VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 116 POSTED ON: 6/3/2011
English Language Teaching Workshop for Fukien Secondary School Teachers by Dr Phyllis Chew Nanyang Technological University, Singapore firstname.lastname@example.org http://phyllischew.myplace.nie .edu.sg/ 14 April 2007 PROGRAMME 1.Oral skills using stories & genres 2. extensive reading strategies Emerging Lingua Francas Emerging lingua francas: cantonese vs. Mandarin HK vs. Singapore Liminal Period in Hong Kong The medium of instruction controversy Linguistic Aim for all students trilingual and biliterate The HK Certificate of Education exam Reading 20% Writing 20% Listenig 30% Speaking 15% School Based Assessment 15% ORALSKILLS OR COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IS NOW CRUCIAL AND MORE THAN 50% OF THE MARKS What is storytelling? An ancient tradition A modern communication tool Our most natural form of communication A time-tested way of bonding with students Language and literacy skills Listening Comprehension Vocabulary speech SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL , CUTLURAL Empathy- universal human traits Inspiration Survival of community through shared experiences Passing down of values, traditions and messages in a non-didactic way. Group work Saywhat your name means to each other. Give us the background to your name. STORYTELLERS: Use their own words Make eye contact with the audience Change the delivery of the story according to how the audience reacts Storytelling is about connecting with the audience Intellectual development Activeuse of the brain Problem solving Perspective taking UNDERSTANDING SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN 1. PERSPECTIVE TAKING 2. MORAL DEVELOPMENT AND REASONING AFFECTS ATTITUDES, VALUES AND BEHAVIOUR Teaching perspective HE HAS ONLY 0 LEVELS, 31 SHOPS AND $50 MILLIION A YEAR BUSINESS Maradona – street kid to powerful footballer Many kinds of stories Anecdotes Literary stories Historical stories Folktales Reality stories Riddles, jokes, proverbs Family stories etc Memory triggers Accidents, celebrations, friendship, school stories, being lost, first times, embarrassing times, family sayings, wise ones. Trips, humor, victories, sports, tests, tricks, death, pets, festivals Migration, birth/adoption, tales of hurt, fights, adventure, tales of adversity, heroes/role models, neighbors, survival Group work Look at the small piece of paper. Tell the story to each other based on the 3 words in your paper. PEOPLE PLACES OBJECT cleaner Poison tree cobbler Sea Life medal Park Ice-cream Nathan stamp seller Road teacher Fire station Charcoal iron doctor Guangzhou Fly swatter soldier beach Love letter Tea lady cemetary postcard Fruit seller Police Plum blossom station Shop- Stanley football keeper Street Bus driver factory lamp *Why tell stories? A natural way to transmit ideas Stories give students an eperience o the world Stories creates atmosphere of caring and enhances relationship Students who are told a lot of stories will start to tell stories themselves – hence building their self-confidence and self- esteem Listening to stories improves imagination and helps in forming images for later writing It improves listening skills. It develops vocabulary and beauty of the language It sparks interest in reading *New book on stories in the classroom RuthWajnryb, Stories. Narrative activities in the language classroom. Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2004. *stories on the web www.healingstory.org/crisis/crisis http://www.dancingponyproductons. com/welcome.html http://hazel.forest.net/whootie/defau lt/html www.wisdomtales.com www.storyarts.org www.aaronshep.com www.cathyspagnoli.com etc Storytelling along the Singapore river Storytelling in Singapore EVERYONE CAN TELL A STORY! GAME TIME To tell a story you need: A thoughtfully chosen story A genuine desire to communicate A simple, clear, natural manner of speaking Choose a story that You really like Has only a few characters Has a simple plot Learning a story Don‟t memorize the story word for word Its ok to memorize words or phrases that you like, and the beginning and end of the story Learn the main events of the story, not the words Learning the stucture of a story Read Listen Draw Learning the structure Write Outline cobra and python Orientation Rainy day, met in cave Fell in love – why – describe physical beauty of cobra and phyton Problem – why, their parent‟s obejctions Resolution – meet where, when What happen at meeting Is there a moral See Handout: using your voice effectively Pitch changes Pace Pause Power tone Key words Characters Settings Objects Emotions themes Story in a sentence a summary of the story in Write one sentence Think in terms of newspaper headlines YOUNG BLOND, STEALS PORRIDGE VANDALISES BEARS COTTAGE BUT EVADES CAPTURE BY QUICKY GETAWAY THROUGH UPSTAIRS WINDOW After the story Wait – don‟t plunge into the discussion Allow the story to „settle” in the listerner‟s minds by doing quieter reflective activities first These activities could include: Visualizing some aspect of the story Drawing the part of the story that interested them most Writing their responses to the story Group work Draw a picture of ONE of the following: Your very first Home, Accident Test Pet Friendship Death Migration Explain the drawing to your group. Look at handout Some suggestions for further activities in the classroom (for secondary schools & above) ACHING LANGUAGE THROU GENRES STORIES ARE NARRATIVES Orientation/setting Complication/problem Resolution Coda STORY MAP Draws attention to text structure and sequence Setting: Characters: 3 little pigs, wolf, reporters, police Place: In the countryside, farmland Problem; The wolf needed to borrow a cup of sugar Goal: Event 1 To bake a birthday cake The wolf sneezed outside 1st pigs door and t of straw accidentally fell down. The wolf ate Event 2 The 2nd pig wouldn’t open the door - busy The wolf sneezed outside the door, the hous fell down. The wolf ate the pig. Event 3 The 3rd pig wouldn’t let the wolf in. Instead the wolf. The wolf tried to break the down t Resolution: The wolf ended up in prison. Wolf claims he was framed. Event 4 The police arrived. STORY LADDER Draws attention to text structure and sequ THE WORLD OF MULTIMODALITY When you want to remember something, write it down What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I understand Confucius The genre of contrasts in diagram form Venn Diagram for group analysis of Robinson Cru VENN DIAGRAM: COMPARE AND CONTRAST The three little pigs/ The true story of the three little pig • The pigs leave home to build • The wolf goes to borrow a cup their own homes. of • Pig 1- The wolf goes to sugar. the • The wolf has a bad cold. pig’s home and asks to • Pig 1- The wolf goes to the be pig’s home let in. The pig doesn’t let •3 and knocks on the door. The the door falls wolf in so he huffs and pigs down. The wolf goes in and puffs • Wolf the straw and blows the house • makes him sneeze. The house down. House falls down. The pig runs away s The wolf eats the pig.. • Pig 2- The wolf goes to of • Pig 2- The wolf rings the the doorbell. 2nd pig’s home and asks to pig doesn’t let him in. He is be straw, busy shaving. let in. The pig doesn’t let The wolf sneezed and the him in so he huffs and sticks, house fell puffs and down. The wolf ate the pig. and blows the pig’s • Pig 3- The wolf goes to the house bricks pig’s house down. and knocks on the door. The • The 2 pigs runoff to the pig 3rd pig’s wouldn’t let him in but house. instead • Pig 3- The wolf asks to insulted the wolf’s granny. come in but • The wolf became so angry noone answers. The pigs that he put a big tried to break down the door. pot of water on the fire • The police came for the wolf. Stone Fox - Compare/Contrast Book/Movie H-Map (compare/contrast map Cold Front Warm Front Cold air/ Warm air/ warm air cold air sudden change Both slow change more fast move slowly very windy light wind air rises Warm, cold air air 35 showers thunderstorms weather change air warm rain storms some precipitation air cools some wind Why a genre approach? . 1. Narrative is the easiest but that’s only a portion of what is used in life and in the exams. 2. Asian students generlaly prefer modelling. Thegenre approach is linked closely to: The 20% factor 80% of the key information is found in 20% of the materials 80% of good writing comes from understanding your audience and target objectives A 20% increase in paying attention to listening cues is equivalent to an 80% edge. what are the main types of texts? NARRATIVE Mystery Science fiction Fantasy Adventure Fairytales Myths and legends PROCEDURAL DIRECTORIES FORMS LISTS INSTRUCTIONS Problems Some diaries *PROCEDURAL 1. *RECEIPES. PERSONAL recount Informalnotes for oneself Stream of consciousness writing Learning logs Personal diaries *PERSONAL recount EXPOSITORY Encyclopedias Atlases Reference books Non-fiction reports *expository Reports *Expository Exposition/argumentative ARTISTIC Plays Haikus Odes Ballads Limericks sonnets The genre approach is the most time saving and focussed strategy for the examination EXTENSIVE READING BY Dr Phyllis Chew Why teach reading of books? Students discover how texts work (concepts of print) They know what constitutes a good book They understand how language can be used in different ways They feel what it is to be a reader, not just be able to read WHAT IS READING? Complete this sentence : “Reading is ………” “It is a number of interactive processes that allow the reader to construct or build knowledge” (Julian Bamford and Richard Day, 2004. Extensive Reading in the Second Langauge Classroom) WHAT EXTENSIVE READING IS NOT: It is not translation It is not reading aloud It is not answering comprehension questions Reading Comprehension vs. Extensive Reading Short difficult text Large no of comprehension questions Analyze the text in terms of language features Some translation activities based on the text. Research shows that students learn reading strategies if they already have some amount of intermediate skills. Free downloads http://www.extensivereading.ne t/ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ Extensive reading/ http://www.erfoundation.org http://www.penguinreaders.co m (Click on Teacher‟s Guides” in the bottom, right corner) How do we learn to read? We learn to read by reading (there is no other way) The more students read, the better readers they become FLUENT READING NEEDS: A large sight vocabulary (quickly, automatically and fast) a large general vocabulary (ie you just needs to pause briefly if you don‟t know the meaning of the word) How to acquire fluency in reading? By reading “i minus 1” Where “1” is the current level of acquisition. This is the only way to acquire a large sight vocabulary. “easy is good” “choice should be interesting POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF READING INSTRUCTION Fluent Skilled,strategic reader Lifelong reader Joyful readers Lifelong readers Why should reading be joyful? Thinkabout teaching someone to swim Forbeginning student, strategies don‟t work so well; but joy does. *According to Prowse, Extensive Reading is: Easy Interesting Self-selection OUTCOMES APPR Fluent Joyful Lifelo Strate OACH Reade Read ng gic ES rs ers Read Reade ers rs Gramma r- translati on Comprehe nsion Questions Skills and strategie s Extensiv e reading OUTCOMES APPR Fluent Joyful Lifelo Strate OACH Reade Read ng gic ES rs ers Read Reade ers rs Gramma no no no no r- translati on Comprehe nsion no mayb no no Questions e Skills and no Yes no no strategie but s Extensiv e reading yes mayb yes yes e Implication for FL Reading (Richard Day “Reading Dependence Hypothesis: “How EFL learners end up as readers depend on the path they take.” ASK: Where do you want your readers to end up? Be aware of the outcome before you decide. Extensive reading is vital if there is a insufficient classroom contact time The experts….. “first rate literature makes one say: “Until now, I never knew how I felt. Thanks to this experience, I shall never feel the same way again.” W.H. Auden Ask students what they like? What is the name of your favourite book? Why do you like it? How many books do you own? Where do you keep them? What are the names of some of these books? If you could change places with someone, who would it be? What do you like best about reading? What is your favourite television show? Why do you like it? What is your hobby? Do you collect anything? If so, what? How do you feel about reading for fun? Do you own a library card? If you were to write your own book, what would it be about? Why? What games or sports do you like? What is the next book you plan to read? Betty Coody, pp Dole, Brown and Trathern (1996) found that students‟ attitude towards reading makes a big difference – they claim that materials and attitudes are the most important variables in the decision to read. “Reading is Magic” What do experts say? "stories leave an indelible impression, and their author always has a niche in the temple of memory from which the image is never cast out..." Howard Pyle "A book is a garden, an orchard, a storehouse, a party, a company by the way, a counselor, a multitude of counselors." Henry Ward Beecher Creating classroom experiences that foster an enjoyment of literature Reader Response “When a reader reads the print, something happens within the reader” (Rosenblatt, 1998) Reading is a lived through experience. It involves feelings, images and thoughts that are brought to mind while we read. Readers respond to those feelings during and after reading. A Lesson from Baghdad by Abdul Baha Teachers need to: Helpstudents express their responses to literature Provideactivities that deepen and enrich these responses and understandings Response Journal Guide Fiction I don‟t understand when… This makes me think of… This reminds me of… This is like… This makes me feel… I can picture…. I like the part… I didn‟t like the part… The part I remember most is…. Other Response Activities Write a letter from Magpie to Dog explaining why she left him Sketch the part of the story you liked the most/least Write a poem entitled “FOX”, based on the character in this story The Importance of Responding to reading literature Students take ownership of the reading process They understand that there is no “right” answer when talking about literature They become more critical in their thinking about texts They become more creative in their writing Group Work You will be given a book to read together as a group. What type of fiction is it? Evaluate the quality of your text using the following questions as a guide: Is the book a good story? Is there action? Is the plot original and believable? Do the characters grow and change in the story? Does the author avoid stereotyping? How does the setting affect the action, characters, or theme? Does the story move beyond the setting and have universal implications? Is the theme worthwhile? Is the style of writing and use of language appropriate? Does the book exemplify the characteristics of a genre? (Adapted from Sutherland & Arbuthnot, 1996) A reading programme isn’t balanced if it doesn’t have non-fiction Students love to discover new things Non-fiction links readers to the unlimited possibilities of the world around them…….readers will learn that truth really can be stranger, and more exciting, than fiction. Kimberley Minafo The research shows: Students who read non- fiction are better able to write non-fiction Reader Response Activities Agr Disagr ee ee A bear‟s favourite food is bamboo Bears have tails Bears have good memories Bears are similar to dogs In the winter time bears do not eat or drink NON- FICTION Response Journal Guide Non-Fiction What was the most interesting or exciting word/part of the book? What idea were you most interested in? Describe your feelings towards this idea? Why do you feel this way? Can you make any connections between your own life and the ideas you read about? What places in the book made you think of something you have experienced or seen before or know about? Why? Group Work Browse through a selection of non-fiction books for learners of English From your observations what constitutes good non-fiction for students? List some possible criteria Did You Have…..? A catchy or interesting title An attractive front cover Accurate facts Good organization Exciting language Clear explanations which don‟t simplify the facts Authentic photos/useful diagrams Photos/diagrams which support the written text Movement from simple to difficult concepts Avoidance of stereotypes *see handouts on Reader Response activities Some suggestions by Marc Helgresen Responses to literature broadsheet Is extensive reading a part of your school’s experience? What and where do children read? Is the library accessible to students? Did the classroom have its own collection of books? Who chooses the books for students? Do you give time for response activities about the books and stories that you were reading?
Pages to are hidden for
"english ument chew"Please download to view full document