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					   English Language
  Teaching Workshop
 for Fukien Secondary
    School Teachers
           by

       Dr Phyllis Chew
   Nanyang Technological
    University, Singapore
  phyllis.chew@nie.edu.sg

http://phyllischew.myplace.nie
             .edu.sg/



      14 April 2007
PROGRAMME


 1.Oral skills using
 stories & genres

 2. extensive reading
 strategies
Emerging Lingua
   Francas
Emerging lingua francas:
cantonese vs. Mandarin
   HK vs. Singapore
   Liminal Period in Hong
            Kong


 The medium of instruction
  controversy

 Linguistic  Aim for all students
  trilingual and biliterate
   The HK Certificate of
     Education exam

 Reading   20%
 Writing 20%
 Listenig 30%
 Speaking 15%
 School Based Assessment 15%
 ORALSKILLS OR
  COMMUNICATIVE
  COMPETENCE IS
  NOW CRUCIAL
 AND MORE
 THAN 50% OF THE
  MARKS
  What is storytelling?

 An  ancient tradition
 A modern communication tool
 Our most natural form of
  communication
 A time-tested way of bonding
  with students
 Language and literacy

          skills
 Listening
 Comprehension
 Vocabulary
 speech
 SOCIAL, EMOTIONAL ,
     CUTLURAL
 Empathy-   universal human
  traits
 Inspiration
 Survival of community through
  shared experiences
 Passing down of values,
  traditions and messages in a
  non-didactic way.
        Group work

 Saywhat your name means to
 each other. Give us the
 background to your name.
   STORYTELLERS:

 Use  their own words
 Make eye contact with the
  audience
 Change the delivery of the
  story according to how the
  audience reacts
Storytelling
            is about
 connecting with the
     audience
        Intellectual
       development
 Activeuse of the brain
 Problem solving
 Perspective taking
   UNDERSTANDING
 SECONDARY SCHOOL
     CHILDREN
1.   PERSPECTIVE TAKING
2.   MORAL DEVELOPMENT
     AND REASONING AFFECTS
     ATTITUDES, VALUES AND
     BEHAVIOUR
Teaching perspective
HE HAS ONLY 0 LEVELS,
  31 SHOPS AND $50
   MILLIION A YEAR
      BUSINESS
Maradona – street kid to
  powerful footballer
  Many kinds of stories

 Anecdotes
 Literary stories
 Historical stories
 Folktales
 Reality stories
 Riddles, jokes, proverbs
 Family stories
 etc
     Memory triggers

 Accidents,   celebrations,
  friendship, school stories,
  being lost, first times,
  embarrassing times, family
  sayings, wise ones.
 Trips, humor, victories, sports,
  tests, tricks, death, pets,
  festivals
 Migration, birth/adoption, tales
  of hurt, fights, adventure, tales
  of adversity, heroes/role
  models, neighbors, survival
         Group work

 Look at the small piece of
 paper. Tell the story to each
 other based on the 3 words in
 your paper.
PEOPLE         PLACES         OBJECT

cleaner        Poison         tree
cobbler        Sea Life       medal
               Park
Ice-cream      Nathan         stamp
seller         Road
teacher        Fire station   Charcoal iron
doctor         Guangzhou      Fly swatter
soldier        beach          Love letter
Tea lady       cemetary       postcard
Fruit seller   Police         Plum blossom
               station
Shop-          Stanley        football
keeper         Street
Bus driver     factory        lamp
       *Why tell stories?
   A natural way to transmit ideas
   Stories give students an eperience o the
    world
   Stories creates atmosphere of caring and
    enhances relationship
   Students who are told a lot of stories will
    start to tell stories themselves – hence
    building their self-confidence and self-
    esteem
   Listening to stories improves imagination
    and helps in forming images for later
    writing
   It improves listening skills.
   It develops vocabulary and beauty of the
    language
   It sparks interest in reading
 *New book on stories in
     the classroom
 RuthWajnryb, Stories.
 Narrative activities in the
 language classroom.
 Cambridge Handbooks for
 Language Teachers.
 Cambridge: Cambridge
 University Press 2004.
     *stories on the web

   www.healingstory.org/crisis/crisis
   http://www.dancingponyproductons.
    com/welcome.html
   http://hazel.forest.net/whootie/defau
    lt/html
   www.wisdomtales.com
   www.storyarts.org
   www.aaronshep.com
   www.cathyspagnoli.com
   etc
Storytelling along the
   Singapore river




           Storytelling in Singapore
         EVERYONE
         CAN TELL A
          STORY!
 GAME   TIME
To tell a story you need:

A  thoughtfully chosen story
 A genuine desire to
  communicate
 A simple, clear, natural manner
  of speaking
   Choose a story that

 You really like
 Has only a few characters
 Has a simple plot
     Learning a story

 Don‟t  memorize the story word
  for word
 Its ok to memorize words or
  phrases that you like, and the
  beginning and end of the story
 Learn the main events of the
  story, not the words
Learning the stucture of
        a story
 Read
 Listen
 Draw
 Learning the structure

 Write
    Outline cobra and
          python
Orientation Rainy day, met in
  cave
Fell in love – why – describe
  physical beauty of cobra and
  phyton
Problem – why, their parent‟s
  obejctions
Resolution – meet where, when
What happen at meeting
Is there a moral
 See Handout: using your
     voice effectively
 Pitch   changes
 Pace
 Pause
 Power
 tone
           Key words

 Characters
 Settings
 Objects
 Emotions
 themes
   Story in a sentence

      a summary of the story in
 Write
 one sentence
    Think in terms of
  newspaper headlines
 YOUNG BLOND, STEALS
 PORRIDGE
VANDALISES BEARS
 COTTAGE BUT EVADES
 CAPTURE BY QUICKY
 GETAWAY THROUGH
 UPSTAIRS WINDOW
         After the story

 Wait  – don‟t plunge into the
  discussion
 Allow the story to „settle” in the
  listerner‟s minds by doing
  quieter reflective activities first
 These activities could
       include:
 Visualizing   some aspect of the
  story
 Drawing the part of the story
  that interested them most
 Writing their responses to the
  story
             Group work
   Draw a picture of ONE of the
    following:

   Your very first
       Home,
       Accident
       Test
       Pet
       Friendship
       Death
       Migration
   Explain the drawing to your group.
    Look at handout

 Some   suggestions for further
 activities in the classroom (for
 secondary schools & above)
ACHING LANGUAGE THROU
        GENRES
      STORIES ARE
      NARRATIVES
 Orientation/setting
 Complication/problem
 Resolution
 Coda
                            STORY MAP


            Draws attention to text structure and sequence
 Setting:
 Characters: 3 little pigs, wolf, reporters, police
 Place: In the countryside, farmland



 Problem;
 The wolf needed to borrow a cup of sugar



 Goal:
                                  Event 1
 To bake a birthday cake
                                  The wolf sneezed outside 1st pigs door and t
                                  of straw accidentally fell down. The wolf ate



                                  Event 2
                                  The 2nd pig wouldn’t open the door - busy
                                  The wolf sneezed outside the door, the hous
                                  fell down. The wolf ate the pig.



                                  Event 3
                                  The 3rd pig wouldn’t let the wolf in. Instead
                                  the wolf. The wolf tried to break the down t
Resolution:
The wolf ended up in prison.
Wolf claims he was framed.         Event 4
                                   The police arrived.
           STORY LADDER


 Draws attention to text structure and sequ
THE WORLD OF
MULTIMODALITY
  When you want to
remember something,
    write it down


     What I hear, I forget
    What I see, I remember
    What I do, I understand
            Confucius
The genre of contrasts
   in diagram form
Venn Diagram for group analysis of Robinson Cru
VENN DIAGRAM: COMPARE AND CONTRAST
The three little pigs/ The true story of the three little pig




 • The pigs leave home to
 build
                                           • The wolf goes to borrow a cup
   their own homes.
                                           of
 • Pig 1- The wolf goes to
                                             sugar.
 the
                                           • The wolf has a bad cold.
   pig’s home and asks to
                                           • Pig 1- The wolf goes to the
 be
                                           pig’s home
   let in. The pig doesn’t let
                                 •3          and knocks on the door. The
 the
                                           door falls
   wolf in so he huffs and       pigs
                                             down. The wolf goes in and
 puffs                           • Wolf    the straw
   and blows the house           •           makes him sneeze. The house
 down.                           House     falls down.
   The pig runs away
                                 s           The wolf eats the pig..
 • Pig 2- The wolf goes to
                                   of      • Pig 2- The wolf rings the
 the
                                           doorbell. 2nd
   pig’s home and asks to
                                             pig doesn’t let him in. He is
 be                              straw,
                                           busy shaving.
   let in. The pig doesn’t let
                                             The wolf sneezed and the
   him in so he huffs and        sticks,   house fell
 puffs                             and       down. The wolf ate the pig.
   and blows the pig’s
                                           • Pig 3- The wolf goes to the
 house
                                 bricks    pig’s house
    down.
                                             and knocks on the door. The
 • The 2 pigs runoff to the
                                           pig
 3rd pig’s
                                             wouldn’t let him in but
   house.
                                           instead
 • Pig 3- The wolf asks to
                                             insulted the wolf’s granny.
 come in but
                                           • The wolf became so angry
   noone answers. The pigs
                                           that he
 put a big
                                             tried to break down the door.
   pot of water on the fire
                                           • The police came for the wolf.
Stone Fox - Compare/Contrast
        Book/Movie
      H-Map (compare/contrast map



  Cold Front                     Warm Front




Cold air/                        Warm air/
warm air                         cold air
sudden change    Both            slow change
more fast                        move slowly
very windy                       light wind
air rises       Warm, cold air air 35 showers
thunderstorms   weather change air warm
rain storms     some precipitation
air cools       some wind
Why a genre approach?
                   .



1.   Narrative is the easiest but
     that’s only a portion of what is
     used in life and in the exams.

2.   Asian students generlaly
     prefer modelling.
 Thegenre approach is linked
 closely to:



The         20%
 factor
     80% of the key
information is found in
 20% of the materials
80% of good writing comes
from understanding your
audience
and target objectives
A 20% increase in paying
attention to listening cues
is equivalent to an 80%
edge.
what are the main types of
          texts?
          NARRATIVE

 Mystery
 Science   fiction
 Fantasy
 Adventure
 Fairytales
 Myths and legends
     PROCEDURAL

 DIRECTORIES
 FORMS
 LISTS
 INSTRUCTIONS
 Problems
 Some    diaries
       *PROCEDURAL

1.   *RECEIPES.
       PERSONAL

 recount
 Informalnotes for oneself
 Stream of consciousness
  writing
 Learning logs
 Personal diaries
       *PERSONAL

 recount
      EXPOSITORY

 Encyclopedias
 Atlases
 Reference     books
 Non-fiction
 reports
        *expository

 Reports
        *Expository

 Exposition/argumentative
            ARTISTIC

 Plays
 Haikus
 Odes
 Ballads
 Limericks
 sonnets
The genre approach is
        the most
   time saving and
       focussed
    strategy for the
     examination
EXTENSIVE
 READING
BY Dr Phyllis
   Chew
Why teach reading of
      books?
 Students  discover how texts
  work (concepts of print)
 They know what constitutes a
  good book
 They understand how
  language can be used in
  different ways
 They feel what it is to be a
  reader, not just be able to read
   WHAT IS READING?


Complete this sentence :



“Reading is ………”
 “It   is a number of interactive
    processes that allow the reader
    to construct or build knowledge”
   (Julian Bamford and Richard Day, 2004.
    Extensive Reading in the Second Langauge
    Classroom)
       WHAT EXTENSIVE
       READING IS NOT:
 It is not translation
 It is not reading aloud
 It is not answering
  comprehension questions
 Reading Comprehension
  vs. Extensive Reading
 Short difficult text
 Large no of comprehension
  questions
 Analyze the text in terms of
  language features
 Some translation activities
  based on the text.
Research shows that students
  learn reading strategies if they
  already have some amount of
  intermediate skills.
     Free downloads

 http://www.extensivereading.ne
  t/
 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/
  Extensive reading/
 http://www.erfoundation.org
 http://www.penguinreaders.co
  m (Click on Teacher‟s Guides”
  in the bottom, right corner)
How do we learn to read?


 We learn to read by reading
 (there is no other way)

 The more students read, the
 better readers they become
     FLUENT READING
         NEEDS:
A    large sight vocabulary
    (quickly, automatically and fast)

    a large general vocabulary (ie
    you just needs to pause briefly
    if you don‟t know the meaning
    of the word)
How to acquire fluency in
       reading?
By reading
 “i minus 1” Where “1” is the
  current level of acquisition.
  This is the only way to acquire
  a large sight vocabulary.
     “easy is good”
     “choice should be interesting
 POSSIBLE OUTCOMES
     OF READING
    INSTRUCTION
 Fluent
 Skilled,strategic reader
 Lifelong reader
 Joyful readers
 Lifelong readers
Why should reading be
       joyful?
 Thinkabout teaching someone
 to swim




 Forbeginning student,
 strategies don‟t work so well;
 but joy does.
  *According to Prowse,
  Extensive Reading is:
 Easy
 Interesting
 Self-selection
            OUTCOMES

APPR Fluent Joyful Lifelo   Strate
OACH Reade Read ng          gic
ES   rs     ers    Read     Reade
                   ers      rs
Gramma
r-
translati
on
Comprehe
nsion
Questions
Skills
and
strategie
s
Extensiv
e reading
            OUTCOMES

APPR Fluent Joyful Lifelo      Strate
OACH Reade Read ng             gic
ES     rs   ers    Read        Reade
                   ers         rs
Gramma no   no     no          no
r-
translati
on
Comprehe
nsion       no    mayb   no    no
Questions         e
Skills
and
            no    Yes    no    no
strategie         but
s
Extensiv
e reading
            yes   mayb   yes   yes
                  e
    Implication for FL
        Reading

(Richard Day “Reading
  Dependence Hypothesis:
  “How EFL learners end up as
  readers depend on the path
  they take.”

 ASK:  Where do you want your
 readers to end up? Be aware
 of the outcome before you
 decide.
 Extensive reading is
   vital if there is a
insufficient classroom
     contact time
     The experts…..


 “first
       rate literature makes
 one say: “Until now, I never
 knew how I felt. Thanks to this
 experience, I shall never feel
 the same way again.”
         W.H. Auden
    Ask students what they
            like?
   What is the name of your favourite book?
    Why do you like it?
   How many books do you own? Where do
    you keep them?
   What are the names of some of these books?
   If you could change places with someone,
    who would it be?
   What do you like best about reading?
   What is your favourite television show? Why
    do you like it?
   What is your hobby?
    Do you collect anything? If so, what?
    How do you feel about reading for fun?
    Do you own a library card?
    If you were to write your own book, what
    would it be about? Why?
    What games or sports do you like?
    What is the next book you plan to read?
                                Betty Coody, pp
 Dole, Brown and Trathern
 (1996) found that students‟
 attitude towards reading makes
 a big difference – they claim
 that materials and attitudes are
 the most important variables in
 the decision to read.
     “Reading is Magic”
    What do experts say?

   "stories leave an indelible impression,
    and their author always has a niche in
    the temple of memory from which the
    image is never cast out..."

       Howard Pyle

   "A book is a garden, an orchard, a
    storehouse, a party, a company by
    the way, a counselor, a multitude of
    counselors."
                            Henry Ward
    Beecher
   Creating classroom
 experiences that foster
an enjoyment of literature
   Reader Response

“When a reader reads the print,
 something happens within the
 reader”
                   (Rosenblatt,
 1998)

 Reading is a lived through
 experience. It involves feelings,
 images and thoughts that are
 brought to mind while we read.
 Readers respond to those feelings
 during and after reading.
A Lesson from Baghdad by
Abdul Baha
   Teachers need to:

 Helpstudents express their
 responses to literature

 Provideactivities that deepen
 and enrich these responses
 and understandings
      Response Journal
           Guide
                    Fiction
   I don‟t understand when…
   This makes me think of…
   This reminds me of…
   This is like…
   This makes me feel…
   I can picture….
   I like the part…
   I didn‟t like the part…
   The part I remember most is….
    Other Response
       Activities

 Write  a letter from Magpie to
  Dog explaining why she left
  him
 Sketch the part of the story you
  liked the most/least
 Write a poem entitled “FOX”,
  based on the character in this
  story
   The Importance of
 Responding to reading
        literature
 Students   take ownership of the
  reading process
 They understand that there is
  no “right” answer when talking
  about literature
 They become more critical in
  their thinking about texts
 They become more creative in
  their writing
        Group Work

 You  will be given a book to
  read together as a group.
 What type of fiction is it?
 Evaluate the quality of your
  text using the following
  questions as a guide:
   Is the book a good story?
   Is there action?
   Is the plot original and believable?
   Do the characters grow and change in the
    story?
   Does the author avoid stereotyping?
   How does the setting affect the action,
    characters, or theme?
   Does the story move beyond the setting
    and have universal implications?
   Is the theme worthwhile?
   Is the style of writing and use of language
    appropriate?
   Does the book exemplify the
    characteristics of a genre?


        (Adapted from Sutherland & Arbuthnot, 1996)
A reading programme isn’t
 balanced if it doesn’t have
 non-fiction
Students love to
 discover new
    things
Non-fiction links readers to the
unlimited possibilities of the
world around
them…….readers will learn
that truth really can be stranger,
and more exciting, than fiction.

   Kimberley Minafo
 The research shows:

 Students  who read non-
 fiction are better able to
 write non-fiction
      Reader Response
         Activities
                 Agr   Disagr
                 ee    ee
A bear‟s
favourite food
is bamboo

Bears have
tails

Bears have
good
memories
Bears are
similar to
dogs
In the winter
time bears do
not eat or
drink
                                NON-
                                FICTION
      Response Journal
           Guide
               Non-Fiction
   What was the most interesting or
    exciting word/part of the book?
    What idea were you most
    interested in?
   Describe your feelings towards this
    idea? Why do you feel this way?
   Can you make any connections
    between your own life and the
    ideas you read about?
   What places in the book made you
    think of something you have
    experienced or seen before or
    know about? Why?
        Group Work

 Browse   through a selection of
  non-fiction books for learners
  of English
 From your observations what
  constitutes good non-fiction for
  students?
 List some possible criteria
     Did You Have…..?

   A catchy or interesting title
   An attractive front cover
   Accurate facts
   Good organization
   Exciting language
   Clear explanations which don‟t
    simplify the facts
   Authentic photos/useful diagrams
   Photos/diagrams which support the
    written text
   Movement from simple to difficult
    concepts
   Avoidance of stereotypes
*see handouts on Reader
   Response activities
 Some  suggestions by Marc
  Helgresen
 Responses to literature
  broadsheet
Is extensive reading a part
      of your school’s
        experience?
 What  and where do children
  read?
 Is the library accessible to
  students?
 Did the classroom have its
  own collection of books?
 Who chooses the books for
  students?
 Do you give time for
  response activities about the
  books and stories that you
  were reading?

				
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