is to be carried out in
        case of all numbers.
        (c)    Night Alarm Test. Connect battery with the night alarm and drop the shutter of the
        exchange one by one. The night alarm buzzer will produce a sound.

PART II - Operating Procedure of Magneto Exchange

Setting Up

8.    Place the switchboard on a level surface, preferably not on the ground . It is important that the
apparatus is leveled to ensure that the indicator shutters operate when a subscriber calls

9.    Unscrew and raise the front and rear lids. See that each plug rests in its appropriate storage
socket, i.e., the hole immediately above the cord.

10.   Connect the cord marked TELE at the back of the switchboard to the operator‘s
telephone set . Lock the front lid in the required position by means of the knurled nut at the right.

11.     Connect the braid to the EARTH terminal and to the earth pin provided.

12.   Connect the pairs of incoming telephone lines to the pairs of line terminals at the back of the
switchboards. If earth return circuits are used, connect the line to the upper terminal of a pair of
terminals and earth the lower terminal.

13.    If necessary, moisten the earth around the earth pin to ensure a good earthing. Better results
will be obtained if each of the lower terminals is brought to a separate earth. Earth pins in this case
should be widely spaced to reduce cross talk.

14.  If required, connect the buzzer and three volts battery connected in series to the terminals
marked ―Alarm‘at the back of the switch board.
15.   Release indicators by sliding the guard strip upwards as far as possible.


16.   When closing the switchboard, make sure:-
      (a)      The guard strip is lowered over the drop indicators.
      (b)      All plugs are inserted in their appropriate storage sockets and are pushed in. To
      facilitate storage of cords, divide them into approximately two equal groups, one on either side
      of the center of the switchboard. Place the loops of the left hand group towards the right hand
      side and the loops of the right hand group towards the left hand side.
      (c)      The earthing braid is neatly wound round the brackets, & all fixing screws are tightened

PART- III Connecting Single & Multiple Calls

Phrases Used While Operating

17.   The following phrases are used while operating the exchange-
                   ―Number please, sir‖
                   ―You want number………..Sir‖
                   ―Sorry, Sir, Number is engaged, Sir‖
                   ―I will ring you back, Sir‖
                   ―Call for you from ………..Speak up please‖
                   ―Have you finished, Sir?

Normal Calls or Single Calls

18.   The following procedure is followed while putting through single calls :-
      (a)     Insert the operator‘s plug into the line jack under the indicator, the shutter of which has
      fallen. This restores the shutter. Give the name of the exchange.
      (b)     The subscriber then asks for the required connection. Repeat the demanded number to
      satisfy the caller that it has been heard correctly.
      (c)     Transfer the operator‘s plug into the line jack of the wanted number and call by turning
      the generator handle briskly several times.
      (d)     After calling the wanted number as above , put the plug connected to that line half way
      into the caller‘s line jack. On hearing a reply, push this plug firmly home and say, ― You are
      through, Sir‖. As soon as conversation starts, take the operator‘s plug out of the line jack of the
      wanted line. No clearing signal can be received unless this is done.
      (e)     On receiving the clearing signal (the falling of the shutter) associated with the caller or
      the called (no matter which subscriber is the first to ring off), insert the operator‘s plug into line
      jack below the fallen shutter (thus restoring the shutter) and say , ― Finished please‖ ? If
      nothing is heard, remove the plug from the line jacks of the connected subscribers.

Multiple Calls or Bunching

19.   The following procedure would be followed for putting through multiple calls.
        (a)      A subscriber wishing to be connected to several lines at the same time, calls the
        exchange and asks for the required numbers. As in sub para 2 (a) above, insert the operator‘s
        plug into the line jack under the shutter which has fallen and give the name of the exchange.
        Repeat the demand and ask the subscriber to wait till the connections are made.
        (b)      Insert the operator‘s plug into the line jack of the first wanted number and call by turning
        the generator handle briskly several times. Immediately after calling, put the plug connected to
        this line half way into the caller‘s line jack and say, ― Multiple call for you, Sir‖. One moment
        please‖, but do not push the plug home.
        (c)      Transfer the operator‘s plug to the line jack of the next number to be called          After
        calling, put the plug connected to this line half way into the line of the last number that was
        called, and on hearing reply, say, as before ―Multiple call for you, Sir, one moment please‖.
        (d)      Repeat this for each of the wanted numbers until the last one has been told,‖ Multiple
        call for you, Sir‖.
        (e)      As soon as communication is satisfactorily established, remove the operator‘s plug from
        the line jack of the last number called. No clearing signal can be received unless this is done.
        (f)      On receiving a clearing signal, plug into the line jack under the fallen shutter and ask,
        ―Finished Please?‖ etc. If there is no reply, remove all plugs from the line jacks concerned.
        (g)      If it appears that the conversation is finished but the subscribers have forgotten to clear,
        insert the operator‘s plug in the jack of the last subscriber called and listen. If conversation is
        still in progress, remove the plug. If nothing is heard say, ― Finished please‖ etc, and clear
        down if there is no reply.

PART- IV     Introduction to Telephone Set 5A / 5B

20.   Telephone set 5A/5B is a lightweight general purpose telephone. It can be used with similar
telephones in Central Battery (CB), Central Battery Trunk Subscribers (CBS), Magneto exchanges
and as remote control telephone. It can be used in automatic exchange with dial facility fitted

21.     Facilities.    Following are the important facilities ;-
        (a)     Lightweight and easy to carry.
        (b)     Can work with CB, CBS & automatic exchange.
        (c)     Buzzer provided for calling.
        (d)     Internal power supply with dry cell.

22.     Power Supply.        3 Volt DC (2 dry Cell. 1.5 V each).

23.     Main Parts. Following are main part s;-
        (a)   Body.
        (b)   Line terminal L1 & L2.
        (c)   Hand set, microphone & receiver.
        (d)   Battery compartment.


24.     There are three types of tests.
        (a)   Generator Test.      Touch two wet fingers on L1 and L2 terminals and rotate the
        generator of telephone slightly, the shock will be felt in the finger.
        (b)   Bell Test.    Connect two telephones with each other with the help of a wire and rotate
        the generator of any one telephone. The bell of the other telephone will ring.
        (c)    Hand Set Test.         On pressing and releasing the pressel switch. A click sound will be
        heard. A side tone will be heard in the receiver if you blow in the microphone after fitting a
        battery of 3 volt in the telephone.

                                    TYPES OF COMMUNICATIONS


1.     Signal communication assumes tremendous importance in the modern day scenario. There
are a number of means to execute signal communication of which net radio forms an important part.

Net Radio

2.      Net radio is the basic means of signal communication for any mobile force. It provides facilities
for the following: -
        (a)    Radiotelephony.     Simplex or duplex, depending on the type of
        equipment available.
        (b)    Radio telegraphy for transmission of messages and key conversations.

3.      Use of Teleprinters over Radio Transmission.
        (a)    Efficiency of net radio communication is appreciably affected by factors such as
        weather, terrain, power output of the set, state of training of operators and equipment
        (b)    This can be operated in the high frequency (HF) or very high frequency (VHF) band and
        is the most common form of field radio equipment in use in many armies today.

4.      Advantages.
        (a)   Is vulnerable only at terminal, and is therefore, reasonably protected from enemy action
        except by a direct hit.
        (b)   Is very flexible. Can be rapidly rearranged in the event of regrouping.
        (c)   Is rapid in establishing communication.
        (d)   Can work on the move, although range obtained will be much less than when stationary.
        (e)   Is economical in personnel and equipment.

5.      Disadvantages.
        (a)    Is inherently insecure and susceptible to enemy interception which necessitates the use
        of codes and ciphers with a consequent delay in clearing traffic and overall increase in
        operating personnel.
        (b)    Net radio being inherently insecure, demands a considerable degree of security
        consciousness on the part of the users. This means adherence to standard procedures and
        security codes.


6.     This is the basic means of signal communications for a force, which is static. A telephone is by
far the best means of signal communications between individual officers and a telegraph circuit is the
best means of clearing formal traffic. Line communication is provided by use of field cable,
permanent lines and underground or submarine cables. Use of carrier and voice frequency
telegraphy equipment provides more than one speech and /or telegraph channel on one pair of lines.

7.    Advantages.
      (a)   Is reliable to physical free electrical interference.
      (b)   Is relatively secured.
      (c)   Number of circuits and message carrying capacity is more but limited only by availability
      of materials and manpower.

8.    Disadvantages.
      (a)    Is vulnerable to physical interference and enemy interception along the entire length of
      the route.
      (b)    Takes time to construct.
      (c)    Inflexible, once it is laid.
      (d)    Is expensive in men and material both for initial construction and subsequent

Radio Relay

9.     Radio relay implies that a series of radio transmitters and receivers-normally spaced between
20 to 35 Km apart, are used to provide point to point signal communications. Radio relay
transmission and reception at each terminal take place on separate frequencies, and therefore, no
‗send – receive‘ switching is necessary. It is duplex link and can, therefore, be connected like
ordinary line circuits to telephone or telegraph exchanges.

10.   Advantages.
      (a)   Replace lines with considerable economy of manpower and stores.
      (b)   It can be operated over areas, which for reasons of ground or enemy activity may
      preclude the use of line.
      (c)   Provides greater flexibility than line.
      (d)   Quick to set up and move except in mountainous country.
      (e)   Physically vulnerable only at terminal.

11.   Disadvantages.
      (a)   Liable to interception and hence insecure. Has relatively greater security than net radio,
      depending upon the sitting and direction of the beams.
      (b)   Cannot work on the move.
      (c)   Slightly more expensive in men and material than in the case of net radio.

Despatch Rider Service

12.    This service is known as Schedule Despatch Service. Special Despatch riders clear the
dispatches. Such contingencies would generally arise or apply in the field areas.


13.    Maps, photographs, sketches etc can be transmitted by radio or line over any distance, as is
done by all major news services. This process called ‗Facsimile‖ is slow and requires good
transmission conditions. Field Facsimile equipment is at present in use in armed forces of advanced
Television (TV)

14.    The instantaneous transmission (as opposed to facsimile) of pictures over communications
system is much more difficult and expensive. A closed circuit TV system is being used in HQ of
various armies. Key staff vehicles within main Corps/Command HQ are fitted with cameras and
monitor screen. The network is linked by special cables and is directed from TV control over an inter-
communication system. The TV system is used for internal HQ briefing and for passing information
between cells in the HQ.

Other Means of Signal Communication

15.   (a)    Liaison Officer. Liaison officers and visiting officers act as couriers.
      (b)    Visual Signaling. Equipment like lamp, daylight short range signaling, flag signaling and
      shutter are used to provide visual communication. Visual signaling requires a line of sight
      between stations and is therefore unreliable in unfavorable weather and battle conditions.
      They are useful in hilly terrain between isolated detachments. With the improvement in radio
      communication facilities at formation and unit level, it has been decided to do away with this
      means of signal communications.
      (c)    Pigeon Service. This may be raised for special operations.


16.   Alternate means of signal communication are a must in today‘s fast moving war scenario. To
have working knowledge of these means can only act as an advantage for the user.

                                     COMMUNICATION MEDIA


1.    Mode of transmission (txn) is important in the modern day environment. Then txn mode is
chosen depending upon the frequency and application. These can be transmission lines or
propagation through free space.

Transmission Lines

2.     The line is a means of guiding electric energy from one place to another i.e. Transmission (TX)
to Reception (Rx) or powerhouse to consumption point. It comprises of two conductors so arranged
to transfer electrical energy with maximum efficiency. These can be of three types: -
       (a)     Parallel wire type.
       (b)     Coaxial type.
       (c)     Wave guide type.

3.   Parallel Wire. Also known as ‗open wire line‘. These can be used up to the frequency range of
200 Mhz.

4.    Co-axial. It consists of one conductor as a hollow tube and second conductor located inside it.
The inner space is filled with solid or gaseous dielectric to prevent moisture ingress. These are used
at UHF, microwave frequency (freq) unto 18 GHz.
5.     Wave Guide. These are hollow conducting tubes of uniform cross section used for UHF txn by
continuous reflection from the inner walls of the wave guides. These are used for frequencies above
1 GHz. It cannot be used below 1 GHz as the size becomes too large.

Propagation of Wave.

6.     The mode of propagation of Electro Magnetic (EM) waves from Tx to Rx depends upon the
freq employed. This can be of following types: -
       (a)     Ground Wave Propagation. Used for long and medium waves. Has limited range (max
       30 Km) due to attenuation caused by absorption by ground.
       (b)     Sky Wave or Mesospheric Propagation. Used for HF range up to 30 Mhz. It increases
       communication range from few hundred Kms to thousands of Kms. These make use of
       ionosphere layer existing to a height of 150-200 KM from the surface of earth. It is unreliable
       due to reflecting properties of ionosphere, which varies with day, night, season and sun spot
       activity, causing fading in the reception.
       (c)     Space Wave Propagation. The Propagation of VHF and UHF freq takes place, in
       straight lines. The range is limited by the curvature of earth. The distance between two
       neighboring stations is approx 50 KM.
       (d)     Tropospheric Scatter Propagation. Also known as troposcatter or forward scatter
       propagation. It uses troposphere, which extends up to a height of 8-10 Km from the surface of
       the earth where scattering is utilized for txn due to water and carbon dioxide particles.


7.    Mode of transmission is important to ensure that communication in the war zone continues
unhindered. Appropriate means goes a long way in ensuring break free communication in battle.

                             LATEST TRENDS IN COMMUNICATION


1.    The field of communication has seen rapid growth during the last century, beginning with the
discovery of radiotelephony by MARCONI. GRAHAM BELL‘S invention of the telephone was another
important milestone. Some of the modern trends in communication are discussed in the succeeding


2.    The lower layer of the atmosphere below 15 km height is called the Tropospheric region. The
gases, in molecular form present in this region, cause radio waves to scatter.

3.    In this system, microwaves are transmitted in the UHF & SHF bands to achieve radio
communication, over the horizon, at ranges between 70 to 100 kms. It has the following channel
capacities: -
      (a)     Voice            -      24
      (b)     Telegraph/Telex  -      32
      (c)     Data             -      03
4.      Applications of Troposcatter.
        (a)   It is used for long-range point-to-point communication.
        (b)   Ideal for rugged terrain /otherwise inhospitable terrain, viz, deserts, mountains, sea etc.

MODEM (Modular – Demodulator)

5.    This device is used to convert computer-generated output (digital signal) into frequencies
(analog signals) that can then be transmitted on a telephone line. Modems are required at both the
sending and receiving computers.

6.      Types of Modems. : -
        (a)   They are basically of two types - Asynchronous (No-clock) and Synchronous            .
        (b)   Based on speeds the following types of modems are commonly in use: -
              (i)   Low – speed modems (Up to 600 bps).
              (ii)  Medium speed modems (1200 to 4800 bps).
              (iii) High speed modems (9600 to 16000 bps)
              (iv)  Wide band modems (Over 16900 bps)


7.   This is the common short form of FACSIMILE and is one of the memory type electronic mail
and message systems with the following advantages: -
     (a)    Can transmit graphics as well as alphanumeric information (letters & numbers).
     (b)    Reduces time and eliminates transmission error.
     (c)    Can transmit information in any vernacular language.
     (d)    Uses any transmission medium e.g., telephone line, micro-wave, radio-wave etc.


8.    This is the abbreviated from of TELEPRINTER EXCHANGE.                  The type of cable used to
connect two such instruments restricts its range of operation.

9.      Calls. In a telex network calls can be classified as Local, Trunk or International.

10.     Advantages of Telex.
        (a)   Re-generative repeaters in a net-work can increase range. Voice signals cannot be
        (b)   Can be used over a telephone network.
        (c)   Can receive messages when unattended.
        (d)   Message is recorded in a printed form.

11.     Disadvantages of Telex.
        (a)   The equipment is costlier than a telephone set.
        (b)   Key – in errors due to the need for a human operator to send-receive messages.
        (c)   Lack of privacy since anyone can read the printed out-put.


12.   An object, which revolves around another larger object, whose motion is primarily and
permanently determined by the force of attraction of that body, is known as a ‗satellite‘. Before the
space age, planets and moons were the only known satellites. On 04 October 1957, the first man-
made satellite called the SPUTNIK was launched by the erstwhile USSR. Since then, more complex
and versatile satellites have brought about a revolution in the field of communications.

13.    Some satellites have a very specific and limited life/use and revolve around the earth at lower
attitudes. Depending on their specific tasks, such satellites remain in orbit from a few hours to some
months before earth‘s gravity drags them down. Communication specific satellites on the other hand
are positioned at least 36000 kms above the earth, where they achieve dynamic equilibrium under
their centrifugal force drawing them away from the earth and the earth‘s gravitational pull on them.

14.   Communication Satellite. These are of two types: -
      (a)   Passive. Only acts as a reflector. It collects signals transmitted from a ground station
      and merely reflects them to another ground station. The signals received back are very weak .
      (b)   Active. This acts as a transponder. It receives a signal, amplifies it and retransmits it in
      the desired direction i.e. either back to earth or to another satellite.

15.   Difference Between Active and Passive Satellites.

           Active Satellites              Passive Satellites

(a)   Signal processing is done           (a)   No processing of signals

(b)   Power supply system is needed       (b)   Power supply not required.

(c)   Life is more                        (c)   Less life

(d)   Height above earth is more          (d)   Lesser height above earth

(e)   More costly and bigger in size      (e)   Less costly and smaller

Optical Fibre Communication

16.   Hollow tubes made of common glass with an outer protective coating of rubber/plastic etc., are
what constitute optical fibres. These fibres are very delicate and small in diameter.

17.   Advantages.
      (a)    It has wide bandwidth carrying different types of info from low speed voice signal to
      high-speed computers data.
      (b)    Less power requirement.
      (c)    Small cable size.
      (d)    Less repeater stations required.
      (e)    No electromagnetic interference.

18.   Disadvantages.
      (a)   Jointing problem.
      (b)   Channel dropping not possible.
      (c)   More expensive.

19.     Types. Based on number of modes, which can be propagated through the fibre, they are
classified as Multi – mode optical fibre or Single – mode optical fibre.

20.    Millions of computers all over the world are inter-linked through telephone lines, satellites,
submarine cable and optical fibre network. This World Wide Web (www) is what is called the
‗internet‘. It provides an instant, trouble-free, and cheap means of communication.

21.    Internet is therefore a collection of individual data networks connected together in such a way
that data can be exchanged back and forth between networks widely separated.

22.   Facilities of the Internet.   E-Mail, Web-browsing & Voice mail.

Cell Phones

23.    Cellular radio network was first introduced in 1980. It provides a mobile subscriber access to
the global telephone network. It is a rapidly expanding technology with high rates of obsolescence.

24.   Advantages.
      (a)   More subscriber and traffic capability.
      (b)   No perceptible difference between mobile and fixed subscribers.
      (c)   Better quality of service.
      (d)   Network accessibility can be regulated.
      (e)   Miniaturization using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology which enables
      ever decreasing size weight of the hand set.
      (f)   Higher speed of data exchange.
      (g)   Can be used in an integrated mode with computer networks.


25.   It is a computer technology that displays information using a combination of full motion video,
animation, sound, graphics and text with a high degree of user interaction.

26.    The equipment needed is a computer with a CD – ROM, disk drive and required software to
run the programmes.

Video- Conferencing Systems

27.    These provide the full benefits of face-to-face communication with sound, graphics and
simultaneous transmission of data. The system enables people widely separated geographically, to
inter-act without having to meet at one place. A typical system consists of: -
       (a)     Desk top workstation with cameras and speakers.
       (b)     Network controller.
       (c)     Coder/Decoder (CODEC) & Controller.
       (d)     PBX System.
       (e)     IBM PC Net broadband service.


28.    It is a system that enables us to transmit an image via digital telephone networks, making
visual contact possible over great distances, apart from transferring speech.

29.   Facilities.
      (a)     Can transmit speech as well as colour video.
       (b)     Conduct of video conferences.
       (c)     Called subscriber is seen on the monitor.
       (d)     High quality of voice.
       (e)     Speed of sending/receiving can be adjusted by the user.
       (f)     Maps/over-lays can be transmitted.

Very Small Aperture Network(VSAT)

30.    It is a small earth station with antennas of diameter less than 2 metres, suitable for easy
erection on the user‘s premises.

31.   VSAT provides one / two way data communication, video broadcast and voice communication.
These systems can be classified as Point to Point, Broadcast & Interactive network.

                                CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT


1. The real test of field craft is the soldier's ability to kill the enemy without getting killed himself. To
avoid being killed, a soldier must defeat enemy's observation. Concealment is the use of artificial and
natural aids to mystify and deceive the enemy and defeat his observation. Successful achievement
of this depends on the correct use of natural cover and skilf u l use of artificial aids.

Factors Which Make Things Visible

2.     To understand the principles of concealment fully, it is essential to first know what factors
which make objects visible. These factors are explained below:-
      (a)      Shape.         Many objects are instantly recognizable by reason of their distinctive
      shape particularly if they contrast wit h their surroundings. The smooth round outline of the top
      of a steel helmet or the straight line of its brim and the square outline of the pack are shapes,
      which contrast with the natural surroundings. Therefore, if an object is to remain concealed it's
      shape must be disguised and its outline broken.
      (b)      Shadow.        The shadow cast by an object in bright sun can reveal its presence.
      Therefore, a soldier, whenever possible, should keep in the shade, not only because shade in
      itself affords cover, but by doing so he also avoids casting a shadow which is distinctive and
     (c)       Silhouette. Objects silhouette against a contrasting background such as water and
     worst of all, the skyline which is a dangerous background. A soldier should always try to put
     himself against a rough and uneven background such as a hedge, a bush, a wood or broken
     (d)       Surface.     If the colour and texture of the surface of any object, human or
     otherwise, contrasts with that of the surroundings, that object w i l l be conspicuous. Any object
     with smooth and light reflecting surface such as sh in y helmet, metal parts of equipment and
     white skin provide a violent contrast to the normal background and must, therefore, be
     (e)      Spacing.      In nature nothing is ever regularly spaced. Regular spacing of objects
     such as vehicles, tents or men however well camouflaged, will draw attention to the fact that
     something other than a natural object is present.
     (f)       Movement. Nothing catches the eye quicker than sudden or violent movement. The
     best-concealed man w i l l give away his position as soon as he makes a sudden movement.
     (g)     Shine.       A position however well concealed wi l l be located from the air by reason
     of the various tracks leading to it. The surface of a road or track contrasts with surroundings
     and can be easily recognized from the air. Track discipline is of vital importance.

Correct Use of Cover

3.   The use of various types of ground and natural cover is very essential lo achieve
concealment. A soldier however skillfully camouflaged but not making correct use of cover, will
expose himself to enemy observation. The correct use of cover is governed by certain
fundamentals which are as follows:-
     (a)      Whenever possible look through the cover and not over it.
     (b)     If it is not possible to look through the cover look round it, rather than over it.
     (c)      If it is necessary to look over the cover, avoid breaking a straight line.
     (d)           The skyline is the worst background you could choose but if you cannot
     avoid observing over the cover and against the skyline, use something to break
     your silhouette.
     (e)     When firing from inside a building keep well back, making use of the shadow.
     (f)     A rough, dark and irregular background, which matches your clothing, provides
     considerable cover from view.
     (g)     Isolated cover is dangerous because it will attract attention of the enemy and can be
     easily indicated in a fire order.
      (h) Avoid regular spacing
     (j)    Avoid gaps for fire position.
     (k)    Cross gaps as a body and at irregular intervals at the double.


4. Concealment is an aid to tactical deception, where the enemy is misinformed about our intentions
and strength. Cover is mother earth's gift to a soldier which changes into a grave for those who do not
use the gift properly and correctly. The art of camouflage and concealment reduces the different
varieties of soldiers into two main varieties i.e., 'the good and the dead'.



1.     For the soldier to use the appropriate weapon and fire accurately, correct description of
ground, correct indication of landmark and accurate judging of distance is neccessary. Although a
soldier is not normally required to open fire at ranges over 500 yards, he must be able to judge
distances up to about 1000 yards, so that he:-
       (a) Knows when to open fire.
       (b) Can indicate targets to supporting arms or to his men in a sub-unit.
       (c) Can pass back information accurately when acting as an observer.

Description of Ground

2.    Ground is of four types: -
      (a)      Broken Ground.        It is uneven and generally interspersed with nullahs, bumps and
      folds in the ground. It is suitable for move of infantry by day.
       (b)     Flat and Open Ground            It is even ground with little cover. It is not suitable for
      move by infantry during day.
        (c)    High Ground Ground far above the general level of the area, eg., a hill. It facilitates
      domination of area around it by observation or fire or both.
        (d)    Dead Ground           Ground that is hidden from an observer‘s view. It cannot be
      covered by flat trajectory weapons.

3.     Procedure of Description.
       (a)   Fore Ground                  Up to 300 yards
       (b)   Middle distance              from 300 to 500 yards
       (c)   Far distance                 Beyond 500 yards

4.     Points to Remember While Describing Ground:-
       (a)    Open ground though easy to traverse, is dangerous in the vicinity of the enemy.
       (b)    While taking position in open ground, remember it is vulnerable from enemy‘s fire and
       (c)    Broken ground offers protection from flat trajectory weapons but not against high
       trajectory weapons.
       (d)    Dead ground does not afford cover from high trajectory weapon.

Indication of Landmarks

5.      General.      Landmarks and other objects on the ground of a battlefield may be either
indistinct due to climatic and other reasons, or there may be too many of the same type. Every effort
should, therefore, be made to indicate their location and extent carefully and accurately. For eg.,
except for the coniferous, most trees, are bushy topped. If there are several such trees in the area,
the description ‗Bushy Topped Tree‘ by itself will cause confusion. In such cases, it must be
described in more detail such as -
        ‗Tree with trunk leaning LEFT‘ or ‗ House with two windows in front‘.

6.    Definitions. The terminology used in indication of landmarks is defined in the following
      (a)     Landmark and Reference Point. A reference point is a prominent and un-mistakable
      object from which the positions of targets in the vicinity can be clearly indicated. Landmarks
      can be used as a reference point. The main difference between the two is that whereas a
      reference point is used as an aid in the indication of objects, a landmark is an object, which is
      indicated and used in the embodiment of Operational Orders.
      (b)     A Reference Point Must be Specific.          If however, a reference point is large and
      measures more than one degree, then a part of it must be specified, for example, ‗Left edge‘.
      A landmark does not have to be precise. Depending on what is to be indicated, that is Start
      Line (SL) for an attack could be a road or a track, or for an Forming up Place (FUP), the
      landmark may well be a field or a copse.
      (c)     Target.       It is an object, which is indicated with a view to bring down fire on it.

7.      Principles of Indication. The principle of indication is that the most direct and quickest
method is the best, and should be used. For example, if a boundary runs along the only railway in
sight, say so. On the other hand, where an object is difficult to describe, aid, to identification, must be
used. These aids are: -
        (a)    Reference points.
        (b)    Direction.
      (c)    Clock ray.
      (d)    Measurement by degrees.
      (e)    Fingers‘ breadth and hand span.
      (f)    Range.

8.     Methods of Indication.      Start by giving the general line of direction. The various methods of
indication with or without the above aids are given in detail in the succeeding paragraphs.

9.    The Direct Method. This is the simplest method of indication and is always the best.
      (a)     An obvious object can often be described by this method and should be used whenever
      possible. It does not make use of any aids other than direction, eg.
      ‗White bridge in front‘.
      (b)     In slightly less obvious cases, the direction in which to look, should first be given, eg., :-
      ―Half right, large yellow house‖.
      (c)     It may be necessary on occasions to describe an object by its position relative to other
      objects, eg., ―Large tree with two small bushes on the left of it and one bush in front of it‖ or,
      ―Clump of bushes at left hand corner of a sugar cane field‖.

10.   The Direction Method.
      (a)   This is used to indicate the direction of a landmark left or right of either: -
            (i)    The general line of direction.
            (ii)   A known reference point.
            (iii)  Another landmark.

      (b)    Unless otherwise stated all directions are taken to be with reference to the general line
      of direction, for eg.,
      ―Quarter right – a mound ―means‖ a mound quarter RIGHT of the general line of direction‖,
      while ―Big tree- half right – a mound‖ means a mound half right of big tree. Big tree may be
      either a reference point or another landmark.
      (c)    The following directions only will be used: -
             Direction                           Meaning

             Slightly left or right         -    Approximately 10 degrees.
             Quarter left or right          -    Approximately 22 degrees.
             Half left or right             -    Approximately 45 degrees.
             Three quarters left or right   -    Approximately 67 degrees.
             Full left or right             -    Approximately 90 degrees.

11.   Reference Point Method.
      (a)     This method is used when it is difficult to point out an object by the direct method. In
      this case the direction of the objective is an unmistakable and prominent point or landmark on
      the ground, selected to help in indicating objects. One or more such prominent reference
      points may be selected before hand and made known to all concerned. If a reference point is
      large and measures more than one degree, a part of it must be specified, eg., right edge.
      Each must be given a brief name, eg., ―Take as your reference point right edge of the house
      with red roof in the middle distance – call it House‖. Thereafter, when it is used, the indication
      will start with – ―Reference House‖. A reference point can then be used in conjunction with the
      words left or right to indicate an object, eg.
              Explanation                         Indication
              Reference point                     Black stump
              Direction                           Right
              Object                              ―Corner of field‖
      (b)    The number of reference points selected will depend on the width of the arc. If more
      than one reference point is chosen, they must be well apart and of different kinds. Do not
      select one which is likely to be confused with a nearby object or beyond the possible
      landmarks. Naturally landmarks are also used as reference points to indicate other landmarks.
      Reference points should be well spaced out. It is useful to choose one every 12 degrees.
      (c)    The reference point method may be used in conjunction with one or all the other

12.   The Clock Ray Method
      (a)    This method is used in conjunction with the reference point method as an additional
      help in indicating objects. To use this method it is necessary to imagine the centre of a clock
      face, held vertically on the reference point. The words LEFT or RIGHT are given as a
      preliminary indication of direction. The direction of the objects is then given by naming the
      clock hour at which it appears to lie, eg.

             Explanation                        Indication
             Reference point                    ―BLACK STUMP‖
             Direction                          ―RIGHT‖
             Clock                              ― 4 O‘Clock‖
             Object                             ―clump of trees‖
      (b)    Keep the persons, to whom a clock indication is being given as close as possible to you.
      From a point, even a short distance to a flank, the object may not necessarily be on the clock
      ray indicated.
      (c)    The words ―above‖ and ―below‖ will not be used in conjunction with the 12 and 6 ‗O‘
      clock rays. The direction, that is LEFT or RIGHT, cannot in this case be specified.

13.   The Degree Method.
      (a)    When there is a possibility of confusion in case of more than one similar object in the
      same direction or clock ray, this method is used in conjunction with the reference point and the
      clock ray methods. This is a definite method of indicating how far the object is from the
      reference point, eg.,:-
             Explanation                       Indication
             Reference point                   ―BLACK STUMP‖
             Direction                         ―RIGHT‖
             Clock ray                         ―4 O‘Clock‖
             Degrees                           ―6 degrees‖
             Object                            ―small bush‖
      (b)    Degree can be measured with various aids. These aids are given in the succeeding
             (i)    Binoculars. The various measurements are given in the diagram below: -


                    2                1            30
                   ________________________________________               15 degree

                                                    1            ½
             (ii)    Hand Angles.        This is a rough and ready method, which is sufficiently
             accurate for practical purposes. The various degree measurements are given in the
             diagram below. Remember to keep the arm fully stretched and tilt it in the required
             direction. As the size of hands varies considerably, the figures given below are
             approximate only. Each person should, with the help of a degree, such as should, be
             found in all barracks, check his hand for degrees.

             (iii)   Sights and Sight Protector of the Rifle. The rifle held in the aiming position gives
             the following degree measurements: -

             Fore Sight                                Back Sight
             (a)   Protector      -2 degree            Leaf -2 degree
             (b)   Bed            - 1 degree
             (c)   Fore Sight     - ½ degree

14.     Fingers Breadth and Hand Span Method.            This is rough alternative to the degree method
for use as an elementary training aid. In this method the LEFT arm is outstretched, one eye is
closed, and deflections to the LEFT and the RIGHT are given in fingers, eg., Hold the hand so that
the LEFT edge of a finger is on line with the reference point. If the RIGHT edge of that same finger is
on line with the object, the object is one finger width to the RIGHT of the reference point. Announce
this interval at ―RIGHT, one finger‖. When two fingers can be applied to this lateral interval, announce
it as ―RIGHT, two fingers‖. Similarly this interval can be measured as hand span (Hindustani
equivalent ―balisht‖) representing the distance between the thumb and little finger when the arm,
hand and fingers are outstretched. Avoid intervals of more than one hand span, as they are difficult
to measure. This method can be used with or without clock ray, eg., :-
        ―GATE, RIGHT – 1 O‘clock two fingers – Gap in hedgerow or ―GATE LEFT – One hand span –
        Hay stack‖.

15.   Range.
      (a)     This is yet another aid. Give the range of the object being indicated after giving its
      direction, eg., : -
              ―HALF RIGHT – 548m (600 yards) – a small black rock‖.
      (b)     Note the difference from target indication where the range is the first thing given out.

16.   Miscellaneous Points.
      (a)    When indicating an object that is difficult to recognize, it may be necessary to make use
      of an intermediate object which is more easily recognized, eg.
               ―TREE –LEFT -9 O‘Clock-3 degrees - two bushes - LEFT bush -LEFT 7 O‘Clock -2
               degrees –a small bush‖.
      (b)    Moving objects are useful aids for drawing attention, eg., cattle, traffic and so on, but do
      not use them as reference points or landmarks.
      (c)    An unusual object, or something which is not part of the natural pattern, will be
      recognized easily and quickly, provided there are not too many in the area, eg. ―Smoke rising,
      a haystack‖
      (c)    If an object is not recognised after being indicated, use a different method of indication.
17.   Verification.
      (a)    To ensure that an indication has been correctly recognised it may be desirable to check
      back. To do this the person indicating will say ―check back‖. The recipient will then indicate as
      his reference point, eg.
      The indicator might say: -
      ―TEMPLE- RIGHT – 4 O‘clock – twin trees. Call them TWIN TREES. Check back‖.
      The recipient might say: -
      ―TWIN TREES – LEFT- 7 O‘clock, 2 degrees, a culvert.
      (b)    Only those who have not recognized an object or target, after it has been indicated, will
      shout, ―Not seen‖. Silence will imply that the indication has been followed.

18.     Sequence of Indication of Landmarks. After giving the general line of direction as described
earlier in the pamphlet, landmarks may be indicated with or without the aid of reference points as
        (a)    When describing an area on the ground, which includes landmarks in the rear of an
        observer, such as an assembly area, start with the general line of direction. Then go round in
        a clockwise direction finishing with the landmark first pointed out, as shown in the diagram
        below: -

      (b)    When describing an area within an arc, in front of an observer, start with the general line
      of direction and then indicate the landmarks from LEFT to RIGHT as shown below. Reference
      points if required, are given out after the general line of direction.

Judging Distance

19.   Methods of Judging Distances.      The following are the six methods of judging distances:-
      (a)  Unit of measure.
      (b)  Appearance method.
      (c)  Section average.
      (d)  Key range.
      (e)  Halving.
      (f)  Bracketing.

20.    Unit of Measure.    This method is also termed as the ‗100 yards‘ method. The unit of
measure chosen is normally 100 yards and therefore one should have a good idea of 100 yds
distance on the ground. The length of a hockey field is the best yardstick for this purpose. The
distance of a given object will be a multiple of the imaginary unit of 100 yards as placed between the
observer and the object. This method is not accurate above 400 yards and is of little use if there is
dead ground between the observer and target.

21.    Appearance Method.        The distance can be judged by noting the detailed appearance of a
man at various ranges. This is the best method under service conditions. The following is a guide to
      (a)     At 200 yards, all parts of the body are distinct.
      (b)     At 250 yards, blade of the foresight covers a kneeling man.
      (c)     At 300 yards, the face becomes blurred.
      (d)     At 400 yards, the body remains same in shape but face is difficult to distinguish. Blade
      of the foresight covers a standing man.
      (e)     At 500 yards, body appears to taper slightly from the shoulders but movement of limbs
      can still be seen.
      (f)     At 600 yards, head appears as a dot. Details are not visible and body tapers from
      shoulders downwards noticeably.

22.    Section Average. Each man in the section is asked to judge the distance to a given object.
The average of the answer given by the whole section is then accepted as the distance. Here caution
must be exercised in the estimation of a few who may foolishly overestimate or underestimate the
distance. This method may be resorted to under the following circumstances:-
       (a)   Ample time is available.
       (b)   Judging of distance is made difficult by mist or darkness.
       (c)   Judging of long distance is involved, eg., beyond 400 yards.

23.    Key Range. If the range of certain object is known, distance to other objects can be found in
relation to this known range. This method is called ―Key Range‖ method.

24.     Halving.     An object is selected half way between the observer and the target, the distance
to this selected object is judged, and then doubled to get the distance to the target.

25.    Bracketing. The observer works out the maximum and the minimum possible distance of the
object and then accepts the mean as the distance, eg. maximum possible distance 1000 yards,
minimum possible distance 500 yards, therefore, estimated range is 750 yards. The greater the range
the wider should be the bracket. In no case should the bracket be less than 300 yards.

26.   Practical Hints.
      (a)    During Night. Judging distance at night will depend upon the visibility. The only suitable
      method is the ‗Key Range‘. Therefore mark prominent objects and work out their distances
      while there is still daylight.
      (b)    During Day. Conditions, which mislead the observer when judging distances, are as
      follows: -
             (i)     Distances are overestimated when: -
                     (aa) Light is bad.
                     (ab) The sun is in the observer‘s eyes.
                     (ac) The object is small in relation to its surroundings.
                     (ad) Looking through a valley or a narrow lane, eg, a street.
                     (ae) Lying downhill.
             (ii)    Distances are underestimated when:-
                     (aa) The light is bright or the sun is shining from behind the observer.
                     (ab) The object is large in relation to its surroundings.
                     (ac) There is dead ground between observer and the objects.
                     (ad) Looking uphill.


26.   The ability to describe ground, indicate landmarks and judge distances accurately, is an
important aspect of institutional training, and is of great use during camps and outdoor training such
as Map Reading and Adventure Training.
                             BATTLE CRAFT - FIRE AND MOVEMENT


1.     The primary aim of the infantry is to close with the enemy and destroy him. It is only possible
to move forward against opposition by skilful use of ground, with the help of supporting fire or by a
combination of both. The enemy will select positions, which, as far as possible, give no ground cover
to the attackers. By means of fire, mines and other obstacles he will attempt to halt the latter‘s
advance. Supporting fire is therefore necessary to keep the enemy‘s head down and with it,
movement, as the basis of platoon and section tactics. It demands from the soldier the highest
standards of weapon training and field craft.

2.    There are five basic considerations for fire and movement. These are as follows:-
      (a)   There should be no movement on exposed ground without covering fire.
      (b)   Control by the commander.
      (c)   The angle of covering fire from direct firing weapons should be as wide as possible
      without loss of control or time.
      (d)   Full use should be made of all available cover. When cover is lacking the use of smoke
      (Smoke grenade or 2 inch mortar) should be considered.
      (e)   Full use should be made of all available weapons for covering fire.

Ground Appreciation

3.     In a battle, fire and movement is applied according to the type of country over which it is
fought. In open country, the problem is how to find cover. In close country, there is the difficulty of
finding positions with good observation and fields of fire. In attack or defence, skilful use of ground
can help to gain in developing an eye for ground. Ground should be considered from the enemy‘s
point of view. It should be appreciated under the following headings:-
       (a)     Fire positions.
       (b)     Observation positions.
       (c)     Cover from fire.
       (d)     Cover from view.
       (e)     Obstacles.

Types of Cover

4.     Cover from view is often not cover from fire, especially if the move to cover has been seen by
the enemy. Concealment from enemy air and ground observation is the chief means of gaining
surprise. Some of the main types of cover are: -
       (a)     Undulating ground, which is the least obvious form or cover. When skilfully, used, it
       protects from direct fire and gives no ranging marks to the enemy.
       (b)     Sunken roads, beds of streams and ditches, which give good cover from view and often,
       from fire as well. However, there is always a danger that the enemy may pay special attention
       to them; they may be mined or booby-trapped and precautions against ambush must be taken.
       If the roads or ditches are straight, the enemy will be able to fire down them in enfilade mode.
       (c)     Hedges and bushes give cover from view but not from fire. In open country they may
       make good ranging marks for the enemy.
       (d)     Standing crops give cover from view but movement through them can generally be
       (e)     Woods which give cover to men and vehicles from enemy air and ground observation.
       They give some protection from small arm fire but High Explosive (HE) bombs and shells will
       explode in the branches of trees and cause heavy casualties, unless troops are dug in and
       have overhead protection.
       (f)    Buildings and walls afford concealment and protection from small arms fire and shell
       splinters. When isolated they make good ranging marks for the enemy.

Dead Ground

5.      Ground which a soldier cannot see from his position is called dead ground. Platoon and
section commanders should be able to recognise ground which is likely to be dead to the enemy.
Ground can only be described as dead in relation to the position of an observer. Troops under cover
or in dead ground are safe from enemy observed fire but not from indirect fire. These areas are
always likely to be selected by the enemy as defensive fire tasks for his artillery and mortars. Dead
ground is also safe from detection by battlefield surveillance radars, as these have line of sight

Common Mistakes

6.    The wrong use of ground may lead to casualties and loss of surprise. Some common mistakes
      (a)    Carelessness by officers, JCOs or NCOs while making a reconnaissance, such as
      unfolding a map in the open or not using a covered approach to an Observation Post (OP).
      (b)    Unnecessary movement in a position overlooked by the enemy.
      (c)    Using conspicuous landmarks such as isolated trees, bushes or cottages.
      (d)    Halting troops near road or track junctions or other mapped features which are always
      registered as targets by the enemy.
      (e)    Bad track discipline.
      (f)    Failure to guard against enemy air observation.

Maps and Air Photographs

7.    Maps and air photographs should be used together to obtain the best picture of the ground.
The two aids are complementary as is shown by listing the advantages and limitation of air
photographs: -
      (a)    Advantages.
             (i)    Are more up-to-date.
             (ii)   Give more detail.
             (iii)  Show the size and shape of features accurately.
             (iv)   Allow gradient to be seen in relief with a stereoscope.
      (b)    Limitations.
             (i)    Complete geographical cover almost impossible.
             (ii)   Expensive to produce.
             (iii)  Scales vary.
             (iv)   Details of heights not given.


8.      Only the topographical information given by air photographs needs to be understood. The interpretation
of the details of enemy defences is the task of the experts. Very little time need be spent in mastering the
theoretical knowledge of map reading but a great deal of practice is required. Sub-unit commanders must also
master the use of the prismatic compass and the protractor. Navigation is a science and never a guess.


1.      In the field, various signals are used by the commander or certain other members of sub –
units to convey a message to the others. In order to retain surprise over the enemy, these signals are
given by hand, or using the weapon or by a whistle, where the situation so permits. The hand and
weapon signals may be preceded, whenever possible, by a short blast on the whistle to attract the
attention of those to whom the signal is addressed. When he is satisfied that his signal is understood,
the commander will drop his hand to his side, on which the troops under him will act as ordered.

Hand Signals

2.    The following are the standard signals with the hand:-
      (a)     Deploy.       The open hand held high above the head and waved slowly from side to
      side as low as the hips on each side. If required to deploy to a particular flank, the commander
      points to that flank at the end of the signal.
      (b)     Advance.      Swing the arm from rear to front below the shoulder.
      (c)     Halt. The hand raised upward to the full extent of the arm and palm to the front.
      (d)     Go Back or Turn Round. The hand moved round and round above the head.
      (e)     Change Direction Right (or Left). The arm is first extended in line with the shoulder. A
      circular movement is then made, on completion of which the arm and body should point in the
      required direction. When troops are halted, the above signal means change positions - RIGHT
      or LEFT.
      (f)     Close or Join Me. The hand placed on top of the head, with the elbow pointing straight
      out to the side.
      (g)     LMG Group. Indicated by the clenched fist.
      (h)     Quick Time. The hand raised in the line with the shoulder, the elbow bent and close to
      the side.
      (j)     Double or Increase Speed (MT). The clenched hand moved up and down between the
      thigh and shoulder.
      (k)     Start up (MT).        Circular movement of the hand as if starting an engine.
      (l)     Mount (MT). Two or three slight upward movements with the hand (Palm uppermost).
      (m) Lie Down or Dismount (MT).              Two or three slight movements with the open hand
      towards the ground (palm downwards).
      (n)     As you Were or Switch off (MT). The arm extended downwards with the open hand
      waved across the body, parallel to the ground.
      (o)     Slow Down (MT).           The arm extended to the side level with the shoulder, palm
      downwards and moved slowly up and down with the wrist loose.

Signals with the Weapon

3.     These signals may be used by scouts, sent ahead of their sections. Care should be taken that
the signal is not seen by the enemy. The following communicating signals are made with the
       (a)     Enemy in Sight in Small Numbers.           The individual weapon held above the head to
       the full extent of the arm and parallel with the ground, muzzle pointing towards the enemy.
      (b)    Enemy in Sight in Large Numbers. The individual weapon held as in the previous
      signal, but raised and lowered frequently.
      (c)    No Enemy in Sight.        The individual weapon held up to the full extent of the arm,
      muzzle uppermost

Signals Using Whistle

4.    The following whistle blasts are used: -
      (a)    The Cautionary Blast.        A short blast to draw attention to a signal or order about to
      be given.
      (b)    The Ground Alarm. A succession of alternate long and short blasts used for turning
      out troops from camp or bivouac to fall in or occupy previously arranged position, and ‗stand
      (c)    The Air Alarm. A succession of short blasts. Since this signal will often be inaudible, a
      visual signal will also be used to attract attention, viz, both arms, held above the head and the
      hands waved. On this signal troops either get ready to fire, open out, or take cover, according
      to the orders in force.
      (d)    All Clear.     Two long blasts repeated at intervals of five second. On receipt of this
      signal troops resume previous formations.


5.    Field signals are a must know for all trainees as this would help one and all during camps,
army attachments, and on various other occassions.

                                      SECTION FORMATIONS


1.     Battles are won by correct use of all available resources as well as by adopting the correct
formation by troops during movement. At the section level (i.e. a body of approximately 10 men),
various formations are adopted during move by foot.

Section Formations

2.    Factors Which Influence Section Formations.
      (a)   Ground.
      (b)   Task.
      (c)   Type and direction of enemy fire.
      (d)    Need for security and control by the section.
      (e)   Necessity of producing the maximum fire with minimum delay.

3.    Types of Section Formations.
      (a)   Single File.
      (b)   File.
      (c)   Diamond.
      (d)   Arrowhead.
      (e)   Spear head.
      (f)   Extended line.
4.   Single File Formation.
     (a)    Advantages.
            (i)    Good for control.
            (ii)   Not vulnerable to enfilade fire.
            (iii)  Useful for moving along ditches, narrow defiles and so on.
     (b)    Disadvantages.
            (i)    Bad for production of heavy volume of fire.
            (ii)   Vulnerable to frontal fire.

5.   File Formation.
     (a)    Advantages.
            (i)   Good for control.
            (ii)  Useful for moving along broad roads, wide nullahs and so on.
     (b)    Disadvantages.
            (i)   Not good for production of heavy volume of fire.
            (ii)  Vulnerable to frontal fire.

6.   Diamond Formation.
     (a)  Advantages.
          (i)     Good for control.
          (ii)    Not vulnerable to enfilade fire.
          (iii)   Good for all round fire production and observation.
     (b)  Disadvantages.
          (i) Presents a good target to frontal fire.
          (ii) Not very good for production of fire to the front.

7.   Arrowhead Formation.
     (a)   Advantages.
           (i)   Good depth.
           (ii)  Not vulnerable to frontal fire.
           (iii) Good for production of fire in many directions.
           (iv)  Probably the best formation for crossing open ground.
     (b)   Disadvantages
           (i)   Control more difficult than in diamond.

8.   Spearhead Formation.
     (a)   Advantages.
           (i)   Good depth.
           (ii)  Less vulnerable to enfilade fire than Arrowhead.
           (iii) LMG group not committed immediately on contact.
     (b)   Disadvantages.
           (i)   Control difficult.
           (ii)  Delay in production of fire.

9.   Extended Line Formation.
     (a)   Advantages.
           (i)   Formation used in the final assault.
           (ii)  Very good for production of fire (from the hip) and bayonet fighting.
     (b)   Disadvantages.
           (i)   Control difficult.
           (ii)  Very vulnerable to enfilade fire.
              (iii)   No depth.


10.   In each of the section formations, the positioning of of LMG Group and the Rifle Group is the
responsibility of the section commander. He may order a gap to be left between the Rifle group and
the LMG group without losing control. He may even split the rifle group as is the case in jungle

                             SECTION AND PLATOON BATTLE DRILLS


1.     After the last world war, the teaching of battle drills was discontinued. It was probably
considered that battle drills curbed initiative and led to stereotyped planning by junior leader
regardless of the situation and circumstances.

2.     At present no set section and platoon battle d rills are being taught. The lack of this
teaching has a two-fold result : -
      (a)    Battalion commanders on their own initiative are introducing and teaching some
      unrecognized drills dealing with the actions of scouts, LMG and rifle groups, section and platoon
      commanders. These drills may lead to rigidity in planning.
      (b)    Section and platoon commanders are being taught to prepare detailed plans and to issue
      long orders when the situation demands very quick action, as when a section is coming as
      point section or a platoon acting as leading platoon in the advance to contact, or when
      launching a local counter attack. These appreciations and orders take much time.

3.      The problem for section and platoon commanders is to be able to deal with speed and
efficiency with minor tactical situations in the last 27 m (30 yards) of the fight, i.e., from the time
the leading section comes under enemy fire. It is therefore essential that simplified flexible battle
drills are evolved to help the junior leader deal with such situations.


4.    The following are basic essentials of any battle drill:-
      (a) Fire and movement.
      (b) Appreciation.
      (c) Orders.

Fire and Movement

5.        There is vital need to teach the section to advance and attack by fire and movement ,as this has
the following advantages: -
        (a)      It is the basic principle of all tactical doctrine and as such, serves as an introduction to
        higher tactics for the junior leader.
        (b)      It teaches most of the basic infantry skills, which are essential in this type of operation,
        field craft, weapon handling, fire control, command and leadership, teamwork and physical
        (c)      It develops an aggressive spirit in the soldier.
        (d)     It produces a more offensive and therefore, effective fire in support of a platoon attack.
      (e)     In any war, sections wil l be called to overcome minor opposition. At times, leading
      sections have to deviate from the axis of advance to deal with enemy interference from a flank.
      Sections w i l l also be called upon to carry out small independent operations during mopping
      (f)    It is the basic battle drill in jungle operations.

6.     Basic Considerations.      These are following four basic considerations for both section and
platoon fire and movement: -
       (a)     There should be no movement on exposed ground without covering fire.
       (b)     Control by the commander.
       (c)     The angle of covering fire should be as wide as possible, without loss of
       control or time.
       (d) Ground Use all available cover. Where cover is lacking, the use of smoke will always
       be considered,


7.   Section Level. The section commander is faced with two possible situations: -
      (a)     If caught in the open within charging distance, there is only one decision possible- to assault
      with bullets and bayonets. .
      (b)     If stopped by enemy small arms fire at normal range he must decide on :-
              (i)     Direction of assault.
              (ii)   Position for LMG group.
      (c)     The decisions of the section commander for the above, depends on ground, with the
      provision that if the LMG is already committed on one flank or another, it will almost invariably have
      to get into a fire position on that flank. Moving the LMG from one flank to other within 182 m (200
      yards) of the enemy is generally not possible.

8.     Platoon Level. The detailed appreciation, logically reasoned out pre-supposes adequate time
for consideration of the problem. At platoon level, this seldom occurs. The platoon commander in
close contact with the enemy is confronted with a fast moving situation and must make an immediate
plan. For this he must use a shortened form of appreciation as follows, to include aim, ground and
the plan : -
       (a)    Aim. At platoon level, the aim is normally the task set by the company commander.
       (b)    Ground.       In his appreciation, the platoon commander has only to carry out a 'quick
       survey of the ground' under the following headings, in sequence: -
              (i)    Objective. Consider enemy dispositions to select the objective. After
              the point section has carried out th e battle drill of locating the enemy and the
              platoon commander has done his own reconnaissance, he should have no
              difficulty in selecting his objective.
              (ii)   Route.          Divide the ground into LEFT. CENTRE and RIGHT and consider: -
                     (aa) Route to the objective.
                     (ab) Cover for movement.
                     (ac) Obstacles.
                     (ad) Distances.
                     (ae) Assault positions (in platoon fire and movement, there is no FUP)
              (iii)  Select positions for covering fire.
              (iv)   This sequence can best be remembered under the shortened heading ORF.
       (c)    Plan. The plan is dictated by the ground and the platoon commander has merely to
       consider the platoon battle drill best suited for the situation.

9.   Section Level.       For a point section, these are based on the following
assumptions : -
     (a) The section knows where the enemy is, hence no information paragraph is
     (b) No intention paragraph is needed because in the orders for the advance, the
     section commander would have stated in his intention that the section will advance
     as quickly as possible and overcome minor opposition.
     (c)    All that is necessary in orders for a section attack is: -
            (i)     On which side of the LMG group should be the rifle group ? Eg
            "LEFT FLANKING" the rifle group is to move on the LEFT of the LMG group.
            (ii)    Which group is to move first? The section commander will have to add
            the place to which LMG group will move, if this group is to move first.
     (d)    When the section is taking part in a platoon attack battle drill, orders
     required are no more than :-
            (i)     Enemy dispositions.
            (ii)    Platoon battle drill ordered.
            (iii) Route and assault position.

10. Platoon Level.         The platoon must be sufficiently well trained for the platoon
commander to take a short cut through the normal orders sequence. The orders at this
level should require no more than : -
       (a)  Enemy dispositions.
       (b)  Intention.
       (c)  Platoon battle drill to be used.
       (d)  Route and assault position.
       (e)  Any variation of the drill to suit the particular circumstances.


11. Battle drills, be it for a section or platoon, assumes importance as it saves on time,
resources and helps in maintaining surprise.

                                 GLOSSARY OF MILITARY TERMS


1.      In the teaching of subjects pertaining to any specialised field, e.g. Economics. Pol. Science or
Physics etc. there are certain commonly used terms, the understanding of which makes it convenient
for the teacher to teach and students to learn. Similarly in the armed forces, we use a large number of
terms, called Military Terms, which if understood by all, will facilitate the imparting of instruction of
military subject.

2.     For ease of understanding, these common military terms will be grouped under three heads,
viz., General Terms, Terms used in Defence & Terms used in Attack.

General Terms
3.      No Man‘s Land. It is the ground between the forward defended localities of two opposing
forces. It is not possible to occupy this ground by troops but should be dominated by patrolling and
fire of weapons.

4.     Observation Post. A tactical post, which affords observation. In addition to personal arms and
eqpt, person manning observation posts will carry pencil, note book, binocular, compass, watch and a
map. They observe a given area and note all enemy activity.

5.      Fixed Line.   A given line and point of aim on which a weapon capable of firing from a fixed
mounting is set for use during mist, darkness or through smoke. It is not necessary for the target to be
visible. A weapon is so sited that when fired, its fire falls on a pre-selected area of ground. Fire on a
fixed line is opened on a pre-arranged signal or order.

6.     Arc of Fire. An area of ground within two given limits, which is the responsibility of a fire unit
to protect that area by observation and fire. Fire tasks are indicated in the arc (s) of fire.

       (a)   Primary Arc of Fire. It is the arc, which is the basic responsibility of a fire unit or a
       (b)   Secondary Arc of Fire. It is the arc, which is a subsidiary task of fire unit or weapon,
       undertaken when the fire unit or weapon is not engaged in the primary arc.

7.     Enfilade Fire. Fire of a weapon from a flank, sited to sweep a target along its longer axis.

8.    Defiladed Position. An area of ground occupied by troops, which is protected naturally from
view and fire of flat trajectory weapons.

9.    Fire Plan.       A tactical plan for using the weapons of unit or formation so that their will be

10.    Code Word. A code word is a single word used to provide security cover for reference to a
particular classified matter.

11.   D Day. The day of the event selected, as the one, which should govern the phasing of a plan.
The event selected should be made clear in the plan.

12.    First Light. Defines a time laid down in orders, when there is a certain degree of visibility after
daybreak. The degree of visibility necessary for a specific operation will be laid down in accordance
with the requirements of the various arms taking part having regard to the prevalence of morning
mist, fog or other weather conditions. The term must never be used by itself, but must always be
related to a specified time. First light is a time when properly aimed small arms fire can be brought to
bear at a range of 273 meters (300 yards).

13.   Last Light. Defines a time laid down in orders, when there is a certain degree of visibility
before dark. The degree of visibility necessary for a specific operation will be laid down in
accordance with the requirements of the various arms taking part, having regard to the prevalence of
evening mist or other weather conditions - must always be related to a specific time.

14.    Warning order. A warning order given by a commander to his subordinate commanders to
warn them to prepare for a particular operation, which is about to start. A warning order does not
contain details of how the operation is to be carried out.

15.    Battle Craft.    The compound of individuals skills and battle drills at section and platoon levels.
16    Battle Drill.  Reactions by sub units/groups within sub units, to certain common situations
such as action of a platoon on coming under fire, to ensure that time is saved and issue of orders

17.      Battle Procedure. Covers all preliminary measures before a unit of a formation is launched
into battle, ensuring saving in time by the process of simultaneous action by commanders and troops
at all levels.

18.    Challenge. A process carried out by a person, with the aim of ascertaining the friendly or
hostile character, or their identity.


19.    Defended Post. The defence held by a small sub unit e.g. an infantry section. Defended posts
are grouped together in mutual support to form a defended locality.

20.    Defended Locality An area of ground organized or sited for all round defence e.g. a platoon
or company defended locality. It consists of a number of mutually supporting sub units organised in

21.   All Round Defence. The ability of a defender to repel an attack from any direction, this is
achieved by so siting the defences that they are capable of all round defense: -
      (a)    Organised for All Round Defence. A unit or sub unit is organised for all round defence
      when the bulk of its weapons are deployed to cover the most likely approach of the enemy,
      though some fire can be brought to guard against an attack from any direction.
      (b)    Sited for all Round Defence. A unit or sub unit is sited for all round defence when its
      weapons are so located that an attack from any direction will meet with an approximately equal
      volume of fire. This term is mostly applicable for units and sub units.

22.   Mutual Support. The ability of one defended post or defended locality to bring fire to bear on
the enemy attacking a neighbouring post or defended locality.

23.    Alarm Post. A temporary fire position, which may be manned if fire trenches are not ready,
and an alarm is raised. Alarms posts generally correspond to the number of fire trenches and are
situated near them. Arms, ammunition and equipment are kept ready at hand at the alarm post.

24.      Stand to.      Procedure adopted when enemy is suspected to be in the vicinity or at the time
when enemy is likely to attack the position. Every man takes up position in his fire trenches with his
weapon ready for immediate use. As a routine, ‗Stand To‘ is conducted at dawn and dusk, just before
first light and last light.

25.   Defensive Fire.   Fire, which is pre-arranged and can be brought down quickly on an actual or
suspected enemy.

26.     Screen. Detachment, generally composed of all arms, occupying an area of ground so as to
interfere, as much as possible, with the enemy‘s preparation for attack. The aim is to prevent the
enemy‘s observation and recce of the forward defended locality and the main obstacle and to make
him deploy earlier than necessary.
27.     Killing Ground. Previously selected ground in front of own position, which is covered by fire
of all available weapons. The enemy during his assault is channelised into this area and destroyed
by effective fire. Killing ground is normally not fixed below company level.


28. Objective.    Ground of such tactical importance, the seizure of which is essential to the
commander‘s plan.

29.     Assembly Area. That area of ground where attacking troops finally link up with their co-
operating units/sub units and organise themselves for the attack. This area should be located clear of
likely enemy artillery targets.

30.   Forming up place (FUP). That area of ground to which units move after leaving the assembly
area and where assaulting troops deploy into formation to be used during the assault.

31.    Start Line. An imaginary line, normally the forward edge of the FUP and square to the
objective, which is crossed at a fixed time by the leading troops in an attack or counter attack, so as
to co-ordinate the fire plan with the move plan.

32.   Covering Fire. A type of artillery supporting fire, which aims at neutralisation of enemy arms
and anti-tank weapons, which can engage the assaulting troops in an attack or counter attack.

33.   Assault. An attack while closing with the enemy in hand to hand combat.

34.     Exploitation. Taking full advantage of success in battle and following up initial gains. Taking
full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical or strategically purpose.

35.  Re-Organisation.    The re-adjustment within formation or units necessitated by casualties in
men and equipment or by the ground, carried out immediately after an action has taken place.


36.    As part of the NCC fraternity, you will be exposed to, & working with the Armed Forces. It is
therefore, necessary to have a basic understanding of common military terms, to better understand
the working of the armed forces.

                                     FIRE CONTROL ORDERS


1.     All actions on a battlefield are based on the urge to win at all cost, with minimum loss to own
troops and equipment. All successful actions require well planned and rehearsed procedures. Fire
control orders is one such aspect, which if practiced regularly, improves battle efficiency.

Fire Control Orders

2.  Fire control orders are given by the fire unit commander to someone, or all the men under his
command, in order that they may recognize the target and engage it with weapons, and at the rate of
fire, which he thinks is most suitable. It is the duty of the individual firer to consider the effect   of
wind and make an allowance for it.

Factors that Govern Fire Control Orders

3.     Indication of Target . Correct target indication for the soldier to bring down fire on it effectively
is the main essence of fire control orders. This gives him adequate time to aim correctly and bring
down a heavy volume of fire on the indicated target.

4.       Range, Visibility & Vulnerability. A correct spell of range to the soldier would help him to
apply it on his weapon. This will help him to enhance the effectiveness of the weapon held by him.
Visibility will help him to locate the target and vulnerability will make him aware of the fire position that
he is going to use while firing. e.g., he cannot take a lying down position while carrying out the final

5      Best Weapon to Use.        Each of the weapons authorised to an infantry section / platoon,
has its own characteristics. Effectiveness of the orders depends to a large extent, on the type of
weapon that needs to be used, based on the target that has to be neutralised. e.g., for pinning down
the enemy in a bunker, LMG is the best weapon to use.

6.     Rate of Fire. Ammunition is a scarce commodity in battle. Judicious use of it will help the
soldier retain his effectiveness or else the weapon will become a mere stick without ammunition.
Thus, the correct rate of fire is the most desirable thing in the battle.

Advantages of Fire Control Orders

7.     (a)    Saves on resources.
       (b)    Leads to optimal utilization of available resources.
       (c)    Helps in maintaining surprise.
       (d)    Enhances the fighting capability of the soldier.
       (e)    Achieves maximum efficiency from the available weapons.
       (f)    Contributes to the overall success of the battle.

Example of a Fire Control Order (Roman Hindi)

8.     ―No1 Sec Samne Dekh, 300 Burji, Dahine, Kala rang ka Pathar, Dushman Burji se Kale rang
ke Pathar tak phail gaya hai, LMG Group do do round ke char burst fire. Rifle Group Panch Panch
round fire‖.

Example of a Fire Control Order (English)

9.     ―No 1 Section, Look to your front, 300 Bush, Right Black stone. Enemy spread from Bush to
Black stone. LMG group two round burst fire. Rifle Group five rounds fire‖.


10.     A correct fire control order goes a long way in enhancing the efficiency of a soldier in the
battle, and contributes substantially towards success.
                                            FIELD DEFENCES


1. During war and peace, field defences / fortifications are constructed so that arms and weapons
can be used effectively, keeping the safety of the soldier in mind. They also help protect the
individual, It is important to acquire a basic knowledge of various types of field defences, which
include various types of fire trenches and weapon pits.

Principles of Construction of Field Defences

2.   Effective Use of Weapons.      The design and shape should be such that the arms /
weapons meant for the use from this type of defences, can be used most effectively and with
maximum efficiency.

3.      Field of Fire.        The field of fire in front of the trench / weapon pits should be clear till the
effective range of that particular arm/weapon.

4.     Protection. Adequate protection should be catered for the soldier against small arms fire /
indirect fire from the enemy. The thickness of loose earth required for protection is given under: -
       (a)      Small Arms Fire             -    1.50m in front of trench,
       (b)      Shell, Splinter & Air Burst -    0.45 m on top of the bunker.
       (c)      Hit of Field Gun            -    1.20m.
       (d)      Direct hit of Medium Gun -       1.80 m.

5. Camouflage & Concealment. To keep the defences layout under camouflage and concealment the
following points must be kept in mind: -
        (a)    Lay of the Ground. Natural lay of the ground should not be tampered as far as possible.
        (b)    Track and Telephone Cable.         Maximum use of existing tracks should be
        made and minimum new tracks to be created. Similarly telephone cables being laid must be
        along the existing tracks, and buried.
        (c)    Foliage.      Existing foliage should not be damaged / tampered with, as far as possible.
        (d)    Dug Out Earth.       Dug out earth should be spread out evenly and camouflaged under
        (e)    Camouflage Nets. Use camouflage nets so that the weapons and equipment cannot
        be detected from the air.

Types of Field Fortifications.

6.    Fire Trench. A fieldwork, dug below the normal level of ground and designed to enable one or
more soldiers to use their individual weapon effectively, from cover.

7.      Weapon Pits. A fieldwork, dug below the ground level, designed to hold any weapon other than
the personal weapons and Light Machine Gun, and from which the weapon can bring fire to bear on the
targets allotted to it.

8.      Bunker.        A dug out with narrow loopholes for firing weapons, it is provided with overhead
protection against splinters of a near miss, proximity fuze or air burst shells.

9.      Pill Box.  A small fortification, usually made of concrete, steel or filled sand bags which houses
wpns, such as, machine guns and anti-tank weapons and may be designed to withstand the direct hit of a
particular weapon.
10.     Slit Trench. A fieldwork dug below ground level, designed to provide protection, during short
halts or against an air threat when tire trenches or weapon pits are not necessary.

11.   Fox Hole.     A fieldwork, dug below ground level, normally round in shape, to provide protection to
one man during short halts.

12.   Communication Trench.        A general term for trenches designed to permit move under cover.
Made to permit covered move from one trench to another. A shallow trench, which permits only move of
men crawling, is known as crawl trench.

13.    Shelter Trench.     A trench designed to give overhead protection from shell / bomb, splinters of
a near miss, proximity fuze or other air burst shells. It must be sited in the immediate vicinity of the fire
trench and weapon pit.

Fire Trenches (Refer to Appendix A)

14.     Two Men Fire Trench.      Details are as under :-
       (a)    Dimension. Length of 6', width 2‘ and depth 4' 6".
       (b)    Use. This trench is used by two soldiers armed with personal weapons to fire effectively on
       the enemy.

15.    Three Men / Light Machine Gun Fire Trench.      Details are as under :-: -
       (a)     Dimension. This trench has a length of 6‘ on the outer side and 4‘ 6‖ on the inner side. The
       width is 2‘ and depth of the trench is 4‘ 6‘‘.
       (b)     Use. This trench is used by the Light Machine Gun crew to fire the LMG effectively on the

Weapon Pits (Refer to Appendix B)

16.    2" Mortar Pit. Details are as under: -
       (a)    Dimension. It has a diameter of 4‘ 6" and a depth of 2' 3". There are two ammunition
       bays on the right of the pit, one for HE ammunition and the other for smoke ammunition. The
       dimension of bay is 1‘ 6" length and 12" width. There is a shelter trench on the left of the pit with
       length of 8' and 3' width.
       (b)    Use. It is used for firing of all types of 2‖ mortar ammunition.

17.    84mm Rocket Launcher Pit. Details are as under :-
       (a)      Dimension. It has a dia of 4" and depth of 4' 6" with ammunition bays of 3' x 2" on the
       left & right of the pit. There is also a shelter trench of 7" x 3" and 4" x 2* as shown in the diagram.
       (b)      Use. 84mm Rocket Launcher detachment effectively fires rockets on the enemy while
       saving themselves from the flat trajectory and overhead enemy fire.

18.    Medium Machine Gun Pit. Details are as under : -
       (a)     Dimension. It is in of rectangular shape, with sides measuring 6' each. The gun platform
       has a dimension of 4‘ on each side and the depth can vary from 1‘ 3'' to 1‘ 6". The depth is 4‘ 6"
       for the remaining pit. There is a shelter and ammunition bay.
      (b)      Use.    It      is    used      to    fire   Medium     Machine       Gun     effectively.

19. Siting of the fire trench and weapon pits and their construction in a proper manner will afford
maximum protection to soldiers and also ensure that the arms and weapons are used effectively, as
per the capability of that particular arm / weapon.


                                 MINES AND TYPES OF MINE FIELDS


1.      Minefields are a type of obstacle, laid to deny mobility to vehicles, tanks and infantry. They are
of various types, and include both anti tank and anti personnel mines.


2.      The mines in current use in the army and their main characteristics are given below :
        (a)    Mine Anti-tank Non-Detectable Mark I. It weighs 7.5 kgs (16 pounds) and contains
        6.35 kgs (14 pounds) of explosive. 150 kgs (300 pounds) pressure on prongs or 300 kgs (600
        pounds) on crown will set off the mine. It is a blast proof mine and is designed to blow off the
        tracks of any known tank.
        (b)    Mine Anti-personnel NMM – 14. This is a blast type of plastic mine. It weighs 94.4
        gms (3 1/3 ounces) and has 28.35 gms (1 ounce) plastic explosive in it. 9.1 to 13.61 kg / m (20
        to 35 pounds) pressure will actuate it. It will blow off the foot of a man.
        (c)    Mine Anti-personnel M 16. This is a jumping fragmentation type of mine. It weighs 3.57
        kgs (7 ½ pounds) approx and contains 0.45 kg (1 pound) explosive charge. It can be pressure
        operated or trip-wire operated. 1.36 to 3.63 kgs (3 to 8 pounds) of pull and 3.63 to 9.1 kgs (8 to
        20 pounds) of pressure will actuate it. Its killing zone is 31.5 m (35 yards) radius and danger
        area is 180 m (200 yards).


3.      Aim. They are laid with one or more of the following aims: -
        (a)    Delay.       To discourage or delay penetration into a defended position.
        (b)    Disorganize Attack. To separate the infantry and the tanks of the attacker, by forcing
        his infantry to make a bridgehead across the minefield before a passage can be breached
        through the minefield for the tanks, i.e., to discourage or prevent the use of armour in the
        assault role.
        (c)    Restrict Manoeuvre. To force the enemy to follow certain approaches or routes by
        making other alternatives too difficult or laborious, thereby luring him into a killing ground.

4.    Minefields are created by laying anti-tank and / or anti personnel mines. Certain ‗densities‘ of
each are required to effectively stop or discourage penetration by tanks and by infantry.

5.     Tactical Considerations. Basically, the commander must consider the enemy threat on each
approach. He should then decide upon the degree of discouragement he wishes to impose on the
enemy. This is done by ensuring a certain percentage of casualties by a suitable density of the
6.    Density.         The density of minefield is the average number of mines laid per yard of frontage.
There are two types of densities in any given minefield. These are anti tank density and anti-
personnel density.
      (a)     The casualties inflicted on an assaulting enemy are proportional to the density. The
      graph at Appendix shows the relation between density and casualties. The graph is based on
      probability calculation, based on averages. Casualties are influenced by the following :-
              (i)      Tank Casualties. These are proportional to the width of the track. The spacing
              of tracks also has an effect. The graph shows the casualties for the average width of
              track spacing.
              (ii)     Personnel Casualties.        The probabilities of stepping on a mine are
              proportional to the area covered by the footprints of a man. Thus this is quite low –
              about 3.3 percent per mine per yard of frontage. The casualty rate for the ‗blast‘ type is
              also 3.3 percent. But if the mine is tripwire operated, the probability of setting off the
              mine is very much larger. Further, if it is a ‗jumping‘ type of mine, every mine that is set
              off will cause several casualties.
      (b)     Anti-tank Density. It will be noticed from the graph that increase of anti tank densities
      for more than one mine per yard of frontage is not commensurate with the effort involved in
      laying. Further, likely casualties ensured by a density of one mine per yard of front are
      sufficient to deter the enemy from deciding to assault with tanks and he has to breach the
      minefield before he can pass his tanks through. Hence an anti-tank density of one mine per
      yard of frontage is essential. Greater densities may be laid due to considerations other than
      casualties e.g. depth.
      (c)     Anti-personnel Density.      In a minefield on a tank and infantry approach, the density of
      anti-personnel mines should be at least the same as the density of anti-tank mines. This
      density should be increased, whenever possible, to 3 times the anti-tank density. On purely
      infantry approaches, only anti-personnel mines should be laid, as in case of mountains, where
      the densities would be 2 to 3.

7.     Minefield Lanes and Gaps.
       (a)    Minefields should not unduly impede the following actions of the defender : -
              (i)     Movement of infantry patrols.
              (ii)    Forward deployment in temporary positions and subsequent move to and
              occupation of battle positions by the tanks, recoilless guns, field guns and other
              (iii)   Withdrawal of covering troops and screen.
              (iv)    Counter-attack by armour/infantry.
       (b)    For the above purposes, the commander must nominate lanes / gaps as under, in the
       minefields :-.
              (i)     Infantry Lanes. For infantry patrols to come and go through minefields in single
              file. These lanes are approximately 0.6 m (2 feet) wide. They must be marked in an
              unobtrusive manner.
              (ii)    Vehicle Lanes. These are un-mined routes through the minefields for the move
              in single file, of vehicles and tanks. These are 6 m (20 feet) wide, but in case the
              ground is sandy or a large number of tanks have to use the lane, the width may be
              increased to 12 m (40 feet). Vehicles lanes are used for the passage of guns, tanks
              and vehicles between temporary and battle positions and their withdrawal from the
              screen or delaying position.
              (iii)   Minefield Gaps. These are provided for the passage of the counter –attack force
              and must be sufficiently wide to allow the counter-attack force to move through the gap
              as far as possible, in assault formation. Thus a gap is seldom less than 100 m wide. If
              an armoured squadron is to attack, a gap must be provided for each forward troop.
      (c)    Infantry safe lanes will usually be sited by the brigade and battalion commanders. The
      commander of the supporting squadron of the armoured regiment and the field company
      commanders will ensure that the requirements of such lanes are met in the defensive and
      tactical minefields.
      (d)    Minefields will be marked using long angle iron pickets with a double strand of barbed
      wire on all sides. Marking of the enemy side of minefields becomes desirable for the following
      reasons : -
             (i)     For the safety of our own patrols.
             (ii)    When dummy mine laying has been done, this is the only way of making the
             enemy believe that the area is mined.

8.     Definitions and Types of Minefields.       A ‗minefield‘ is any area of ground where mines have
been laid with or without pattern. All arms and engineers lay various types of minefields for various
tactical purposes. They are of the following types :-
       (a)     Protective Minefields. These minefields are laid to obstruct penetration into a defended
       locality, defended post or harbour area by enemy armour and infantry. Protective minefields
       must be covered by the fire of light machine guns and rocket launchers preferably of the
       locality they are protecting. The weapons are required to fire upon those tanks, which are
       damaged or otherwise halted by the minefield, but are still capable of using their guns. It is
       also necessary to ensure that enemy patrols can be spotted by night so that they can be fired
       upon. This type of minefield starts normally just outside the wire obstacle in front of the
       (b)     Defensive Minefields.     The purpose of these minefields is to obstruct penetration
       between defended areas or to provide greater depth and added density to protective
       minefields. These minefields must be covered by the fire of medium machine guns, recoilless
       guns and artillery. The engineers lay defensive minefields, though working parties of other
       arms may be placed under their command. These are planned and ordered at Divisional level.
       (c)     Tactical Minefields. These are laid to canalize the attacking force into certain killing
       areas. The ‗canalizing‘ is done by making it appear to the enemy that advancing or assaulting
       via the desired killing ground is preferable to wasting time and effort in breaching the tactical
       minefields. In practice, this means that tactical minefields are laid to the flanks of a defended
       position to discourage bypassing or out-flanking of the defended position by the attacker. It
       may be difficult to cover these minefields by medium machine guns, recoilless guns or
       observed artillery fire. In such cases they must be adequately patrolled. They require a very
       large amount of stores and manpower. They are laid by the engineers. Tactical minefields
       should have a minimum density of 2 anti tank mines per yard of front. These are planned at
       the highest level possible in a battle zone.
       (d)     Nuisance Minefields. These minefields have delaying effect and are laid (preferably in
       defiles) on likely enemy routes of advance. They do not cover or protect any defended
       position and hence their frontage is small. In defence they are also used to deceive the
       attacker with regard to the actual density or depth of the defender‘s minefields. They may be
       laid in areas likely to be used by the enemy as harbour, assembly areas or forming up places.
       Their main use is in the withdrawal. They are laid by Engineers. Nuisance minefields will not
       be laid in own territory unless withdrawal from a sector is imminent. They will only be laid on
       orders from divisional headquarters. Proper records will be prepared. When this is not
       possible, a record showing the extent of the areas covered and the number of mines laid with
       their approximate locations will be prepared.

9.     Dummy Mine-laying.        To save time and resources, certain portions of any type of
minefields may be nominated for ―dummy‖ mine laying. This means that all the markings of
minefields are provided. The adoption of this procedure pays dividends only when the attacker has
become ―mine-conscious‖. Pieces of metal or even some live mines may be planted to enhance

10.   Methods of Mine Laying.
      (a)    Strip Method. This uses the standard layout of mine strips in which mines are laid on
      both sides of a central tape at prescribed distances.
      (b)    Scattered Mine-laying. This method may be used for laying minefields during the hasty
      occupation of a defensive position when time or the supply of mines may be insufficient, and
      the commander decides to block one or more narrow lines of likely enemy approaches. The
      density so obtained is normally marginal.

11.   Types of Strips.
      (a)      Anti-Personnel Strip. This consists of anti personnel mines, blast type, laid alternately
      on either side of the center line at intervals of 1 yd, at a distance of 2 m from the center line
      tape. The distance between two blast type anti-personnel mines on the same side is 2 m. The
      first mine is laid at 3 m from the start strip marker, towards the enemy side.
      (b)     Anti-Tank Strip.      This consists of anti-tank mines only. These are laid alternately on
      either side of the centerline, at intervals of 3 m, and at a distance of 4 m from the center line
      tape. The distance between any two anti-tank mines on the same side is 6 m. The first mine
      is laid at a distance of 6 m from the start strip marker, on the enemy side.
      (c)     Mixed Strip. A mixed strip is obtained by a simple superimposition of an anti-tank strip
      over an anti-personnel strip. This would provide an anti-personnel mine every metre and an
      anti-tank mine every three meters.
      (d)     Fragmentation Anti-Personnel Mines. Fragmentation anti-personnel mines may be
      laid in anti-personnel, anti tank or mixed strip. These mines are strip wire operated and laid at
      12 m intervals on the enemy side of the strip only. They are laid symmetrically at a distance of
      6 m from the center. The first mine is laid at a distance of 9 m from the start strip marker. No
      mine is laid within 3 m of the turning point or the end strip marker. If a fragmentation mine
      comes at 3 m from the turning point, it will not be strip wired.
      (e)     Short Strip. In addition to mine strips, a minefield will often contain a few short strips.
      These consist of groups of mines laid like very small strips. Their centerline must never come
      within 26 m of the center line of the outer strip. The primary aim of a short strip is to deceive
      the enemy as to the pattern and extent of the minefield causing him to start breaching before
      he reaches the outer mine strip. Where possible, short strips are placed on likely lines of
      enemy approach, thickening up the minefield on these particular lines, they cannot be
      regarded as producing any increase in the overall density of the minefield.


12.    Mine laying is a very important facet of all operations of war and knowledge of mines and the
types of minefields, is an essential part of training of NCC cadets.

                                                Appendix (Ref to Para 6(a) of the text)

                                CASUALITY RATE ANTI TANK MINE

                               CASUALITY RATE ANTI PERSONNEL

                                        KNOTS AND LASHES


1.      Knots and lashes are required for joining and securing ropes, fastening ropes around objects
and persons, and for lowering, raising or securing with safety. These knots and lashes are required
to be made use of, on the spur of the moment when a rescue operation has to be carried out and the
party is fighting against time in darkness, in smoke, or in a panic stricken situation. Thus it is
imperative that everyone of the rescue party is aware of various knots and lashes that can be used in
such situations, and are able to do this in abnormal conditions.

Terms Used

2.      Anchored. It means fastened to any immovable object, e.g., long tree, post or a picket driven
into firm ground.

3.      Bight.       An open loop in a rope.

4.      Frapping.    The binding together of a rope or lashes between the poles.

5.      Haul.        The act of pulling a rope.

6.    Hitch.       A closed loop on a rope. It means simple fastening of a rope around any object
by winding and crossing one turn over another, without actually knotting the rope.

7.      Parcelled.   Any rope or part of it is parceled to prevent chafing.

8.      Paying Out. To ease off or slacken a rope.

9.      Reeve.       The act of threading of ropes through pulley or blocks.

10.     Running End.        The free end of a rope with which the knot is made.

11.     Standing Part.      That part of the rope, which is taking the load.


 12. Thumb Knot. Making a loop and passing one end through it . It is useful when tied at the end
of a rope to prevent the rope from fraying as a temporary measure, or to stop it from passing through
a pulley block.

13.    Figure of 8 Knot.   Formed by an overhand and an underhand knot over lapping each other,
with the loose end passed through the loop. When driven tight, its resemblance is that of Figure 8.
14.    Half Hitch. Formed by passing the short end of a rope around the spar on another rope and
under the standing part, so that, when pulled, one part of the rope binds the other. In effect this forms
the beginning of a timber hitch.

15.    Timber Hitch.       Is made quickly to secure a rope to a plank or a spar. Make a half hitch
on the standing part of the rope leaving a long end which is twisted back and given a minimum of
three turns. When used for lifting planks and spars, this hitch should be used alongwith a half hitch at
the upper end of the plank or spar.

16.    Clove Hitch. Formed by making two loops in the centre of the rope, one in the left hand and
the other in the right, one opposite to the other in direction. Then the right hand one is passed in front
of the other loop. Both are now passed over the spar and drawn tight. If this hitch is to be made at the
end of the rope, pass the running end round the spar, bringing it out underneath the standing rope.
Pass the running end round the spar again above the first half hitch and bringing the running end
under itself. To tighten, pull both the running end and the standing part. This forms the basis of many
securing knots and can be used in the end or in the center of a rope.

17.    Round Turn and Two Half Hitches.          Also useful for securing a rope to a spar on a ring and
is formed by a round turn on the spar or ring, with two half hitches on the standing part of the rope.

18.    Draw Hitch. A bight is passed around the spar and a second bight, which is then formed on
the standing part of the rope, is pared through the first bight. A third bight is formed with the short
end and passed through the second bight, and the whole tightened up by pulling on the standing part.
The bights should be tightened as much as possible at each stage. It is quite satisfactory on round
spar but not on square spar. This will stand a considerable amount of strain on the standing part and
yet can be easily released by jerking the free end. It is useful for self rescue.

19.   Reef Knot. Useful for joining two ropes of equal sizes, and for general purposes. Should be
used for joining of two dry ropes of the same size, when the pull is constant. This is tied as two
thumb knots tied in reverse direction, left over right, then right over left.

20.     Single Sheet Bend. Is formed by making a loop in the thicker one of the two ropes, and,
holding this in the left hand, the end of the thinner rope is passed upwards through the loop, forming a
half hitch around the two thickness of the thicker rope.

21.    Double Sheet Bend.           It is a little more secure than the single sheet bend. It is used when
there is a great difference in the sizes of the ropes. It is formed somewhat like the single sheet bend,
except that after having made the half hitch with the thinner rope, continue turning its short end to
make another round turn around the two thickness of the thicker rope, and towards the bight.

22.    Chair Knot. This is very important in rescue work and is used as a sling in which a person
may readily be lowered from heights. It may also be used as a stretcher sling, made by forming a
chair knot complete with half hitch, in the center of a 40 ft lashing. It is formed by grasping the rope
near its centre in the left hand, palm downwards. About 1 yard from the left hand, take the rope in the
right hand, palm upward. Turn the left hand palm upwards forming a loop (anti-clockwise), and turn
the right hand palm down forming a loop. Pass the standing part through the loops of the opposite
hand, pulling them through, thus forming two loops with a knot in the center. Adjust the loop and
make a half hitch on each loop.

23.     Bowline.     Take the running end of the rope in right hand, pull it across the upturned palm of
the left hand, through the fingers of the left hand, forming a loop of required size. Pass the running
end, which is held in the right hand, up through the loop in the left hand, then underneath the standing
rope, and back down through from under the debris or basement, where the rescuer has to crawl to
the casualty and back again.

24.      Rolling Hitch.       It is a variant of the clove hitch and is started and finished in the same
manner, but there is an intermediate round turn between the two half hitches. This intermediate round
turn passes over the standing part. The round turns should be made on the same side of the
standing part as that on which the strain is to be applied. This knot has the advantage that it will not
slip in the direction in which the double turn is applied, if it is subjected to a sideways pull.

25.   Running Knot or Slippery Hitch. This is made by putting a half hitch on the object to be
secured and pulling a bight of the free end of the line through the hitch. The knot can be released
immediately by pulling at the end. It is not so secure as a draw hitch and is normally used for
temporary fastening.

26.     Bow Line On the Bight.    Formed by first making a bight in the end or centre of the line. The
bight is then used in the same way as the free end is used when making an ordinary bowling, and a
half hitch has been passed through. The half hitch is then opened out and taken in the direction (i.e.
behind the remainder of the knot) and then brought up to the two standing parts. The knot is then
hauled . This is used for rescue purposes. The smaller loop is passed under the armpits and the
larger loop is passed under the knees of the person to be rescued.

27.    Bale sling. It is used for slinging a cask in upright position. The cask is placed vertically on
one end of the line. An overhead knot is then formed with both ends of the line on the top of the cask
and opened out. The bight so formed is passed over the head of the cask and hauled taut, the ends
being tied above the cask by a reef knot.


28.  Lashes are mainly used to secure two or more poles together. There are four common types
as mentioned in the succeeding paragraphs.

29.     Square Lashing.      Put a clove hitch to start with, around the spar or leg and below the
crosshead or ledger. Marry the running end to standing parts, take up and around both the poles.
Repeat this circuit 3 to 4 times, drawing the rope as taut as possible. Then take 3 to 4 frapping turns
around the whole lashing, but between the poles. Finish off with a clove hitch on the vertical pole
above the horizontal. This is used for securing together two poles that touch and cross at right angles,
e.g., cross head and the derrick spar, ledger and gravitation legs.

30.    Diagonal Lashing. Put a timber hitch, around both the poles horizontally. Then take four
vertical turns and draw them taut. Then take four horizontal turns and draw them taut. To finish off
put four rapping turns over the lashing and between the poles. Draw taut and end with a clove hitch.
Used for securing two poles where they cross at an angle and the poles are likely to spring apart
when put under load or strain.

31.    Figure of 8 Lashing.        Before lashing, insert spacers between the poles. The thickness of
the spacers should be half that of the poles. Marry the ends and working upwards, continue lashing in
the fig of 8 fashion with 6 to 8 turns. Add 2 to 3 frapping turns between each pole and round the
lashing. Finish with a clove hitch above and on the pole opposite to the standing pole. Used for
lashing 3 poles together to form a tripod on gravitation.

32.   Round Lashing.     Before starting, insert spacers between the poles. The thickness of the
spacers should be approx half the diameter of the poles. Put a clove hitch around one pole, marry
the ends, and continue with 6 to 8 close turns around both the poles going upwards. Add 2 to 3
frapping turns round the lashing and between the poles. End with a clove hitch above and on the
opposite pole to the starting pole.


33.    It is very important to gain some elementary knowledge of the use and method of making
various knots and lashings, to be able to make use of them at the time of rescue. These however,
need to be practiced to master their use.

                                          NBC WARFARE


 1. Armies all over the world have continually tried to develop new weapons to destroy their
enemies. With science and technology developing at a fast pace, the killing power of weapons has
increased manifold. Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare is the latest addition to this arsenal.

Nuclear Warfare

2.    Technical Terms.
      (a)    Nuclear Weapon. Any device, which uses nuclear fission to create energy, in an
      uncontrolled manner, is called a nuclear weapon.
      (b)    Neutron Bomb.        This is a low yield nuclear weapon, which releases neutrons in a
      large volume. The effect of neutrons is lethal to humans but collateral damage to buildings and
      structures is minimized.
      (c)    Nuclear Radiation. Nuclear radiation in the form of alpha, beta and gamma radiation is
      released after a nuclear blast.
      (d)    Hydrogen Bomb.       The principle of nuclear fusion is employed in this bomb. Hydrogen
      is used to create nuclear fusion. Also called a thermonuclear device.
      (e)    Ground Zero (GZ). Centre of nuclear blast is called Ground Zero (GZ).
      (f)    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP).       It is a strong pulse of radio frequency, which is
      generated after the nuclear blast , and affects the functioning of electronic equipment.

3.     Effects of a Nuclear Explosion. This is dependent on the yield of the bomb, distance from
the blast., height of the air burst, degree of protection of the target, errors and weather. Nuclear
effects can be classified as given below :-
       (a)    Flash. - Intense bright light is produced after the nuclear blast, which can even cause
       temporary blindness and burn the retina.
              (i)    Dazzle (loss of vision for a temporary duration)
              (ii)   During day, no dazzle if not facing blast.
              (iii)  Up to 2 min, if looking into the direction of the blast.
              (iv)   Loss of vision for 3 mins (if not facing blast, at night).
              (v)    Up to 10 mins if facing blast during night
       (b)    Heat and Thermal Radiation. - Essentially all the thermal radiation absorbed by a target
       element is immediately converted into heat, causing injury, damage or even ignition of
       combustible material.
               (i)   Burns. Personnel are extremely vulnerable to the effects of thermal radiation.
              Heat produces burns and these have great tactical significance. Burns are classified as
                     (aa)       First Degree Burns. The skin reddens and then begins to ache. The
                     pain passes off after a few hours and the burn should heal after a day or so.
                     (ab)         Second Degree Burns. Blisters appear after about one hour. There is
                     considerable danger from infection, if these are not properly treated. With correct
                     treatment, the burn should heal in seven to twenty one days. It could incapacitate
                     a man.
                     (ac) Third Degree Burns. Skin is burnt and lost and will not heal without plastic
             (ii) Forest fires. This gets initiated in two ways:
                     (aa) Leaves or trees getting in contact with flying burning debris.
                     (ab)     Due to blast effect, by burning stoves getting upset, and due to electric
             (iii)   Secondary Fires. This is due to burning of clothes. If clothes are worn tight they
             may melt over the skin. If in a closed place, death can result due to suffocation.
      (c)    Blast. Casualty on troops is limited as the human body can bear pressure to quite an
      extent. It can damage military equipment permanently.
      (d)    Radiation. It is most harmful for personnel. Its effect is dependent upon :-
             (i)     Dose of radiation
             (ii)    Ability of the body to withstand radiation.
             (iii)   A wound, previously on the body.
             (iv)    Time for which the person has been exposed to the radiation.
      (e)    Combined Effects. It is quite possible that a person is a casualty due to the combined
      effects of flash, blast, heat and radiation.

4.    Prevention Measures Against Nuclear Strike.
      (a)   Before a Nuclear Strike.
            (i)    Protect your eyes.
            (ii)   Cover all parts of the body.
            (iii)  Wear loose fitting clothes.
            (iv)   Always wear headgear.
            (v)    Remove dark camouflage paint.
            (vi)   Wear protection for ears.
            (vii) Do not wear the individual protection mask.
            (viii) Take cover in trench. Dig in.
            (ix)    Use overhead cover.
            (x)     Protect Personal equipment.
      (b)   Nuclear Blast (When in the Open).
            (i)    Lie down on ground with back facing up.
            (ii)   Protect eyes by covering with hands and cover all exposed body parts.
            (iii)  Cover ears with thumbs, otherwise the ear drum can burst.
            (iv)   Keep lying down after the initial shock wave.
            (v)    Wait for the winds to die down, then only get up.
            (vi)   Count till five, if you are alive, then you will survive!

5.   Protective Clothing - NBC Suit.
     (a)    It is worn by Personnel when a threat of a nuclear strike is imminent.
     (b)    It is worn in accordance with the MOPP level (Mission Oriented Protective Posture) It is
     a flexible system of NBC protection allowing various degrees of protection. It works on the
     principle of most time consuming equipment is worn first and the most cumbersome last.
Chemical and Biological Warfare

6.    Important Terms.
      (a)   Chemical Warfare (CW). Employment of chemical products to produce death or
      casualties in man, to create a military advantage, or to defend against such action.
        (b)     Contamination. The deposition and or absorption of radioactive material, biological
        warfare agents or chemical warfare agents on and by structures, areas, personnel or objects.
        (c)     Decontamination. The process of making any person, object or area safe by
        absorbing, destroying, neutralising, making harmless or removing chemical or biological
        agents, or by removing radio-active material clinging to or around it.
        (d)     Dose. The amount of a biological or chemical warfare agent absorbed by an individual
        (e)     Biological Warfare (BW). Employment of living organisms to produce death or
        casualties in men, animals or plants; or defence against such action. Bacteriological warfare is
        one of the means of Biological Warfare where only bacteria are used.
        (f)     Vector.    A carrier, especially an animal (mosquito, tick, louse), which transfers an
        infective agent from a diseased animal to another animal (including man).

7.      Types of Biological agents. An enemy would select an agent, which is highly infectious, easily
produced and stored, stable and suitable for use in the field, and able to produce a disease for which
there is minimal immunity in the target population. Research has now made it possible to produce
new strains of living organisms with striking modification in virulence, anti-biotic resistance and even
identifying characteristics. There are four primary groups of micro-organisms from among which a
biological warfare agent is likely to be drawn. According to the medical point of view they are
classified as under: -

        (a)    Bacteria (B)
        (b)    Ricketsia (R).
        (c)    Virus (V)
        (d)    Fungi (F).

8.      Types of Biological Agents. (On the basis of lethality)

      Lethal Transmissible          Lethal Non-Transmissible      Non-Lethal Transmissible

     Plague (B) Pneumonia           Anjithrax (Pulmonary) (B)            Influenza (V)

          Cholera (B)                Expidemix Typhus (R)

         Small Pox (V)                  Yellow Fever (V)

     Bacillary Dysentery (B)             Rocky Mountain

9.     Requirement of Biological Agents.       To be an effective agent for use in either a tactical or
strategic role, a BW agent should meet specific criteria. These criteria can be summarized as follows:
       (a)     The agent should consistently produce a given effect: death or disease.
       (b)     The concentration of the agent needed to cause death or disease (the infective dose)
       should be low.
       (c)     The agent should be highly contagious.
       (d)     The agent should have a short and predictable incubation time from exposure to onset
       of the disease symptoms.
       (e)     The target population should have little or no natural acquired immunity or resistance to
       the agent.
      (f)     The agent should be difficult to identify in the target population and little or no treatment
      for the disease caused by the agent should be available.
      (g)     The agent should be amenable to economical mass production.
      (h)     The aggressor should have the means to protect his own forces and population against
      the agent clandestinely.
      (j)     The agent should be reasonably robust and stable under production and storage
      conditions, and during transportation. Storage methods should be available that prevent gross
      decline of the agent's activity.
      (k)     The agent should be stable during dissemination. If it is to be delivered via an aerosol, it
      must survive and remain stable in air until it reaches the target

10.   Chemical Agents.
      (a)  Types of chemical agents.
           (i)    Nerve Agents.         These interfere with the functioning of the nervous system
           and thus disrupt essential body functions like breathing, muscular control and vision.
           Examples are Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB),Soman (GD),VX.
           (ii)   Blister Agents.       These agents also referred to as vesicants, cause
           inflammation, blistering of the skin and superficial destruction of contaminated internal
           tissue, such as the lining of the breathing passage. Examples are Distilled Mustard
           (HD), Nitrogen Mustard (HN 1 to HN 3), Lewisite (L).
           (iii)   Blood Agents         These agents prevent body tissue from using the oxygen in
           the blood, e.g., Hydrogen Cyanide (AC), Cynogen chloride (CK) and Arsine (SA).
           (iv)   Mental Incapacitators.       These cause temporary mental disturbances usually
           preceded or accompanied by physical effects. These are further classified as follows: -
                  (aa) Central Nervous System Depressants, e.g., BZ, Marijuana.
                  (ab) Central Nervous System Stimulants, e.g., LSD.
           (v)    Riot Control Agents.         These are also referred to as tear agents. These
           cause irritation of the eyes, flow of tears and a stinging sensation on the skin and in the
           nose eg CS.
           (vi)   Choking Agents. These attack the breathing passage and lungs of the victim,
           e.g., Phosgene (CG), Diphisgene (DP) and Chloropicrin (PS).
           (vii) Vomiting Agents. These cause irritation in the nose and throat which can lead to
           vomiting, e.g., Diphenylchloroarsine (DA), Adamsite (DM).

11.   Protection from Chemical and Biological Agents
      (a)    Nerve Agents. NAPS Tablets - For prevention when attack expected; 1 tablet, three
      times a day for 7 days.
             (i)     Autoject Injection (PAM, Chloride and Atropine Sulphate injection) and Diazepam
             (ii)    Three injections each of PAM Chloride and atropine sulphate at a gap of 15
             minutes starting immediately after the attack along with tablet Diazepam. Artificial
             respiration with NBC Resuscitator, if required.
      (b)    Blister Agents.
             (i)     Skin. Decontaminate with fuller‘s earth and wash with water. Application of
             calamine lotion.
             (ii)    Wounds. Application of Betadine Ointment, and application of three layered
             NBC proof medicated dressing.
             (iii)   Eye. Washing with water. Application of Dimercaprol, steroid and antibiotic eye
      (c)    Respiratory System. Tab Codeine Phosphate - one tablet. Beclomethasone inhaler -
      one metered dose. Artificial respiration with NBC Resuscitator, if required.
      (d)     Choking Agent. Tab Codeine Phosphate – one tablet. Tab Asthalin / Aminophyline –
      one tablet. Beclate inhaler – one metered dose.
      (e)     Blood Agents. Inhalation of Amyl Nitrite – ½ ampules per 4 to 5 minutes x 4 times.
      Artificial respiration with NBC resuscitator, if required.
      (f)     Protection from Biological Agents. Depending upon agent used under medical advice.


12.    NBC Warfare has assumed increased importance in the existing scenario of constant warfare
and terrorism. It is therefore necessary for all NCC officers and cadets to know what NBC warfare is
all about, the damage it can cause, and protection measures.

                                    WATER SUPPLY IN FIELD


1.     Water supply is an inescapable requirement of a soldier in any operation of war, as also when
training in field. Wars have been lost due to lack of logistic supply, especially water. Appropriate
usage of water in suitable containers can go a long way in keeping the morale of troops high and
sustain them for longer periods of time.

Importance of Water

3.    (a)    Most important logistic requirement in battle for human survival and maintenance of
      equipment. It is the basic survival requirement of an Infantry soldier.
      (b)     It is one of the most important planning considerations for battle / operations of war.
      (c)    At times, separate echelons are required for transportation of water.
      (d)    The carrying mode (type of containers) will determine the type of load to be a part of the
      soldier, as well as in other echelons, to sustain the column.
      (e)    While planning operations, existing water resources must be considered.

Water Supply

4.    The various containers available along with capacity for storage are: -
      (a)   Pakhal :            27 Ltr.
      (b)   Water Pillow :      250 Ltr.
      (c)   Fabric Water Can : 7000 Ltr.
      (d)   Jerrican :          20 Ltr.
      (e)   Barrel :            200 ltr.
      (f)   Syntex Tanks :      Variable.
      (g)   Water Trailer :     500/1000 ltr.
      (h)   Water Bowser :      4000 ltr.
      (j)   Improvised Means : Variable.

Methods of Purification

5.     It is essential that any water being supplied to troops for their consumption, must be treated
properly, more so in camps, field areas, and during battle. Due to unsuitability of available water,
water purification becomes very essential. The existing methods of water treatment are as under: -
       (a)     Chlorination.
       (b)    Addition of lime and alum.
       (c)    Water Sterilizing Tablet. White tablet is added first followed by blue tablet 30 mins after
       addition of white tablet.
       (d)    Bleaching Powder. Water to remain standing for 30 minutes after adding the powder.
       (e)    Carrying treated water for troop consumption at the outset.
       (f)    Separate water requirement to meet equipment requirement.

Water Discipline

6.    Field water supply is based on the corner stone of water discipline, as it helps in increasing the
longevity of water supply, in terms of duration. Certain points are needed to be kept in mind for
ensuring this aspect: -
      (a)     Separate orders for water discipline must be issued.
      (b)     Local water resources must be utilized as far as possible, after due water purification.
      (c)     Appropriate storage facilities must be catered to carry water without wastage.
      (d)     Chosen containers must withstand the rigours of battle.
      (e)     Adequate purification means must be catered for, to carry out on the spot water

7.     Scales of Water in Field.

               Type                       Hard Scale/Day       Peace Time/Day
       (a)     Personnel                  10 Litre.            20 Litre
       (b)     B Veh                      2.5 litre.           Nil
       (c)     A Veh                      5 litre              Nil


8.     Water by far is the most important logistic requirement of a soldier, and the same must be
catered for adequately and in time. If not properly planned for, it could lead to an adverse situation in
the battle.



1.    During times of war and peace, it is possible that boats and ferries might not be available for
moving across a water body. During such times, improvised water croosing aids or expedients can be
made using local resources. These can provide mobility for a considerable distance. The more
common among them are enumerated in the succeeding paras.

Ground Sheet Belt

2.     Items.
       (a)    Ground sheet – 01.
       (b)    Line bedding - 01.
       (c)    Grass         - 20.
3.     Method.         Lay the ground sheet on the ground. Put the grass bundle on it & roll the ground
sheet. Tie it up with line bedding. It should be given the shape of a life buoy.

4.    Use. To support one man in field scale order.

Chhagal Water Wing

5.    Items.
      (a)    Pole Bamboo 2‘x 1.5‖      - 01.
      (b)    Coir string               - 0.25 lbs
      (c)    Chhagal                   - 02.
      (d)    Small wooden plug         - 01.

6.   Method.       Two chhagals are tied at ends of the bamboo. A hole is made at the center &
wooden plug inserted. After wetting the chhagal, it is filled with air.

7.    Use. Can support one man in field scale order.

Bamboo Bundle

8.    Items.
      (a)    Bamboo 4‘x 2‖     - 40.
      (b)    Line bedding      - 02.
      (c)    Lashing 20‘x1‖    - 02.

9.     Method.      Make bundles of bamboo with line bedding & tie up bundles with lashing. Water

Water Bottle Belt

10.   Items.
      (a)    Water bottle     - 6 to 8.
      (b)    Line bedding     - 02.

11.   Method.       Empty water bottles are closed with corks & lashed together to form a belt.

12.   Use. One-man swimming aid.

Ghee Tin Float

13.   Items.
      (a)    Ghee tin                  - 02.
      (b)    Line bedding              - 02.
      (c)    Wooden plank 3‘x 1‖       - 01.

14.   Method.       Place ghee tin on top of planks & tie up with line bedding.

Kit Bag Filled With Hay

15.   Items.
      (a)    Kit bag       - 01.
      (b)    Grass         - 15 lbs.

16.   Method. Kit bag is fully rammed with hay & properly secured at the mouth.

17.   Use.       One-man swimming aid.

Kerosene Tin (Two Men Raft)

18.   Items.
      (a)    Kerosene oil tin 10 ltrs - 06.
      (b)    Bamboo                    -08.
      (c)    Lashing.

19.   Method.
      (a)     Tins placed in pairs. Three bamboos of requisite length are placed on top & bottom.
      (b)     To hold widthwise, two pieces of bamboo are placed in pairs on each side & in between
      the tins.

Charpoy Boat

20.   Items.
      (a)    Charpoy                   - 01.
      (b)    Bamboos.
      (c)    Lashing.
      (d)    Tarpaulin 30mx 2.5m       - 01.

21.  Method.
     (a)  A standard military charpoy is wrapped in a tarpaulin.
     (b)  Bamboos are tied to the legs to form the gunwale of the charpoy boat.
     (c)  Bamboo or timber lashed to legs to form support to tie up tarpaulin & make the bow.
Two Hundred Litre Drum for Two Men

22.   Items.
      (a)    200 ltr drum            - 01.
      (b)    2.2.5m x 12.5 cm bamboo - 02.
       Or, plank 3m x 0.20m           - 01.
      (c)    Lashing.

23.   Method.
      (a)  Two logs or bamboo are square lashed to drum.
      (b)   Drum is floated with bamboo / plank & two men sit over them.


24.    Water crossing expedients are an invaluable asset to any soldier. However improvising them
at the spur of the moment, when required, is possible only by practice by making such expedients.
                               PRINCIPLES OF GOOD INSTRUCTION


1.     As ANOs you have to regularly impart instructions to NCC cadets of your schools and
collages. It is very important for an instructor to learn about the principles of good instruction so as to
be able to impart training in a meaningful and effective manner

Rules of Good Instruction

2.     The success of any kind of instruction depends on two rules. The rules states that :-
       (a)   The instructor must have good knowledge.
       (b) The class must have desire to learn/receive knowledge.

3.      Good knowledge is essential for an Instructor. He must also possess number of other
qualities. Lack of knowledge will make instructions useless and dangerous. To make instruction
success, two rules be combined with the principles.

Principles of Good Instruction

4.     Aim. Aim should be clear, concise and limited. The aim can be classified as under :-
       (a)     Immediate Aim. Must be clear, concise and limited. By capturing ―Series of immediate
       aims, the ultimate aim can be achieved‖ for example : Rock Climbing.
       (b)     Ultimate Aim. The ultimate aim of all training is to develop a soldier in mind, body and
       character in order that he takes his allotted place in the Army both in peace and war. For
       example : To make trainees a Good Climber.
       (c)     Aim Plus. The development of mind and body is achieved step by step, through a
       number of immediate aims, but to develop soldierly character the instructor has got to think of
       immediate aim, plus some measures which will help the trainees to imbibe some character
       qualities. For example : Development of discipline, character, team spirit and sense of co-

5.    Plg and Preparation. An Instructor can not make the trainee a Good Instructor or can not
achieve the aim without proper planning and preparation required for the training :-
      (a)    Planning. Good instruction requires foresight and deliberate forethought to avoid
      mismanagement, as far as the programme, place and presentation. The four main
      considerations to be borne in mind during planning stage are :-
             (i)    The Material Required for Instruction. Syllabus, Reference Library, Study room,
             Training Store, Production Factory etc.
             (ii)   The Place of Instruction.
                    (aa) Outdoor. Select suitable place and bear in mind, High way, Railway
                    Station, Ranges, Band, Neighbouring Squad (Sun, Water, Dress, Equipment,
                    Seating, Urinals, Time of Journey).
                    (ab) Indoor.       Lighting, Seating, Dress, Water, Ash Tray, Distraction
                    (ac) The Administrative Arrangements. Reception, Dispersal, Documentation,
                    Ranges, Issue instructions, accommodation, Briefing, Transport, Messing,
                    Games, Mail, Pay etc
                    (ad) The Men Under Instruction. Trainees could be divided in groups based on
                    division (Class-wise) merit grouping, age or health grouping.
      (b)    Preparation. Preparation involves the efforts to collect and collate the subject matter.
      Instructor must come prepared even if he is genius. He should tackle the preparation as
      follows :-
             (i)     Find the Subject Matter. Pamphlets, notes, Reference books, manuals,
             periodicals, Magazines and his experience.
             (ii)    Know the Subject Matter. Acquire deep and upto date knowledge of the subject
             and makes notes of points worth teaching.
             (iii)  Sift the Subject Matter. In sifting (subject matter) the instructors should bear in
             mind the aim, time available and standard of class.
             (iv)   Select the Subject Matter. Keeping in view these considerations he should
             classify the points noted into :-
                    (aa) Must Know. Must be covered.
                    (ab) Should Know. As many points as possible be covered.
                    (ac) Could Know. Include if time available.
             (v)    Organise the Subject Matter. Involves arranging these points, in the time
             available, in a logical sequences.

6.   Interest. If class is interested, it is bound to learn. Some of the ways to promote interest are:-
       (a)    Before Instruction. Good advertisement, well laid out programme, fascinating pictorial
       poster, display of a place frequently visited by men. The instructor should link the subject with
       previous lesson and tie up with the present lesson. Thus the Instructor can give a good
       advertisement to the subject
       (b)    During Instruction.
              (i)     Realism. Instruction must be realistic, related to things and happening as they
              would be in actual practice. Instructor should go into reality and depth of the subject.
              (ii)    Competition. The spirit of competition be exploited, competition should be free
              from bias and should be fair.
              (iii)   Variety. Change in the presentation, change of subject matter, prevents the
              class feeling bored.
              (iv)    Incentive. To keep brain active, give test, Quiz, Question.
              (v)     Sense of Achievement. Class and the individuals be told of their performance. It
              will give sense of achievement and pride to good ones and also put weak ones wise.
              (vi)     Humour. To break monotony and to fresh the class. Must be natural and never
              be forced and should not be introduced too frequently.
       (c)    End of Instruction. To inculcate the ‗Desire to learn‘ to create interest. Question may
       be asked at the end. Question, oral or written, exercises and home work etc.

7.    Use of Senses. All learning is done through one or more of the five senses. More the senses
used deeper the instruction goes and longer it remains in learner‘s mind.
      (a)    Touch. Appeal through sense of touch (Muscular).
      (b)    Taste. Appeal through sense of taste (Feeling).
      (c)    Smell. Appeal through sense of smell (Feeling).
      (d)    Sight. Appeal through sense of sight (Visual).
      (e)    Hearing. Appeal through sense of hearing (Auditory).

8.    (a)    Muscular. Appeal through the sense of touch.
             (i)    Handling of equipment
             (ii)   Learning of vehicles.
             (iii)  Weapons.
      (b)    Visual. Appeal through the sense of sight.
             (i)    Charts.
             (ii)   Black Boards.
               (iii)  Poster.
               (iv)  Models.
               (v)   TV, VCR (Audio-Visual).
      (c)      Auditory. Appeal through the sense of hearing :-
               (i)   PA equipment, Gramophones, Amplifier etc.
               (ii)  Tape recorder, Radio
               (iii) Loudspeaker, Earphones etc.
               (iv)  Battle noise.
      (d)      Organised Aids.
               (i)   Demonstrations.
               (ii)  Playlets.
               (iii) Sand models and TV.

9.      Activity. Do not let the class feel bored by allowing them to become dumb listener or
spectator. Make the class think or do things. This can be achieved by making class think or do
things. Mental or physical, depending on subject matter.

10.    Simplicity. Avoid high sounding words and complicated charts. Always think of the standard
of class. Always try to put across difficult and technical things in words that be best understood by
them. Teaching should be simple, in an organized and systematic manner.

11.    Human Factor. Besides knowledge, an instructor must also have correct manner. Manner
includes have correct manner. Manner includes the personal qualities of the instructor and the
attitude he adopts towards the class. The main characteristics of good instructor are, Bearing,
Enthusiasm, Voice, Delivery, Patience, Humour, Mannerism. Instructors attitude towards class, know
the class, loyal to colleagues, be friendly, be firm, avoid sarcasm, avoid favouritism etc.

12.   Confirmation. An instructor must check from time to time, the extent to which the instruction
has been absorbed by the class. This will enable him to correct any wrong impression which the
student might have formed. He must ensure that the subject is retained in the minds of the class.
Confirmation can be done at various stage through questions, quizzes and recitation.
      (a)    At the beginning of any Instruction. Confirmation to ensure students are ready to
      receive instructions, due to follow.
      (b)    During Instruction. To ensure preceeding part of instruction has been understood
      before leading on to next.
      (c)    At the end of Instruction. To find out how far aim of lesson of instructions has been


13.    A through knowledge of the subject on part of the instructor and desire to learn on the part of
the class are two essential pre requisites of good instruction. To make the instruction success, it
must have an aim and proper planning and preparation is essential.

                               PREPARATION OF A LESSON PLAN.

1.     As ANOs all trainees have to often impart instructions to the cadets. Detailed planning and
preparation is required by an instructor to impart meaningful training. Trainees should be well
acquainted with the technique of preparation of a lesson plan. Lesson plan should always be made
by the instructor before he/she embarks upon actually conducting a class.

Aim of a Lesson Plan.

2.     The aim of a lesson plan is to ensure the following :-
       (a)   Systematic and logical instruction.
       (b)   Clear grasp of the instruction.
       (c)   Avoiding accidents.
       (d)   Discovering any losses or damages.
       (e)   Confirmation of instruction by stages.

3.     General Layout of a Lesson Plan
       (a)  The Beginning. It is planned under the following headings :-
            (i)    Preliminaries. This entails roll call, inspection, safety precautions and so on.
            (ii)   Preview. The class should be told of the phases in which the instruction has
            been organized.
            (v)    Objective. For some lessons a goal or standard to be told or shown to the class
            as an incentive.
            (vi)   The beginning of instruction should be brief and brisk and very little time should
            be spent on it. It should be so designed so as to win over the audience in the first few
       (b)  The Middle.
            (i)    In this part will be the actual teaching matter arranged and taught in logical
            phases, confirmed, summed up and then linked up with the phase following.
            (ii)   The suggested layout of this part will be :-
                   (aa) Teach first phase.
                   (ab) Confirm it.
                   (ac) Sum it up.
                   (ad) Link up with next phase.
                   (ae) Teach next phase. Remaining sequence same as for first phase.

       (c)   The End. The end should be so planned that the class has a sense of achievement. It
       should cater for five things :-
             (i)     An opportunity to students to clarify any wrong assumption.
             (ii)    Check the extent of instruction absorbed.
             (iii)   Re-capitulate the essentials through a summary.
             (iv)    Prevent the feelings of ―it is all over‖.
             (v)     Discover losses or damages to equipment.

4.     Format of a Lesson Plan. The format used for making a lesson planis given below:-

                                      FORMAT: LESSON PLAN

Course         :                                             Syllabus Reference :
Subject       :                                              Reference          :
Periods allotted:                                            Period No         :
Teaching          Training Aids                    Time (Minutes)   Remarks
Points                                            Actual Running
Preview         In two phases, as follows :-
3.              (a)
                (b)                             3        3
Phase 1         Black Board
4.              Chart 1
                Slide 1
6               Confirm Phase 1.
                (a) Question 1.
                (b) Answer 1.
7.              Sum Up Phase 1.                 15       18
                Phase 2
8.              Slide 2
                Chart 2
                Black Board
9.              Confirm Phase 2.
                (a) Question 1.
                (b) Answer 1.
10              Sum Up Phase 2.                 10       28
11.             Question 1.
12              Answer 1.
                Sum Up
15              Conclusion                      2        40

                                 USE OF TRG AIDS AND SENSES


1.    For imparting instructions an instructor or a teacher makes use of number of training aids and
senses. An instructor should be well versed with the aspect of various kinds of training aids so as to
be able to make effective use of the same.

Auditory Trg Aids.

2.     Auditory trg aids are those which appeal to the ear through the sense of hearing. The main
type of auditory aids are :-
       (a) Public Address equipment (PA).
       (b) Gramophone records.
       (c) Television.
       (d) Simulation of battle noises.
Visual Trg Aids

3.     Visual trg aids are those which appear to the                      pupil   through   sense     of
sight. The main type of visual aids are :-
       (a)   Charts and Posters. Diagrammatic, pictorial or lettered.
       (b)   Models.
       (c)   Boards. Further classified as follows :-
             (i)    Blackboard.
             (ii)   Blanket-board.
             (iii)  Magnet board.
             (iv)   Portable plywood board.
              (v)   Improvised newspaper board.
       (d)   Projector type of visual aids. These include :-
             (i)    Film.
             (ii)   Slides.
             (iii)  Epidiascope.
             (iv)   Television.

4.    Golden Rules. Some of the rules to be ensured in case of visual trg aids are :-
      (a)   Must be vivid.
      (b)   Must be clear, bright, graphic and lively.
      (c)   Simple to understand.
      (d)   Large enough for class to see easily.
      (e)   Should have no mistakes.
      (f)   Must be straight.
      (g)   Should not be allowed to move unnecessarily.

5.    Hints for Using Blackboard. Some hints for using blackboard are :-
      (a)    It the instructor is right handed he should have the blackboard on his left and vice versa.
      (b)    Do not talk whilst drawing or writing on the board.
      (c)    Prepare your boards in advance with chalk or visible pencil.
      (d)    Have the boards already prepared covered preferably with black paper or dark piece of
      (e)    Expose them only when you want to refer to them.
      (f)    Write bold and legible letters.
      (g)    Write from top downwards and left to right.
      (h)    Use coloured chalks, for effectiveness. But the order of preference is :-
             (i)     Yellow.
             (ii)    White.
             (iii)   Pink.
             (iv)    Red.
             (v)     Brown.
             (vi)    Violet.
             (vii) Blue.

Muscular and Organised Aids

6.     Muscular and organized are more influential on persons‘ mind as in former he touches the
object physically and in the latter the combined effect leaves a lasting impression.
       (a)     Muscular Aids. Under this category fall almost all the equipments which have got to be
       actually handled by the learner. Examples of these are weapons, respirators, wireless, other
       instruments, vehicles and so on. Maximum use should be made of this type as the
       instruction is best learnt by actual handling of things.
       (b)    Organised Aids. Play lets, demonstrations, sand and cloth models come under
       organized aids.


7.      An aid is not meant to take the place of an instructor but it should be so designed as to simplify
the instructions, save time and help the instruction to stick. Further, it should be simple, clear,
attractive and adopted to suit the standard of the class. There should be no overcrowding of aids in
a particular period of instruction as they are then likely to distract. The aids should be properly
incorporated in the instructional plan; and stage managed well rehearsed and executed with
perfection by all concerned.

                               CONDUCT OF LESSON AND LECTURE


1.     Military instruction encompass wide variety of subjects which range from the firing of weapons
to looking in the field. It is the job of instructors to examine the subject and decide the medium
through which it can best be thought.

2.     The choice of appropriate medium will be based on the following two considerations. In
addition, the advantages and limitations of each medium should be weight in relation to the subject
before the final selection is made:-
       (a)    The type of subject matter. It can be one of the below :-
              (i)     Factual.
              (ii)    Skill.
              (iii)   Technique.
       (b)    The maximum sense appeal.

3.    Following are the more common mediums of instruction and in this class we will discuss the
conduct including advantages and disadvantages of imparting instructions through lesson and lecture
      (a)    The lesson.
      (b)    The lecture
      (c)    The discussion
      (d)    The demonstration.
      (e)    The sand model.
      (f)    The film.
      (g)    The play.

Preparation and Conduct of a Lesson

4.   This medium involves teaching a class of not more than ten by a combination of explanation,
demonstration and practice. The normal duration of a lesson is 30-50 minutes.
5.    The most important factors in this method of teaching are :-
      (a)  The size of the class.
      (b)  The amount of equipment.

6.      The method is at its worst with ten men, one piece of equipment and only one instructor. It is
at its best in the coach and pupil form that is, one man, one piece of equipment and one instructor.

7.     A great range of subjects can well be taught as a lesson. But all skills must necessarily be
taught by this medium.

8.     Preparation for a lesson would involve same aspects as spelt in earlier lecture concerning
preparation of a lesson plan. Only once the lesson plan has been prepared should the following
points be borne in mind for conduct of a lesson :-
       (a)     The essence of the lesson is practice. Demonstration and explanations must be short.
       (b)     If lesson is mainly of facts, teach and confirm by questions and answers.
       (c)     If lesson is a skill, then teach by demonstration and confirm by practice.
       (d)     Squad formations will vary according to the demonstrations and type of practice.
       (e)     Arrange the squad so that :-
               (i)     They all can see your actions.
               (ii)    They have ample room to practice.
               (iii)   You can supervise practice.
       (f)     Let maximum number use the equipment at the same time, provided you can supervise
       (g)     Decide when it is best to have whole class watching your demonstration, as opposed to
       imitating you.
       (h)     Use as critics members of the squad who are not practicing.
       (j)     Correct mistake by questions and answers.

Advantages/Disadvantages of Conduct of a Lesson

9.    The following advantages accrue from conduct of a lesson :-
      (a)    Close contact between the teacher and the taught.
      (b)    Greater supervision by the instructor.
      (c)    Maximum sense appeal possible.
      (d)    No special place is required.

10.   The disadvantages are :-
      (a)   Expensive in instructors.
      (b)   More equipment required.

11.    It is most satisfactory and effective medium of instruction and should be used whenever the
number of instructors are adequate. It is the most common and popular method of instruction in most
of the units. It has the great advantage of maximum appeal in the following manner :-
       (a)     Sense of hearing by explanations.
       (b)     Sense of sight by demonstrations.
       (c)     Sense of touch by practice.

Preparation and Conduct of a Lecture

12.   This is a medium by which one single man can impart instruction to a large number in short
time and can cover a lot of ground.
13.    Finding the relevant study material and then studying it to get a good background of the
subject is the first essential step towards preparation. Making notes of teaching points as you go
along is a desirable habit.

14.   Then comes the stage called ―sorting‖. This involves Weeding out the essential from non-
essentials. This will be done keeping the following four considerations in mind :-
      (a)    The aim.
      (b)    Time available.
      (c)    General level of intelligence of the audience.
      (d)    How much they already know.

15.    After this basic ground work has been done, the detailed preparation commences. A general
layout of headings for preparation has already been covered in earlier lesson.

16.   First essential is to have clear, concise and limited aim.          This should be kept in mind
throughout the preparation and the delivery.

17.    A short, realistic, purposeful introduction will be of great value in arousing interest and hold the
attention from the start.

18.     A preview of the whole lecture should be given next, to enable the talk to be delivered in parts,
which are logically connected with each other. This will help the class to get over all picture of what is
to follow.

19.    Then a detailed script of the whole lecture should be prepared. This will have the exact words,
which the lecturer would speak from the very start to the finish. Remember that the writing style is
different from the style of speaking. As such choose words more appropriate to the speech.

20.    In addition it will include the following :-
       (a)    The aids for each phase.
       (b)    The questions to confirm each phase.
       (c)    Summing up of each phase and the final summary.
       (d)    Conclusion.
       (e)    Timings.

Rehearsals and Assessment

21.    The surest steps to ensure a smooth delivery when the time comes are two, namely :-
       (a)   Rehearsals.
       (b)   Assessment.

22.    Rehearsals are necessary to :-
       (a)  Adjust the timings.
       (b)  Ensure a synchronized use of aids during the lecture.
       (c)  Practice every assistant in what exactly he is to do and when to do it.

23.    Assessment of the instructor by a faithful and competent colleague to advise him on :-
       (a)   Subject matter.
       (b)   Suitability of aids.
       (c)   Mannerism and gestures.
       (d)   Class contact.
       (e)   Voice and delivery.
      (f)      Stage management.
      (g)      Timing of phases.

24.    A calm cool and unperturbed delivery is very essential for a lecture. However, thorough the
preparation, knowledge and background, the success of a lecture will depend upon the way it is
delivered to the class. Much depends upon the instructors technique.

Imp Aspects of an Instructor‟s Technique

25.   The following aspects should be considered for a successful conduct of a lecture :-
      (a)      Stage Fright. It is common in the beginners. But if the preparation has been thorough
      it will be overcome within the first few minutes. Further, taking deep breath slowly will have
      sobering effect. Self-confidence is very necessary for instructors inclined to nervousness. A
      slightly superior but not arrogant complex in the lecturer goes a long way in overcoming stage
      (b)      Class Contact. The lecturer must maintain contact with the class by looking at them, by
      scanning the whole class with his eyes and avoiding to hide behind the lectern. He should
      make each man feel as if he is talking to him. Frequent and obvious reference to the script
      also breaks the class contact and hence should be cut as far as possible.
      (c)      Physical Behaviour. The instructor should not be too conscious of himself. He should
      try to be natural and at ease. He should cut out unnecessary hectic movements and gestures
      which only help to distract the audience.
      (d)      Stage Management. The layout of boards and various other aids must be prearranged
      by the lecturer himself. It is advisable to have a ‗Poster-Plan‘ during the lecture. Its object is to
      show the exact place poster. It is numbered from the script itself and helps the instructor to
      apprise the right ones only at the appropriate time.


26.    Success of a lecture depends much upon the personality of the speaker, who by thorough
preparation, good delivery, apt humour and good use of aids can make it alive by means of

                                        LEADERSHIP TRAITS


1.      In the past much of leadership training had centered around life studies of some eminent
military figures. This historic approach, which was later reinforced by an extensive survey conducted
after World War II taught that there are some common traits in the lives and careers of all successful
leaders. Fourteen traits were found to be common amongst eminent leaders of the past.

2.     It is common knowledge that there indeed are certain traits which are necessary in leadership.
For instance it is inconceivable that a leader can function without some of those traits like
enthusiasm, judgment and knowledge. For teaching leadership at junior level the ―Trait Approach‖
continues to be the most effective method available and is of importance to the Armed Forces.

3.      Leadership traits are human qualities that are of great value to a leader. Possession of these
traits simplifies the task of applying the leadership principles and assists greatly in winning the
confidence, respect and cooperation of other men. Individuals posses these traits in different degree
according to the constitution of their character. This causes variation in the type of leadership
exercised by individuals and make leadership a personal function. An individual can benefit by
studying the traits considered important to a leader. But with careful self-analysis and application, he
can develop those traits in which he is deficient and further strengthen those in which he is strong.

Important Leadership Traits

4.      A study of great military leaders reveals that none possessed all the leadership traits in the
maximum degree but their weakness in one trait was compensated by the strength in the other. A
good leader will capitalize on his strong traits and at the some time take steps to improve his weak
traits. It would, however, be recognized that the leader‘s goal, the personalities of the people with
whom he is working and the circumstances of the specific situation, all will have a profound effect on
which particular trait needs most emphasis. Traits that are of paramount importance to a leader are
given below :-
        (a)      Alertness. In battle a Commander is offered fleeting opportunities by the enemy, which
        if seized and exploited can bring decisive victories to his force. Alertness of mind is what helps
        a Commander to pick up these opportunities at the right time and exploit the situation to his
        own advantage.
        (b)      Bearing. Denotes desirable physical appearance, dress and deportment. A leader and
        more so an officer should, therefore remember that his personal bearing will exercise a
        dominating and permeating influence not only with his own men but with the general public too.
        In public therefore, as on parade, be must conduct himself in such a fashion that the uniform
        he wears is regarded by the general public not merely as a uniform but as the hall mark of a
        great profession of arms to which he belongs; a profession whose prestige in times of war is
        virtually bound with a nation‘s destiny.
        (c)      Courage. Courage is a mental state. It gets its strength from spiritual and intellectual
        sources. The way in which these spiritual and intellectual elements are blended, produces
        roughly two types of courage. The first are emotional state which urges a man to risk injury or
        death is physical courage. The second, a more reasoning attitude which enable him coolly to
        stake career, happiness, his whole future on his judgment of what he thinks either right or
        worthwhile is morale courage. A leader must posses both forms of courage.
        (d)      Decisiveness. A logical thought process is essential for solving a problem or making a
        plan. Thereafter the leader‘s intention and his proposed method of execution must be made
        perfectly clear to all taking part. He must therefore acquire the ability to make decisions
        promptly when required and announce them authoritatively, concisely and clearly. The
        leader‘s power of decision results from his ability to remain unperturbed in a crisis. His
        greatest assets are the ability to think rationally when his men have ceased to think, to be
        decisive in action when they are paralysed by fear.
        (e)      Dependability. You cannot get very far in any sphere of activity without reliability. Set
        yourself high standards both for the amount of worry you get through and the quality of work
        irrespective of supervision. Make a practice of carrying out all instructions and plans of your
        superiors to the best of your ability, and always on time. Always be ready to help out in an
        emergency even if it interferes considerably with your personal conveniences. ‗Business
        before self‘ should be the rule. Whatever has to be done, take it in your stride, and never allow
        yourself to appear moody. Dependability has to be built up slowly by deliberate effort. It can
        be lost overnight if not guarded jealously.
        (f)      Endurance. A time comes in battle when both the opposing forces feel that probably
        they are fighting a losing battle. It is a time when battles are won or lost. The side which has
        that little extra endurance wins. It is the leader who has that extra endurance both of mind
        and body that can inspire his troops to produce that extra endurance required to win battle or
        accomplish the assigned task. Mental and physical endurance are complementary. The old
        adage ―A healthy body – a healthy mind‖ still holds good and both are essential for a leader.
      (g)     Enthusiasm. It is the display of genuine interest and zeal in the performance of duties.
      Enthusiasm comes from liking your job, having a living interest in all facets of your work and
      seeing the possibilities for development of new ideas and techniques. However humdrum an
      occupation may seem to some people,e there is nearly always some feature in it which
      inspires the imagination. Jobs only appear dull, routine or mechanical when they are looked at
      with dull eyes and a dull mind.
      (h)     Initiative. Initiative is the willingness to act or offer well considered recommendations in
      the absence of orders. It should always be done right away what you might have done later.
      In other words initiative means one should not wait for things to happen but one has the ability
      to see quickly what needs to be done, making up ones mind to do it and accomplishing it.
      When a choice between two courses is available, one cautious and other bold and daring the
      trait required is daring initiative.
      (j)     Integrity. As a leader one has to be honest, not only to oneself but with the men one
      leads and the people with whom one works. Honesty and integrity are absolute qualities that
      one cannot compromise or alter. Any loss or weakness in moral character will result in losing
      the confidence of our superiors, contemporaries and subordinates.
      (k)     Judgement. This is the power of the mind to assess various factors and values quickly
      and often under difficult circumstances and arrive at a wise decision. It is learned by
      experience and practice. At times a mistake or error of judgment may result, but it is more
      positive to learn from the mistake or error, rather than fight for exercising the power of
      (l)     Justice. The quality of being impartial and consistent in exercising command. Dispense
      justice quickly. ―Justice delayed is justice denied‖.
      (m) Knowledge. A leader must know more than the men he commands. Until he does, he
      has no business to be called their leader. The profession of arms requires a great deal of
      study, practice and experience not only of military hardware, organization, tactics and battle
      drills and procedures but more importantly of characteristics and capabilities of the men he
      leads. The process of acquiring knowledge never ends. There is always something new to
      learn even from re-reading or re-thinking of the same material or problem.
      (n)     Loyalty. The quality of being faithful to the country, the army, the unit, subordinates,
      colleagues and superiors. It is given by subordinates to a leader, in the manner in which the
      leader gives the same to them and to his own leaders. A leader must never take shelter
      behind the shortcomings or mistakes of his subordinates. When plans for which he is
      responsible go wrong he must take the blame, correcting the mistakes of subordinates himself.
      Every leader has the right to express his views to his superiors on any question under
      consideration but once a decision has been reached, he must act on it as if it were his own
      (o)     Sense of Humour. The ability to appreciate the many amusing or lighter moments in
      everyday, life especially those which pertain to the leader himself. It is also the ability to
      remain cheerful under stress. At times when things go wrong in battle and tensions mount,
      humour if it comes naturally at the appropriate time can go a long way in defusing a situation or
      raising sagging spirits. This together with a sense of balanced optimism, are useful traits to
      develop. However, attempts at artificial coarseness and sarcasm do more harm than good.

Other Useful Traits

5.    Some other traits though not described are important and are listed below :-
      (a)  Truthfulness.
      (b)  Esprit-de-corps.
      (c)  Unselfishness.
      (d)  Humility and sympathy.
      (e)  Tact without loss of moral courage.
      (f)      Patience and a sense of urgency as appropriate.
      (g)      Self confidence.
      (h)      Maturity.
      (j)      Mental including emotional stability.


6.     In battle there is no substitute for good, sound and robust leadership. What needs attention is
the cultivation of these qualities and their application. Essentially a leader must gain and keep
whatever the circumstances, the respect and confidence of his troops so that they willingly
accomplish the mission. Leadership is a mixture of personal example, persuasion and compulsion. It
is by discipline that an Army is welled into a fighting machine, it is by leadership that the men and
machines are led to victory.

                                     STYLES OF LEADERSHIP


1.    In our day to day life, we come across instances of how people are influenced by the action or
word of a person who is trying to lead him. In our mind we make a difference between a good leader
and a bad one, by judging his style or way of functioning and his influence on others. Traits are
human qualities that are of great value to the leaders in winning the confidence, respect and
cooperation of the group.

2.     Leadership involves accomplishing the task with and through men under command. The
manner and techniques employed by the leader to accomplish the task is called the style of
leadership. Hence to understand the phenomenon of leadership we must first understand the various
styles of leadership.

Autocratic Style of Leadership

3.     An autocratic leader is a person who keeps total centralized power and decision making in
himself. He structures the complete work situation for his group who does what they are told. Some
advantage of autocratic leadership is that it provides strong motivation and rewards for the leaders. It
permits quick decisions because only one person decides for all the group. Less competent
subordinates can be used because their principle job is to carry out orders as they do only minor
planning, organizing or decision making and they need little initiative.

4.     The main disadvantage of autocratic leadership is that people dislike it especially if it is
extreme and the style is negative. Frustrations, dissatisfaction, fear and conflict develop easily in
autocratic situations. Group feels they are working because they are required to and not because
they are motivated. They tend to work at ―half steam‖.

Democratic Style of Leadership

5.      This is also known as non-directive style. This stresses concern for human relationships. In
this style of leadership, the leader shares responsibilities with his subordinates by involving them in
both the planning and execution of tasks. This style assumes the real power of a leader which is
granted by the group he leads. This style also assumes that people can be basically self directed and
creative at work if properly motivated. Democratic style encourages group discussion and decisions
are arrived through consensus.

6.     If you delegate much of authority for decision-making and execution to your subordinates and
invariably consult the subordinates before making key decisions, your style of leadership will be

7.    This type of leader, to a large extend, is persuasive kind of leader who bases his skills of
leadership upon his personal example and ability.

Laissez – Faire Style of Leadership

8.      The Laissez-Faire leader avoids power and responsibilities. They depend largely upon the
group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. Group members train themselves
and provide their own motivation. The leader plays only a minor role. Laissez-Faire Leadership
ignores the leader‘s contribution approximately in the same way that autocratic leader ignores the
group. He tends to permit different units of the organization to proceed at cross-purposes and it can
degenerate into chaos. For these reasons it is not used as a dominant style, but is useful in those
situations where a leader can leave a chaos entirely to the group.

Leadership Theories

9.     Although the military has generally paved the way through leadership instruction at service
schools, it is the academic community that has explored in depth the various concepts of leadership.
In doing so it has developed some very interesting theories that supplement and, in many instances,
replace the old ―trait and principle‖ approach used by the military.

Leadership Vs Management

10.     First let us clear up an old controversy about the difference between leadership and management.
Many people feel that leadership embraces the whole area of directing men, while management is only one
of its many parts. But some other contends that there is no difference and that the terms are synonymous.
Aware of the dangers of over simplification, it can be said in general that management connotes the five
functions of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling the resources of both men and
material to accomplish a mission, whereas, leadership stresses the influencing and directing of men to
accomplish a mission. Leadership, then, is working with men. Some managers perform very well with the
material portion of the model but cannot handle men and consequently are not leaders. Some leaders can
handle men but are poor managers because they fail to grasp the total picture of both men and materials
and manage their material resources poorly.

 Leader – Situation – Group Approach

11.    Within the formal study of leadership, the approach that can be most logically supported by
existing concepts and theories is that of the ―Leader – Situation – Group‖. Louis Terman wrote in
1904 that leadership performance depends on the situation, but his theories concerning effect of the
changing situation on the leader were largely overlooked until recent times.
                      LEADER – SITUATION -GROUP


                      Situation           Group

12.    Range of Leadership Styles.          A study of the leader-group-situation approach is most
interesting, so let us turn to each of the segments, starting with the leader, followed by the situation,
and finally the group. The important ingredient of leadership is the first segment, the leader. There is
universal acceptance now in the academic community, in industry and in the military of the leadership
continuum, which teaches that leadership styles range from autocratic (authoritarian) to democratic



         Use of Authority
         By The Leader
                                                              Area of Freedom for

    LEADER                  LEADER                LEADER                 LEADER
IT                     QUESTIONS              GETS                   TO     FUNCTION
                                              SUGGESTIONS,           WITHIN    LIMITS
                                              MAKES                  DEFINED       BY
                                              DECISIONS              SUPERIOR

                 LEADER            LEADER            LEADER
              ―SELLS DECISION‖   PRESENTS         DEFINES
                                 TENTATIVE        LIMITS :
                                 DECISION         TO MAKE
                                 SUBJECT TO       DECISION
       (TELLS)          (CONSULTS)       (DELEGATES)

13.   Starting on the left of the leadership continuum in the above Figure we see at one end the
autocratic type leader (also called authoritarian type). He uses maximum authority, makes decisions
without any help and tells people what to do. At the other end we see one completely opposite; the
leader who delegate all decision-making to his subordinates and uses no authority whatsoever.
These two extreme types are hard to find but do exist in both the military and the business world.
Most leaders operate around the middle of the leadership continuum by using a variable style ranging
from selling decisions to asking for group decisions.

14.   Sterling Livingston Analysis.     Following this same line of thinking of leadership ranging
from autocratic to democratic, sterling Livingston provides a very interesting analysis of the two
extremes and desired compromise.

                      HIGH                                           NO

                      PRESSURE   OR VARIABLE                         PRESSURE     OR
                      AUTOCRATIC                                     DEMOCRATIC
                      CONTROL       AND    PLANNED                   AND FREE WILL

PERSONAL              DOMINANT            & OBJECTIVE   &            TOLERANT & SELF
TRAITS                SELFRELIANT           CREATIVE                 TRUSTING
                      PEOPLE                PEOPLE                   PEOPLE
WITH OTHERS           FORCING               HELPING                  DRECTIVE

METHODS               DIRECTIVE            INTERACTIVE               CONSULTATIVE,
                      DECISIONS MADE,      (FLEXIBLE),               DEFINE
                      DIRECT               ANALYSIS      AND         OBJECTIVES,
                      STANDARDS SET,       ACTION,                   GIVE GUIDANCE,
                      TIGHT CONTROL,       APPROVE PLANS,            SELF DECISION,
                      REWARD     AND       OBTAIN                    LOOSE CONTROL,
                      PUNISH               COMMITMENT,               REWARD      AND
                                           CONTROL                   RECOGNITION
                                           REWARD        AND
RESULTS : -           GOOD                         UNIMPRESSIVE
                                        TO EXCELLENT
                      MANAGERS,     TASK           PERFORMANCES
                      PASSIVE       CHALLENGING
                      HIGH TURNOVER

      (a)    In the above Figure Mr Livingston has taken the same leadership continuum or
      spectrum of leadership and analyzed it with regard to overall concept, personality traits,
      relationship, methods of leading, results and the problems each type encounters. Once again
      on the left we see the autocratic or high-pressure type. This style displays the characteristic
      we might expect, that is , it relies on authority to lead, is dominant, and by controlling tends to
      set standards and rely heavily on rewards and punishments. The autocratic style produces
      good short-run results but is apt to over-burden managers because in general it is a ―do-it-
      yourself‖ style.
      (b)     On the far right of Figure is the democratic or low-pressure style. Once again, we might
      expect, it consists of tolerant, self-trusting people, very permissive, whose loose control results
      from depending heavily and recognition with no punishment. It is surprising to note that Mr
      Livingston rates the results of this style as unimpressive and poor. As mentioned before, most
      leaders gain excellent results by operating in the variable style category described in the
      center column.
      (c)     To the military leader this means simply that he must be aware of the variety of
      leadership styles available to him. These styles range from autocratic to democratic and have
      definite characteristics. A good leader must change his style depending on the situation and
      the group he is leading. A good leader, then, should be able to be autocratic if the situation or
      group changes. Most of his time will be spent in the middle of the range or in the variable
      leadership category. The key to good leadership, then, is to be able to vary style depending
      on the situation and the group. This leads to the second part of the leader-group-situation
      approach ie. The situation.

Situation : Mission Accomplishment Vs Care of Men

15.    Two of the traditional missions of the military leader have been the accomplishment of mission
and taking care of one‘s men. At times, especially under the stress of combat, the two conflict; that
is, the leader faces the question; which is more important, mission or my men? Because of this
apparent contradiction, this has been (and still is) a subject for lively discussion in all leadership
training. In the past 20 years these two, at times divergent principles have served as a basis for
developing many leadership and management theories. The leadership studies initiated in 1940s by
Ohio State University showed that activities of most leaders could be divided into two behavioural
categories : -
       (a)     Task Accomplishment (Accomplishment of mission).
       (b)     Relationship (Welfare of men).

16.    It was found that some leaders emphasize task accomplishment; others concentrated on
relationship; while others were able to balance both. Since these patterns of leadership are separate
and measurable, they were plotted to form two dimensional model shown below :-


                           High Consideration     High Structure
                             Low Structure      High Consideration

                             Low Structure         High Structure
                           Low Consideration     Low Consideration

                                         INITIATING STRUCTURE
                                      (MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT)

17.    The patterns can be separated into four definite quadrants, which give area of operation for
each general leadership situation and style. For example, a leader who is oriented strictly towards
mission accomplishment without concern for personal relationship would be operating in the lower
right quadrant of high structure and low consideration. On the opposite end, a leader who stresses
welfare of men or personnel relationships and slights mission accomplishment would be operating in
the upper left quadrant of high consideration and low structure.

18.    Managerial Grid Theory These studies formed the basis for the managerial grid by Robert R
Blake and Jane S Mouton. In the concept the four quadrants of the model are the subject of division
into definite leadership styles and give a clear picture of changing situations based on varying
degrees of mission accomplishment and concern for people. The basic managerial grid is shown
below :-

                           (Country Club                9,9
                            Leadership)          (Team Leadership)

                                1,1                     9,9
                           (Impoverished         (Task Leadership)

                                  CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION
                                  (MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT)
      (a)    The concept is easily adaptable to military leadership. It is relatively simple to pick
      examples of 9-1 leaders who are so mission-oriented that they run roughshod over their
      people as pure autocrats to get a job done; or 1-9 leaders who care only to be popular and are
      so concerned for their people that the job is side lined while everyone is made ―happy‖.
      Likewise the 1-1 type who are ― on the job retirees‖ refuse to stick their neck to get the task
      accomplished or get involved with their people.
      (b)    Finally, the Army does have many of the 9-9 types who are capable of both mission
      accomplishment and willing involvement of the people under them. Actually, the 9-9 style
      might be considered as too permissive and democratic for the military leader because it
      implies more of a ―committee‖ system or group decision-making. For this reason, the proper
      position of a good military leader in the managerial grid should be more in the 9-5 position
      since the military leader must make decision on his own after the consultative process.

19.   Life cycle theory.    Now let us turn to a brief discussion of the third element or ―the group‖. In
the discussion of ―the group‖ or ― the followers‖ area of leadership, perhaps, the simplest explanation
is found in the life cycle theory. A military historian has said ―the only common denominator among
all great leaders of history is that each had follower‖, so there is some justification in the treatment of
followers as a most crucial factor. The life cycle theory imposed on the quadrant is shown below :-

                                LOW TASK HIGH     HIGH TASK HIGH
                                 BEHAVIOUR         RELATIONSHIP

                                 QUADRANT 3         QUADRANT 2
         WELFARE MEN

                                LOW TASK LOW      HIGH TASK LOW
                                RELATIONSHIP      RELATIONSHIP
                                 QUADRANT 4        QUADRANT 1

                          Low                                              High
                                              TASK BEHAVIOUR
                                        (INITIATION OF STRUCTURE)
                                       (MISSION ACCOMPLISHMENT)

       (a)     The basis of the life cycle theory is simply that the increasing maturity of one‘s followers
       causes less and less structure (command and supervision) and more personal consideration
       (relationships), and eventually when personal considerations can be decreased. Thus, with a
       totally mature group a leader can ease off on both task and relationship as with the mature
       group is well aware of the mission or goals and the various facets of proper relationship with
       the leader.
       (b)     The most common example of the Life Cycle Theory is the child- parent relationship
       where early in the cycle the parent provides all structure in dressing, feeding and bathing the
       child (quadrant 1). As the child gets along in school this turns to growing trust and respect or
       high relationship while in the same time maintaining supervision or task (quadrant 2).
       (c)     In high school and college, supervision or task is lessened and social and emotional
       support or relationship is given (quadrant 3); Finally, as the child leaves school, gets a job and
       a wife, there is a decrees in both supervision and social and emotional support (quadrant 4).
       (d)     This theory also directly applies to the military. The platoon leader with raw recruits will
       be supervision oriented (quadrant 1). As his immediate span of control is mature and higher
       ranking, the company commander can ease off on constant personal supervision and work
       more and more on personal relationships with his subordinates (quadrant 2). The senior field
       grade officer who works with senior field grade officers and other generals can afford to ease
       off in both direct supervision and direct personal contacts, especially when his span of control
       is very broad and his time extremely limited (quadrant 4). This is an example only. Of course,
       a general officer in a command position will be in quadrant 3 in his dealing with his men in that
       he spends a great deal of his time in personal actions affecting soldiers under his command.
       For example, Lt Gen Melvin Zais, while commander of the 101st Airborne and later on the
       XXIV Corps in Vietnam, spent close to 30 percent of his time in personal matters (greetings
       and farewells, changes of command, awards, visiting troops, setting personal policies in
       promotions, rotation awards and hundreds of other actions that pertain directly to people).

20.    The most favourable leadership situation is one in which the well accepted leader has a highly
structured task and a powerful position (for example, well-liked officer directing his men to set up a
tent). A very unfavorable situation is one in which a poorly accepted leader with little power has to
perform an unstructured task, for example, a group of scientists trying to formulate a workable
concept from various theories under the direction of leader they dislike.
21.     Dr Fiedler‘s studies have shown that a task-oriented leader performs best in very favourable
and unfavorable situations, while a relationship oriented leader does best in situations which are
intermediate in favorableness. He suggests, therefore, that most people can perform well provided
the situation matches their leadership style. Hence, the organization as well as the leader bears the
responsibility for good or for poor performance either by training the leader to adopt the proper style
or by modifying the leader‘s situation somewhat so that it matches his style, and that it might be
easier to change a man‘s leadership situation than to change his personality style.


22.   The trait principle concept gives us an insight into our behaviour and by knowing it we can
cash on the strong points. Since in the Army we are basically concerned both with the mission
accomplishment and welfare of men under our command, we must be aware of our style of
leadership. It is not always possible to equally balance the two needs, yet we can learn to reach one
through the other. For example, the concern for men during peace can pay us rich divided for
accomplishment of the mission during the war.

23.     The leadership style will vary through a scale ranging from autocratic to democratic depending
on the changing situation and the changing group. The leader will normally operate the group-
situation approach. This approach applies to all military leaders from the junior officer and non-
commissioned officer to the most senior officer. The wise and successful leader is the one who can
adjust to his changing environment as he climbs up the ladder of success.

24.   Basic leadership training that uses the old traits and principles concept still applies to a limited
degree at the junior leader level, as even this group must be exposed to the ―leader-situation-group‖
approach. Leadership training above the junior level-that is, in advanced courses and higher should
be based exclusively on ―leader-group-situation‖ approach.

                                         MAN MANAGEMENT


1.     Not long ago, it was commonly held that ‗management‘ is meant for those in business and
industry and it has hardly any relevance for the Defence Force. Many in the Defence Force still
believe that management has something primarily to do with logistics side of Forces and has nothing
much to do with command function. However, it has been seen that whatever many be the
characteristics of different branches in the services, management is of universal relevance to every

2.     Ever since the birth of NCC in 1948 NCC has made every effort to motivate and lead the youth
towards a purposeful end of Nation building and guide the youth to become Good Citizens. In the
process NCC is today a premier youth organization and the largest, organized youth movement in
the world. ‗Unity and Discipline‘ the motto of NCC conveys this achievement clearly. To derive
maximum benefits for the Nation and NCC its would only be appropriate that each and every member
of the organization contributes fully and positively. Studies and researches have lead us to believe
this contribution will be optimum only if Morale of constituents is very high and proper man
management in NCC is carried out.
Meaning of Management

3.     Management implies creating the right conditions for the right job to be done the right way in
the right time to ensure that the desired results are achieved.

Functions of Management

4.    The functions of management are : -
      (a)   Forecasting.
      (b)   Planning.
      (c)   Organising.
      (d)   Directing.
      (e)   Coordinating.
      (f)   Controlling.

5.     Forecasting. At the higher levels of command, there is a continuous process of looking into the
future to evolve term policies regarding acquisition of equipment, formulation of training policies and
manpower planning. Operational plans are updated in the light of future conflicts and enemy
capability which is ever changing. Broadly speaking, forecasting will involve following : -
       (a)    Collection and organization of data.
       (b)    Analysis of the data.
       (c)    Appreciation and knowledge of environmental factors.
       (d)    Synthesis of the above factors to arrive at logical conclusions.
       (e)    In the services, intelligence appreciations and there assessments are typical examples
       of forecasting.

6.    Planning.      It means working out the detailed material resources to make the plan work.
Planning is to decide in advance : -
      (a)     What to do ?
      (b)     How to do it ?
      (c)     Who is to do it ?
      (d)     When to do it ?

7.    Directing.    The function of directing involves the following : -
      (a)    Issue of directives to activate the organization.
      (b)    Provision of impetus and motivation to achieve the goal.
      (c)    Creation of completely healthy and co-operative atmosphere among various

8.    Coordination.       It will involve the following : -
      (a)    To lay down clearly policies, timing and sequence of events of various units so that their
      actions are complementary to each other.
      (b)    Allocation and distribution of resources judiciously.
      (c)    Decision making and problem solving at the appropriate time.
      (d)    Continuous monitoring of the turn of events.

9.     Controlling. It is monitoring and correcting of activities of subordinate to ensure complete
success of the plans. A good commander should encourage control from within the units and
formations. In nutshell, we find that the functions of management in industry are similar to the
functions of Command in the Defence Force.
Levels of Management

10.    The levels of management in an organization can always be thought of as a pyramid of
hierarchy – junior, middle and top. In the services, we can possibly identify three levels as indicated
below : -
       (a)    Function level.
       (b)    Direction level.
       (c)    Conceptual level.


11.    Definition. What is morale? It comes pretty close to defining the morale which soldiers need if
we put it in these simple word. Morale is wanting to do what you have to do. And that, moreover,
includes want-wanting to do, what you have to do for a reluctant morale is not good morale. Morale
is not general trait of personality, which some men have in large degree and others not. Morale is
simply the man‘s relation to particular requirements of his life.

12.   High morale leads to better results and helps in the enrichment of the organization.
Conversely low morale leads to low productivity, lack of interest, absenteeism and resignations. High
morale is usually taken as an index of satisfactory overall performance of the members and the
organization. Thus morale is a very important aspect as regards management of NCC cadets.

Factors Affecting Morale

13.   There are three basic factors affecting morale :-
      (a)   Spiritual.
      (b)   Mental.
      (c)   Material.


14.   (a)    Provides basic str and foundation for human characters which would stand firm under
      (b)    Spiritual need not always be religion based but also a cause in which one believes with


15.    The group must believe that the objective is achievable and worth working for. The individual
must belong mentally and emotionally to the organization. He must be explained the ‗WHYs‘ of the
various causes.


16.    The leader must ensure that everyone believes there is something for every one to gain from
the contributions of group. The group must have reasons to feel self content. In this process the
leader must be impartial so that everyone is treated equally.

Determiners of morale
17.   Determiners of morale are physical and psychological conditions that aid morale and improve
performance, these are :-
      (a)     Food. Hot, quality and tasty food served on time goes a long way to improve cadet
      morale particularly during camps.
      (b)     Fatigue and Sleep. Rest and sleep must be properly regulated to ensure a cadet is in
      the right physical state to perform well. A tired and sleepy person is irritable and readily
      (c)     Contact with Family. Young cadets require reassurance of love and affection from their
      near and dear ones. When out on camps proper mil facilities help them in keeping in touch
      with their families.
      (d)     Recreation. Cultural events, games, sports, reading interaction with the group breaks
      the monitoring of a busy schedule of the cadet and enables him to relax while doing his job.
      Sports and competitions play a very important part.
      (e)     Leadership. A cadet idolizes all his superior peers i.e. Army officers, ANO, JCOs, NCO,
      senior cadets and VIPs who visit NCC. Each one of these leaders must ensure the best is
      taught and the right example is set in front of cadets. If led from the front line subordinates will
      follow leader in every adverse situation.
      (f)     Religion. A spiritually rich country like India must exploit its religious teachings to keep
      NCC Cadets morale high. Men who have faith in power of religion derive force and power
      from it.
      (g)     Turnout and Discipline. The very first look of man shows the state of his morale.
      Cadets must be educated to dress well and pay proper compliments. Good turnout gives a
      person confidence in himself.
      (h)     Standard of Military Courtesy. It is said that Commander can make out the morale of
      his subordinate by the way compliments are given to him. If the morale is good, the person
      paying compliments will be energetic and if morale is bad, the person paying compliments
      appears to be exhausted and ugly.
      (j)     Personal Hygiene. If a person is of high morale, his psychological state is good and he
      takes pride in himself and keeps his surroundings clean, there by observing personal hygiene
      measures in good state. If his morale is low, his hygiene too is affected.
      (k)     Some other indicators of morale are :-
              (i)    Spreading of rumours.
              (ii)   Condition of living accommodation.
              (iii)  Care of equipment.
              (iv)   Response to orders.
              (v)    Trade proficiency.
              (vi)   Motivation during training.
              (vii) Keenness and voluntary effort.
              (viii) A basic sense of personal worth.
              (ix)   Pride of the individual.

Management of NCC Cadets

18.     Problems of Building up Morale. Any group not only depends on existing environmental
factors, but also depends on its past experience on which the present leader has no control. Similarly
a type of stimulus may generate different psychological response in different individuals. Thus any
effort to improve morale is often unpredictable.

19.   Building Morale – Task of Leaders. Building up the morale of the NCC cadets is the task of
basically of the ANOs and other officers, JCOs and NCOs who interact with cadets. Hence these
leaders first must attain and maintain high level of morale to enable success in uplifting the morale of
cadets. An ill trained low morale ANO/leader cannot build up the morale of cadets. Thus any effort to
built up cadet morale must take the general expectations of the ANOs, JCO & NCOs motivate them
and thereafter they must be taught the process of morale building of cadets.

20.    Once the leaders are motivated there after they must proceed to create a feeling of mutual
confidence and establish support with his group. This must lead to an atmosphere of mutual trust,
good will, confidence and group analysis. Thereafter they must start his morale building measures by
introducing plans based on ‗felt needs‖ of the individual and the group. The needs which dominate
human aspiration are :-
       (a)    Basic psychological need.
       (b)    Scrutiny.
       (c)    Sense of belongings (Esprit-De-Corps).
       (d)    Self-Esteem, Recognition.
       (e)    Self Realisation and accomplishment.

21.   The above needs may not all be dealt with in the same order of priority. In case of NCC
cadets it may even stop with the first three. However the ultimate satisfaction lies in all the above
needs being achieved.

Steps and Guidelines for Proper Man Management

22.    Certain guideline for the NCC leaders who are directly involved with cadets morale is as
follows :-
       (a)    Leadership and Staff Work. As adequately discussed, unless the leaders themselves
       are motivated, self disciplined and knowledgeable, building up morale of cadets is not possible.
       Along with good leadership, detailed planning and provisioning will help, which depends upon
       good staff work.
       (b)    Decision Making. To enable cadets to learn and progress leaders must give correct and
       timely decision without any bias.
       (c)    Discipline and Comradeship. Leaders must enforce discipline ruthlessly and promote
       camaraderie and cooperation.
       (d)    Training. It must aim at :-
              (i)     Developing Confidence.
              (ii)    Imparting Knowledge.
              (iii)   Building Comradeship.
              (iv)    Develop analytical skill.
              (v)     Knowledge of Drill, Tactics, General knowledge.
       (e)    Good Administration. The above factors can blossom in an environment where
       administration is of the best quality. Where resources in the correct quantity and quality to
       ensure optimum results are provided.
       (f)    Espirit-De-Corps. Once the process of morale building starts a major boost to the
       process can be given by developing a sense of belonging to the various establishment like
       NCC, School/Colleges/NCC Bn/Group/Directorate and the various wings as Boys SD & JD and
       Girls SW & JW. These affiliation must be developed as it exists in the Regimental tradition
       concept in the Armed Forces.
       (g)    Public Relations. Once the initial steps are initiated thereafter proper public relations
       exercise, based on events, media and competitions will help the whole organization to look for
       recognition which in itself will be the progressive step of morale building for future cadres.
       (h)    First Hand Info. A leader must obtain first had info to find out genuine problems and
       needs of cadets and accordingly take remedial measures.

23.   In conclusion, we can easily say that the primary purposes of Management is to convert
resources in to results. A result is the consequence of purposeful activity which is, management.
Consequently management is a command function.

24.    Morale is a essential quality a cadet must have to succeed. A high morale bearing cadets will
thereafter progress in life and be motivated citizen/member of the Armed forces or any organization
he might find a place in. It must be the endeavor to imbibe a sense of pride in the Corps amongst
NCC Officers and cadets, which will create sufficient motivation towards giving their best for the
organization and many of the problems facing the nation will be solved by them.

                         OFFICER LIKE CONDUCT – DO‟S AND DON‟T‟S


1.    The importance of good behaviour by officers on all occasions needs no emphasis. It should
be understood and remembered that a unit in particular and NCC as a whole are judged by
exemplary conduct and good manners of its officers. There are certain unwritten laws and customs
which all officers must not only know but must also follow in true letter and spirit.

Paying of Compliments

2.    General. Whether on or off parade, whether in uniform or civil dress, officers are expected to
pay normal compliments to their seniors in rank. This is not only a matter of discipline but also
common courtesy, and must be observed scrupulously at all times.

3.    Saluting.
      (a)    When in Uniform. In civil life, when one meets a lady or a gentleman out of door, it is
      normal to take off one‘s hat to her or him. The military equivalent of this is to salute when in
      uniform. The correct way to wish a lady or a gentleman, when in uniform and not wearing
      head dress, is to come to attention, bow slightly, say the appropriate words of greeting and
      shake hands if the person greeted offers her or his hand. It is incorrect to fold hands and say
      ―Namaste‖ when in uniform.
      (b)    When in Civil Dress. As officers are permitted to wear civil clothes to put them at ease
      and to save them the formalities connected with the uniform, they should pay the same
      courtesies that civilian would pay when meeting a lady or a superior or an elderly person.
      Thus, it would be proper to raise the hat, or rise seated or bow slightly and greet the person
      concerned appropriately, i.e. ―Good Morning‖ or ―Good Evening‖.
      (c)    If other ranks recognize you and salute, never fail to return it in the proper manner. Do
      not salute if without head dress, but just say ―Jai Hind‖, ―Ram Ram‖ or ―Sat Sri Akal‖ according
      to the class of the other ranks. Raise your hat if you are wearing one.
      (d)    Civil Official.     Civil officials, i.e. Government officials have rank and status
      corresponding to military ranks. Compliments must be paid to such officials as entitled.

4.     Other Services. Officers should also know the equivalent ranks of the Navy and Air Force and
should pay compliments to such officers as is due. Officers should also try to know the customs
peculiar to the Navy and Air Force in order to avoid misunderstandings due to ignorance. Officers of
the other services should be called by their full ranks e.g. Lt Comdr Arjun Singh and not Comdr Arjun

5.      General. This is one of the principle means by which officers and their families get to know
each other. Calling helps to develop esprit-de-corps which should exist in every unit and station. The
form in which calls are made vary from station to station / unit to unit . On arrival at a new station,
find out what is in vogue and act according to the correct etiquette. Exchange of visits by service
officers will be governed by the following :-
        (a)      The junior shall first visit the senior.
        (b)      If the officers are of equal rank, the officer last arriving at the station shall pay the visit
        first irrespective of his seniority.

Messes & Dress

6.      General. As officers mess is an institution which influence all aspects of an officer‘s life. It
moulds his character and his way of life to a great extent. Mess customs and tradition instill in the
officer, a strong sense of loyalty and co-operation, and an even stronger sense of esprit-de-corps.
The mess is a common home of all officers of a unit. The officers‘ mess generally serves three
functions :-
        (a)    The home of all bachelors.
        (b)    The club of every serving officer.
        (c)    The center of social life of all officers in a station.

7.    Mess Rules.       As all institutions have rules; the mess also has its own rules. These rules
may vary in different messes. This is because many rules are based on old traditions which are
bound to be different. But this aspect is minimal and on the whole, rules are more or less similar in
most messes. It should be every individual‘s endeavour to get acquainted with mess rules as early
as possible otherwise you are liable to become a laughing stock of other members of the mess.

8.     Dress. Wearing of proper dress is applicable to all spheres of life, no individual can claim he
or she is not interested in dressing up properly. Dress does not imply the clothes only, that you wear,
it encompasses everything from the way you comb your hair or for those who are not so fortunate, the
way you shave your head, to the way you polish your shoes. It is also equally important that you are
dressed to suit the occasion. Some of you may like go for a visit to your friend‘s place in night suit or
kurta - pajama. However, one cannot afford to be casual in one‘s attitude when it comes to visiting
the mess. Remember you are an ‗officer‘ at all times. Therefore, always take the same meticulous
care in the way you dress up for the mess. Officers should take pride in their turn out. Whether in
uniform or in plain clothes. Do not enter the mess with a cap or hat on. A brush should be provided
outside the ante-room so that officers can brush their shoes before entering the mess. Certain guide
lines are as given below :-
       (a)     Always be well groomed before entering the mess. This implies a proper haircut and
       neatly combed hair, a proper shave, neat clothes and clean well polished shoes. It goes
       without saying that sikh officers must have a properly fixed turban and well kept beard.
       (b)     It is a cardinal sin to wear slippers and enter the mess. Even if you have been excused
       wearing shoes by medical advice, you must not enter a mess in ‗chappals‘ or slippers.
       (c)     You should never wear a half sleeves or bush shirt to the mess unless otherwise
       specified. Sometime in certain messes half sleeves shirts are allowed for breakfast or lunch
       on Sundays and Holidays. This is the only exception. Also remember that the full sleeves
       shirt should be buttoned at the cuffs and not folded half way up.
       (d)     If you have sunglasses always remove them before entering the mess.
       (e)     As far as possible wear light coloured clothes to the mess. Do not wear flowery or jazzy
       type clothes.
       (f)     Wear the correct type of dress on all occasions. If you do not have one, get yourself
       excused and do not visit the mess.
       (g)     Guests. Officers should ensure that the guests they invite do conform to their mess
       rules in regard to dress in the mess. If they are not properly dressed, they should not be taken
       into the ante-room, but entertained in some other room, verandah or in the garden.
       (h)     Formal Dress. The formal dress in national dress, ie closed collar jacket/achken
       (Jodhpur Jacket) or dinner jacket (tuxedo). This dress is to be worn on all state/formal
       occasions when uniform has not been specified.
       (j)     Informal Dress. Long suit in winters and full sleeved shirts with tie in summer
       constitutes informal dress and can be worn for official as well as private functions.
       (k)     Casual Dress. Combination suit during winters and safari suit/open collar during
       summers form casual dress and can be worn for club functions/private parties.

9.  Conduct in the Mess.          The following general points should govern an officer‘s conduct in the
mess :-
      (a)    If there is an officer of field rank in the Mess when you enter, bow slightly to him with an
      appropriate greeting, ie ―Good Morning‖ or ―Good Evening‖. You need not ‗Click‖ your heels or
      stand to attention when doing this. Similarly, when an officer of field rank enters the room, you
      must stand up and greet him. Officers must stand up and greet the senior dining member
      when he enters.
      (b)    Officers of field rank and above must be addressed as ‗Sir‘ when spoken to but there is
      not need to ‗Click‘ your heels every time you speak to them. Officers of the rank of captain and
      below are not addressed as ‗Sir‘ off work.
      (c)    When a visitor, service or civilian, regardless of rank, enters your mess, you must stand
      up and greet him courteously and offer him a drink or a smoke. Make him feel at home, but
      never force drink on anybody.
      (d)    Be punctual on all occasions.
      (e)    Do not visit the mess during working hours unless you are on the sick list or on leave or
      have to go there in connection with some work. In nine cases out of ten you are neglecting
      your duty elsewhere and everybody knows it.
      (f)    Do not form cliques of your own circle of friends. Remember you are all members of a
      family who live together happily in a spirit of good comradeship and fellowship.
      (g)    Do not discuss controversial or forbidden subjects, ie religion or politics. Avoid talking
      ‗shop‘ as far as possible. Never indulge in loose gossip about women.
      (h)    Before you turn on the music system or switch on the TV, ask others present if they
      have any objection. This is only a matter of courtesy, for, whilst you may wish to hear some
      music or watch TV, others may like to be left in peace.
      (j)    Dogs or other pets should not be taken inside the mess.
      (k)    You must treat the mess property as your own. Do not remove anything from the mess
      without the permission of the president of the mess committee (PMC).
      (l)    Unless you are a member of the mess committee you have no authority to reprimand a
      mess servant or mess staff. You must report anything you see wrong to the mess secretary.
      Do not find fault or make complaints to the mess staff. Never lose your temper or abuse the
      mess staff/servants.
      (m) The mess ―Suggestion Book‖ if one exists, is not meant for entering complaints. It is
      meant for constructive suggestions for improvement of the mess, in making suggestions avoid
      sarcasm or attempt at humour.
      (n)    If you are reading a newspaper or a magazine and a senior officer comes in, get up
      and offer the paper to him if it is the only copy in the mess. Similarly, if you are sitting
      comfortably under a fan or in front of a fire, get up and offer your seat to a senior officer when
      he arrives, if no other such seat is available.
      (o)    Senior officers should not ‗tick off‘ juniors in the mess. This is a place meant for
      relaxation. ‗Ticking-off‘ if necessary, can be done later on.
      (p)      Bridge and few other games, at very small stakes, are the only ‗gambling‘ games
      permitted in a mess. Details regarding these are normally laid down in the mess standing
      (q)      You may read a newspaper or a periodical during breakfast and lunch but not at dinner.
      It is ‗not done‘ to read a book in the dining room.
      (r)      Be wise in your selection of drinks and moderate in consumption. There are no
      traditions or customs that an officer must be a heavy drinker. Standing drinks to brother
      officers is forbidden. It is very bad manner to over do hospitality by pressing additional drinks
      on anyone.
      (s)      Singing in the mess is un-officer like. However there may be an instance where during
      a get together the senior officer present may desire to hear a song from someone. It is only
      on the specific instance that one of the officers should volunteer to sing. Do not start
      introducing officers as the local ‗Moh Rafis‘ etc. Apart from this if you have to sing go to one
      side or a corner and stand in gentlemanly way. Do not stand right in front of a senior officer
      and that too with a glass or cigarettes in your hand.
      (t)      If a senior officer is present in the mess and you wish to smoke, it is good manners to
      seek permission. If someone is already smoking then you need not ask permission. Do not
      smoke in dining room.
      (u)      When it is time to have food move into the dining room in a gentlemanly manner. Do
      not go like heard of animals pushing people around you. If a senior officer is present escort
      him for food and start eating only after he has taken his food unless he has already told you to
      carry on with your food. Similarly do not leave the table till the senior officer rises himself. If
      you wish to sit at a table where others are already seated you must first say ―excuse me‖ and
      then pull the chair and sit down. Similarly do the same if you wish to get up for some purpose
      while others are still seated. The dining room is for eating only. Do not walk around aimlessly
      while others are eating their food and do not switch on the TV either.
      (v)      As far as possible avoid talking while having food. If you have to talk, do so softly.
      Also remember do not talk across the table and never talk with your mouth full.
      (w)      While eating your food do not rest you hands on the table. Your arms must always be
      below the table and maximum you may rest your wrists on the table. If you wish to take a dish
      do not stretch across the table. Say to the person sitting next to you ―May I have or please
      pass the dal‖. Remember when the dish is passed to you take it, place it next to you and then
      serve yourself. Do not help yourself when the other person is holding it. When you get to
      leave, place the chair back in its proper place gently without dragging it.
      (x)      If napkins are placed on the table use them properly, not as face towels. After use they
      must be correctly folded and placed on the table and not thrown on it.
      (y)      Be polite enough not to leave the mess till guests or senior officers have left. It is
      customary not to leave the mess till the commanding officer or anyone representing him has

10.    Visitors and Guests.
      (a)     Do not invite all and sundry to your mess. Select your guests, you must obtain
       permission from the President Mess Committee, before you invite a guest to a regimental
      (b)     During regimental guest nights and other regimental social functions in the mess, every
       member is host. It is the duty of the members to see that no guest is left unattended.

11.    Dinner Nights.       A dinner night in the mess is a parade. Officers who have not signed out
or had permission to dine out, must be present at least five minutes before the scheduled time. The
following is the normal procedure for dinner nights :-
       (a)      A President and a Vice President should be detailed by the President Mess Committee.
       It is not necessary for the senior officer in the mess to be President at either dinner nights or
       guest nights.
       (b)      The mess Havildar should report ‗dinner ready‘ to the senior officer present immediately
       after the second call. The senior officer after allowing a few minutes for the people to finish
       their drinks, should lead the way into the dining room. Officers need not enter the dining room
       in order of seniority.
       (c)      Officers sit after the senior officer is seated as per the seating plan. The president will
       sit at the head of the table and the Vice President at the foot.
       (d)      Officers will start eating only when all have been served.
       (e)      An officer arriving late will report to the President or the Vice President for permission to
       take his place at the table. Places for late comers are left up to the end of the first course.
       Similarly if an officer wishes to leave the table before dinner is over, he will walk up to the
       President and obtain permission.
       (f)      The senior dining member should be served first and the others in a clockwise direction.
       (g)      All empty plates of one course should be removed before serving the next course.
       (h)      The table should be cleared of every thing other than decorations before coffee is
       served cigarettes/cigars are then passed around. Officers will not smoke until the senior
       officer starts smoking or gives permission to smoke. It is improper to smoke a pipe in the
       dining room.
       (j)      During dinner the president or the vice President alone can give orders to the mess
       Havildar or the waiters.
       (k)      Officers will leave the table only after the senior member rises.
       (l)      There is no objection to an officer leaving the mess as soon as dinner is over, but
       before leaving, should wish the senior dining.


12.   Invitations fall under the headings, formal and informal and must be answered in the from in
which they have been issued i.e. a formal invitation must be answered formally and an informal one

13.   Invitations must be sent as far ahead of the date of the function as possible, as a guide at least
ten days ahead.

14.   Etiquette demands that all invitations should be answered at once, to enable the host or
hostess to make necessary arrangements. An invitation once accepted must not be declined
subsequently, except for reason over which one has no control, such as serious illness or
unavoidable absence on duty.

15.    Formal Invitations. Formal invitations are worded in the third person and may be written,
typed or printed. Such invitations are answered in the third person. Other important aspects
regarding invitations are :-
       (a)     Invitations from the president, Governors and Heads of states are never declined except
       on grounds of ill health or absence from duty.
       (b)     The decorations of the officers issuing invitations should not appear on the invitation,
       but those of the person invited must be shown if he is single. Similarly, when replying, always
       insert any decorations to which your host way be entitled but not your own.
       (c)     Divisional or other formation signs will not be used by officers on private invitation cards
       although messes and units will invariable use them. It is in bad taste to use silver or bold
       lettering and borders on such invitations.
       (d)     If unable to accept an invitation always give briefly the reason for doing so without
       getting involved in lengthy explanation e.g. instead of just ―unable to attend‖ say ‗regrets his
       inability to attend owing to previous engagement‘ or ‗absence from station‘ as the case may

16.    Informal Invitations.    There is no set format for these invitations, it is generally an ordinary
hand-written letter and it is normal for the wife to issue the invitation. Such an invitation should also
be replied promptly, using the form in which it was issued. If unable to accept, give the reason for
your inability to do so.


17.     Introduction. Introductions some times present difficulties. The normal rule is that a
gentleman is introduced to lady, a single woman to a married woman, a younger to an elder and a
junior to a senior. Whilst introducing the names of both parties should be given clearly.

18.     It is usual for both parties to the introduction to remark ‗How do you do, Mr Dastur (or so and
so) with a suitable reply from the junior such as ―How do you do‘ Sir (or Mrs Dev), not out of any
solicitude as to the health or well being of the other, but merely as a conventional intimation that the
introduction has been effected. It is incorrect to pass any remarks as to one‘s health or worse still,
pleasure at meeting the other person, such as ‗I am very well, thank you‘ or ‗I am pleased to meet

19.     Visits.    An officer may have to stay with friends from time to time during his service career.
When doing so, try and make it as easy as you can for your host. When leaving always remember, to
‗tip‘ the servants. After the visit, it is not only courteous but essential to write a letter of thanks,
however short the stay, irrespective of whether it was comfortable or not.

20.    If you have invited someone to a meal at your house and the person concerned has guests
staying him, etiquette demands that you invite the guests as well.

21.     Arrival and Departure from Function      The etiquette is the same for both official and private
functions or parties. If you are a host on official party then follow the same rules as for regimental
guest night, i.e. arrive before any guest or your officer commanding, and do not leave until all the
guests and the officer commanding have left. Be punctual at private parties and if other senior
officers are present, do not leave till they have left, especially before your officer commanding, if he
happens to be present.

22.    Correspondence. The normal rules for correspondence are given in the précis ―Military
Writing‖.     A common mistake made in addressing officers‘ wives is to address them by their name
e.g. the wife of Captain Kuldeep Singh should be addressed ―As Mrs K Singh‘ or Mrs Kuldeep Singh
and not ―Mrs Bimla Singh‘. A lady must, however, be addressed by her own name if she is a spinster,
widow, has been divorced or separated from her husband.

23.     Funerals      Individual officer, if in uniform and if passing or being passed by a service or
civilian funeral must salute the coffin or urn containing the remains of the deceased. If wearing
civilian clothes, you should raise your hand.

24.    Name Board.
       (a)   Officers. The board should contain the officer‘s rank, name, decoration, regiment and
       the appointment.
       (b)   Residence. The board should contain the officer‘s rank, name and regiment only.

25.    In the above notes certain rules on etiquette which were in common usage before the war and
certain others that have originated since have been explained. These notes are not exhaustive. You
must remember, that you are an officer. Instructions have been issued from time to time by higher
formations regarding dress, mess procedure and general behaviour at social functions. Officers must
keep abreast of these orders. It is the duty of senior officers to instruct junior officers on military
antiquate and regimental customs and also to set an example.

                                   DUTIES OF A GOOD CITIZEN


1.     It is human nature to strive for a higher and higher status in the society. We, therefore,
continuously compete against each other and try to be one better than the other. However, we
should ensure that we achieve our aims by following the right path i.e. by being a good citizen.

Definition of a Citizen

2.     A citizen can be defined as, a member of a political community who owes allegiance to the
state and who enjoys protection and the right granted by the constitution of the country. A partial
citizen owes allegiance to the state but has no political rights. An alien owes no allegiance to the
state and has no political rights but enjoys only civil rights.

Acquisition of Citizenship

3.    Citizenship can be acquired in either of the following ways :-
      (a)    By Birth. Person born in India to Indian citizens.
      (b)    By Descent. Children born to Indian citizens living in foreign countries automatically
      acquire Indian citizenship.
      (c)    By Naturalization. A person who applies for citizenship by fulfilling certain conditions
      like residence, appointment in the state, purchase of land or marriage with an Indian citizen
      may become an Indian citizen if the Government of India gives a certificate to that effect.

4.    One can be a citizen of more than one state at a time.

Duties of a Good Citizen

5.     Duty may be defined as a moral/legal obligation and a binding force of what is right behaviour
towards superiors, colleagues and subordinates. Each citizen of India has certain rights and duties to
perform. A good citizen is one who knows his rights and also his duties. However, these days we
tend to know our rights and fight for them, but forget our duties towards the nation. We either do not
know our duties or tend to forget and ignore them deliberately. Some of the important duties of a
good citizen are as follows :-
       (a)     Loyalty. Primary duty is to be loyal and owe allegiance to the state.
       (b)     Patriotism. Means preservation of Independence of the country. A good citizen is a
       patriot. He loves his country more than his life. He lives and dies for the sake of his Country.
      (c)    Service Before Self. A good citizen is selfless. He keeps service before self as the
      motto of his life.
      (d)    Sense of Duty. A good citizen has a sense of duty. He performs his duties honestly.
      He obeys the rules and regulations of the country and pays tax to the Government.
      (e)    Care and protection of the Government property.
      (f)    Good Character. A citizen should have good character. The black marketers,
      hoarders, smugglers and adulterators are the enemies of the country. A thief, dacoit, pick
      pocket or a person who takes bribes is not a good citizen. It is the duty of every citizen to
      expose such a person.
      (g)    A good citizen considers the right of other citizens as important as his own rights.
      (h)    Moral Duties.
             (i)     Towards himself as a good citizen.
             (ii)    Towards his family.
             (iii)   Towards his neighbour.
             (iv)    Towards the society.
      (j)    Legal Duties.
             (i)     Obey the laws of the state.
             (ii)    Timely payment of taxes to the Government.
             (iii)   Patriotism towards state/nation.
             (iv)    Correct use of ballot.
             (v)     Cooperation with the government personnel.
      (k)    While formulating the constitution of India the basic fundamental duties were not clearly
      spelt out. But after 42nd Amendment it was clarified and new chapter had been added after
      chapter 4, and it is known as Chapter 4 (a). As per articles 51 (a) there are ten basic
      fundamental duties listed for the citizen of India. They are :-
             (i)     Obey the constitution and respects its virtues, organization, National flag and
             National anthem.
             (ii)    Cultivate the morale values in our hearts regarding our freedom struggle and
             follow the principles of it.
             (iii)   Safeguard Nation‘s unity, heritage and integration.
             (iv)    Protect the country and be ready to save the country when called for.
             (v)     Inculcate the feeling of equality and respect for all people irrespective of caste,
             creed, religion, and                   language. Discard the traditions which are against
             (vi)    Encourage our ancient customs and traditions and try to follow them.
             (vii) Protect the natural environmental surroundings including forests, lakes, rivers
             and wild life. Show mercy on them and look after them.
             (viii) From scientific point of view, generate a feeling of development for humanity.
             (ix)    Protect public property and be away from violence.
             (x)     Develop in all individualistic and group activities in all fields and put the nation
             constantly on the path of progress.


6.     The younger generation of today are the leaders of future India. The younger generation and
especially NCC cadets should endeavour to be good citizens and expose other who indulge in anti
social activities, understand their duties and follow them relentlessly. It requires hard word and
perseverance. It may be at the cost of pleasure and comfort in the beginning but if the path of
diligence is followed with full determination, success will be assured. While carrying out duties do not
bother about what others say or think. A person can command respect only if he knows his duty and
does it sincerely. This is how one can influence the minds and actions and others.


1.     India an ancient but forward looking country needs disciplined men and woman with brains and
brawn capable of putting in hard work. NCC a premier youth organization ever since it‘s inception in
the year 1948 has been rendering a yeoman‘s service to the nation. It is the national organization
which has helped in inculcating in the cadets a spirit of courage, confidence, self reliance, selfless
service, a feeling of patriotism etc, which are essential to make youth disciplined and dutiful. The
boys and girls in school and colleges are our future leaders. If that be so, then their training and up
bringing has to be aimed at making them good citizens. Towards this end the need to inculcate in
them a sense of duty and discipline can not be over emphasized.

Duty and Discipline

2.    (a)     Duty. Duty may be defined as a moral/legal obligation and binding force of what is right
      and good behaviour towards superiors, colleagues and subordinates. While carrying out one‘s
      duties, a person should not bother about what others say or think. A person can command
      respect of others only if he knows his duty and does it sincerely. That is how she starts
      influencing the mind and actions of others. Each citizen of India has certain rights and duties
      to perform. He/ she should not only worry about his rights but should also devote equal if not
      more attention towards obligation of his/ her duties. One must understand her duties and
      follow them relentlessly. It requires hard work and perseverance. It may cost pleasure and
      comfort in the beginning, but if the path of doing duties is followed with full determination, the
      success will be sure.
      (b)     Discipline. Discipline is the individual or group attitude, which ensures prompt
      obedience to orders and invocation of appropriate action in the absence of orders. It is the
      result of training and influential leadership which helps the individual to withstand difficult
      situations without faltering. Discipline also welds together, the other important qualities of
      courage, endurance and alertness. Discipline teaches self-control and correct behaviour at all
      times. Discipline is the instant obedience to orders regardless of consequences. It is not
      slavish adherence to rigid interpretation of orders but observance of and compliance to spirit of
      orders by group/ individual. The most important factor is that the group must act in unison to
      carry out their task or to achieve their aim. Without discipline, an individual or a group seldom
      succeeds, as he is without any aim or purpose. With discipline the group acts as one and their
      actions become more strong as combination of different acts designed to achieve the same
      purpose adds strength to it. Primarily it is combination of good morale, loyalty, camaraderie,
      and self discipline which leads to success of the group.

Factors Affecting Duty and Discipline in NCC

3.    (a)     Individual‘s Own State of Mind. It is very important factor, state of mind depicts
      response to orders, courtesy, team spirit and individual‘s activities.
      (b)     Domestic, Family and Private Life. It is a binding factor, if domestic life is dutiful or
      disciplined, it does influence on the student/cadet.
      (c)     Ambition. If ambition is based on good and sound moral values, then it automatically
      becomes a positive factor. If ambition leads to achievement of goals through shortcuts or
      unfair means, then its is counter productive.
      (d)     Self Respect. It is very important. It is respect of conscious that makes a man duty
      bound and disciplined.
      (e)     School and College Atmosphere. Party-politics and groupism is generated by student
      union most of the times for personal gains.
      (f)     Less Emphasis on NCC. If the school/college do not provide sufficient facilities for
      ground, material, stores etc students get frustrated which results in deterioration in standards
      of discipline.
      (g)     Attitude of ANOs. If the ANO is negligent towards training and is slack in handling
      situations, indiscipline is bound to set in. The amount of interest and keenness shown by the
      ANO in ensuring execution of her directions and her dealing with subordinates will promote
      sense of duty and discipline amongst cadets. She should be tactful, resourceful, and should
      not have negligent attitude. She should set personal example. She should suitably reward
      her subordinates. She should regularly supervise parades and try to rectify the problems
      rather than adding to the them. She should generate interest by motivating school staff, PI
      staff and cadets.
      (h)     Battalion Atmosphere. If the OC does not keep a vigil on the turnout and discipline of
      cadets they are likely to become disinterested. OC should personally generate interest and
      motivate his subordinates.

Methods of Inculcating Duty and Discipline

4.    (a)     ANO as Example. Demonstrate discipline by your own conduct and set an example.
      An ANO should herself be dutiful and act as a role model or an ideal for NCC Cadets. ANOs
      personal involvement and association with cadets on and off parade will definitely have a
      catalytic effect on the sense of duty and discipline of the cadets.
      (b)     Institute a fair and impartial system for punishment and equitable distribution of
      privileges and rewards.
      (c)     Strive for mutual confidence and respect through training.
      (d)     Through NCC Training. By organizing a number of activities like mountaineering,
      trekking, flying, gliding, scuba diving, home nursing, para-jumping, rock climbing, archery,
      rowing, para sailing, hand gliding, horse riding, cycle expedition, and such other thrilling
      sports/ activities, the energies of the youth are channelised in the right direction, where in
      cadets do various kinds of duties without becoming insolent and aggressive. It helps
      increasing discipline.
      (e)     Organising of Camps. NCC camps are organized to carry out nation building activities
      like road construction, slum clearance, adult education, house construction etc. The aim of
      these camps is not to turn the students into road making labourers or house builders but to
      bring together a large number of young people and teach them to do organized work in a
      disciplined manner. The lesson of cooperation and team spirit is well learnt and understood in
      these camps and at the same time they also realize the dignity of labour.
      (f)     Practice cadets in shouldering responsibilities by way of giving them appointments and
      promotion etc.
      (g)     Instill a sense of pride and esprit-de-corps in the organization which can be done by :-
              (i)      Helping local population in case of natural calamities.
              (ii)     Helping in control of riots.
              (iii)    During war.
      (h)     Morale Lectures. The OC & ANOs must interact more often with the NCC Cadets and
      emphasise on the aspect of duty and discipline amongst cadets.

Code of Ethics/ Honour Code for NCC Cadets

5.     The honour code is the stepping to higher virtues like patriotism, devotion to duty, selflessness
and valour. The honour code helps cadets to imbibe that sense of virtue which remains inviolate and
urges the individual to follow the path of Honour and to enforce it on those around him.
6.    Code of ethics for NCC cadets, approved by DGNCC is as under. These are required to be
issued to the cadets in the form of a pocket size laminated card. The printing and lamination is to be
undertaken at directorate level and the cards distributed to all cadets :-
      (a)     Be truthful, upright and obedient.
      (b)     Be humane, cultured and compassionate.
      (c)     Be respectful to your instructors, parents and fellow cadets.
      (d)     Be punctual and well disciplined at all times.
      (e)     Be open and transparent in personal conduct.
      (f)     Be mentally and physically robust.
      (g)     Always protect the weak.
      (h)     Be loyal and faithful to the organization you serve.
      (i)     Spread the message of national integration.
      (j)     Espouse social causes.

7.    Following instructions will be adhered to : -
      (a)    Size of the card will be 11cm in length and 9cm in width.
      (b)    Each cadet will be issued with the code by the respective Directorates.
      (c)    The cadets will always carry the card in their right breast pocket of the shirt, while on
      (d)    The Offrs, ANOs and Pl staff will also be conversant with the code and educate the
      cadets to follow the code in life.
      (e)    The card will be bilingual, one side will be in English and the other side in Hindi
      (f)    The printing, lamination and distribution of the cards will be completed by 30 Nov 2004.
      (g)    Cadets coming for RDC – 05 should be in possession of the code.


8.     There are a number of examples of persons whose names have become immortal in history
through devotion to duty and sense of discipline. Bhagwan Rama is the greatest of them all. Shivaji,
Rana Pratap, Tipu Sultan, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru are other examples. The young
generation of today is the future leaders of India. The young generation and specially NCC Cadets
should endeavour to become good citizens and expose others who indulge in antisocial activities.
NCC Cadets should be encouraged to play an active part in the development of society. They should
follow the principle of service before self and the serve the nation. They should understand their
duties and be self-disciplined. The Honour Code can become the foundation for every cadet‘s ethical
behaviour throughout rest of his life. Honour is the hall mark of an ‗officer like conduct.‘ It means a
person has the knowledge to determine right from wrong, and the courage to adhere to the right.



1.      An individual's personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes them unique
from other people. It includes all patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things
in particular ways. Personality development is, developing a personality cult so as to create a strong
positive impression about self with the targeted group, or in general; and more pertinent aspect of
such personality is to maintain and prove in a long run.

Factors Influencing Personality
2.    Positive Factors.
      (a)    Appearance.
      (b)    Intelligence.
      (c)    Smartness.
      (d)    Trustworthy, High integrity and Responsible.
      (e)    Knowledge, in depth.
      (f)    Management.
      (g)    Efficiency.
      (h)    Economic independence.
      (j)    Morality / Character.
      (k)    Being beneficial / advantageous.

3.     Negative Factors.
      (a)    Unhygienic
      (b)    Hurting attitude.
      (c)    Useless approach.
      (d)    Non-beneficial communication.
      (e)    Untrustworthy, Irresponsible, Lack of integrity.
      (f)    Below average performance.
      (g)    Powerless egoism.
      (h)    Financial indiscipline.
      (j)    Mismanagements.
      (k)    Uncontrolled burst of negative emotions.

Aspects Influencing Personality.

4.    Four major aspects which influence personality are :-
      (a)   Physical aspects.
      (b)   Social aspects.
      (c)   Psychological aspects.
      (d)   Philosophical aspects.

5.       Physical Aspects. Physical personality depends upon pleasing personality indirectly
supported by health, strength and withstanding capacity.
6.       Social Aspects.    Social personality‘s main factors encompass social values, communication
skill, attitude and economic independence especially in relation with wealth.

7.     Psychological aspects.    Psychological personality is in tune with personal values, approach,
thinking pattern, emotional management and influenced by knowledge, intelligence and smartness.

8.    Philosophical aspects.      Philosophical personality is on account of maturity of values.

Developing a Strong Personality

9.    Main factors for developing a strong personality in social environment are as under :-
      (a)   Pleasing appearance.
      (b)   Beneficial communication.
      (c)   Adapting and adhering to social values in interactions.
      (d)   Developing confidence of
            (i)     Sincerity, integrity and trust.
            (ii)    Completing duties, fulfilling responsibilities in time.
            (iii)   Economic independent, but not being miser.
       (e)     Awareness and alertness.
       (f)     Useful application of: knowledge in depth, positive intelligence and defensive
       (g)     Self-Confidence, Initiative, dynamism, leadership qualities, will-power and self-
       (h)     Adaptive to moral values.

10.    Main factors for developing a strong personality in working field are :-
       (a)    Sincerity, integrity and trust.
       (b)    Awareness, alertness and grasping capacity.
       (c)    Beneficial communication skill.
       (d)    Useful application of required knowledge in depth, positive intelligence and defensive
       (e)    Non dependence of economic condition other than for rightful privileges.
       (f)    Completing duties and fulfilling responsibilities in time and absolute accountability.
       (g)    Pleasing appearance with good health.
       (h)    Social interactions in tune with institutional decorum.
       (j)    Sensible thinking in spite of emotionally charged, or embarrassing, circumstances.
       (k)    Dynamism in positive approaches, initiative in new skills and adaptive to institutional
       (l)    Being in tune with changing times; especially so with changing technologies in the
       respective line.

11.     The following aspects/qualities adversely affect personality and hence should be avoided at all
cost :-
        (a)    Creating helplessness, self satisfaction at others‘ cost, egoism, sadism, criticism, putting
        blame on others to escape, irritating communication, untrustworthiness.
        (b)    Laziness, lethargic attitude, falling into helplessness, unusual attitude, useless/boom-
        ranging approaches, irresponsibility, ignorance, borrowings, unhygienic/disliking appearance.

Important Factors for Self Development

12.   Self development should be a continuous process in every individuals life. Factors that would
govern self development are :-
      (a)     Self-discipline especially against temptations.
      (b)     Not telling lies.
      (c)     Attainment of maturity in distinguishing good and bad, and development of discipline to
      do good and will-power to stand against bad.
      (c)     Performance of accepted role - play with fulfilling duty, responsibility and accountability.
      (d)     Love and gratitude.
      (e)     Using sensibility rather than becoming emotional.
      (f)     Listen and gather but take your own decision.
      (g)     Don‘t accept failures, but rectify mistakes in such failures.
      (h)     Skill to do, will to achieve and thrill to help.
      (j)     Try to create happiness around you even at your own personal cost.
      (k)     Helping should always be motto of life without expectation in return.
      (l)     Be selfish within such level of: don‘t give away your owns if meant for fulfilling your
      (m) Thinking should be positive so that your attitude and approaches will also be positive.
       (n)   Learn useful knowledge, develop positive intelligence and equip with defensive
       (o)   Time shall be managed to such optimum level either for usefulness, or for relaxation.
       (p)   Have such hobbies so as to convert the remaining time to be useful.
       (q)   Dependence should be a strategy to get the things done.

Miscellaneous Aspects

13.   Favourable social interactions are possible by pleasing appearance, beneficial communication,
happy attitude and mutually useful approach with maturity in social values.

14.    In-depth knowledge should be useful.

15.    Positive intelligence should be beneficial.

16.    Criticism is the self-defensive mechanism to cover up one‘s own inefficiency.


17.    In other words, personality development depends on :-
       (a)     Character and Conduct.
       (b)     Theory of relativity, Perceptions and Values.
       (c)     Awareness and alertness.
       (d)     Health, wealth, in-depth knowledge, positive intelligence and defensive smartness.
       (e)     Self-Confidence, Will-Power and Self-Discipline.
       (f)     Duty, responsibility and accountability.
       (g)     Moral Values.

18.   What then are the main dimensions of Personality? The big five dimensions of Personality are
broad categories of personality traits. These five categories are :-
      (a)     Extroversion.          This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability,
      talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
      (b)     Agreeableness.         This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust,
      altruism, kindness, affection, and other proacaly behaviors.
      (c)     Conscientiousness. Common features of this dimension include high levels of
      thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in
      conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
      (d)     Neuroticism.      Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability,
      anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
      (e)     Openness. This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and
      those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

19.   Research has demonstrated that these groupings of characteristics tend to occur together in
many people. For example, individuals who are sociable tend to be talkative. However, it is not
necessary that these two traits occur together. Personality is a complex concept and each person
may display behaviors across a number of these categories.

                                         TIME MANAGEMENT

                         ― We all have one thing in common — a 24 hour day.
                          It‘s how we use our time that makes the difference.‖

1.     What is time? As far as we know, animals do not experience it. Tempus fugit – Time flies – is a
universal refrain. But what is time? We all know what we mean by time but we cannot say what it is. If
you are traveling at a speed faster than another person, time will go slower for you. The nearest we
can come to grasping the concept of time is, to look upon it as a dimension. Being human, we tend to
measure time and change in terms of our life span. As we advance in life, we acquire a keener sense
of the value of time. For a very old person sitting in hospital waiting to go home, time can seem like
eternity. Yet for such a person, paradoxically, there may be only days or hours of time left.

2.       Time is your most important asset, because it is the only one you can‘t reorder or renew. Time
it is irreplaceable and irreversible. Few things are more important to us than learning how to save
time and how to spend it wisely. Paradoxically, to save time you must spend time. Both time and
money are limited resources. Therefore time (like money) is a valuable commodity. It cannot be
borrowed, saved or squandered. Time is patently not money. You can make money; you can‘t make
time. Chinese proverb ‗An inch of gold cannot buy an inch of time.‘ Time is really infinitely more
precious than money.

3.       The supply of time is truly a daily miracle, an affair genuinely astonishing when one examines
it. You wake up in the morning, and lo! Your purse is magically filled with 24 – hours of the most
precious of possessions. It is yours & no one can take it from you. It is unstealable. And no one
receives either more or less than you receive. We never shall have any more time. We have, and we
have always had, all the time there is. This moment of time is a non-renewable resource. It will never
come again. We can‘t really manage time. Once we‘ve used this minute, this 30 minutes, it‘s gone.
It‘s irreplaceable. We can‘t save it or store it -we can only spend it. In fact, time management is a
misnomer. It is life management .

Time Management

4.      Time management is a set of skills, tools, and systems that work together to help you get more
value out of your time and use it to accomplish what you want. Successful people use time
management to achieve outstanding results, both personally and professionally. The key to time
management is to realize that you cannot possibly do everything that there is to do; instead, you have
to consciously decide what you are going to do with the limited amount of time that you have at your
disposal. Look in a mirror and you will see your biggest time waster. Until you come to grips with that
reality, few if any of your personal time problems will be overcome.

5.    Time management helps you to: -
      (a)   Reduce or eliminate wasted time and effort so you'll have more productive time each
      (b)   Improve your productivity so you can accomplish more with less effort.
      (c)   Focus your time and energy on what is most important & make time for the things you
      want and value. Thus help you find greater balance and fulfillment.
      (d)   Improve your performance while reducing stress.
      (e)   Set and achieve your long-term goals.

6.   Time is like a precious jewel. It must be guarded well and worn with discretion or you will
suddenly realise that it has been stolen. Major time-wasters are :-
     (a)     Telephone. Learn to control the telephone, or it will control you. Regard your
     telephone as a business tool, not a social one. Practice having quick, to the point
     (b)     Visitors.       Meet visitors outside. When faced with the question: ‗Have you got a
     minute?‘ don‘t fall into the courtesy trap of saying yes when you really want to say no. Learn to
     give a polite no, and then tell them when they can see you. A complete open-door policy,
     which has been a popular management technique for some years, is not conducive to good
     time management. Managers to have at least one or two hours in the day when they can work
     without interruption. Try some of these techniques if a visitor overstays their time.
             (i)    At the finish of business, stand up.
             (ii)   Let the visitor see you looking at your watch.
             (iii)  Don‘t make eye contact with the chatty one. Keep your head down and continue
     (c)     Paper.          The best guideline for paperwork is to either file it or toss it. We never use
     80% of the paperwork we keep. Computer printers produce over two and a half million pieces
     of paper every minute throughout the world.
             (i)    Try, where possible, to make a decision about each piece of paper when you first
             handle it.
             (ii)   Don‘t handle your daily mail until you are ready to deal with it properly. If you
             take a quick look and then go back to it later, you‘ve just doubled those minutes. Every
             time you handle something again you increase your distraction time. Can some of it be
             passed on to others?
             (iii)  Learn to read selectively.
             (iv)   Learn to throw out what you probably won‘t need.
     (d)     Lack of Planning & Fire Fighting. The best way to avoid crises is to anticipate them.
     Common reasons are lack of planning, unrealistic time frames, and reluctance by subordinates
     to break bad news. Tips to help you deal with the situation:-
             (i)    Firstly, take time to think. Then ask questions. What is the real problem? Where
             possible, get input from more than one source. What can you ask others to help with?
             (ii)   Once you‘ve made a decision, get on with it. Whoever hesitates is lost!
             (iii)  What can be done to avoid the same problem happening again?
     (e)     Socialising. Avoid extended tea-breaks, regular social lunch-hours, and lots of chats
     in the corridors. Do it outside of work time.
     (f)     Indecision. Caused by ignorance, fear, or lack of confidence in the facts. Improve
     your fact-finding procedures, and learn to listen to your intuition. If we can learn to make
     decisions quickly, we save time. Successful people make decisions quickly. They‘re not
     necessarily always right, but they do decide.
     (g)     TV. Can be a huge time-waster.
     (h)     Procrastination.       Procrastination, which comes from the Latin word for ‗tomorrow‘ is
     the world‘s number one time-waster. Procrastination can best be defined as putting off the
     doing of something that should be done – intentionally & habitually. It you suspect that you are
     prone to procrastination always ask yourself ― Why am I putting this off? ― If you can see no
     good reason – and don‘t confuse reasons with excuses – brace yourself and take action this
     day. By off-loading today‘s work onto tomorrow you are simply storing up work for yourself.
     Start now by doing something today that you have been putting off. It may be a small or large
     matter; an overdue apology; a meeting with your boss; or an unpleasant task you know you
     should tackle.
7.    The best tool to fight time-wasters is a firm decision to concentrate on the few things that, in a
day, will make a long-term difference. People and opportunities waiting to waste our time, surround
us. Any activity which is not, in some way, moving you in the direction you wish to go, is a time-
wasting activity.

Principles of Time Management

8.     The are 10 basic principles of time management. These are given in the subsequent paras.

9.     Develop a Personal Sense of Time.          ― Make sure you know where your time goes. Don‘t
depend on memory, it‘s treacherous‖‘. Put time under the microscope. You cannot manage time that
is past. But you can examine how you managed it in an objective and realistic way.
       (a)     Time Log.      For this, a key suggestion - keep a ‗Time Log‘, a record of how you are
       spending your time. You could be in for a considerable shock. Yet that very shock could jolt
       you into action. It is an amazing revelation of how much time you are wasting. Time log - divide
       each day for the next week or two into fifteen-minute intervals. At the end of each hour you
       record how the previous hour was spent. Should occupy in all no more than five minutes a day.
       You may find that your 15 or 30 minute coffee break usually runs to thirty minutes. At the end
       of the day summarise the time spent. After keeping the logs for three or four days you may
       begin to notice opportunities for improvement. Could some tasks be delegated? What would
       happen if they were not done at all? Are you giving the really important tasks the correct
       priority? Look back at the end of each week. You may be surprised at what a comparatively
       small percentage of your time is actually going on the top-priority tasks on your list. Having
       identified how your time is truly spent you can then proceed to invest it more beneficially for the
       (b)     Developing a personal sense of time includes developing a personal sense of the value
       of other people‘s time.

10.    Identify Long-Term Goals.
       (a)     The foundation of good time management is to first, find out what matters deeply to you
       – what it is you really want to achieve in life. Spend time on considering what are your own
       personal values? What really matters to you at this stage of your life? Remember, they must
       be your values no-one else‘s. In this concentrate on four key areas of your life - Self & Well
       being, Community & Humanity, Home & Family & Business & Career. For instance, you may
       want to join a health club and participate vary regularly, because you value keeping fit. You
       may also want to be upgraded in your teaching post because you value your job. When you
       analyse the time commitments for both activities, you may have to make a choice because you
       are so busy that there‘s only time for one. Thus, in all these key areas, learn to focus on the
       vital few things which will make a long-term difference.
       (b)     This will tend to give you either a direction (or set of directions) in which you should be
       going, or a goal (or set of goals). As a principle, the further you look ahead the more likely you
       will be thinking in terms of directions or aims rather than goals or objectives.
       (c)     Thereafter, on a monthly basis, in each of the four key areas, consider what two or three
       main goals (or objectives) you would like to focus on, and record them. For eg., identify five or
       six key areas of your job. A key area is an area in which your performance will be directly or
       indirectly measured. In each of these key areas you need next to define or set objectives. That
       will give you a list of objectives for the middle term. It is often a good idea to make a ‗time
       budget‘ for your objectives. Your have only 168 hours each week. Common mistake is to
       underestimate the time it will take you to achieve a particular result. With practice and
       experience you should be able to forecast realistically and accurately how much of your time a
       job will take. At the end of the month, review your performance.

11.    Concentrate on High Return Activities. In any organisation there are a few basic functions,
which are central to its effective functioning. For a classroom teacher the high-return activity will be
enabling the children to learn well. For a principal it will be empowering staff to be effective teachers
by having a smoothly running school. For a landscaper it will be building the right structures as
economically as possible. Therefore, identify which activities are going to give you the highest return.
And concentrate on them.

12.    Weekly & Daily Planning.
       (a)      The Mechanics of Weekly Planning. Traditional time management teaching talks of daily
       planning, so why change? When, in a beautiful garden, we look closely at one plant, the rest of
       the garden will only be background. If, however, we stand back and take a wide – angle view
       of the whole garden, we get a clearer perspective of shape, colour, and layout. If we mainly
       focus on our daily scheduling, we ‗re looking at what‘s under our nose & we tend to become
       immersed in the urgent. Hence, from our monthly goals / objectives, plan a weekly focus.
       Planning on a weekly basis, helps us to take more control of our lives. We paint the picture of
       our life with broader brush-strokes. This helps us to achieve the things, which really matter,
       two or three major goals (or objectives) for each key area. We probably won‘t want to work on
       them all every week. So what happens to the ones not chosen this week? They are there to
       be observed. Have an awareness of it.
       (b)      Example: May be I want to start exercising more. This week my schedule is full and I
       don‘t have a chance of doing any extra exercise. By observing this reality, I am more likely to
       plan a sensible programme next week.
       (c)      Beware of one danger: don‘t try and bite off more than you can chew. Be realistic. Base
       your decision on what else is already planned for the week ahead. The trap that people often
       fall into is that they try and take on too much, and then give up in disappointment when they
       don‘t reach their objectives.
       (d)      At the beginning or end of each week set about fifteen minutes aside to plan the coming
       seven days. Review your monthly goals and reflectively consider which ones will need some
       attention this week. In each key area you wish to work in, aim for one or two small goals for
       the coming week. Review what you‘ve done or not done in the preceding week. You may
       need to reschedule some things that remain to be done. Now, on your weekly planning sheet,
       in the time that you can control, block in appointments with yourself to do the proactive
       activities you‘ve just decided on (and allow plenty of uncommitted time, because things always
       take longer than you think). The things you‘ve blocked in are your high priorities. All the other
       things need to be listed some where so you don‘t forget them, but treat them as the less
       important things - put them on the back of your weekly planning sheet. Have fewer activities
       scheduled at the end of the week.
       (e)      Daily Planning.      The longest journey begins with a single step. You will never
       achieve an objective if you do not break it down into manageable steps. Each day should see
       you some steps nearer to your desired result. Do not leave day planning to the last minute.
                (i)    Make out a list of what you want to do each day - mark them in order of priority.
                Do it the evening before, so that you can sleep on it. You may also review yesterday‘s
                plan – what remains to be done – transfer to today‘s plan. Check the weekly plan –
                transfer items for completion into today‘s plan.
                (ii)   A simple way of daily planning :
                       (aa) Write down all the tasks you wish to do today.
                       (ab) Identify the five most important tasks, and number them in order of
                      (ac) Start with no 1, don‘t leave it till you have finished, or gone as far as you
                      can go today, then start on the next item.
                      (ad) As extra items bounce at you throughout the day, deal with them if
                      necessary. Iif not instantly urgent, add them to the list.
                      (ae) When the top five items have been completed, or taken as far as possible,
                      repeat the prioritising process, but include other things, which have jumped onto
                      the list during the course of the day.
                      (af) Practise this system until you have learnt it.
              (iii)   Review each day briefly, identify the successes and analyse the reasons for
              failures. If you find that your daily planning is not working very well ask yourself first ‗am
              I at least achieving my highest priorities?‘ If the answer is ‗No‘ or ‗Doubtful‘ you should
              work through the following checklist:-
                      (aa) Are you trying to accomplish too much in a day?
                      (ab) Did some tasks not get done because you were not ready at that time to
                      do them?
                      (ac) Was the item or task clearly formulated? Did you have all the available
                      (ad) Did you abandon the task because it was too difficult or too boring?
              (iv)    A review of this kind can establish whether or not your time budget was realistic
              in the first place. If it was, then the problem lies in the execution.

13.    Make the Best Use of Your Best Time. The quality of your attention or concentration varies at
different times. You may notice that you habitually tend to be more mentally alert, at certain times of
the day. 20% of your time produces 80% of your high-quality output. Consider your wardrobe. You
probably wear 20 percent of your clothes 80 percent of the time. The most important tasks in a day
only take about 20 percent of our time and will make 80 percent of the difference to the smooth
running of things. So, make sure that you manage well that critical 20% of your time. Learn to focus
on the vital few things which will make a long-term difference.
       (a)     Do you know clearly how much of a morning or night person you are? Do you regularly
       programme your day so that ‗best time‘ is given to the highest-grade activities.
       (b)     Did you know that your manual dexterity – the speed and co-ordination with which you
       perform complicated tasks with your hands – peaks during the afternoon?
       (c)     Did you know that your short-term memory is best in the morning-in fact, about 15%
       more efficient than at any other time of the day? Also you tend to do best on cognitive tasks-
       things that require the juggling of words and figures in one‘s head – during the morning.

14.    Organise Office Work.        The place where much of the work is done. Concentrate on two key
areas - controlling interruptions & organising paper work.
       (a)    Controlling Interruptions.
              (i)     Set a time limit and stick to it. Get them to the point.
              (ii)    With casual droppers – in, remain standing.
              (iii)   Arrange to meet in the other person‘s office; you can then determine when to
              (iv)    Avoid small talk when you are busy.
              (v)     Have a clock available where visitors can see it and don‘t be afraid to glance at it
                      a few times.
       (b)    Organising Paper Work. Muddle makes work and wastes time. Strive for good order
       in your office. Establish systems for dealing with predictable and maintain them. Then you will
       find that you are free for the unpredictable – be they problems, crises or opportunities. It's OK if
       your desk looks like the recycling bin exploded. "If you can find most things in three minutes or
       less, your system is working".
             (i)    Do you clear your desk of all papers except those relating to the particular job in
             (ii)   Is your workspace so organized that the things you need are to hand?
             (iii)  Do you really try to handle each piece of paper only once?
             (iv)   Do you sort paperwork into categories in priority order?
             (v)    Have you eliminated unnecessary paperwork, and simplified the remainder
             where possible?
             (vi)   Have you learnt to pick out quickly the key points or critical issue in letters and
             (vii) Are you good at deciding what must be read through carefully and what can be
             (viii) Have you developed a clear and succinct way of writing?

15.     Manage Meetings. Meetings of all kinds – involve others. Therefore they are a potential time
threat. Ask yourself three fundamental questions: Is this meeting really necessary? If so, how much of
my time is the subject of it really worth? &, Will it begin on time and end on time? Remember a one
hour meeting costs approx 0.06% of the annual salary of each person attending. The average person
spends three to five years of their life in meetings and about 50 percent of the time is wasted! Hence,
points to be borne in mind while organizing / attending meetings are :-
        (a)   Always keep the objectives of meetings clearly in mind.
        (b)   Plan ahead. Decide who is to be present and circulate the agenda in advance.
        (c)   Fix time limits in advance, and start on time.
        (d)   Budget specific amounts of time for each item on the agenda.
        (e)   End on a positive note, with a summary of decisions taken and action to be

16.   Delegate Effectively.         Every position or role in an organisation has – defined
responsibilities or functions, together with the authority to carry them out. Delegation saves your time
and develops subordinates. It does not save the organization‘s time, for someone else‘s time is being
used. But it improves results by making fuller use of resources.
      (a)      Decide what to delegate - repetitive routines of an administrative nature: minor
      decisions, technical or functional speciality activities, projects or tasks for which you are less
      qualified than some of your staff, work that will provide growth opportunities for employees &
      assignments that will give variety or add to job satisfaction.
      (b)      Demonstrate job, get feedback and comment from him & then get delegated to do job
      and observe. Resist temptations to get involved. If they come to you, try not to provide the
      answers but help them to find them. Aim is to develop the initiative of the subordinate.
      However, check progress at agreed points.
      (c)      To check if you are a good delegator, ask yourself these questions: Are there areas of
      your work that you should be delegating, but for some reason or other your are not ready to do
      so? Do you work for more than nine hours a day? Do you take homework at weekends? When
      you delegate, do you clearly define the tasks you are delegating and make sure that the
      person who is carrying them out knows exactly what is expected of them?

17.   Make Use of Committed Time.
      (a)    You may some times complain that you lack time. But you have all the time there is for
      you. At work there is the time which you can choose to spend as you will – and, committed
      time. Committed time: If you are alert you may find portions of it, which are actually free time.
      Think of an example of committed time in the last week, where you found unexpectedly that
      you had at least half an hour to spare. What did you do with it? Could you have put that time to
      better use? What would you need to have had with you in order to do so?
      (b)     Examples of committed time : Take shaving for example. It is estimated that modern
      man spends 3,350 hours (that‘s 19 weeks) of his life standing in front of a mirror, scraping a
      layer of skin off his face, together with the growth of the previous day. Take eating. Between
      the ages of 20 and 50 you will spend an estimated 8,000 hours eating – the equivalent of 330
      days and nights. Take Travel time. A major candidate for review involves waiting time which
      can be put to profitable use thinking, reading, and writing. It is also healthier and more time
      efficient to travel by rail. Remember that a day has a hundred pockets of time if you know
      where to look for them.

18.   Manage your Health.
      (a)    Even a few weeks off being avoidably ill is going to involve you in a major waste of
      productive time. Depending on the nature of your illness, you may be able to use it in some
      constructive way. To give to your work and to others high quality time you must top up your
      energy levels. Are you overdrawn? Do you make a practice of playing back the bank – your
      body, mind and spirit?
      (b)    Do you get enough sleep? The norm is eight hours, slightly less as you grow older. You
      can function on much less, but your creativity is 15% down. Do you apply common sense to
      diet? The Golden rule is moderation in all things. Do you take exercise? Do you take holidays?
      Remember that you can do a full year‘s work in 11 months, but you cannot do it in 12 months.
      Do you allow time for reflection? It is a good idea to spend some time just meditating in a
      relaxed was about what you are doing in your work.


19.    Time management should be fun. Keep it is simple as possible. The good news is that you will
never meet the perfect time manager. You are probably very good - now you could be better. The
wonderful thing is that tomorrow‘s 24 hours now await you – untouched and unwasted. You are now
in a position to make more effective use of your time. Always remember, ‗NOW‘ is the keyword of
time management. If you want to reap in the future, you have to sow now. And, ‗Your Time Starts
                                        STRESS MANAGEMENT

                            “If we think happy thoughts, we will be happy.
                        If we think miserable thoughts, we will be miserable.
                            If we think fearful thoughts, we will be fearful,
                                Happiness is harvest, stress is weeds”.


1.     Stress is not dependent upon whether you are young or old, boy or girl, rich or poor, educated
or uneducated, servant or master. Stress is not dependent upon where you live. Stress, in simple
terms, is like a fire – more precisely embers of a fire. We can either control them and enjoy their
glow, or fan them into huge fires. Most of us do the latter !

2.      Plant species lack the ability to fear and that is why they have evolved to a certain level and no
further. They have proved perfectly capable of adapting to climate change and soil conditions but
that‘s it. Humans, on the other hand, have evolved into a species that fears the wind and rain, the
cold and the heat, thirst and hunger, heights and enclosed spaces, spiders and mice, dust and pollen,
and a thousand other enemies, but, perhaps above all others, Stress in their lives. The only people
who have no stress are the ones in cemeteries or whose ashes have floated down the Ganges.
Stress is a sign of life.

What is Stress

3.     First things first, what is stress and how do you know if you're under it? Many people don't
realize that stress is a very natural and important part of life. Without stress there would be no life at
all. We need stress, but not too much stress for too long (distress). Too many people today,
stigmatize stress as the new epidemic, an ailment, a weakness.

4.     Stress is a body condition that occurs in response to actual or anticipated difficulties in life. It is
experienced as a result of major or minor events in life such as bereavement, divorce, loss of a job, in
response to daily problems, a threat to life, or any situation in which you are unable to cope with the
challenge. Our body is designed to react to two types of stress. Good stress helps keep us alert,
motivates us to face challenges, and drives us to solve problems. These low levels of stress are
manageable and can be thought of as necessary and normal stimulation. Distress, on the other hand,
results when our bodies overreact to events. It leads to what has been called a "fight or flight"
reaction. Our bodies really don't know the difference between a saber-toothed tiger and a teacher
correcting our test. It is how we perceive and interpret the events of life that dictates how our bodies
react. When we view something as manageable, our body doesn't go haywire; it remains alert, but not
alarmed. In all other cases, we are likely to experience stress.
5.     Stress also manifests itself in many ways such as :-
       (a)     Negative stress      - Manifestation : unproductive illness.
       (b)     Defensive stress     - Manifestation : a tendency to mistrust motives.
       (c)     Aggressive stress - Manifestation : inaccurate targeting and misdirected energy.
       (d)     Creative stress      - Manifestation : ideas and limbs flying in all directions coupled with
       an inability to relax.
       (e)     Competitive stress - Manifestation : the truly wonderful sight of a mariac, high speed,
       totally alert and empowered individual.

6.    Some of the common signs and symptoms of stress are sleep difficulties, loss of appetite, poor
concentration or poor memory retention, performance dip, uncharacteristic errors or missed
deadlines, anger or tantrums, violent or anti-social behaviour, emotional outbursts, alcohol or drug
abuse, nervous habits, being permanently tired, having no enthusiasm for work, family, or friends,
finding it difficult to laugh and getting upset very easily, having a feeling of impending doom hanging
over you and, suffering from backaches, headaches, and stomach aches, spondilitis, increased heart
rate & BP, muscle tension, mental depression, social withdrawal and a general feeling of

7.    Causes of Stress. Stress is caused by stressors - outside forces that place demand on a
persons body or mind. There are five major types, categorised as :
      (a)   Biological Variables. These affect a persons physical state.
      (b)   Environmental Circumstances. Forces in a persons sorrounding such as noise,
      overcrowding, poverty, domestic turmoil, natural disasters etc.
      (c)   Life Situations. These incl death of a close friend, being in a group of strangers,
      traumatic experience.
      (d)   Behaviours. That may act as stressors are smoking, poor eating habits etc.
      (e)   Cognitive Activities. Thinking that may produce stress incl taking a test, ambition etc.

Stress Management

8.     Problems cause stress. Why do we have problems ? One third of our problems are there
because we are alive and kicking, another one-third of our problems are created ourselves, and the
remaining one-third of our problems exist because of our greed and ego. By merely understanding life
and by reflecting on its problems, you will be able to reduce your problems. It won‘t be done instantly.
Slowly but steadily, one by one, take care of each problem by looking for simple ideas to arrive at

9.    It must also be understood that various factors influence a persons susceptibility to stress and
each person‘s stress tolerance level could vary with one or more of these factors. These are :-
      (a)    Childhood experience (abuse can increase stress susceptibility).
      (b)    Personality (certain personalities are more stress-prone than others).
      (c)    Genetics (particularly inherited 'relaxation response', connected with serotonin levels,
      the brain's 'well-being chemical').
      (d)    Immunity abnormality (as might cause certain diseases such as arthritis and eczema,
      which weaken stress resilience).
      (e)    Lifestyle (principally poor diet and lack of exercise).

10.   Coping With Stress: Remedial Actions. Remedial action to control stress falls into three
categories :-
      (a)     Change your Thinking.
      (b)     Change your Behaviour.
      (b)     Change your Lifestyle.

11.   Change Your Thinking.
      (a)     Reframing. Reframing is a technique used to change the way we look at things in
      order to feel better about them. The key to reframing is to recognize that there are many ways
      to interpret the same situation (such as is the glass half full or half empty). Learn to get rid of
      negative thoughts or feelings that can result in stresses. For example if you have got into an
      accident, you may thank God that you have escaped with only minor injuries. You could have
      been killed, or worse, you could have been maimed – lost eyes, feet, hands, etc. You could
      have been paralyzed. If you are religious or believe in spirituality, that can be a great coping
      mechanism. For example, religion teaches us that everything happens for a purpose and it is
      the will of God. You just leave the things to God to straighten out. The result is that your brain
      does not have to pump out adrenaline to your bloodstream constantly. You feel relaxed. There
      is no long term stress any more.
      (b)     Positive Thinking. Avoid negative thoughts of powerlessness, dejection, failure, and
      despair. Chronic stress makes us vulnerable to negative suggestion. Learn to focus on
      positives. You can live through the years with the attitude that ―I will do my best and then to
      hell with it, ― or you can live a life full of fears, doubts and jealousies. The choice is yours – to
      be happy or to be stressful irrespective of anything. Here is one way to get out of destructive
      negative thinking habits. All possible situations we face can be classified into two categories:
              (i)      One. Situations where we can do something to change the outcome. In this case,
              don‘t just sit there and worry about it. Go ahead and take care of it. You have control.
              Procrastination is the root cause for many stressful episodes.
              (ii)     Second. Situations where you have no control on the outcome. In this case
              sitting and worrying will not make any difference on the outcome. So, don‘t worry about
              it. Let the situation resolve by itself; you cannot do anything about this anyway.
              (iii)    OR, When too many problems are causing you enormous stress and strain, do
              the following :-
                       (aa) Think… there must be a better way to solve these problems. It helps to
                       remember the crow and jug story !
                       (ab) Ask, ask, ask … from yourself and from others, how to do things in better
                       (ac) Do it now! Start doing it. Don‘t forget that the first step towards solving a
                       problem is to begin. Of course, do not forget to priorities your problems first.
              (iv)     Take this example: Two Arabs took their Mercedes car out for a spin in the
              desert. Although there was no other car in the 10-mile radius, these two guys managed
              to have a head-on collision. Now, if this happened in India or many other parts of the
              world, the drivers will be getting out of the car and showering each other with abuses
              and threats. What did the Arabs do after they their cars crashed? They rush out of their
              cars, run to each other; hug and says, "This is great ! Allah, wanted us to meet."

12.   Change Your Behaviour.
      (a)     Be Assertive . Learn to be assertive. Non-assertiveness allows others to walk all over
      you. You surrender the control of the situation to others. Being assertive means standing up for
      your personal rights and expressing your thoughts, feelings and beliefs directly and honestly.
      Assertive people respect themselves and others. They take responsibility for their actions and
      choices. In case of failure, they will get disappointed; but their self-confidence remains intact.
      This will help you manage your stress more successfully.
      (b)     Get Organized/Time Management. One of the most common cause of stress is being
      disorganized at work or at home. This is being covered as a separate subject.
      (c)     Ventilation. People who keep things for themselves without sharing with their friends
      or loved ones carry a considerable and unnecessary burden. Share your problems and
      concern with others. Develop a support system of relatives, colleagues or friends to talk to
      when you are upset or worried. When you are frustrated write it down. After you have vent the
      frustration, destroy the writing so that it is forgotten. Rereading the journal will reawaken the
      frustration and anger. So, do not keep it. Studies have shown that close, positive relationships
      with others facilitates good health and morale. One reason for this is that support from family
      and friends serves as a buffer to cushion the impact of stressful events.
      (d)     Transference.        Hold a rock in your hand and envision all your stress and anxiety
      flowing through your fingers and palm into the rock. After you "feel" that the bad stuff has been
      transferred to the rock, throw the rock away or bury it or toss it into running water. You can
      also "wash" the rock and rinse away the "bad stuff" and reuse the rock.
(e)     Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO).             Each one of us, at night, empties our pockets
into an almirah or a drawer of the dresser. Similarly. Try to empty your mind before retiring,
into the wastebasket, because the bad ideas which you collected today won‘t be needed
tomorrow. During the day we pick up little worries, which must be emptied from our minds. If
we do not discard all these items, they are bound to poison our minds to our long-term
disadvantage. This daily mental drycleaning will help us to have 6 to 9 per cent of our minds
empty for new and better ideas to come in. And incidentally, if we avoid this cleaning, it will
surely cause stresses and strains, because then there is no end for the filth to accumulate in
our minds. Our minds will become like dustbins, good breeding grounds for stresses and
(f)     Compare Yourself with Yourself Only. If you want genuine pleasure in life, compare
yourself not with others, but with yourself. Next best, if you have to compare yourself with
others, compare with those who are less fortunate than you. Most of our stresses come when
we compare ourselves with others. And don‘t compare your loved ones, especially your
children, with others. For example, you weigh 90 Kg. If you compare yourself with a 60 kg
friend, you will surely become stressful. Instead, do your best not to exceed 90 Kg. And also
do your best to bring it down. Comparisons breed insecurity, yet we habitually make them
between our children, with the children of our friends, colleagues and relatives. The result is
that we feel on top of the world one minute, and the next minute the inferiority complex sets in.
(g)     Don‘t Take Your Job for Granted. Don‘t fall in love with your company. If you do,
someday it will become stressful. Except with one‘s parents and with one‘s children, no other
relationship is pucca! The higher you go, the bigger the fall. Don‘t ever let the thought of your
being indispensable go to your head. You will save a million stresses. To demonstrate the
same, take a bucket and fill it with water. Submerge your hand in it up to the wrist. Stir the
water with your hand and quickly pull the hand out - the hole that remains is a measure of how
much you will be missed. Also a bit on the stress of being fired. Always remember, life itself
can ―fire‖ you – cancers, ulcers, open heart surgery, and one thousand more such problems.
(h)     Don‘t Try to Change Others. You can‘t change anyone. You can‘t change your father,
your mother, your sister – not even your boss ! Change yourself first. Quite often we change
our jobs, friends and spouses instead of changing ourselves. Instead, believe in this :-
(j)     Anger Management. Manage your anger creatively and innovatively. ADD ―d‖ to
―anger‖ and it becomes danger! It is an emotion which is controllable to a great extent, if not
fully! Give it a try and the result will be less stress. Learn from a humble matchstick. A
matchstick has a head but it does not have a brain. Therefore, whenever there is a little
friction, it flares up immediately. We have a head, and also have a brain, so we need not flare
up at the slightest friction. In thus using the brain, you reduce your stress. Every night conduct
a quick self-audit, if during the day you have displayed anger, curse yourself and mentally slap
yourself and promise not to repeat it. Remember, for every 10 minutes you are angry, you lose
600 seconds of happiness!
(k)     Do Small Things Greatly. Each of us cannot do great things, but each of us can do
small things greatly. Get inspiration from the wonderful saying that if litre can hold a litre of oil,
that is wonderful! To expect it to hold a gallon is to merely become stressful. Most of us do
just the opposite. We want a litre can to hold much more than a litre. For example, we expect
our child to stand first in the class and when this does not happen – as all children cannot be
first – we get tense. Very often, parents‘ over expectations put too much stress on children and
cause permanent damage to their mind-sets.
(l)     Humour.         Humour is a wonderful stress-reducer. It is clinically proven to be effective
in combating stress, although the exact mechanism is not known. Experts say a good laugh
relaxes tense muscles, speeds more oxygen into your system and lowers your blood pressure.
      Laughter stimulates the immune system, off-setting the immunosuppressive effects of stress.
      So tune into your favorite fun programme on television. Read a funny book. Call a friend and
      chuckle for a few minutes. It even helps to force a laugh once in a while. You'll find your stress
      melting away almost instantly. These days, there are organized humour meetings even in
      places like India where laughing clubs have started. Humour gives us a different perspective
      on our problems. If we can make light out of the situation, it is no longer threatening to us. We
      already discounted its effect. With such an attitude of detachment, we feel a sense of self-
      protection and control in our environment. Bill Cosby is fond of saying, "If you can laugh at it,
      you can survive it."
      (m) Diversion and Distraction. If you feel tired and jaded and have little enthusiasm for life,
      it is possible that you aren't making time for fun. We all get into a grinding routine of getting up,
      going to work, coming home, doing more work, going to bed. Leisure time is vital in order to
      keep enthusiasm for the other aspects of our lives. We have a right to this free time but often
      feel guilty about taking it. Take a break away from the situations or tasks that are the source of
      your stress and frustration. Take a vacation or a short walk. Work off tensions by gardening,
      pursuing a hobby, or joining a club. Take time to be alone, doing nothing. This does not solve
      the root cause. But, it takes away from the source of stress so that you can "catch your
      breath." It also gives you an opportunity to think about the situation more objectively and may
      even help you to resolve the situation when looked through a different perspective.
      (n)     Learn to Like Yourself. The messages we receive from other people and from the
      media are largely negative. Bad news gets more attention than good news. This seeps into our
      day-to-day lives as well. If we admire some aspect of ourselves we are seen to be conceited. If
      we say negative things about ourselves, people will console us. We were rewarded for misery
      since our childhood ; we are offered candy or hugs when we are unhappy. No rewards for our
      laughter and happiness! Some people like this attention and sympathy. So they purposely
      distort the facts and tell others all the troubles and miseries they have. After some time, their
      sub-conscious mind will start believing what they are saying and start acting accordingly. Soon
      they will have reasons to be unhappy for real. Do not get into this trap. See the positive rather
      than the negative in you. Optimism and a positive attitude promote good health. Research
      shows that the optimistic persons have a healthier immune system. Pessimistic expectations
      breed negative experiences. How can you incorporate these into your own life? Be grateful. No
      matter how bad things might appear, you can see a silver lining. There is someone who has
      worse problems. Misery loves companions. Reach out to such people. This will help both
      parties. Make a conscious effort towards finding good things. As far as possible stay away
      from pessimistic people. Don't get drawn into other people's misery. Catch yourself if you are
      whining and stop. Your stress levels will benefit immediately.

13.   Change Your Lifestyle.
      (a)    Diet. A proper balanced diet is essential, both to avoid direct physical stress caused
      via brain and nervous system, and to reduce stress susceptibility resulting from poor health
      and condition. Toxins such as alcohol, tobacco smoke, excessive salt, steroids, other drugs
      and other pollutants work against the balance between minerals, vitamins, mind and body.
      Obviously then, excessive toxins from these sources will increase stress susceptibility and
      stress itself. Some other important aspects with respect to a balanced diet are :-
             (i)      Certain vitamins and minerals are required to ensure healthy brain and
             neurological functionality. The Vitamin B Group is particularly relevant to the brain,
             depression and stress susceptibility. Vitamin C is essential to protect against stress too:
             it maintains a healthy immune system, which is important for reducing stress
             susceptibility. Vitamin D helps maintain healthy body condition, particularly bones and
             speed of fracture healing, which are directly linked to stress susceptibility. Adequate
             intake of minerals are also essential for a healthy body and brain, and so for reducing
             stress susceptibility.
             (ii)    Processed foods are not as good for you as fresh fruit and vegetables.
             (iii)   Canned and bottled fizzy 'pop' drinks are generally very bad for you. Too much
             coffee is bad for you. Tea is good for you. Especially green tea. However, drink a lot of
             (iv)    Fried foods and foods rich in fat are very immune-depressing. High-protein foods
             are associated with higher levels of anxiety and stress. Carbohydrates trigger release of
             the brain neurotransmitter serotonin, which soothes you. Eat more fiber and green
      (b)    Exercise.      Research has shown that physical exercise is the best tension reliever. It
      is a very important remedy for stress. Nothing eases stress more than exercise. Physically,
      exercise improves your cardiovascular functions - means less chance of developing heart
      conditions, strokes, or high blood pressure. Mentally, exercise provides an outlet for negative
      emotions such as frustration, anger, and irritability, thereby promoting a more positive mood
      and outlook. Problems always seem less important when you are walking, swimming, running,
      cycling, or are involved in any physical pursuit. Most people, when exercising, do not worry.
      (c)    Meditation. Meditation and deep breathing can help combat stress and revitalize the
      mind. It is one of the simplest yet most effective stress management techniques. You can do it
      anywhere, anytime, and it becomes even more effective with practice.
      (d)    Other aspects with regard to changing your lifestyle to reduce stress include ‗Yoga‘, ‗Pet
      Therapy‘, ‗Nature Walks‘, ‗Music Therapy‘, ‗Hydro Therapy‘ and attending to your spiritual


14.    There has never been a time in history when the complacent and the comfortable survived.
The message is clear : ‗The Stressed Shall Inherit the Earth‘! Yet an astonishing 15 million work days
are lost because hard-working people have been made to feel that it is somehow wrong to display
signs of stress to colleagues.

15.  Stress is a ―funny‖ emotion! It starts even before we are born and stays with us till the last
moment when we meet our maker. We therefore need to live with it, and more importantly, learn to
manage it. This we can do by :-
     (a)     Thinking really seriously about and talk with others, to identify the causes of the stress
     and take steps to remove, reduce them or remove yourself (the stressed person) from the
     situation that causes the stress.
     (b)     Understand the type(s) of stressors affecting you (or the stressed person), and the
     contributors to the stress susceptibility.
     (c)     Improve diet - a balanced healthy diet is essential. Assess the current diet and identify
     where improvements should be made and commit to those improvements.
     (d)     Reduce toxin intake - obviously tobacco, alcohol especially - they might seem to provide
     temporary relief but they are working against the balance of the body and contributing to
     increased stress.
     (e)     Take more exercise - generally, and at times when feeling very stressed - exercise
     burns up adrenaline and produces helpful chemicals and positive feelings.
     (f)     Stressed people must try to be detached, step back, look from the outside at the issues
     that cause the stress.
     (g)     Don't try to control things that are uncontrollable - instead adjust, adapt.
     (h)     Share worries - talk to someone else - off-load, loneliness is a big ally of stress, so
     sharing the burden is essential.
     (j)     Use relaxation methods - they do work if given a chance - yoga, meditation, self-
     hypnosis, massage, deep breaths of fresh air, anything that works and can be done in the
     particular situation.
16.   To conclude, an interesting anecdote on stress :-
      Henry Ford bought flowers for his wife from a shop every Friday evening. Once he asked the
      old florist, ―Gentleman, you have a good shop, Why not open a branch?‖ Florist, ―Sir, then
      what?‖ Henry Ford, ―You will then have several branches in Detroit.‖ Florist, ―Sir, then what?‖
      Henry Ford, ―Then all over the USA.‖ Florist, ―Sir, then what?‖ Henry Ford, angrily, ―Damn it,
      you will then be stress free.‖ Florist, ―That is what I am now!‖ Ford walked away sheepishly.

                                      THE CHOICE IS YOURS




1.     Communication is one of the most important words in the English language. Lack of
communication and the inability of people to communicate effectively, causes a large amount of
stress, frustration, anger, resentment, misunderstanding and disappointment. Though we spend
much of our time interacting with others, most of us know little of the process of communication, &
lack skills for communicating effectively. Everything that we do throughout each day involves
communication in one form or another. It enables us to understand each other & make ourselves
understood. It touches every sphere of lives, yet communication is a largely under-valued, un-taught
asset in the modern world.

2.      Good communication skills are absolutely vital & is a measure of one‘s ability to impart
information and instructions clearly and concisely, so that they are easily understood. Your skills in
telling people what they need to know is the key to them performing at their best. Communication is
therefore a very important subject which must be studied & understood if we are to succeed in our
missions in life. As trainers of the NCC, your mission is to teach & to motivate your students into the
ideals of NCC. How well you perform this job will largely depend on how good your communication
skills are.

What is Communication
3.    Communication is derived from the Latin word ‗communis‘, which means ‗common‘. Thus
communication means sharing of ideas in common – establishing a commonness with someone.
Communication takes place when one person transfers information & understanding to another
person(s) – it refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge etc., between two or
more persons.

4.    Definitions. Some definitions of communication :-
      (a)     It is the art of developing & attaining understanding between people – a process of
      exchanging information & feelings between two or more people.
      (b)     The process of conveying a message from one person to another, so that they are
      (c)     Refers to the transmitting of information in the form of words, signals or signs from a
      source to a reciever.

5.    Thus we see that for communication to take place, it must be understood. A good teacher who
can effectively communicate facts, ideas and theories will turn out well-qualified pupils. Also,
communication does not mean only oral or written messages, but includes everything that may be
used to convey meaning from one person to another – for eg., wave of the hand, nodding of the head.

6.    Levels of Communication. While there are several levels of communication, the more
important ones are :-
      (a)     Intrapersonal Communication.       Communication within ourselves, or, self-talk. Egs.,
      when you think, imagine, daydream, talk to yourself etc.
      (b)     Interpersonal Communication.       Interaction between two or more people. All persons
      must interact face to face & have the opportunity to mutually affect each other.
      (c)     Public Communication.       Whenever one person does most of the talking, while all
      others are primarily listeners. For eg., teachers addressing their classes, lawyers addressing a
      courtroom, politicians addressing a rally etc.
      (d)     Mass Communication.         Advertisements, movies, TV etc., all offshoots of the media.
      In this, a message needs help (a media) to get from its source to the destination, there is
      usually some delay in sending & receiving, & feedback from the audience is not there, or,

Importance of Communication

7.    Cost of Failed Communication
      (a)   Loss of time, business & money.
      (b)   Loss of confidence, respect & trust.
      (c)   Loss of relationships, staff & clients.

8.    Benefits of Good Communication to People
      (a)    They feel good, motivated & empowered.
      (b)    They listen, understand, do their job well & assume responsibility.
      (c)    They share information, work well together & respect, trust & like each other.
      (d)    Saves time.

The Communication Process

9.    When communication takes place, there are six basic elements at work. These are :-
      (a)  Source or Sender. The originator of the message.
      (b)  Message.    The content or signal that the source sends the receiver.
       (c)    Receiver.      The person who receives the message, interprets it, & sends feedback to
       the source.
       (d)    Channel or Medium.           The sense (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, body) used to send the
       message. More than one sense can be used to convey the message for greater accuracy – for
       eg., a shout & a raised hand for a naughty child.
       (e)    Context.       The time, setting & situation in which communication occurs. For eg., you
       speak differently to your parents than you would to a friend, you speak differently when you are
       at play or a movie, than when at work.
       (f)    Noise. Anything that hinders or interferes with the message. Could be psychological
       noise (distraction, tiredness, thinking of something else), physical noise (movie hall, noisy
       restuarant, blaring music), or semantic noise (when speaker uses a sign or word not
       understood by the listener).
       (g)    Feedback/Meaning/Action. Reaction of the listener to the source. May be verbal, non-
       verbal, or both. Can be in the form of comments, facial expression (yawn means he‘s bored)
       or, body mannerisms (nodding of the head means in agreement).

Barriers to Communication

10.     In practice, not all messages are effectively transmitted or recieved. This is due to various
barriers to communication which distort the message & make communication ineffective. It is
therefore neccesary to understand these barriers so that they can be avoided/reduced to enable more
effective communication. These are:-
        (a)    Physical Barriers. These could be distance, noise or environmental factors.
        (b)    Personal Barriers. These include personal factors as difference in judgement, social
        values, individual perceptions & bias, pressure of time, credibility gap etc. For eg.,
        communication is difficult between two persons who do not like or respect each other.
        (c)    Semantic or Language Barrier. Semantic is the science of meaning. The same words
        & symbols carry different meanings to different people.
        (d)    Status & Organisational Barriers. Status or position in the heirarchy of an organisation
        is one of the fundamental barriers to communication. Subordinates may only convey what the
        superior would appreciate. Similarly, the more complex or layered the organisational structure,
        the greater the distortion in communication, as every layer cuts off a bit of information
        (e)    Emotional Attitude. Emotions such as anger, love, hate, jealousy, fear, embarrassment
        influence how we convey or understand the message. When emotions are strong, it is difficult
        to know the frame of mind of the sender or receiver (for eg., if the receiver is in grief or, in a
        rage, you may wonder how he will take the message).
        (f)    Premature Evaluation / Snap Judgements / Resistance to Change.The tendency to form
        a judgement before listening to the whole message. The possibility that the giver has a new
        idea or point of view does not occur to them. This condition exists more in communication
        between two persons in conflict or when one is short tempered.
        (g)    Barriers due to lack of Mutual Trust.        When there is lack of mutual trust, the
        message is not followed. May also be due to inconsistency in ‗saying & doing‘.
        (h)    Time Constraints/Communication Overload.
        (j)    Poor Listening Skills/ Inadequate Attention. Due to little attention being paid, or due to
        poor listening skills. Listening skills is one of the most needed & effective components of good

Non Verbal Communication

11.   It is often said wrongly, that a good communicator is someone who speaks well. Less than 10
per cent of any personal communication than makes an impression is of the verbal kind. People
process information by using various senses. There are five major senses – visual, kinaesthetic
(feeling), auditory (hearing), taste & smell.

12.     Of these, the major communication areas are the visual, kinaesthetic and auditory senses.
Most people use all three. However, people are different in that some will use one area more
predominantly than the other two. How do you process information? Is your predominant sense
visual, kinaesthetic or auditory? It is important to be aware of this.

13.    Visual use phrases like ‗see the sense‘; ‗looks to me like‘; ‗appears to me‘; ‗short-sighted‘; ‗see
eye to eye‘. Predominantly visual people normally speak fairly, quickly, because they think in pictures.
They try to make the speed of their words keep up with the speed of the pictures in their mind. They
may greet you by saying ‗Nice to see you‘.

14.    Kinaesthetic use phrases: ‗it feels right‘; ‗hand in hand'; ‗slipped my mind‘. Kinaesthetic types
normally speak fairly slowly, because they are reacting to their feelings and sometime have trouble
finding the right words to match those feelings. They may greet you by saying ‗How are you?‘, which
of course means ‗How are you feeling?‘.

15.    Auditory use phrases: I hear what you‘re saying‘; ‗loud and clear‘; ‗unheard of‘. Predominantly
auditory people also speak fairly slowly with a well-modulated voice, using words carefully and
selectively. They may greet you with ‗I heard you were coming today‘ or ‗I hear the job‘s going well‘.

16.    Two people who share the same predominant sense can communicate well with each other,
while two people who have different predominant senses can find themselves talking at cross
purposes, leading to a communication breakdown. Just use the appropriate language for the
appropriate person, both spoken and written. If you are a predominantly kinaesthetic person talking to
a predominantly visual type, use expressions such as ‗I see it this way‘, or ‗It doesn‘t look right‘, rather
than ―My feeling is‘, or I don‘t feel comfortable with this‘. All you have to do is listen to the type of
words and phrases the other person is using consistently. This leads on to one of the golden rules of
communication. ‗Listen and listen well‘.

17.    Body Language.
       (a)      ―70% of all communication is visual rather than auditory.‖ Effective communicators are
       aware of the signals their body language gives, and notice other people‘s body language. This
       is an essential part of the communication process. In the so-called ‗science‘ of body language,
       it is claimed that there are some 7,50,000 signals, 15,000 of these from the face alone.
       (b)      When the spoken word is in conflict with the body language signal, the body language
       information will invariably be correct because it is spontaneous. There are many interpretations
       of body language, position or movement. For example, many people regard avoiding eye
       contact as an indication that a person may be lying, but others might interpret this as a sign of
       nervousness or insolence.
       (c)      Make the effort to read facial expression and body language movement, and listen
       consciously with your eyes.
       (d)      More human communication takes place by the use of gestures, postures, position and
       distances than by any other method. However, there are times when people need to control
       body language in order to communicate effectively; eg., most extrovert people are tactile, and
       more likely to touch other people as part of their method of communicating. However, a tactile
       person can cause great offence to some people, therefore, try to recognize if a person is an
       extrovert or introvert. This is why it is important to listen with the eyes.
       (e)      A great deal of body language communication is subconscious and therefore automatic.
       There are some elements that you can control, and as a result, communicate more effectively.
      One of these is your personal appearance. Have you noticed how people with a new hairstyle
      sometimes walk differently!
      (f)    Also look for body signals to find out someone‘s problems, such as people letting their
      appearance go, losing or gaining weight, walking as though the cares of the world were on
      their shoulders. Indicators that someone may not be telling the whole truth - person replying to
      a question and at the same time fiddling with his or her watch, scratching his or her neck, or
      not looking you straight in the eye. Signals when they are running out of time, or bored or not
      interested in what you are saying - they will become restless, constantly changing position,
      adjusting their dress, looking around the room.
      (g)    Remember that your own thoughts can and will influence your facial expression, and
      sometimes your whole body language. A master of communication most certainly will be able
      to hide their emotions.

How to Listen Well

18.     We learn more by listening than we ever do by talking. Two years and one mouth and that is
the ratio by which they are best used, i.e., listen twice as much as you talk. Some important points to
bear in mind while listening to someone:
        (a)   Be mindful – pay full attention, stay focussed & don‘t daydream. Concentrate entirely on
        what others are saying.
        (b)   Listen with your entire body & look the other person in the eye. Avoid negative body
        (c)   Clarify to gain full understanding. Also lets the speaker know you are interested.
        (e)   Provide feedback.
        (e)   A good listener is usually more popular than someone who talks a lot.

Tips For Effective Communication

19.     Be Yourself. Imagine the hypothetical situation of two people facing each other across a table.
There are two human beings present, but there are six personalities. Me - the person I think I am, the
person I am giving the impression I am, and the real me ; You – the person you think you are, the
person you are giving me the impression you are, and the real you. In order to establish effective
communication, it is vital to get the two real persons communicating with one another. What do you
do? Firstly, be yourself, not a performer. Secondly, control your imagination. Thirdly, ask questions
that will identify the real person opposite you.

20.    Be Direct.    Some people drop hints in a roundabout way and hope the other person is
getting the message - a very negative way of communicating. The way to establish communication is
very simple – say it how it is.

21.     Banish Negativity. Negative thoughts and negative communication will hold us back from
achieving more. By constantly reacting negatively to someone, and/or persistently criticizing them,
you can not only destroy your relationship but also that person‘s self-esteem. The effect can last a
lifetime! Equally destructive is when you say to yourself ‗I am no good at this‘, or ‗I can‘t cope with
that‘, or any other negative thoughts you might have preventing yourself from achieving more. So
think positive!

22.    Be Friendly. Friendliness, costs nothing. Respect other people‘s feelings. Always make the
other person feel important. One of the deepest urges in human nature is the urge to be recognized
and appreciated. If you can approach people by name, you will automatically help them to like you.
You should make an effort to chat to your staff from time to time, praise them, listen to their problems
- you will earn their respect and they will work for you. Remember the saying ‗If you want to cheer up,
cheer someone else up‘.

23.   Be Interesting & Interested.    Ask a lot and listen and encourage other people to talk about
themselves. By listening to others and asking questions to find something in common / common
ground, we can make communication much easier.

24.      Admit Your Mistakes.      ―Anyone who doesn‘t make a mistake isn‘t doing very much in the
first place‖. Mistakes – even the simplest ones – can lead to conflict and mistrust and consequently to
a total communication breakdown. To prevent this, admit your mistakes. By maintaining people‘s trust
in you, you are avoiding conflict, and you are preventing a communication breakdown. If you are a
leader, when people make mistakes ask them what they learnt from it, and what they‘d do next time.
This lets people use their mistakes to develop into more successful individuals.

25.   Praise Where Praise is Due.     There is nothing like a word or two of praise to make
someone feel good and maintain their enthusiasm, and consequently their performance. Criticism is
only acceptable if it leads to positive communication that will eliminate errors and enhance
performance. So instead of saying, for example, ―That design is awful‖, try saying ―have you
considered this approach….?‖ Nevertheless, remember that praise and compliments must be
deserved and sincere.

26.     Empathy.      It is important to be able to empathize with every member of your staff. Feeling
empathy is absolutely vital if we are going to achieve effective communication. Don‘t try to crush the
headstrong individual - give them their head from time to time, but don‘t let the reins out too far, &
don‘t let them think they‘re invincible. Someone who is shy and unsure, but shows potential, give him
encouragement. Identify each person‘s good points and shortcomings, then develop the former and
reduce the significance of the latter through effective interpersonal communication.

27.    Assertiveness.      One aspect of being assertive involves being prepared and able to say
‗No‘. Some people are always saying ‗No‘. On the other hand, a person who cannot say ‗No‘
becomes unable to cope, and consequently unable to perform or achieve effectively. This leads to
excuses, a defensive attitude and stress. These people are also indecisive and in the long run will
lose the trust and confidence of those who live and work with them. Some people do this because
they fear aggression and conflict, and want to be liked.

28.     Act on Advice.       Another negative way of communicating is asking for advice and then
never acting on it. If you do this constantly, the person whose advice you have sought will come to
feel inferior and worthless. It can also lead to frustration.

29.    Feedback. The effective communicator will always seek or give his or her feedback. Don‘t
wait to be asked. Be willing and able to hear the bad news as well as the good. We have all heard the
expression ‗don‘t shoot the messenger‘. A lot of managers let themselves down by ranting and raving
at the bearer of bad news. The upshot of this is that people are afraid to speak up when things are
going wrong, resulting in a communication breakdown. The correct thing to do when faced with bad
news is to:
       (a)    Identify the problem.
       (b)    Put it right.
       (c)    Make sure it doesn‘t happen again.

30.     The Way to Say It. Ask, or advise, don‘t tell. Telling, demanding, ordering – call it what you
will – is more than likely to get people‘s backs up. The process of giving effective verbal instructions
      (a)    Leave as little doubt as possible about what is expected.
      (b)    Explain why the task is needed, so that the person carrying it out knows who or what it
      is aimed at.
      (c)    Make clear when it should be completed by.
      (d)    Remember the benefits of delegating, and allow for some creative input from the person
      concerned. Don‘t remove the challenge.

31.     Sarcasm should be avoided at all costs, & avoid talking down to people. It makes them feel
insignificant and unworthy, and will lower and destroy their confidence. For eg., ―I‘m not going to give
you that job, because you haven‘t done it before.‖ Or, ―I don‘t think you‘re experienced enough.‖
Don‘t make people feel inadequate. Build them up, and they will rise to your level of expectation

32.   Ticking-Off. There is a very straightforward way of ticking someone off:
      (a)    Be absolutely honest and say what needs to be said.
      (b)    Keep the meeting completely private.
      (c)    Criticize results and performance – not the individual – unless it is a very personal
      (d)    Show the person how to improve.
      (e)    Look the person in the eyes when you speak.
      (f)    Build the person up at the end. Re-emphasize the person‘s good points, so that his or
      her self-confidence is retained.

Written Communication

        ―You must write not so that you can be understood, but so that you cannot possibly be

33.    Written communication has a long-lasting effect because it can be read over and over again. It
can re-ignite joys and bitterness.

34.   Principles.
      (a)     Keep it Short.         If you want your letter to be read and have impact, keep it short.
      Most people opening mail, will look to see who the correspondence is from, will read a PS if
      there is one, and will then read the letter itself. There are exceptions to this rule. Direct-mail
      letters are more effective the longer they are. If you are conveying information that has been
      requested, you cannot cut corners for the sake of brevity .
      (b)     Attract Attention.     The first sentence is crucial. It must attract attention and stimulate
      the reader to read on. Egs., ―Here is some good news!‖ or, ―It was great to meet you last
      (c)     Any form of written communication must demonstrate complete clarity. When writing,
      say it as it is and how it is. Make sure there is no ambiguity.
      (d)     Avoid Negative Writing.       If you find fault and have cause to criticize, always speak to
      the individual first. Once you have given an individual a chance to explain things, you should
      be able to agree to a way forward. Exceptions to negative written communication - if you have
      had to correct or criticize an individual, by all means follow it up with a letter. The other
      exception is when someone is under threat of dismissal. You must, by law, put this in writing.
      (e)     Use Key Words.         Certain key words have great power when read also generate
      pleasure in the reader, and help build a relationship. These words are ‗you‘, ‗your‘ and ‗yours‘.
      The reader reads them as ‗I‘ or ‗me‘, and ‗mine‘.

Presentation Skills
35.    Public speaking is not a mystical art. Nobody is born a gifted public speaker. Few things instill
as much fear in people as having to stand up and speak in public. Speaking in public is either an
entertaining exercise or a selling exercise. Think for a moment of all the speeches and presentations
you have listened to. The ones you can instantly recall and remember with enjoyment or interest will
be those where the speakers were selling the subject they were speaking about, rather than just
speaking about the subject.

36.   Tips for Effective Public Speaking.
      (a)     Understand Your Nervousness. There are two types of nervousness that the public
      speaker should be aware of. The first occurs whenever we have to do something completely
      out of the ordinary for the very first time. The first ride on a horse and the first time we stand up
      to speak in public. This feeling doesn‘t last and the more times you do what you are afraid of,
      the more the fear lessons. ‗The only way to conquer fear is to keep doing the thing you fear to
      do.‘ The second form of nervousness is extremely important and must be mastered. Some feel
      unable to speak to their colleagues, others become irritable, some feel physically sick and
      some suffer from loose bodily functions! This form of nervousness is a natural reaction. This is
      due to your adrenaline running and creates an uncomfortable feeling of nervous tension.
      Adrenaline and nervous tension are essential parts of a good performance. Therefore, you
      shouldn‘t worry about feeling nervous; quite the contrary; you should worry when you are not
      feeling nervous, because if that is the case you will not be able to give your best performance.
      (b)     Dealing with Nervous Tension. Some people find that when they start speaking their
      hands shake, their legs are trembling and their voice is quivering. The vast majority of
      speakers do not realize that it is never noticed by an audience. Take one or two deep breaths
      just before walking forward or standing up to give a presentation. This will help master nervous
      tensions before and during the early stages of a public speech. Holding your hands together or
      grasping the lectern will help if you are shaking. But above all else it is the planning,
      preparation and practice of your presentation that will build your confidence and help you to
      overcome the tension.
      (c)     Preparation. Confidence comes from thorough and accurate preparation. The more
      effort you put into the preparation, the greater will be the enthusiasm and enjoyment of your
      presentation. This can be done by :-
              (i)    Stage– 1: Prepare a File. Open a file and write on the outside the title of your
              (ii)   Stage –2 : Collect Ideas. Collect material that could be used. For example, you
              may be reading a newspaper article that gives relevant facts and figures or suggests a
              new line of thought. Cut the article out and put it in your file.
              (iii)  Stage –3: Decide Your Aims.          Decide exactly what reaction you want your
              speech to have. You want your audience to assimilate and understand your message.
              Having made a decision about what the purpose of your speech it, the actual writing
              and delivery of it becomes that much easier.
              (iv)   Stage-4: Write the Speech.           The basic construction of all speeches. Every
              speech should have an opening, a message & a close. Firstly, list in any order the
              thoughts, ideas and materials that you have already collected in your file. Secondly,
              from that list select a sequence of items that follows a logical thought process. Thirdly,
              you can write the details of each item listed. Write the complete presentation as if you
              were going to read it, with paragraphs, sentences and punctuation.
              (v)    Stage – 5: Prepare Your Notes. Notes are your speaking aid. From your full
              written text, take the theme of a paragraph and make that a main heading. Then jot
              down one or two words from the sentences to remind you of the detail or the theme in
              large writing. Stand three feet away from them and see if you can clearly read what you
              have written.
              (vi)   Stage- 6: Practice. The best way to ensure that everything will run smoothly is
              when you do it for real. Becoming familiar with presenting your material will build your
      (d)     Drying Up. One of the biggest fears for an inexperienced speaker is that of ‗drying
      up‘, or forgetting what to say. Two major causes of this. The first is having no notes because
      you believe you can speak ‗off the cuff‘ or because you have memorized your speech. This is
      ‗over-confidence‘. Very few people in the world have a sufficiently good memory to speak
      without notes. The other reason is lack of preparation.

37.   Other Aspects for Successful Public Speaking.
      (a)     Attracting the Audience Attention. ‘The first stage of any training is to attract attention.‘
      It‘s the same when you speak to an audience – the first stage is to attract their attention. A few
      ways in which this can be done:-
              (i)    Make a desire-type statement – say something that everybody wants to hear.
              ‗Ladies and gentlemen, during the next 30 minutes I want to discuss some ideas that
              could dramatically increase your income.‘

              (ii)   Use Extraordinary Facts. Using an extraordinary fact about an ordinary subject
              can be a great attention -grabber.
              (iii)  Set the theme of your presentation – by reading a text, a statement or a
              (iv)   Tell a humorous story as a last resort.
              (v)    An audience is able to maintain concentration for a maximum of 20 minutes. Try
              to take my audience off the subject every 12-15 minutes in order to prevent losing their
      (b)     As a guideline, in a talk of, say, 30 minutes, try not to cover more than four or five ideas.
      (c)     Persuading People To Listen.
              (i)    Use ‗Picture Power‘.          ‗People buy more with their eyes than they do with
              their ears‘. Use visual aids, but keep them simple, do not put too much content on one
              slide & don‘t keep looking at them – speak to the audience, not to the visual aid.
              (ii)   Most speakers spend a large part of their presentation without explaining the aim
              or purpose of the subject and then at the very end they get around to the benefits, the
              object, the purpose or the result. The importance of talking about the result cannot be
              stressed. Get your audience to want the result.
              (iii)  Relate the Content. Make sure that the content really does relate to the
              audience. Some speakers make the error of talking either above or below their
              audience. They do not communicate with their audience.
      (d)     Develop Good Habits & Ditch Bad Habits.            The first good habit is careful use of the
      crucial words ‗I‘, ‗we‘, ‗you‘ and ‗they‘. The word ‗I‘ should be used sparingly. Best used when
      referring to your own past experience or mistakes not in the context of building your own
      importance or how clever you may have been. The second good habit is in sticking to your
      allotted time. Also, do not begin your speech with an apology such as ‗I‘m sorry I‘m late‘, ‗Sorry
      to take up your time‘ etc. Avoid relating streams of facts and figures. They will not be
      remembered unless presented in visual form or in a handout.
      (e)     Ending The Presentation. Some of the ways to end a presentation are :-
              (i)    Summarize the main points.
              (ii)   Appeal for action – ‗Lets stop hearing & start communicating with each other‘.
              (iii)  Pay your audience a sincere compliment.
              (iv)   If you are confident enough to carry if off, tell a joke or story to raise a laugh.
              (v)    Use a quotation or a verse of poetry.
      (f)    Techniques for Handling Questions. Always ask the audience whether they heard the
      question. If you don‘t know the answer to a question, never try to make up an answer.
      Sometimes, people who ask questions already know the answer. If you get it wrong, you lose
      credibility. Two techniques to use when you don‘t know the answer to a question: Say ‗I am
      sorry, I don‘t know the answer to that question. I will find out the answer for you‘ (and then
      make sure you do). OR, ask the audience to help. Say ‗Good question. Does anybody know
      the answer?

38.   Personal Points.
      (a)    Appearance. If speakers feel that they look good, their mental preparation and their
      confidence in their delivery will be enhanced.
      (b)    Attitude.     Make sure that you are going to speak with the right attitude. Positive
      rather than negative. Mentally prepare yourself by saying ‗I am a good speaker, ‗My audience
      is going to enjoy their presentation‘. Say to yourself continually.
      (c)    Eye Contact. You must make a conscious effort to look into the eyes of your listeners.
      You must always be scanning your audience. A common mistake is to make too much eye
      contact with any VIPs in an audience.
      (d)    Delivery.     The speaker walks onto the platform or stands up to begin the
      presentation. What do professional speakers do? They pause and cast an eye over the
      audience with a gentle smile. This relaxes the audience. Smiling develops a relationship with
      the audience.
      (e)    Speaking Position. All speakers should present on their feet. Whenever a speaker
      stands up it increases the value and importance of what he or she has to say. When you want
      a question session or discussion, you can then change to a sitting position. Sitting down
      implies informality and makes questions sessions and discussions more likely to develop.
      (f)    Pacing.       Some people develop, a habit of pacing up and down the length of a
      platform. This can be a terrible distraction for the audience as their eyes follow the speaker
      from one side to another.
      (g)    Hand Movements. Some speakers hands are folded behind their back, sometimes
      they are folded in front, sometimes they go into trouser pockets and sometimes they play with
      coins or keys. These are all major distractions that a speaker can be in control of. Hands
      should be seen and always be in front of the body.
      (h)    Table or Lectern. Tables and lecterns have only one purpose, as a place on which to
      rest your notes. As a good guideline, always opt for a small lectern and try never to speak from
      behind a table, preferably speak from one side of it rather than from behind. Lecterns are not
      there to be leant on. If you do this you will appear to be preaching. It is preferably acceptable
      to be behind a lectern for the first few minutes and then gradually to move away from it as your
      speech progresses. The right posture is facing straight towards the audience.


39.     ―You can acquire great knowledge, but unless you can communicate to others, it is worthless‖.
In the modern world there is a more urgent need than ever for people to communicate with others. If
you are going to win with communication, in the long run, the more open you are, the more you are
prepared to talk and ask questions, the more you are prepared to build relationships, the more you
will find that good interpersonal communication will be a great winner for you.


1.    Perception is described as a person‘s view of reality & is closely related to the personality of
the person. As people differ in physical characteristics, their background (education & training) &
personality traits, they perceive the world in different ways & approach life‘s problems differently.
Reactions to different situations are also different. This is primarily due to the accumulation of data
from your past, involving everything that has ever happened to you, which has formed your ‗Belief
System‘. This system serves as your frame of reference, your perception on what reality is, even
though this may not be what reality really is.

2.     Just as two witnesses to a crime scene never see exactly the same thing, so also it is
important to realise that your Belief System or Perception is almost always incomplete, & therefore
unreliable. Instead, once having understood what perception is all about, you should work on
developing the ability to see & accept new possibilities in life, in order to move ahead rather than fall

Definition & Importance

3.     Perception can be defined in several ways :-
       (a)    It is the process through which information from the outside environment is selected,
       received, organised & interpreted to make it meaningful to you, resulting in decisions &
       (b)    Includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his
       environment – seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting & smelling. The functioning of these processes
       is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived, the
       environment in which perception occurs & the individual doing the perceiving.

4.     Importance. Perception is important as :-
       (a)    It helps us in understanding human behaviour. For eg., it may be the reason why many
       amongst you may find this course interesting, while a few may be disappointed with the same.
       (b)    If we understand a person‘s perceptions, & know that they behave so based on the
       same, we may be able to predict their behaviour in changed circumstances.
       (c)    The needs of various people can be determined, as peoples perception is influenced by
       their needs.
       (d)    It assists a leader or manager in avoiding errors when dealing with people & events at

The Perception Process

5.     Perception can also be referred to as ―Conscious Thought‖ & involves four steps, all of which
take place in a fraction of a second, & over which, by practice, we can exercise control. These steps
are :-
       (a)     Sensory Perception.       This is a fraction of all the data you input that you are aware
       of, through various internal & external sensors. The quantity of information you receive every
       second/every minute is so great that your mind is forced to develop a series of ‗filters‘ to
       screen out unimportant data/signals, & only allow in what you deem important or relevant to
       you as an individual. For eg., you become more aware of your toes when somebody steps on
       them, or, when reading an interesting book, your mind may cut off all other activities going on
       around you (noise for eg.).
      (b)      Association. As you perceive a given event or stimulus, you check to see if anything
      comparable has happened to you before, or compare the event with any similar experiences to
      try to find some meaning. If your memory files are still blank, you will find no meaning at all in
      the event.
      (c)      Evaluation. The Association phase is followed by the ‗Evaluation‘ of the perception.
      This involves making judgements about the importance, validity, implications of the message
      or event being perceived based on data already stored in the memory from previous
      (d)      Decision.     Based on what is perceived & available in memory to compare with, you
      can decide to respond in a variety of ways – do nothing, wait for more information, act with
      caution or leap into action. For eg., your response to someone shouting ‗FIRE‘, will be different
      to someone whispering ‗WAKE UP, SLEEPYHEAD‘.
      (e)      From this process we see that behaviour is not simply a function of what is happening
      now, but is primarily dependent of what particular stimuli you allow to enter your
      consciousness, & the specific data you have collected previously to compare it with. If a similar
      experience in the past resulted in a particular decision, you will respond in a similar manner
      this time also, all other things being equal. Thus perception ultimately takes place in the brain,
      & not in the sense organs. Therefore, ‗what we see is only our minds interpretation of what is
      actually there. In fact, we don‘t know what is actually there!‘

Factors Influencing Perception

6.    There are various factors that influence the perception of a person. These can be grouped as:-
      (a)     Characteristics of the Perceiver.
              (i)    Needs & Motives. Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals & may
              exert a strong influence on their perception. In one experiment, people who were kept
              hungry for some time were shown some pictures & asked to describe what they saw in
              them. Most of them reported many food items even when there were none.
              (ii)   Self Concept.        Indicates how we perceive ourselves which influences how
              we perceive others & the situation we are in. The more we understand ourselves, the
              more accurately can we perceive others. For eg., secure people tend to see others as
              warm or friendly, while insecure ones tend to find fault with others.
              (iii)  Past Experience. Our past experience often guides our perceptions. Persons
              who have been betrayed in the past would normally be distrusting.
              (iv)   Current Psychological State.      A depressed person is likely to view a situation
              differently than if he was happy. A person scared of snakes is likely to perceive a rope
              under the bed as a snake.
              (v)    Beliefs & Cultural Upbringing.    A person‘s beliefs, ethics, values & cultural
              upbringing also play an important part in his perception of others. (Love marriage,
              working woman etc).
      (b)     Characteristics of the Perceived. This includes the physical characteristics (loud, well
      dressed, pretty, ugly) & the manner of communication which can mould our perception on the
      education & sophistication of the person, their behaviour (how he sits, walks, smiles may
      indicate confidence or nervousness), & the status or occupation ( respectful if of high status or
      could be biased depending on how the person may have been described to us).
      (c)     Characteristics of the Situation. For eg., if you meet a person for the first time with
      someone you respect or admire, you automatically, at least initially, think well of that person.
      Similarly, meeting people in a friendly atmosphere at work will make you perceive them as
      friendly people.

Barriers to Perception
7.     Perceptual errors & distortion take place when the person does not perceive the thing,
particularly the person, as it may be. This is affected because of several factors, which taint our
judgements about other people and situations. These factors are :-
       (a)        Selective Perception.       Perceptual selectivity refers to the tendency of a person to
       select certain objects from the environment which are relevant and appropriate or consistent
       with his existing beliefs, values and needs. Such selectivity is biased by an individuals
       attitudes, interests and background, rather than by the stimulus itself. Because we see what
       we want to see, we can draw unwarranted conclusions. The simplest way of avoiding hasty or
       wrong decisions being made due to selective perception is to seek other people‘s perceptions
       in the same situation, in order to make a better assessment of the situation. Experts tell us that
       you look at your wrist watch about one hundred times each day. Assuming you have owned it
       for at least a year, that means you have looked at your watch about 56,500 times. That is a lot
       of looking at a display face that is usually less than one square inch in total area. Here is a test
       that shows how selective perception works. Please DO NOT look at your watch as you ponder
       the answers to the following questions. Assuming your watch is not digital:
            (i) Does it have regular or Roman numerals, slashes, or dots to indicate each hour?
            (ii) Is the display the same for all twelve numerals or are there different symbols to denote
            3, 6, 9 and 12 o‘clock?
            (iii) What is the color of the background of the display face?
            Take a minute to decide your answers. Now check your watch carefully to see how many
       questions you answered correctly. The vast majority of people fail to answer all three questions
       correctly. Isn‘t it amazing how you concentrate on narrow information ―bytes,‖ and in so doing,
       eliminate up to 90 percent of all the information that is available to you?
       (b)        Attribution. Refers to how people explain the cause of another‘s as their own
       behavior. For example, if a supervisor believes that an error made by his subordinate, is due to
       reasons beyond his control, his perception of his subordinate‘s work will be different from that if
       he attributes the error to his own gross negligence.
       (c)        Stereotyping. Means judging someone on the basis of one‘s perception of the group to
       which that person belongs. Some examples of common stereo types are that Americans are
       materialistic, Japanese are nationalistic, Germans & Sikhs are industrious, blondes are dumb,
       Marwaris are calculating etc. The danger here, lies in incorrect stereotyping. For example, all
       politicians are not self serving and all workers are not anti management.
       (d)        Halo Effect. Refers to the tendency of judging people on the basis of a single trait
       which may be good or bad. Whereas in stereotyping the person is perceived according to a
       single category, under the halo effect the person is perceived on the basis of a single trait. For
       example, if a person is kind, he is also perceived as good, able, helpful, cheerful, nice,
       intelligent and so on. On the other hand, if a person is abrasive, he may also be perceived as
       bad, awful, unkind, aggressive, harmful and wicked. A manager who himself is very punctual
       would view his subordinate who is always at work on time, more favourably than those who are
       not. This one trait of punctuality can influence a supervisor‘s rating of the employee‘s
       productivity. One way of eliminating the halo effect is to have the manager judge all his
       subordinates on a single factor or trait, & then going on to the next, & so on.
       (e)        Projection. When one‘s own personal attributes are assigned to others, then
       projection takes place. If you yourself are honest and trustworthy you take it for granted that
       other people are equally honest and trustworthy. A person who is dishonest may be suspicious
       of others and may perceive dishonest intentions in others where they do not exist.
       (f)        Implicit Personality Theory. An individual‘s perceptions are influenced by his belief that
       certain human traits are associated with one another. For example, the trait honesty is
       associated with hard working. All hard working people are perceived to be honest.

Testing Your Perception
8.     Use any two / three of the tests below to test your perception :-
        (a) Roman Table. Look at the picture & guess what it is. Looks like a classic Roman Table.
       A closer look may make you see the outline of two faces or even, a funnel stuck to the top of a
       bottle with the cap removed. (Appx)
       (b)    Number of Squares. Count the number of squares in the table (Appx). The answers can
       vary from 16,20,23,26 or even 30!
       (c)    Muller-Lyer Illusion. This is an example of perceptual confusion brought about by the
       manner in which the object is packaged, which often causes you to reject the idea. Compare
       the two figures & judge which line is longer. The lower appears longer (though both are of
       same length), purely due to the manner of packaging.
       (d)    Thus, we can conclude that much of what we perceive is not necessarily true, & will
       vary from person to person. And, much of what we need to see in order to be successful in life
       is actually invisible to the human eye, & based more on our perception.

Improving our Powers of Perception

9.     We know people like to hold on to old ideas and beliefs as though they were valued personal
possessions. Why is this? In part, to reconsider adopted points of view involves thinking. In fact, it
involves original thinking, which questions the previous assumption or the original basis for a previous
assumption. All such thinking ―hurts‖ since it requires considerable effort and self-analysis. As well, it
involves some risk. People will not throw away an old hat until they have acquired a new one to
replace it. It is the same with ideas. You first, have to make room for the new idea, then discard the
old one. People will not accept a new idea unless they believe to do so is in their own self-interest. In
other words, the new idea or belief has to have a better ―fit and feel‖ than the old one in the total
context of a person‘s new reality structure, the new way you are seeing yourself.

10.    Rethink Your Past / View Outside Signals Differently. To see yourself differently, you have to
rethink your past & view outside signals differently so that the world begins to look different to you.
Unfortunately, people who do not rethink their past are condemned to repeat it. The only people who
can change their mind are those who use it. No two pairs of human eyes are the same, mechanically
or anatomically. No two pairs of eyes see things in the same way. Our differences in perception begin
with this basic and astonishing fact. Hence, you are destined to be misinformed forever about many
aspects of your world. Some people are not content to live with all this misinformation. They actively
seek out opportunities to correct false beliefs. They search for new information to update their mental
model of reality—then they decide what they want to be! In this way, these people arm themselves
with a more realistic and powerful set of beliefs and hence are able to move ahead in their lives.

11.     Package Your Self Image Differently. The way you ―package‖ your self-image, by super-
imposing meaningless additions or baggage onto it, also changes who you think you are? Is all of
what your parents, teachers, or employers said very relevant to who you are and what you are
capable of achieving? No, of course not. Much of it is irrelevant and must simply be cast off. When
you eliminate the unnecessary ―arrowheads‖ from your past, you‘ll find that what remains is the real
you. It is a more realistic view of yourself.

12.    Create Your Own Reality.       You are empowered to create your own reality—a key core belief
if you want to turn your life around. You can look in the mirror and see a lower self or a higher self.
Both of these reflections are there, but you need to see the one you want, and in the process, activate
the subconscious to accept it on your behalf. It‘s like the glass of water that one person says is half
empty and another says is half full. In each of the earlier exercises, your perception process failed
you. Therefore, since you don‘t know how things really are, isn‘t it only prudent to represent them in a
way that empowers you to move ahead in your life with more confidence, more energy, and more
13.      Believe in Yourself. False beliefs about yourself can be fatal. They lead to mediocrity, rob you
of your energy, your desires, and your future. You must believe in yourself, in your ability to succeed
before you can succeed. Take the example of the elephant, one of the strongest animals in the world.
When a young elephant in the wild is first captured, its handlers fit an iron clamp around its leg and
attach it with a chain to a nearby banyan tree. Naturally, the elephant tries over and over again to pull
itself free. But despite its considerable strength, it is not successful. Only after struggling for several
days and hurting itself does it realize the futility of its efforts and finally gives up. From this point on,
the elephant never attempts to break free again, even when a small chain and wooden stake are
used. For the rest of its adult life, the elephant succumbs to a self-limiting, false belief about its ability
to perform in this particular area. In other words, it has accepted an internal representation of itself as
a captive animal incapable of breaking free. How many fixations are holding you back? What ―reality‖
about yourself are you assuming? Is there an imaginary chain tied around your leg separating you
from your ultimate goal in life?

14.     Try Artificial Experiencing. By conscious effort, you can creatively imagine an event in your
mind in every detail and it automatically becomes part of your memory profile. You can more easily
experience success in your imagination by using artificial experiencing. Scientific studies show that
your brain cannot differentiate between ―actual‖ experience in real life and an ―artificial‖ or simulated
experience imagined.Consider the experiment that studied the effects of mental imaging on improving
scores in sinking basketball free throws. A class of high school students with similar skills was divided
into three test groups.
        (a)    Group I was told to practice shooting free throws in a gymnasium for twenty minutes
        each day for twenty days.
        (b)    Group 2 was told not to practice shooting free throws for twenty days.
        (c)    Group 3 members were told to practice shooting free throws in their imagination for
        twenty minutes each day for twenty days. They were to imagine shooting a perfect basket
        every time.
        (d)    Based on tests on the first and last day. Group 1 improved its scores 24 percent. Group
        2 showed no improvement at all, and Group 3 improved its results 23 percent? This very
        important discovery demonstrates that it is possible to use artificial experiencing as a
        purposeful and controlled method for changing basic beliefs about yourself that are now firmly
        entrenched in your subconscious mind.
Many of your actual experiences during your upbringing were less than ideal with more failure than
success in your life, and now these events may be holding you back. But none of this need really
matter. Artificial experiencing puts you back in control, since when you are in charge of your thoughts,
you are in control of your behaviour.

15.     Sub-Conscious Problem Solving. Very often you are trying to solve a problem or resolve a
conflict, but no answers are forthcoming. Yet, all this while, your sub-conscious is at work, trying to
resolve the same. You probably all have had experiences in your own life, when after failing to find a
solution for many days, the answer suddenly ‗popped‘ into your head from nowhere. This normally
happens at an unearthly hour & you wonder how they found your address! This ability to access
information from a source beyond your conscious self is called ‗Sub-Conscious Problem Solving or
Conflict Resolution‘. So have faith in this internal ability of yours.

16.    The Power of Suggestion. Suggestion plays a major role in our lives & can help us understand
why we are programmed as we are, & what therefore, we need to do about it. Suggestive elements
are present in all aspects of everyday living. For eg., we are influenced by our friends, family, the
workplace, TV, radio, newspapers & magazines – all these determine how we think & feel about
ourselves. To realise the immense power of suggestion, read this poem :-
                                                 YES I CAN!
                                  If you think you are beaten, you are,
                                   if you think you dare not, you don‘t.
                                If you‘d like to win, but think you can‘t,
                                       it‘s almost certain you won‘t.
                                    If you think you‘ll lose, you‘re lost,
                              if you think you are outclassed, you are,
                                       Life‘s battles don‘t always go
                                       to the stronger or faster man,
                              but sooner or later, the person who wins,
                                       is the one who thinks he can!


17.    Individual perception is all-encompassing and all-powerful. How you perceive the world defines
for you the environments you live in. It defines your hopes and your fears, and sets upper limits on
your expectations in life. The key to correctly harnessing your ‗perceptions‘ & stimulate creative
thought is to learn how to allow your mind to let go, thus permitting creative ideas and concepts to
bubble up to the conscious level.

18.   Therefore to cash in on perception, remember the following:-
      (a)    No one‘s perception is complete or reliable. Much of what we see or hear is not
      necessarily true & the perception of the same will vary from person to person.
      (b)    Perception takes place in the brain & NOT in the sensory organs.
      (c)    It is necessary to understand the various factors affecting perception, as also the
      barriers to perception, in order to move ahead in life.
      (d)    We can improve our powers of perception by creating our own reality, believing in
      ourselves, artificial experiencing, using our subconscious thought process, & most importantly,
      allowing our mind to let go.




                                  “ Make people feel like winners ”


1.    Why do you do anything? Why do you feel drawn to some forms of work and repelled by
others? The first step to answering these difficult questions is to explore the central concept of

2.     Motivation is a contraction of the phrase, ‖motive-in-action‖, & comes from motive, which in
turn derives from the Latin verb ‗movere - to move‟. So a motive, quite simply, is something that
moves you to action. The words motive or motivation, suggest that something within you is at work,
impelling or driving you forwards. It may be a need, desire or emotion, but it leads you to act in a
certain way. These inner impulses, however strong, are not going to be effective unless they engage
your will and get you going or moving.

3.     Your will acts as a signal box at the junction between your needs & desires & your possible
actions. You can move the levers of action in this signal box. We give the green light to some trains of
action; others we stop dead by switching on the red light. This capacity to control our instincts or
impulses – acting on some & ignoring others – is your motivation.

What is Motivation

4.     A motive is an inner need or desire – conscious, or semi-conscious or perhaps unconscious –
which operates on your will and leads to action of one kind or another. You may do things that are
apparently motiveless but it may be so opaque or unconscious that neither you nor anyone else can
describe it. For eg., a tragedy, seen on TV may move you to tears, but you probably won‘t do
anything about it.

5.    Definitions. Motivation can be variously described as :-
      (a)     Those forces that cause people to behave in a certain manner. It encompasses
      pressures and influences that trigger, channel and sustain human behaviour.
      (b) The self propelling force within a man which keeps prompting him to improve his
      performance, his behaviour. It is his will and keenness to achieve not what he is supposed to
      achieve but what he sets for himself to achieve (S L Das).

Motivational Theories

6.    The Stick-and-Carrot Theory.
      (a)     To motivate means essentially that you provide a person with a motive or incentive to
      do something or the other. By so doing you are stimulating the interest of that person to
      activity. The oldest theory on earth is known ‗stick-and-carrot‘. Imagine you have an immobile
      donkey. One way to get it to move is by beating it with a stick. The other way is to hold a carrot
      in front of its nose. If he isn‘t hungry or if he has eaten too many carrots, then your proferred
      carrot will probably not work. If you beat the donkey it may well make up its mind to move in
      order to stop the pain by getting out of your range. This theory essentially consists of providing
      rewards or punishments.
      (b)     Both the carrot and the stick fall into a common category: they are both external stimuli.
      Stimulus means anything that provides increases or quickens bodily actively. Thus, a stimulus
      could also arouse your interest or be something that satisfies or invigorates you. When you
     motivate others you are applying, consciously or unconsciously, a stimulus of one kind or
     another to their minds, hearts or spirits. There is a third way of motivating people, which is by
     infusing them with your own spirit – through word and example.

7.   Expectancy Theory.
     (a)     This theory centers upon the conscious or rational process by which you calculate what
     you will get as opposed to what you will have to give. For eg., A leopard chasing a rabbit will
     only do so for about 200 metres. It then gives up. The food gained if it catches the rabbit will
     not replace the energy lost in the pursuit. It will chase a deer longer before making the same
     instinctive choice. Again, supposing, for example, an individual worker needs a lot more
     money, perhaps to support a sick child. He is assured that if he works harder he will receive
     more. Then it can be predicted – on expectancy-theory grounds – that the individual will put in
     the necessary time and effort to win the desired reward. If, on the other hand, he only wins
     some words of praise then the individual concerned will rapidly tend to lose all interest.
     (b)     One important contribution of expectancy theory is to remind us that, individual
     perception being different, the motivation and behaviour of individuals will vary considerably.
     The prominent role that your values play in the expectancy model of motivation is illustrated in
     the example given below :-
             James Kingfisher had worked for a bank for nine years when it became part of a much
             larger banking group. The new owners cut staff and increased performance targets for
             those who were left. They also wanted other changes.
             ‗James,‘ said Martin, the head of his section, one morning, ‗I have some good news. We
             are being joined by Tom who is one of the best in the business. You‘ll be able to learn a
             hell of lot from him. But it means that we are all going to have to work much later in the
             evening – Tom‘s a workaholic but he is bloody good. Of course our bonuses should all
             James went away and thought about it. Next morning he saw Martin in the corridor and
             told him he had decided to leave. I value my time in the evening with my children, ‗he
             said, ‗I don‘t really need the extra money.‘
             But don‘t you want to be a world-class deal-maker?‘ asked Martin, ‗What an opportunity
             to pass by – it will never come again.‘
             ‗Nor will my children, ‘replied James with a smile.

8.   Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs.
     (a)     In essence, it suggests that a person is motivated not by external motives such as
     rewards or punishment but by an inner programme of needs. These needs are arranged in
     sets. When one set is satisfied, another comes into play. A satisfied need ceases to motivate.
     ‗Man is a wanting animal and rarely reaches a state of complete satisfaction except for a short
     time. As one desire is satisfied, another pops up to take its place. When this is satisfied, still
     another comes into the foreground.
     (b)     Maslow identified five sets of needs, often set out in a triangle or pyramid model, which
     he saw as being in a dynamic relationship or hierarchy. If a person has an endless supply of
     bread, at once other needs emerge and they supersede the physiological needs. When these
     in turn are satisfied, yet higher needs emerge, and so on.

                                                     Esteem           Growth
                                                    Self-Respect      ment
                                     Social         Achievement       Personal
                                                    Status            Development
                   Safety           Belonging       Recognition
 Physiological      Security        Social Life
                    Protection      Friendship
     Hunger         From            And Love
     Thirst         Danger

      (c)     Physiological Needs.         If a person becomes chronically short of food and water he
      becomes dominated by the desire to eat and to drink, and his concern for other needs tends to
      be swept away. Thus the physiological needs are the most prepotent of all needs. Egs., food,
      sleep, sex, maternal behaviour in animals,
      (d)     Safety Needs.        These include the desire for employment with security of tenure,
      pension, and insurance schemes, and the improvement of safety conditions at work.
      (e)     Social Needs.        Needs for love, affection and belongingness. Social needs are
      intrinsic to our human nature.
      (f)     Esteem Needs.        Includes the need or desire both for a high evaluation of self (self-
      respect or self-esteem) and for the esteem of others. Egs., the desire for achievement,
      competence, confidence, reputation, prestige, status, recognition.
      (g)     The Need for Self - Actualization. A new discontent and restlessness will soon develop,
      unless the individual is doing what he is fitted for. A musician must make music, an artist must
      paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace with himself. What a man can be, he
      must be. This need we call self-actualization - man‘s desire for self-fulfillment.
      (h)     Drawbacks of This Theory. There is not convincing evidence that the satisfaction of any
      one need on Maslow‘s hierarchy will lead to its upper neighbour becoming the next prime
      motive. If your social needs are met you don‘t move on to the esteem needs. Also, factors
      such as culture and the age of the person will clearly affect the value or weight given to the
      needs that Maslow discerned. Many people show a willingness to go without the more basic
      needs in order to meet their needs for achievement, recognition and fulfillment. There is a
      legend that Alexander the Great was once found weeping because – at the age of thirty – he
      had no more worlds to conquer. Most people are Alexander‘s in this respect. The Alexander
      Principle is that we all need new worlds to conquer.

9.    Herzberg‘s Motivation/Maintenance Theory.
      (a)    ―Research indicates that only 20 percent of employees can cause 100 percent of the
      grievances, 45 percent of the absences, 58 percent of the medical claims, and 40 percent of all
      sick leave‖.
      (b)    Herzberg found that the factors that led to the job satisfaction and motivation are
      different from the factors that led to job dissatisfaction, but not necessarily diametrically
      opposite. The opposition of job satisfaction can be NO job satisfaction, just as the opposite of
      job dissatisfaction can be NO job dissatisfaction. He found that factors relating to the job‘s
      general environment were primarily job dis-satisfiers : In other words, failure to improve these
      factors led to dissatisfaction – but not job satisfaction. Alternatively, he found that factors
      relating directly to the job itself were primarily job satisfiers. Failure to improve these factors
       simply led to no job satisfaction, while their improvement led to greater job satisfaction and
       intrinsic motivation. These included opportunities for personal growth and advancement,
       amount of responsibility, the challenging nature of the work, personal recognition, and sense of
       accomplishment. Most job dissatisfiers are more closely related to lower-level motivation, while
       job satisfiers are closely related to higher-level motivators.
       (c)     Summary of his findings: POSITIVE FACTORS LEADING PRIMARILY TO JOB
       SATISFACTION - achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and
       growth. He also termed these as Motivators. POSITIVE FACTORS LEADING PRIMARILY TO
       NO JOB DISSATISFACTION - company policy and administration, supervision, salary,
       relationship with supervisor, work conditions, personal life, status and job security. He also
       termed these as ‗Hygiene Factors.
       (d)     Of all the factors found to contribute to job satisfaction, 81 percent were job-related; of
       all the factors contributing to job dissatisfaction, 69 percent were found to be environment-
       related. Employers cannot hope to increase productivity by simply spending more money on
       employees. Higher wages and better fringe benefits do not automatically increase employee
       satisfaction and motivation. Job enrichment can be put in these terms: if you have good
       people, provide them with interesting and challenging work. Increase their level of
       responsibility whenever possible and recognize their efforts, allow them to feel a real sense of
       accomplishment and grow as people.
       “If the building of a bridge does not enrich the awareness of those who work on it, then
       that bridge ought not to be built.”
       “You cannot starve people too long of a heartbeat in work.”

10.     There are several other theories on motivation which are being mentioned briefly. One of them
is, ―The Three - Circles Model‖. This talks of three groups or circles – Individual, Task & Team – &
their needs – which are dynamic in nature & each of them can interact positively or negatively with
the other(s). For eg., if a team fails in its task, this will intensify the disintegrative tendencies present
in the team and diminish the satisfaction of individual needs, or, if an individual feels frustrated and
unhappy, he will not make the maximum contribution to either the common task or to the goals of the
team. ―The Fifty – Fifty Principle‖ implies that the extent to which you can motivate anyone else is
limited, i.e., fifty per cent of motivation comes from within a person and fifty percent from his or her
environment, especially from the leadership encountered there.

How to Draw Out the Best From People / Motivating People

11.   Having understood various motivational theories, it is neccessary to know how we can use
them to motivate others. As trainers of the NCC, you have a primary responsibility of motivating your
students into the ideals of NCC, &, into being better & more responsible citizens, & hence this aspect
assumes importance. The key strategies, therefore, are :-
      (a)     Be motivated yourself.
      (b)     Set challenging but realistic targets.
      (c)     Remember that progress motivates.
      (d)     Treat each person as an individual.
      (e)     Provide fair rewards.
      (f)     Give recognition.

12.    Be Motivated Yourself.        The first and golden rule of motivation is that you will never
inspire others unless you are inspired yourself . As the Chinese proverb says, ―If you cannot smile,
do not open your shop today‖. Similarly, if you are not motivated yourself, do not try to motivate
others. Only a motivated leader can motivate others. To be motivated, you must :-
      (a)    Provide a Good Example. If a leader is enthusiastic and motivated, it is contagious. A
      famous Arab proverb says, ―GIVE ME A FIRE AND I WILL GIVE YOU LIGHT‖. As a leader
      you mustn‘t expect your team and individuals to produce LIGHT unless you contribute FIRE.
      (b)    Be Committed – and Show It.          Commitment suggests a decision from which there is
      no turning back or possibility of repeat. ―In 1066, Duke William of Normandy landed on the
      southern shores of England as an invader. He knew that shortly the whole military force of the
      Anglo-Saxons would concentrate to crush his small army of Normans. William ordered all the
      ships that had transported his soldiers across the Channel to be burnt. He wanted a committed
      army, highly motivated to win when the only alternative was death in battle or to be driven back
      into the sea. The Normans won‖.
      (c)    Are You in the Right Job. You‘ll have extreme difficulty in motivating others if you
      aren‘t in the right job. If you have found your vocation, your natural energies flow easily into
      your work. If you aren‘t very motivated it may mean that you are not yet in the right field of
      work. Check yourself immediately against the following symptoms of being in the wrong job:
             (i)    You have little or no interest in the work itself.
             (ii)   You have a sense of being ‗a square peg in a round hole‘.
             (iii)  You avoid talking about work.
             (iv)   You actively dislike a significant part of the job.
             (v)    You arrive late and leave early.
             (vi)   You constantly look forward to being able to leave.

13.    Set Challenging but Realistic Tasks/ Targets. “You can only eat an elephant one mouthful
at a time.”
       (a)     Never be afraid to set realistic and challenging targets. People will be disappointed if
       you do not do so. As a leader guide people away from mediocrity onto higher achievements.
       „It‟s a funny thing about life: if you refuse to accept anything but the best, you very
       often get it,‟ said Somerset Maugham. Set your face against allowing people to perform below
       their level. You serve them best by demanding that what needs to be done is done. Remember
       that organizations who have the hardest times are staffed by people who set the easiest
       (b)     Always remember, the concept of task has built into it the element of difficulty or
       demandingness. If it was easy, it wouldn‘t be a task.

14.   Progress Motivates. Hence it is important to ensure that people receive proper feedback.
Without feedback people will not know if they are moving in the right direction, at the right speed.
Conversely, feedback on relative lack of progress also motivates, as it concentrates minds on what
must be done if success is yet to be achieved.

15.   Treat Each Person as an Individual.
      (a)     If you want to draw the best out of any individual you have to treat him or her as a
      person first and foremost – not as a man or woman, manager or worker, customer or supplier.
      One of the problems that managers have is finding time for talking and listening to individuals
      at all. Few things are more motivating to individuals than personal attention from you at their
      leader. Ask yourself these questions to know if you are treating each member of your team as
      an individual :-
              (i)    Do you know their names?
              (ii)   Can you identify the differences between them?
              (iii)  Do you accept that an individual‘s motivation changes from time to time?
              (iv)   Do you spend time to know them, work with them, coach them?
      (b)     For the low performers, ask them individually why they are not achieving their agreed
      targets & find out what motivates them. There are all sorts of reasons why a person‘s or a
      group‘s self-esteem can go into decline. There is nothing more creative or rewarding than
      helping an individual who has been written off by others to turn disaster into success.

16.   Provide Fair Rewards.
      (a)    Performance ought to be linked to rewards. Ninety per cent of people, ninety per cent of
      the time, operate on this rationale or ‗expectancy-theory‘ model. If fairness is not perceived,
      there can breed a lack of motivation and low morale. Money is a key incentive, but it has more
      power to make you dissatisfied or unhappy, than it has power to motivate you. The effects of a
      generous salary increases tend to wear off. Money remains an extrinsic factor, whereas the
      longer-lasting motivators are intrinsic in work itself,
      (b)    There are, of course, many rewards apart from money that we gain from working.
      Opportunities for professional development and personal growth. Motivating by incentives can
      be very effective at getting employees to go the extra mile.

      “You get more of the behaviour you reward. You don’t get what you hope for, ask for,
      wish for or beg for. You get what you reward.”
                                                  Michael le Boeuf

17.   Give Recognition.
      (a)     We all value positive recognition, hence, don‘t underestimate the power of recognition
      as a motivator. It‘s the oxygen of the human spirit. Recognition needs to come both formally
      and informally.
      (b)     Key points to remember here are :-
              (i)    Reward real achievements or contributions to the common good, not self-seeking
              (ii)   It should serve to guide and encourage all concerned.
              (iii)  Should be given in a public way, in front of others.
              (iv)   Must be genuine and sincere.
      (c)     People see through insincerity. Don‘t reserve your appreciation and praise only for
      achievements over and above the call of duty. Look for levels of excellence in the work that
      people are being paid to do.
      (d)     Lastly, a word of caution. Don‘t overdo it. Words of praise and appreciation, like money,
      can be devalued if they are multiplied and used without thought. Be sparing in praise, but be
      liberal with thanks.
       “Any of us will put out more and better ideas if our efforts are fully appreciated.”
                                                        Alexander F Osborn


“The key to motivation is job enrichment – more responsibility, job satisfaction, personal
growth and development, advancement, the recognition of achievement and rewards.”

18.    Motivation is the sum of all that moves a person to action. Motives are necessary for action but
not sufficient in themselves. For action to happen, a decision has to be made. Motivation also extends
to moving others to action. You can move others in varying degrees by rewards or punishment. A
third way, you can stir up or stimulate a whole range of motives in others which have little to do with
pain or rewards.
19.     You need to understand what motivates you and others at work. To motivate, anyone beyond
the ‗stick-and- carrot,‘ level means you have to know him or her as an individual person. You need to
develop your skills as a leader of others. Leadership includes the ability to motivate and inspire

20.    To conclude, MOTIVATION IS :-
       ―If things go wrong — ‗I did it‘.
        If things go well — ‗We did it‘.
       If things are great — ‗You did it!‘‖

                            PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


1.     Much of what managers and supervisors do is solve problems and make decisions. Therefore,
get used to an organized approach to problem solving and decision making. The activities of problem
solving and decision making are closely intertwined, so the two topics are usually discussed together.
For any problem to be solved, a decision must be made.

2.     There are many approaches to problem solving, depending on the nature of the problem and
the people involved in the problem. One approach typically used involves description of the problem,
analyzing causes, identifying alternatives, assessing each alternative, choosing one, implementing it,
and evaluating whether the problem was solved or not. However, a more interesting set of guidelines
has been given by Dr Robert Schuller, in his book ‗Tough Times Never Last, But Tough People Do‘,
and this is what shall be discussed later.

3.      Decision making is an important job of a manager. Everyday he has to decide about doing or
not doing a particular thing. A decision is the selection from among alternatives. It is a solution
selected after examining several alternatives chosen because the decider foresees that the course of
action he selects will be better than the others to further his goals, and will be accompanied by the
fewest possible objectionable consequences. A decision is always related to some problem, difficulty
or conflict. Decisions help in solving problems or resolving conflicts. All problems may not require
decision - making but merely the supply of information may be sufficient. Decision making requires
something more than a selection. The material requiring a decision may be available but still a
decision may not be reached – it therefore involves some sort of prediction for the future on the basis
of past and present available information. The effect of a decision is to be felt in future so it requires
proper analysis of available material and a prediction for the future. If decision promises do not come
true, then decision itself may be wrong.

Problem Solving

4.     Robert Schuller, the author of "Tough times never last. Tough people do!" gives the following
guidelines in looking at problems in the proper perspective:
       (a)     Every Living Human Being Has Problems.              Perhaps you are unhappy with your
       work. Isn't it good that you have a job rather than being unemployed? Many people have the
       mistaken notion that successful people do not have any problems. It is not true. Success tends
       to breed its own set of problems. Everyone has problems. A problem-free life is an illusion - a
       mirage in the desert. Accept the fact that everyone has problems. This will help you to move
       on with your life rather than sitting and feeling pity for yourself.
       (b)     Every Problem Has A Limited Life Span.            Life has its ups and downs. No one is up
       all the time or down all the time. Problems do get resolved in the long term. They don't last
       forever. History teaches that every problem has a limited life span. Your problems will not live
       forever; but you will! Storms are followed by sunshine. Winter is followed by spring.
       (c)     Every Problem Holds Positive Possibilities.       There are two sides to every coin.
       Similarly, for every problem, there is a positive and negative side. Look for the positive side
       and work on it What may be a problem for one could be interesting opportunity to someone
       else. Hospitals are there because people get sick; garages are there because cars do break
       down; lawyers are there because people get in trouble with the law occasionally. For example,
       let us say that you lost your job. You can sit and feel sorry for yourself. Or you can be
       aggressive and decide to do something about it. That may be wake-up call you needed before
       embarking on a successful mission.
       (d)     You Can Choose What Your Problem Will Do To You. You may not be able to control
       the problem, but you certainly can control your reaction or response to it. The choice is up to
       you. You control the effect of the problem by controlling the reaction. It can make you tough or
       tender. It can make you better or bitter. It all depends on you.
       (e)     There Is A Negative And A Positive Reaction To Every Problem.
       Tough people, have learned to manage their problems. Remember, we have little control on
       problems, we have control on how we react and manage the problem. Positive people choose
       to react positively to their predicaments. Do you automatically interpret silence on the part of
       your spouse to mean anger when it could just as easily mean fatigue? Do you dwell on the few
       times your boss criticized your performance and ignore the innumerable times he's praised
       you? We all fall into the negative thinking rut from time to time. We badger ourselves with
       "should haves" and lose sight of the fact that "good" and "bad" in life is rarely black and white.
       All-or-nothing thinking can lead to anxiety, depression, feelings of inferiority and anger. We are
       our worst enemies. We tend to put a higher standard for us compared to others. We tend to
       criticize ourselves for our mistakes rather than being happy for the accomplishments. Allow
       yourself to fail now and then. It's all part of being human.

5.      Not all problems can be solved and decisions made by a rather rational approach. However,
the following basic guidelines should get you started:-
        (a)    Define the Problem. This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think
        the problem is. Instead, seek to understand more about why you think there's a problem. If you
        discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you
        should address first. If the problem is not carefully identified then it is extremely difficult to find
        satisfactory solutions. Write down a short description of the problem in terms of what can you
        see that causes you to think there's a problem, where is it happening, how is it happening,
        when is it happening, with whom is it happening, and why is it happening.
        (b)    Look at Potential Causes for the Problem. It's amazing how much you don't know
        about what you don't know. It's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem
        and who are effected by it. Write down your opinion and what you've heard from others.
        Thereafter, write down a description of the cause(s) of the problem in terms of what is
        happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.
        (c)    Identify Alternatives for Approaches to Resolve the Problem. Brainstorm for solutions to
        the problem, i.e., is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best
        idea. When collecting the ideas, do not pass any judgment on them - just write them down as
        you hear them.
        (d)    Select an Approach to Resolve the Problem. When selecting the best approach,
        considerwhich approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term, which is the
        most realistic to accomplish for now, whether you have the resources, is it affordable, do you
        have enough time to implement the approach and what is the extent of risk associated with
      each alternative. (The nature of this step, in particular, in the problem solving process is why
      problem solving and decision making are highly integrated).
      (e)   Plan the Implementation of the Best Alternative - Your Action Plan). Carefully consider
      what steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem, what
      systems or procedures should be changed, how will you monitor the same, what resources will
      you need in terms of people, money and facilities and, how much time will you need to
      implement the solution. Thereafter, communicate the plan to those who will be involved in
      implementing it. An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continuous
      observation and feedback.
      (f)   Monitor implementation of the plan and finally verify if it has been resolved or not.

6.     Another approach to Problem Solving, involves finding answers to a series of questions as
under :-
       (a)   What is the real problem to be solved?
       (b)   What is the ideal solution?
       (c)   What options do I have?
       (d)   What might happen if I put these options into practice?
       (e)   What is my decision?
       (f)   Now Do It!
       (g)   Did it work?

Decision Making

7.     Definition     We have seen that identfying the problem and thereafter taking the correct
decision to resolve it, are the two most important facets of Problem Solving. We will now study the
important aspect of Decision Making. In simple terms, it is the selection of one course of action from
two or more alternative course of action.
       (a)     ―A decision is an act of choice wherein an executive forms a conclusion about what
       must be done in a given situation. A decision represents a course of behaviour chosen from a
       number of possible alternatives.‖
       (b)      ―Decision making is the selection based on some criteria from two or more possible

8.    The characteristics of decision making are :-
      (a)   Decision making is based on rational thinking.
      (b)   Process of selecting the best from among alternatives available.
      (c)   Involves the evaluation of various alternatives available.
      (d)   Is the end product because it is preceded by discussions and deliberations.
      (e)   Is used to achieve organizational goals.
      (f)   Involves certain commitment. Management is committed to every decision it takes.

9.    Types of Decision Making.
      (a)    Programmed Decisions. Are of a routine nature and taken within the specified
      procedures. Have short term effects, are taken at lower level management. Decision to grant
      leave, make routine purchases etc.
      (b)    Non-Programmed Decisions.          Non-repetitive    decisions     due      to     specific
      circumstances taken at top level - opening of a new branch, introducing a new product,
      purchase of a new machinery are some examples.
      (c)    Group Decision.      Sometimes situations arise consisting of problems which are
      unlikely to be solved by a single individuals. Problem solving requires varied skills, knowledge
      base, expertise and experience. Manager may assign the responsibility to a group of experts
      to look at the problem objectively and to come up with recommendations. Group decision
       making requires greater time and interpersonal skills among the group members. This is
       particularly important for non-programmed decisions because these decisions are complex
       and few individuals have all the knowledge and skills necessary to make the best decisions.
       Groups can make higher quality decisions than individuals.
       (d)    Some times, decisions are influenced by adopting a follow up leader practice. The
       leader of the group sets the precedent and others silently follow that decision. Whatever has
       been decided by the leader becomes a guide for others and they also follow suit.

10.      Decision Making Process. A decision cannot be taken in isolation. It is influenced by past
experience, present conditions and future expectations. Once a decision is taken, then it becomes
difficult to reverse it. Decision-making involves the following steps (some of which are common to
Problem Solving) :-
         (a)      Defining the Problem. This has already been explained earlier. No problem presents
         itself in a manner that an immediate decision can be taken. If we wish to increase the yield of
         grain in a certain field, on analysis it may be found that there is lack of potash. Once the
         problem is properly defined then it will be easily solved.
         (b)      Analysis of the Problem. Collect all possible information about the problem and then
         decide whether it will be sufficient to take a decision or not. Often, managers complain that
         they seldom get sufficient information which they would have liked to have. Sometimes, it may
         be costly to have additional information or further information may not be possible. In the
         words of PETER DRUCKER, ―To make a sound decision, it is not necessary to have all the
         facts, but it is necessary to know what information is lacking in order to judge how much of a
         risk the decision involves‖. Whatever information is available should be used to analyse the
         problem. If there are deficiencies in information then manager must judge the degree of risk
         involved in the decision.
         (c)      Alternate Course of Action. Every problem has a number of solutions. If there is only one
         solution then there is no need for decision making. Try to find out various alternatives in order
         to get satisfactory results of a decision. For example, the plant of the company needs
         replacement because its products cannot compete with those of others. The choice before
         management may be to go in for a new plant or, rent new premises & consolidate this plant
         with another plant. Management has to evaluate various alternative proposals and then take a
         (d)      Evaluation of Alternatives. Next step is to evaluate them and select the right one. The
         pros and cons of different proposals should be foreseen. This enables the manager to see the
         risk involved in each course of action. Should be evaluated in relation to time and money
         involved. Only that alternative which gives maximum economy should be selected. A decision
         becomes easy when one alternative has more favourable consequences as compared to
         others. When more than one alternatives have similar good points, then it becomes difficult to
         make a choice. In such cases, two or more alternatives can be combined.
         (d)      Experience. Proverbs like ―history repeats itself‖ or ―experience is the best teacher‖
         provide help in decision making. Past experience acts as a guide. The difficulties faced and
         problems encountered earlier can be well judged and corrective measures can be taken in
         advance. Past experience should however, not blindly be relied upon. There may be a change
         in the situation and the old decision may not hold good in future. While relying on experience,
         the conditions prevailing in the past, at present and the possible effects in future, should be
         considered before making a decision.
         (e)      Experimentation. Used in scientific enquiry. Alternatives are put to actual practice
         and the one giving better results is selected. This is not possible in management. May be used
         in a limited way. For example, when a new product is put in the market, it can be marketed in a
         limited area to see the reaction of consumers. Always better to take decision on the basis of
         facts, analysis of results etc.
       (f)     Taking Decision and Following Up. A final decision is taken to the concerned persons
       for action. Will require the cooperation of subordinates .They should be properly briefed about
       various aspects of the decision. It is not enough to take a decision, but it should also be seen
       whether it is properly implemented or not. The follow up action of a decision may show that it
       was based on certain wrong premises or facts. In such a situation, the decision should be
       reviewed and necessary changes may be made.

11.    Decision Making Styles. Different managers exhibit different styles as decision makers. A
few styles are :
       (a)     Intuitive Style. Decision making by intuition is characterized by the inner feeling of the
       person. He takes a decision as per the dictates of his conscience. He thinks about the problem
       and an answer is found in his mind. Has his own preferences, influences, psychological make
       up and these play a vital role in taking the decision. Past knowledge, training and experience
       of the decision maker plays an important role in intuitive decisions. With this technique
       decisions are taken quickly. In case the intution is wrong, then decision will also be incorrect.
       In such a style the other techniques of decision making are also neglected.
       (b)     Sensation Style.     Likes to solve problems in standard ways. The past experience of a
       person becomes a good basis for taking decisions. When a similar situation arises then the
       manager can rely on his past decision and take similar decisions. Sees and understands
       things in terms of concepts with which he is familiar. These individuals do well in routine work
       and, at lower levels of hierarchy they are quite effective, but present situations should be
       properly analysed and assessed before taking a decision.
       (c)     Thinking Style.      Tend to be unemotional and uninterested in the feelings of others.
       Their decisions are controlled by intellectual processes based on external information and
       generally accepted ideas and values. Usually organise information well and seldom reach a
       conclusion before considering all options well. Thus information has become a major tool in
       management decision making. But facts alone may not be sufficient for decision making. The
       imagination, experience and beliefs of the decision maker are also required to comprehend
       facts in the proper perspective.
       (d)     Feeling Style.       Likes harmony among people, tends to be sympathetic and relates
       well to others, as also enjoys pleasing people.

12.    Group Decisions.
       (a)   Advantages.
             (i)     Greater Knowledge Base. Groups tend to have a greater knowledge base. Two
             heads are always better than one. Thus decisions where knowledge is of paramount
             importance, can be effectively taken only at group levels.
             (ii)    Greater Number of Alternatives. Greater will be the number of alternatives
             available for the solution of a problem. Greater number of alternatives offer more
             perspective on a problem as compared to a single perspective.
             (iii)   Effective Implementation of Decisions. Implementation of decisions will be
             more effective as the people who are going to implement the decisions are the people
             who also participated in decision making.
             (iv)    Elimination of Personal Biases. Biases that are introduced in individual
             decision making are eliminated. Decisions become more reliable and dependable.
             (v)     Participative Decisions.   Increases participation of members in decision
             making, thus increasing member satisfaction.
             (vi)    Better Understanding of Final Decision. Comprehension of final outcome is high,
             as all the members are involved in the decision making and implementation.
             (vii) Democratic in Nature.        Most democratic in nature, more easily acceptable
             and goes well with the democratic ideas of our society.
      (b)   Disadvantages of Group Decision Making.
            (i)     More Time Consuming.       Groups are generally slower to reach decisions. Time
            is consumed in assembling the group and then the group takes a lot of time in reaching
            a consensus. Problem increases with the size of the group.
            (ii)    Social Pressures. Most times the participative decision making is not so
            participative. Some members do not actually participate but simply agree with others,
            since there are social pressures to conform. Sometimes, the social pressures are so
            strong that they induce people to change their attitude, perceptions and behaviour.
            (iii)   Interpersonal Conflicts.   Sometimes, the group members have their own
            personal interest to protect, leading to personality clashes that may create inter
            personal conflicts. Can diminish the efficiency as well as quality of decision making
            (iv)    Group Goals vs Organisational Goals. Sometimes, the decisions made by the
            group are not in accord with the goals and objectives of the organization. Will cause a
            conflict in group goals and organizational goals.
            (v)     Dominance. Not always democratic. A dominant individual may emerge and
            control the group‘s decisions.
            (vi)    Focus Effect. The group will focus on one or few suggested alternatives and
            spend all the time in evaluating these.
            (vii) Inclination Towards Initial Decisions.     Groups are generally inclined to stress
            more and more on their initial decisions simply to justify having made these in the first

13.   Techniques of Group Decision Making.
      (a)     Brain Storming.     Originally developed by ALEX F OSBORN. This technique involves
      a group of people, usually between five and ten, sitting, around a table in a classroom like
      setting, generating ideas in the form of free association. The primary focus of brain storming is
      on ―generation of ideas‖ rather than on ―evaluation of ideas.‖ The idea behind this is that of the
      larger number of ideas generated, the probability of finding a very unique and creative solution
      from among them will be very high. The main advantages of this technique are broader
      participation, enthusiasm, deferred judgement, greater task orientation, team work and
      stimulated thinking. Technique is very effective when the problem is comparatively specific and
      can be simply defined. Disadvantages. Process is very time consuming.
      (b)     Nominal Group Technique. Similar to brain storming but considered to be more
      effective. This technique controls the amount of group interaction and adds structure to the
      group process. All the group members are presented with a problem and each develops
      solutions independently.
              (i)    Members meet as a group, but before any discussion, each member
              independently writes down his or her ideas on the problem, followed by each member
              presenting one idea to the group. No discussion takes place until all the ideas have
              been recorded.
              (ii)   Group now discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them.
              (iii)  Each group member silently and independently, ranks the ideas. The final
              decision is determined by the idea with the highest aggregate ranking. This technique is
              called nominal because it is a group by name only, as no verbal exchange is allowed
              among members.
              (iv)   Advantages:-
                     (aa) Integrates the advantages of both individual creativity and group creativity.
                     (ab) Saves a great deal of time.
                     (ac) Possibility of equal participation by all the members.
      (c)     Delphi Technique. Introduced by N C Dalkey and his associates in 1950, at the Rand
      Corporation‘s think-tank. Similar to the Nominal group technique except that it does not require
      the physical presence of the group members. In the Delphi technique, members do not meet
      face to face. All communication is typically in writing.
             (i)      Problem is defined by the Delphi leader or leaders. A sample of experts is
             selected and questionnaires are developed and sent out to participants.
             (ii)     Responses are compiled and summarized into a questionnaire.
             (iii)    Participants are asked to reevaluate the responses.
             (iv)     The new responses are compiled and new questions may be prepared.
             (v)      Cycle stops only when consensus is reached. Ultimately a solution is developed.
             (v)      Advantages.
                      (aa) Offers the advantages of group decision making in circumstances when it
                      is not physically possible to convene a group meeting.
                      (ab) Members are totally independent and are not influenced by the opinion of
                      other members.
                      (ac) Another advantages is anonymity.
                      (ad) Most efficiently used in education, health, business, government and the
             (vi)     Disadvantages.
                      (aa) Time consumption and cost involved.
                      (ab) Lacks scientific basis or support.
                      (ac) Eliminates the sense of motivation that arises in a face to face interacting
      (d)    Fish Bowling Technique. Similar to brain storming, but more structured and to the
             (i)      In this technique, the decision making group of experts is seated around a circle
             with a single chair in the center of the circle.
             (ii)     One member of the group or the group leader is invited to sit in the centre chair
             and give his views about the problem and his ideas about the solution of the problem.
             Other group members can ask him questions but there is no irrelevant discussion or
             cross talk. Once the member has finished talking, he leaves the centre and joins the
             group in the circle.
             (iii)    Then the second member is called upon to sit in the corner chair and offer his
             ideas and opinion in the light of the views expressed earlier. Members can ask him
             (iv)     The exchange will continue between the central person and the group members
             till the chair is vacated & till all the members have expressed their views.
             (v)      After all have discussed their views, the entire group discusses the various
             alternatives suggested and picks the one with consensus.
      (e)    Didactic Interaction. Applicable only in certain situations. But when such a situation
      arises, it is an excellent method. Problem should be such that it results in a YES-NO solution.
      For example, to buy or not to buy, to sell or not to sell etc., requires an extensive and
      exhaustive discussion and investigation since a wrong decision can have very serious
      repercussions. Steps involved are :
             (i)      The whole group required to make the decision is split into two subgroups, one
             favouring the ―YES‖ decision and the other favouring the ―NO‖ decision.
             (ii)     First group will list all the ‗pros‘ of the problem. Second group will list all the
             (iii)    Both the groups meet and discuss their findings and reasons.
             (iv)     After the exhaustive discussion, the groups switch sides and try to find
             weaknesses in their own original viewpoints.

14.    Group Size. ―Too many cooks spoil the broth.‖ Ideally, a group of 5-7 members have been
found to be effective for problem solving where the consensus method is used. Larger groups may be
necessary where a wide variety of skills, knowledge and expertise from different functional areas is
required for making decisions on critical organisational issues. For example, when a new product is to
be developed, the making of a large group will be essential for this decision making. It will require
people from the design and engineering department, production, marketing, sales, finance,
accounting, customer service, legal, R & D and other departments.


15.    Problems come in all sizes, shapes, and colors. There is no single or simple step-by-step
process guaranteeing us we will solve every problem we encounter. Take time to examine and
explore the problem thoroughly before setting out in search of a solution. Breaking the problem into
smaller parts will often make solving it much easier. Be careful not to look for a solution until you
understand the problem, and be careful not to select a solution until you have a whole range of
choices – this allows you to choose the best from among many. Last but not least, solve the problem
that really exists, not just the symptoms of a problem, not the problem you already have a solution for,
not the problem you wish existed, and not the problem someone else thinks exists.

16.      Life can be viewed as a constant series of decisions. Only by making rational decisions do we
"take charge" of our lives. Some decisions seem unimportant but are important. For example, every
minute or two we answer, by our behavior, the question: What is the best use of my time right now?
Likewise, some admittedly important decisions, such as mate selection, career choice, when and if to
have children, and values, are often impulsively or casually made. And, some unimportant decisions
(because there aren't significant differences among the choices), such as what car or appliance to
buy, are carefully made, based on precise technical data. Some decisions are made alone and others
are made under tremendous social pressure, such as when to marry, what religion to accept, work
after marriage etc. Decision-making is a direct result of ‗thinking‘ and you need to be able to ‗think
until it hurts. An effective decision is one that gives the desired end result. The crucial elements in
decision- making are establishing the facts, considering the options, & then deciding the course of
action. One survey (of 200 leaders of industry and commerce) ranked ‗the ability to take a decision‘
as the most important attribute of top management.

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