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									Correct Citation
Vision - 2025, CTRI Perspective Plan
Central Tobacco Research Institute
Rajahmundry - 533105, Andhra Pradesh

Published by
Dr. V. Krishnamurthy
Central Tobacco Research Institute

Compiled by
Dr. C.A. Raju
Dr. R.V.S. Rao
Dr. P. Harishu Kumar
Dr. J.A.V. Prasad Rao
Dr. P.R.S. Reddy

Edited by
Dr. V. Krishnamurthy
Dr. C.V. Narasimha Rao

Assisted by
Sri C.V. Krishna Reddy
Smt. Ch. Lakshmi Narayani
Sri Md. Elias

Printed by
New Image Graphics, Vijayawada 520002 Ph : 0866 2435553

1. PREAMBLE                                                        1
2. MANDATE                                                         2
3. GROWTH                                                          3
    3.1   Infrastructure                                           3
    3.2   Budget                                                   6
    3.3   Manpower                                                 6
4. SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS                                   7
5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT                                               34
    5.1   Growth in Area and Production                            34
    5.2   Input - Output Assessment                                37
    5.3   Gaps and Shortcomings                                    37
    5.4   Lessons Learnt, Suggestions and Options for Future       38
6. SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSIS                                      39
    6.1   Scenario                                                 39
    6.2   SWOT Analysis                                            42
7. PERSPECTIVE                                                     43
8. ISSUES AND STRTAGIES                                            44
   10.1   Linkages                                                 63
   10.2   Execution Arrangements                                   64
11. CRITICAL INPUTS                                                65
   11.1   Funds                                                    65
   11.2   Manpower                                                 66
   11.3   Human Resource Development                               66
12. RISK ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT                                    68
14. RESOURCE GENERATION                                            70
15. OUTPUTS                                                        70

                                       Several new initiatives taken by the Council in the areas of research,
                                 extension and education hold promise to address the concerns of
                                 improving the farm productivity, its quality and farmers’ income by
                                 bringing commercial outlook in agriculture. However, there is a major
                                 challenge before the nation to double the growth of agriculture in the XI
                                 Plan compared to X Plan. Hence, the responsibility lies more specifically
                                 on the agricultural research institutes to generate and disseminate the
                                 new agro-technologies to put agriculture on a fast track for sustainable
                                 all-round development of the farmer.

      Tobacco is an important commercial crop cultivated in 0.40 million ha in India, earning sizeable
amount of foreign exchange and excise revenue, besides providing employment opportunities. Continued
research efforts by the scientists of CTRI has resulted in a quantum jump in the average productivity
levels of tobacco from 700 kg/ha in 1950’s to more than 1600 kg/ha in flue-cured tobacco and more
than 2000 kg/ha in non-flue-cured tobacco types. It is heartening to note that there is increase in exports
of tobacco and tobacco products in the recent years. In view of its economic importance and in view of
the changing consumer preferences and stringent regulations world over, there is an urgent need to reorient
the research priorities to sustain the crop and the grower’s income on a long term basis. In this context,
the Vision document aims at charting out the perspective plan with programmes to consolidate the gains
and to face the emerging challenges.

       The sustainability of Indian tobacco will depend more and more on making it less harmful, utilization
of tobacco as a source of high-value phytochemicals and bioengineered products beneficial to mankind
besides continued efforts to improve the productivity and quality of different types of tobacco as per
national and international requirements. Further, exploiting the hybrid vigour and employing the
biotechnological tools for crop improvement, integrated crop management and good agricultural practices,
enhancing fuel-use-efficiency, watershed management, viable crop rotations and integrated farming
systems will go-a-long way in increasing the net returns of the farmers and conservation of the environment
for a better tomorrow.

March, 2007                                                       (MANGALA RAI)
New Delhi                                         Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research & Education
                                                   Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research
                                               Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi-110001. India
       Tobacco is an important industrial crop being cultivated in many countries and accounts for US $ 30 billion
global export-import trade annually. At present, India is the 3rd largest producer and 5th largest exporter of tobacco
in the world. In India, tobacco is cultivated in about 4 lakh hectares of area (0.27% of the net cultivated land in the
country) covering different styles/types of tobacco viz., cigarette, bidi, chewing, hookah, cheroot, cigar-wrapper,
cigar-filler etc., with an annual production of 700 million kilos. Nearly 270 million kilos of Flue-cured Virginia
(FCV) tobacco is produced from 2 lakh hectares in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and to a lesser
extent in Orissa and Maharastra. Bidi tobacco is being cultivated in 1.20 lakh hectares, mostly in the states of
Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh with an annual production of 200 million kilos. Tamil
Nadu, Bihar and West Bengal are the other states producing tobacco in the country.
       Now, total exports of tobacco from the country are valued at Rs 1,713 crores, accounting for 4% of India’s
total agri-exports. Even though, India is the third largest producer of tobacco, the country’s share in the global
trade is less than 1%. Contribution of tobacco and tobacco products to central excise revenue is about Rs 9,100
crores which is more than 12% of the national excise revenue collection. Cigarettes account for nearly 80% of the
total revenue collected from tobacco products. Nearly 36 million people are engaged directly or indirectly in
tobacco cultivation, processing, manufacturing, marketing and other allied activities.
       Establishment of Central Tobacco Research Institute (CTRI) at Rajahmundry in the year 1947 gave impetus
to the scientific research on various aspects of tobacco. CTRI, the biggest research organization involved in
tobacco research in South-East Asia, is endowed with a dedicated team of scientists and excellent infrastructure to
marshal this unique crop. Tobacco scientists in the country have rendered yeoman service to the farming community
and industry by making significant research contributions in the areas of cultivar development, crop production
and protection technologies, quality improvement, energy conservation, reduction of harmful constituents in smoke
and alternative uses of tobacco.
      Currently, statutory regulations, environmental and socio-economic considerations are influencing the
production and marketing of tobacco and tobacco products all over the world. As such, tobacco buyers are becoming
more and more discerning. Thus, there is an urgent need to study and reorient tobacco production in the country to
meet the international requirements and also to ensure protection of the consumer health, protection of the
environment, compliance with the government policies, safety of the worker and remunerative prices to the farmer.
In view of the price competitiveness and other positive features of Indian tobacco, substantial growth in exports is
foreseen in the near future. Similarly, exports of non-FCV tobacco and tobacco products are likely to increase.
Further, tobacco is expected to be a source of several value-added phytochemicals of medicinal and industrial
       In this backdrop, CTRI has formulated the Perspective Plan VISION-2025 identifying several important
research programmes with added emphasis on higher productivity, better quality, higher nutrient-use-efficiency,
lower levels of harmful substances and agrochemicals, natural resource conservation and developing tobacco as a
source of value-added phytochemicals, seed oil, enzymes, vaccines etc. to sustain the crop, to get remunerative
prices to the farmer and to enhance the exports.
       I sincerely thank Dr. Mangala Rai, Secretary and Director General, ICAR, Dr. G. Kalloo, Former Dy.
Director General (Horticulture & Crop Science), Dr. S.P. Tiwari, Dy. Director General (Crop Science) and
Dr. K.C. Jain, Asst. Director General (Commercial Crops) for guidance and valuable suggestions in the preparation
of the Vision Document.

August, 2007                                                                        (V. KRISHNAMURTHY)
Rajahmundry                                                                                 Director
      A.P.   Andhra Pradesh
 AINRPT      All India Network Research Project on Tobacco
    ARIS     Agricultural Research Information System
B.C. Ratio   Benefit Cost Ratio
   BTRC      Burley Tobacco Research Centre
     CBS     Central Black Soils
    CDRI     Central Drug Research Institute
    CIAE     Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
    CMV      Cucumber Mosaic Virus
CORESTA      Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco
  CRIDA      Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture
    CSIR     Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
    CTRI     Central Tobacco Research Institute
 CTRI RS     Central Tobacco Research Institute Research Station
     DAP     Days After Planting / Di-ammonium Phosphate
    DNA      Deoxyribo Nucleic acid
   ELISA     Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
     FCV     Flue-cured Virginia
    FYM      Farm Yard Manure
      GM     Genetically Modified
       ha    Hectare
 HDBRG       Harvel De Bouxo Rio Grande
   HPLC      High Performance Liquid Chromatography
    ICAR     Indian Council of Agricultural Research
   AICRP     All India Coordinated Research Project
    ICTC     Indian Central Tobacco Committee
     IDM     Integrated Disease Management
     IPM     Integrated Pest Management
    IPNM     Integrated Plant Nutrient Management
  IW/CPE     Irrigation Water/Cumulative Pan Evaporation
     JML     Jeelugumilli
       kg    Kilogram
     KLS     Karnataka Light Soils
    LE/ha    Larval Equivalents Per Hectare
MLP     Mango Leaf Polyphenols
 NBS    Northern Black Soils
 NLS    Northern Light Soils
NNN     – N’-Nitroso Nornicotine
NPK     Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium
NPV     Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus
 NSC    Night Soil Compost
NSKS    Neem Seed Kernel Suspension
 PCR    Polymerase Chain Reaction
PDBC    Project Directorate of Biological Control
 ppm    Parts per million
 PSB    Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
PVY     Potato Virus Y
RAPD    Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA
 RDF    Recommended Dose of Fertiliser
 RJY    Rajahmundry
 RKI    Root-knot Index
  Rs    Rupees
 SBS    Southern Black Soils
 SDB    Solanesyl Dibenzyl
 SDS    Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
 SLS    Southern Light Soils
 SOP    Sulphate of Potash
 SSR    Simple Sequence Repeat
 TBS    Traditional Black Soils
 TEV    Tobacco Etch Virus
 TGE    Top Grade Equivalent
TMV     Tobacco Mosaic Virus
TRSV    Tobacco Ring Spot Virus
TSNA    Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines
 UK     United Kingdom
USA     United States of America
USSR    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
VAM     Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
 Var.   Variety
WUE     Water - Use - Efficiency
                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

      In India, tobacco is projected as an industrial crop of considerable significance to the nation with
an employment potential of 36 million people. Indian tobacco is considered as ‘value for money’ and
further reduction in cost of production will make it more competitive in the international market. It is
projected that a demand of 200 million kg of exportable quality of flue-cured tobacco for the next decade
as against 140 million kg being exported presently.

     In view of the enormous employment potential, internal revenues and foreign exchange earnings,
tobacco crop will continue to play a significant role in the national economy.

      The global consumption pattern is shifting from dark cast tobaccos to light cast tobaccos which is
in favour of India. In spite of anti-tobacco campaign gaining momentum, tobacco consumption, world
over, is increasing by 2% and hence, there is a need to produce quality tobacco with lower levels of
harmful constituents and pesticide residues for export.

     India has the potential to be a major player in the global market through export of value-added
products. There is vast scope for export of non-FCV tobacco types/products, which needs to be explored.
Apart from the conventional uses, commercial exploitation of phytochemicals from tobacco will go a
long way in sustaining the crop

      In this background, the Perspective Plan of CTRI embodied in the VISION - 2025 document aims
at improving the productivity of flavourful tobacco types with higher profitability to the farmer.

    For enhancing productivity and quality of Indian tobacco and to make it more remunerative, globally
competitive and to sustain the crop on a long term basis, following challenges need immediate attention.

 ✦    Developing varieties/hybrids with divergent genetic background to achieve average productivity
      of more than 2,000 kg/ha in FCV tobacco; more than 3,000 kg/ha in non-FCV tobacco and sustaining
      the productivity

 ✦    Producing flavourful and superior quality filler FCV tobacco to meet the export demands

 ✦    Breeding cultivars with higher nutrient-use-efficiency and high photosynthetic efficiency

 ✦    Development of varieties tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses through conventional and
      biotechnological approaches

✦   Gene pyramiding for developing durable resistance to biotic stresses and for stabilizing productivity

✦   Developing molecular markers for selection and maintaining varietal integrity

✦   Increasing factor productivity to reduce the cost of production

✦   Reduction of harmful substances through genetic and agronomical manipulation

✦   IPM modules for major pest and diseases to reduce agrochemical residues below the Guidance
    Residue Levels (GRL)

✦   Developing tobacco as a source of value-added phytochemicals, seed oil, enzymes, vaccines, manures

✦   Conservation and utilization of rainwater through watershed technology for higher crop productivity
    in low and erratic rainfall zones

✦   Utilisation of micro-irrigation systems for enhancing water-use-efficiency and crop productivity

✦   Identification of alternative fuels for curing in lieu of fire wood and coal. Improving the fuel-use-
    efficiency of the barn and utilization of renewable energy sources like solar energy

✦   Identification of crops/cropping systems more remunerative than tobacco

✦   Exploiting rhizosphere microflora for improving soil health, fertilizer economy and disease

                                           1. PREAMBLE
       Tobacco is an important cash crop grown in 0.4 million hectares in the country accounting for only
0.27% of the net cultivated area. In the global scenario, Indian tobacco occupies 10% of the area and 9%
of the total production. With an annual production of 700 million kg, India ranks 3rd in the world after
China and Brazil. Majority of the states in the Indian union grow one type or the other to a greater or
lesser extent, significantly influencing the economy and prosperity of the farming community. Flue-
cured Virginia (FCV), bidi, hookah and chewing, cigar, wrapper, cheroot, burley, oriental, HDBRG,
lanka, natu etc., are the different types of tobacco grown in the country. Tobacco offers significant
employment opportunities both at on-farm and off-farm situations. Tobacco provides livelihood to 36
million people in India. About 6 million farmers and 20 million farm labour are engaged in tobacco
farming spread over 15 states. Bidi rolling provides employment to 4.4 million people in addition to 2.2
million tribals involved in tendu leaf collection. Nearly 4 million people are engaged in the trade and
related activities. The main beneficiaries are the small and marginal farmers, rural women and tribal
youth. Tobacco contributes around Rs 1,713 crores towards foreign exchange accounting for 4% of Indian
total agri-exports and Rs 9,100 crores to excise revenue which is more than 10% of total excise revenue.
       Recognizing the importance of tobacco in the National economy, the Government of India had set
up the Indian Central Tobacco Committee (ICTC) in 1945, which established the Central Tobacco Research
Institute (CTRI) at Rajahmundry in 1947 to introduce scientific tobacco cultivation in the country. The
major objectives of the Institute are to carry out fundamental and applied research on all types of tobacco
grown in India with special emphasis on improving the productivity and quality of exportable types of
tobacco. Later, the Institute was brought under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research
(ICAR) in the year 1965. It has a net-work of seven Regional Research Stations situated at Guntur,
Kandukur, Jeelugumilli (Andhra Pradesh); Vedasandur (Tamil Nadu); Hunsur (Karnataka); Pusa (Bihar)
and Dinhata (West Bengal) and a Research Centre at Jeddangi (Andhra Pradesh). These Regional Stations
are catering to the requirements of the tobacco farmers in different agro-climatic zones by developing
improved crop production technologies. The Research station at Pusa was transferred to ICAR Research
Complex for Eastern Region, Patna in 2001.
       The All India Coordinated Research Project on Tobacco was started in 1970-71 with headquarters
at Anand, Gujarat. It has four main centres (Rajahmundry, Anand, Shimoga and Pusa), seven sub-centres
(Nipani, Nandyal, Berhampur, Araul, Dinhata, Guntur, and Hunsur) and four voluntary centres (Ladol,
Jeelugumilli, Kandukur and Vedasandur) to carry out multi-locational trials on various types of tobacco.
The AICRP on Tobacco was renamed as All India Network Research Project on Tobacco (AINRPT) with
its headquarters at Rajahmundry since August, 1998.
     Developing economically viable and eco-friendly agro-technologies for enhancing productivity
and quality, reducing harmful substances, developing value added products for promoting exports and
generating revenue and employment on a sustainable basis.
    Enhancing productivity and quality of Indian tobacco to make it more remunerative, globally
competitive and promoting alternative uses to sustain the crop in the country.

                                          2. MANDATE

2.1 Central Tobacco Research Institute

 ●   To conduct research on different types of tobacco, with greater emphasis on exportable types, on
     all phases of production management with a view of attaining economic advantage/ benefit to the
     tobacco growers through improvement in quality and quantity of tobacco

 ●   To collect tobacco germplasm from world over and to maintain and operate tobacco genetic resources
     which will be made available to scientists and National/ International Institutions

 ●   To conduct research on economically viable and sustainable cropping systems

 ●   To conduct research on diversified uses of tobacco and development of value-added products

 ●   To produce and distribute quality seeds of notified varieties of tobacco

 ●   To publish and disseminate research findings and recommendations of latest technology for the
     benefit of the tobacco growers, scientific community, policy makers and development agencies

2.2 All India Network Research Project on Tobacco

 ●   To carryout effectively on All India basis (regional and inter-regional), the tobacco improvement
     research programme through the co-ordination of multi-disciplinary research by a team of scientists
     including Plant Breeders, Agronomists, Nematologists, Pathologists, Entomologists, Soil Chemists,
     Virologists and Technologists

 ●   To facilitate exchange of information on seeds and conduct trials of germplasm, varieties and hybrid
     derivatives on a zonal and national basis throughout the country and develop high yielding varieties
     with good quality leaf

 ●   To control diseases and pests including nematodes by breeding for resistance and by development
     of effective fungicidal, insecticidal and nematicidal schedules leaving minimum chemical residues

 ●   To organize training programmes for the scientific and technical personnel engaged on tobacco
     improvement project in all the research aspects of the crop

 ●   To evolve efficient tobacco based cropping systems

                                             3. GROWTH

        From a modest beginning, the Institute and its research stations have grown considerably in terms
of infrastructure and human resources.

3.1. Infrastructure


        The Institute has state-of-the art laboratories with sophisticated equipment to meet the requirements
of the research programmes. Some of the major instruments are listed below.

  1.    Cigarette making machine
  2.    Cigarette smoking machine
  3.    Pressure drop tester
  4.    Circumference Gauge
  5.    Cigarette Sorter balance
  6.    Gas chromatographs with different detectors
  7.    Gas chromatograph with Thermal Energy Analyzer (TEA)
  8.    Gel electrophoresis systems
  9.    Tobacco cutters
  10.   Auto-analyzers
  11.   HPLC
  12.   UV & visible spectrophotometers
  13.   Kjeltek Nitrogen analyzer
  14.   Pressure plate and pressure membrane apparatus
  15.   Atomic absorption spectro-photometer
  16.   High speed refrigerated centrifuge
  17.   Thermal cyclers
  18.   Gel documentation systems
  19.   Cell manipulator
  20.   Micro-plate reader
  21.   Seed germinator
  22.   Image analyzers
  23.   Incinerator
  24.   Automatic weather station
  25.   Soil moisture meter
  26.   Deep freezers
  27.   Porometer
  28.   Electronic moisture balance
  29.   Chlorophyll meter
  30.   Portable photosynthesis system
  31.   Infra red thermometer

                   Auto-analyser                                    Cigarette smoking machine

      The Institute has other facilities like tissue culture lab, growth chamber, glass houses, polyhouse,
green house, polycarbonate house, shade net, containment screen house, soil and water testing laboratory,
tobacco quality evaluation laboratory, pesticide residue laboratory, smoke research laboratory, NPV
production unit, gene bank etc.,

                  Tissue culture lab                                       Polyhouse

Library and Documentation Service

       The library regularly receives books, journals, reprints, reports, newsletters etc. to cater to the
needs of the researchers. The library has linkages with other Agricultural Research Institutions/
Universities in India and abroad. It brings out regularly (a) List of Additions (Half-Yearly), ( b) CTRI
Newsletter (Quarterly), (c) Current periodicals (Yearly), (d) Documents received during the fortnight (f/
n) (e) News Paper Clippings (Quarterly) (f) Internet accessing of Databases (g) Hands on practice of
searching databases software trainings to scientists and others. CD-ROM databases available are AGRIS,
and reprints available in the library are computerized. Developed Digital Photo Library of CTRI and
digitized CTRI Newsletters published since beginning.

Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) Cell

     ARIS Cell was established at CTRI, Rajahmundry in May, 1998. The cell is catering to the IT
needs of the Institute. It is having the facilities like LAN connectivity with CAT-6 cabling to all the

divisions/sections, windows 2003 server, computer systems, Toshiba e-studio net work laser colour printer/
Xerox and a number of software packages for the benefit of the research workers.

Tobacco Information Centre (TIC)

      Tobacco Information Centre (TIC) was established in May, 2003 for the benefit of tobacco fraternity
to learn about the CTRI activities. The research thrusts in all the Divisions of CTRI, the National and
Global tobacco scenario, publications and reports are depicted through various charts and posters. The
book-lets and leaf-lets on good agricultural practices in tobacco are displayed and are available for the
information for all the tobacco stake-holders. Tobacco literature published by CTRI is sold through TIC.

Fields and Buildings

 S.No.   Institute/ Station (Year of Est.)                           Field     Buildings    Area under
                                                                     (ha)      & Roads      cultivation
                                                                               etc. (ha)       (ha)
 1.      Central Tobacco Research Institute                          47.34       3.89          43.45
         Rajahmundry – 533 105
         Andhra Pradesh (1947)
 2.      CTRI Research Station,                                      22.68       2.29          20.39
         Guntur – 522 004
         Andhra Pradesh (1936)
 3.      CTRI Research Station,                                      42.45       6.45          36.00
         Kandukur – 523 105
         Andhra Pradesh (1977)
 4.      CTRI Research Station,                                      30.65       0.80          12.99
         Jeelugumilli – 534 456
         Andhra Pradesh (1988)
 5.      CTRI Research Station,                                      22.09       0.38          21.71
         Vedasandur – 624 710
         Tamil Nadu (1948)
 6.      CTRI Research Station,                                      63.63       2.13          61.50
         Hunsur – 571 105
         Karnataka (1957)
 7.      CTRI Research Station,                                      19.50       7.10          12.40
         Dinhata – 736 135
         West Bengal (1952)
 8.      Burley Tobacco Research Centre,                             3.62        0.22           3.40
         Jeddangi –533 496
         Andhra Pradesh (1988)
 9.      Krishi Vigyan Kendra,                                       14.38       2.00          12.38
         Andhra Pradesh (1983)

Residential Quarters
One hundred and six residential quarters were constructed for accommodating the staff as detailed below.
 Type of      CTRI, CTRI     CTRI       CTRI      CTRI    CTRI               CTRI    KVK, TOTAL
 Quarter      Rajah-  RS,   RS, Jeelu- RS, Kan- RS, Veda-  RS,                RS,   Kalava-
              mundry Guntur  gumilli    dukur    sandur Hunsur              Dinhata cherla
 Type – VI        1       —             —      —          —           —        —          —           1
 Type – V         2       —             —      —          1           —        —          —           3
 Type – IV       10       —             2      1          —           —         1         —          14
 Type – III      12       —             4      4          5           3        —          1          29
 Type – II       12       —             4      4          2           7        14         1          44
 Type – I        —        —             —      —          —           4        11         —          15
 Total           37       —             10     9          8           14       26         2          106
However, the need exists to construct some more quarters in all the categories i.e. Type – I to Type –V at
the Main Institute and its Stations to meet the requirements.
     At present, the Institute has one Mini bus, one Alwyn Nissan van, two Jeeps, one Tata Sumo, one
Tata Mobile, one Canter and two staff cars. Regional Stations at Kandukur, Hunsur Guntur, Dinhata and
Vedasandur have one jeep each.

3.2. Budget (Rupees in Crores)
 S. No        Plan Period                    Plan                Non-Plan             Total
 1            IX Plan actual                  4.83                36.98                41.81
 2            X Plan Actual                   7.47                53.03                60.50
 3            XI Plan Projections            22.30                90.00               112.30

3.3. Manpower

 S. No. Category                                           Sanctioned       In position       Vacancy
 1.        Scientific                                         70+1*           42+1*             28
 2.        Technical
           Category III (T-6 to T-9)                            05              05              —
           Category II (T-3 to T5)                              54              50              04
           Category I (T-I to T-I-3 )                           92              90              02
 3.        Ministerial                                          77              76              01
 4.        Supporting
           SS Gr. IV                                            19              19               -
           SS Gr. III                                           40              40               -
           SS Gr. II                                            65              63              02
           SS Gr. I                                             57              57              08

                       4. SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS

4.1. Crop Improvement

      To improve the productivity and quality of tobacco, several high yielding varieties with superior
quality are developed and released by CTRI and its Research Stations for cultivation.

 Variety                  Year of    Developed at             Productivity    Area of adoption
                          release                             (kg/ha)         and salient features
 Flue-cured tobacco
 Chatam                   1950       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1100            TBS
 Delcrest                 1960       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1200            TBS
 Kanakaprabha             1971       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1500            TBS
 Dhanadayi                1972       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1520            TBS
 CTRI Special             1976       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1365            TBS & SLS
 Jayasri                  1979       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1990            TBS
 CTRI Spl. (MR)           1980       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1200            TBS and SLS;
                                                                              Resistant to TMV
 Godavari Spl.            1982       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1525            TBS and SLS; Resistant
                                                                              to TMV
 Swarna                   1984       CTRI RS, Hunsur          1450            KLS; Resistant
                                                                              to powdery mildew
 Mc Nair 12               1986       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1880            NLS; Tolerant to
                                                                              black shank
 Jayasri (MR)             1986       CTRI, Rajahmundry        1503            TBS and SLS;
                                                                              Resistant to TMV
 Hema                     1987       CTRI RS, Guntur          1560            TBS
 Bhavya                   1988       CTRI RS, Hunsur          2000            For endemic black shank
                                                                              areas of KLS; Resistant
                                                                              to black shank and root
                                                                              knot nematode
 Gauthami                 1992       CTRI, Rajahmundry        2000            TBS and SLS
 CM 12 (KA)               1993       CTRI, Rajahmundry        2000            NLS; Tolerant to
                                                                              black shank
 VT 1158                  1993       CTRI, Rajahmundry        2000            TBS; Resistant to TMV
 Kanchan(NLS 4)           1998       CTRI RS, Jeelugumilli    2000            NLS and KLS;
                                     & CTRI RS, Hunsur                        Tolerant to black shank
                                                                              and root-knot nematodes
 Rathna                   2001       CTRI RS, Hunsur          2000            KLS

Kanthi                2006   CTRI RS, Kandukur     1600-2000       SLS & SBS withstands
                                                                   moisture stress to
                                                                   some extent
Hemadri               2006   CTRI RS, Guntur       2500            TBS
Siri                  2006   CTRI, Rajahmundry     2900            TBS

                  Kanthi                                       Hemadri

                   Siri                                        Kanchan

Chewing tobacco
Chama                 1956   CTRI RS, Dinhata      1800            North Bengal (clay soils)
Podali                1956   CTRI RS, Dinhata      1600            North Bengal
                                                                   (sandy soils)
DP 401                1958   CTRI RS, Pusa         2000            Bihar
Gandak Bahar          1976   CTRI RS, Pusa         2280            North Bihar
Sona                  1977   CTRI RS, Pusa         3178            North Bihar
Vairam                1977   CTRI RS, Vedasandur   2800            Pit cured areas of
                                                                   Tamil Nadu
Thangam               1980   CTRI RS, Vedasandur   3226            Smoke cured areas of
                                                                   Tamil Nadu
Bhagyalakshmi         1980   CTRI RS, Vedasandur   3532            Sun cured areas of
                                                                   Tamil Nadu

Maragadham             1981   CTRI RS, Vedasandur   3013      Smoke cured areas of
                                                              Tamil Nadu
Prabha                 1981   CTRI RS, Pusa         2200      Bihar
PT 76                  1990   CTRI RS, Pusa         2600      Bihar
Meenakshi              1992   CTRI RS, Vedasandur   4000      Sun cured areas of
                                                              Tamil Nadu
Vaishali Special       1993   CTRI RS, Pusa         2778      Bihar
Lichchavi              2001   CTRI RS, Pusa         3000      North Bihar
Manasi                 2004   CTRI RS, Dinhata      1700      North Bengal
Abirami                2006   CTRI RS. Vedasandur   4000      Southern, central and
                                                              western zones of Tamil
                                                              Nadu except Coastal belt
Kaviri                 2006   CTRI RS. Vedasandur   2500      Costal belt of
                                                              Tamil Nadu

                   Abirami                                 Kaviri

Hookah and Chewing (Rustica) tobacco
DD 437                 1977   CTRI RS, Dinhata      1865       Motihari areas of
                                                               West Bengal
Sonar Motihari         1977   CTRI RS, Dinhata      1690       Motihari areas of
                                                               West Bengal
Dharla                 2001   CTRI RS, Dinhata      2700       North Bengal

Natu tobacco
Prabhat                1977   CTRI RS, Guntur       1500       Andhra Pradesh;
                                                               Suitable for cigarette
                                                               natu; Resistant to TMV
Vishwanath             1986   CTRI RS,Guntur        2429       Cigarette natu areas of
                                                               Andhra Pradesh
Natu Special           1992   CTRI RS, Guntur       1600       Cigarette natu areas of
                                                               Andhra Pradesh
Bhairavi               2006   CTRI RS,Guntur        2600       Cigarette natu areas of
                                                               Andhra Pradesh
 Cheroot tobacco
 DR 1                    1960       CTRI, Rajahmundry         2620            River side Island of
                                                                              East Godavari district of
                                                                              Andhra Pradesh; Strong,
                                                                              pungent and aromatic
 Bhavani Special         1980       CTRI RS, Vedasandur       2837            Bhavani area of
                                                                              Coimbatore district of
                                                                              Tamil Nadu
 Lanka Special           1981       CTRI, Rajahmundry         2780            River side Island of
                                                                              East Godavari district of
                                                                              Andhra Pradesh;Strong,
                                                                              pungent and aromatic
 Sendarapatty Special    1986       CTRI RS, Vedasandur       2100            Salem area of
                                                                              Tamil Nadu

 Cigar wrapper tobacco
 S5                      1977       CTRI RS, Dinhata          1476            North Bengal
 Krishna                 1986       CTRI RS, Vedasandur       2250            Cigar filler area of
                                                                              Tamil Nadu

 Burley tobacco
 Burley 21               1972       BTRC, CTRI, Jeddangi 1700                 Light soil agency areas
                                                                              of East Godavari,
                                                                              Vijayanagaram districts
                                                                              of Andhra Pradesh
 Banket A1               1994       BTRC, CTRI, Jeddangi 1800                 Light soil agency areas
                                                                              of East Godavari,
                                                                              Vizianagaram districts
                                                                              of Andhra Pradesh;
                                                                              Resistant to TMV

TBS - Traditional Black Soils of Andhra Pradesh; NLS - Northern Light Soils of Andhra Pradesh; SLS -
Southern Light Soils of Andhra Pradesh; KLS -Karnataka Light Soils, BTRC - Burley Tobacco Research

 ●   Maximum leaf area was obtained with cylindrical plant shape, vertically inserted rotund leaves
     with close internodes. Tobacco hybrids have been developed with standard heterosis of 15 to 20%
     and male sterile lines are being utilized
 ●   Line 4221# 3 # 3 with mammoth character was developed which is under bulk evaluation
 ●   In the gene bank, a total of 2345 accessions of indigenous and exotic collection of all types of
     tobacco are maintained
 ●   Out of 68 species of Nicotiana, 60 species are maintained for research studies

●   Screening of germplasm to pests and diseases and PMI (tar) was carried out

Species                                    Reaction
N. gossei                                  Resistant to Aphids and Caterpillar
N. plumbaginifolia                         Resistant to Black Shank
N. benthamiana                             Resistant to Caterpillar
N. tabacum L., Var. Vamorr-50              Tobacco mosaic virus
N. tabacum L., Var.Beinhart 1000-1         Resistant to black shank
N. tabacum L., Var.Kuofan                  Resistant to Powdery Mildew
N. tabacum L., Var. DWFC                   Resistant to Caterpillar
N. tabacum L., Var.CTRI Spl (MR)           Resistant to Tobacco Mosaic Virus(TMV).
N. tabacum L., Var.Swarna                  Resistant to Powdery Mildew
N. tabacum L., Var.Jayasri (MR)            Resistant to TMV
N. tabacum L., Var.Mc.Nair-12              Tolerant to Black Shank
N. tabacum L., Var.Bhavya                  Tolerant to Root-knot and Resistant to black shank
N. tabacum L., Var.VT-1158                 Resistant to TMV
N. tabacum L., Var.CM-12(KA)               Tolerant to black shank
N. tabacum L., Adcock                      Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.,Bell No.110                  Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.Coker-128                     Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.Coker-139                     Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.Coker-187                     Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.Cash                          Tolerant to drought
N. tabacum L.Bell 61-9 No.1                Low tar line with PMI 136.6
N. tabacum Var.Dhanadayi                   Low tar line with PMI 137.5
N. tabacum A-23                            Low tar line with PMI 138.8
N. tabacum Ec.11083                        Low tar line with PMI 139.8
N. tabacum Delcrest                        Low tar line with PMI 140.3
N. tabacum Var. Mc.Nair-135                Low tar line with PMI 140.5
N. tabacum Bell No.1                       Low tar line with PMI 140.7
N. tabacum Banana leaf                     Low tar line with PMI 140.9
N. tabacum D.B.244                         Low tar line with PMI 141.1
N. tabacum V.3520                          Low tar line with PMI 141.7
N. tabacum Coker.258                       Low tar line with PMI 141.7
N. tabacum By.103                          Low tar line with PMI 141.7

●   FCV lines KST 19, KST 20 and KST 21 were identified as high yielders with wide adaptability
●   The germplasm collection was enriched with the addition of 213 accessions from Brazil, England,
    France, Iran, India, USA & Zimbabwe

●   Thirty one germplasm accessions were assessed for yield traits and four lines viz., Navile-2, Q-29,
    Speight G-108 and NCTG-52 were identified as promising for further studies
●   BSRB-2 is the first indigenous burley variety developed from an interspecific cross, N.
    plumbaginifolia x N. tabacum. The variety has fast and vigorous growth and is resistant to black
    shank disease. It has got a cured leaf yield potential of 2000 kg/ha. Contains relatively lower
    TSNA content in cured leaf as compared to ruling variety, Banket A 1
●   From replicated evaluation of 95 advanced breeding lines, the following lines with 8-39% increase
    in cured leaf yield over better check were identified as promising: V 4064, V 4076, V 4080, V
    4056, V 4057, Cy 135, Cy 136, Cy 137, Cy 139, Cy 142, Cy 144, Cy 145, Cy 146, Cy 149, Cy 151,
    Cy 152, L 1358, L 1359, L 1366, JS 78, 135/9, 326-1-30, M 31-3, Va 116, Cy 155. The cured leaf
    yield increase in these lines varied from 8-39% over the better check
●   A chewing tobacco variety with the highest yield potential of about 3750 kg/ha suitable for all the
    three systems of curing, viz. sun, smoke and pit curing was released for commercial cultivation in
    Tamil Nadu. In addition, this variety has high solanesol content of 3.0% and hence is ideal source
    for extraction of solanesol
●   Analysis of the data on selection gain over the decades starting from 1947 showed that the genetic
    diversity was maximum in the first decade and much lower in the decade 1988-97
●   The rate of gain in yield from 1953-98 was estimated as 178, 26, 20 and 24 kg/ha in green, cured
    and bright leaf and grade index, respectively
●   Extensive screening of accessions against various biotic stresses led to the identification of resistant
    lines for TMV (298 accessions), black shank (5), root knot nematodes (6), tobacco aphid (14) and
    leaf eating caterpillar (8) were identified
●   On the basis of per cent reduction / increase in yield under drought over irrigated condition and
    drought index, six lines viz. Cy 113 (K 113), Cy 118(K118), CM 12, NLS 4, L621 and VA 21 were
    identified as promising under moisture stress condition
●   Based on intensive screening under artificial inoculation, wild species viz. N. repanda and
    amphidiploid derivatives, N. x benthamiana-repanda and N. x umbratica-nesophila besides
    N. gossei, were identified as potential additional sources of resistance to tobacco aphid
●   Two lines, V-4056 and V-4057, having cured leaf yield potential up to 2300 kg/ha in addition to
    resistance to TMV, were developed in the genetic background of popular variety, Gauthami
●   Two advanced breeding lines, L-1359 and L-1358, with higher yield potential of about 2500 kg/ha
    in addition to combined resistance to black shank and TMV diseases were developed on ‘Gauthami’
    background. Also, another high yielding, black shank and mosaic resistant line, L 1366 was developed
    on ‘VT 1158’ background
●   By overcoming interspecific incompatibility barriers through direct hybridization with the aid of
    hormonal treatment the cultivated species, N. tabacum could be successfully crossed with the wild
    species, N. repanda, N. gossei, N. trigonophylla, N. excelsior, N. umbratica and N. megalosiphon
    and amphidiploids, N. x benthamiana-repanda and N. x umbratica-nesophila to produce wide
●   Aphid resistance in N. gossei was incorporated in N. tabacum cultivars through interspecific
    hybridization and 23 families with moderate to high level of resistance were identified
●   Two caterpillar resistant lines in chewing tobacco viz., HV 2000-2 and HV 2000-6 were developed
    through back cross breeding and are currently undergoing testing in coordinated trials
●   Among the advanced breeding lines tested for tar content, lines JS 73, JS 78, JS 115, JS 119, JS 125
    and JS 126 recorded lower mean tar/cig. Values (around 20mg). Lines JS 62, JS 119 and JS 125
    (around 34mg) recorded lower mean tar per gram dry tobacco
●   The low tar line, JS 78 gave 28.1 and 8.1 increase in cured leaf and 28.1 and 9 % increase in
    grade index over CM 12 and K 326, respectively. Hence, the line is in coordinated trials
●   Two flue-cured Virginia tobacco cultivars ‘Hema’ and ‘Jayasri’ were transformed with insecticidal
    crystal protein genes cry1A (b) and cry1C from Bacillus thuringiensis. These two genes respectively
    confer resistance to Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic nature of the
    transformants (T0) was confirmed by southern and northern blotting and ELISA methods
●   Presence and effectiveness of the genes cry1A(b) and cry1C in the transgenic lines was confirmed
    by conducting screen house and limited open field trials and bioassays
●   ELISA studies revealed that the delta endotoxin disintegrated during curing
●   Seed sterile haploid lines, interspecific hybrids, non-flowering sterile lines and wild Nicotiana
    species, double mutant (NR-SR+), Kanamycine(Km+) and Streptomycine(Sr+) resistant lines,
    and R0 generation transgenic lines of Hema and Jayasri were maintained under in vitro condition
●   Interspecific hybrid derivatives selected from crosses, N. amplexicaulis x N. tabacum (AT) and N.
    tabacum x N. longiflora (JL) were screened at CTRI Research Station, Hunsur for three species of
    root knot, viz., Meloidogyne javanica, M. incognita and M. arenaria in sick plots. And selections
    that were highly resistant to all the three species were identified. At Rajahmundry also, selections
    showing high level of resistance to M. javanica were identified under artificial inoculation
●   Effective regeneration protocol for leaf and hypocotyl explants was standardized. Different factors
    which influence the process of transformation viz., preparation of Agrobacterial suspension, dilution
    of bacterial suspension, duration of co-cultivation and antibiotic concentration which kills selectively
    Agrobacterium etc. were also standardized
●   Polymorphism in the isozymes of peroxidase and poly phenol oxidase was found to be negligible
    in Seedlings (40 days) among different tobacco types except rustica type. But greater variation was
    observed in field (60 days) plants. Certain bands were found to be specific to particular type of
●   Isoenzymes of peroxidase and ployphenol oxidase showed variability in all the eleven species
    studied. The banding pattern of any two species did not match, thus showing that the isoenzyme
    patterns of peroxidase and ployphenol oxidase were specific for every Nicotiana species
●   Peroxidase pattern studied in the TMV infected (after 48h of inoculation) and normal leaves of
    three TMV resistant lines viz., JMR, VT 1158 and N. glutinosa and three susceptible lines viz.,
    Jayasri, Gauthami and L-621 revealed more number of bands under TMV inoculation compared to
    normal condition. Either band type 2 or 3 or both appeared in all lines under inoculated condition.
    In resistant lines band type 2 appeared as a faint band. All the resistant lines showed band type
    three under inoculated condition

●   A preliminary study on isoenzyme patterns of paroxidase in 15 days old seedlings of Kanchan,
    CM-12, GT-7 and Ratna germinated in water and Mannitol (7.5 atmospheres ) solution indicated
    the consistent presence of 6 and 7 band types in seedlings grown in mannitol solution.. In general
    all the lines recorded more bands under stress than normal
●   Candel somaclones resistant to leaf curl and D1 somaclones resistant to budworm were developed
●   A total of 129 somaclones were regenerated from virus (CMV/Leaf curl) infected leaf explants of
    VT 1158 and Kanchan either by direct or indirect organogenesis
●   Seven out of nine somaclones (S2 generation) tested under field condition at Rajahmundry had less
    percentage of leaf curl infected plants (0-31%). At CTRI RS, Kandukur, one (VLCR-9) out of five
    somaclones exhibited higher field tolerance (recorded 95% healthy plants) to leaf curl
●   Among the 38 somaclones (S1 generation) tested, during 2002-03 season, 16 found to be resistant
    to leaf curl. 36 clones out of 65 found to be resistant to CMV
●   Wide genetic variability for solanesol content was observed among wild Nicotiana species. Five
    accessions (N. sp. TW 69 : 2.55%; N. sp. TW 72 3.2%; N. sp. TW 133: 2.7%; N. sp. TS 221 4.7%;
    N. sp. AusTRCF 317535: 3.90%) having solanesol content were identified
●   Wild Nicotiana species like N. repanda and N. rotundifolia were found to show resistance to root
    parasite, Orobanche
●   Two CMS hybrids, AP 1-8 x Cy 142 and 6-6ms x Cy 142 were identified as having significantly
    higher standard heterosis (23-41%) for different yield components over ruling cultivar, VT 1158
●   Also, fertile hybrids 312-1 x Cy 142, VT 1159 x Cy 139 and 312-1 x Cy 139 with standard
    heterosis ranging from 16 to 31% for leaf yield traits over ruling check cultivar, VT 1158 were
    identified for black soils
●   Promising advanced interspecific cross derivatives, 147 MX1-21, 55MX1-15 and 54-30-21 and
    intraspecific derivative, V 4212 which showed promise over check cultivars for productivity besides
    having acceptable leaf quality, are undergoing multi-location trials under AINRPT
●   Advanced interspecific cross derivatives viz., 55MX1-2-11, 55MX1-22-3, 312-1 proved their
    significant superiority over ruling cultivars in station trials with 15 – 22% increase in productivity
    besides having acceptable leaf quality
●   RAPD based genetic study using 25 open primers brought out differences among 10 lines N1-N 10
    selected from the NLS-4 population
●   Haploids were generated from 7 elite crosses and dihaploids were produced from two crosses
●   Somaclones with tolerance to leaf curl CMV were identified
●   Cry 9Aa2 trasplastomic lines were found to be susceptible to Heliothis
●   RAPD/SSR diversity studied in 11 burley lines. Crosses were made to develop mapping populations
    for TSNA trait
●   A 725bp fragment of coat protein gene of tobacco leaf curl has been amplified and sequenced
●   A set of 38 microsatellite primers specific to tobacco were designed and validated in different
    species of Nicotiana and lines of tobacco

 ●   One burley hybrid, JBH-1 proved its superiority over parent Banket A-1 for leaf yield potential
     with over 20% in cured leaf yield. Besides having trade acceptability and desirable leaf chemical
     quality parameters. JBH-1 is currently undergoing bulk and agronomic trials
 ●   Lines, Gold 2, By Resistant, Theseus, Va 510, Banket A-10, By 64 and Harrow Velvet were confirmed
     as having low TSNA content along with low nicotine conversion. Lines like VAM, By.Spartan,
     Bt.CR 101, By.37, B 102, By 49-6 and Banket 127 were observed to be non-converters
 ●   Promising General combiners identified were NC 3150, DR-1, STRAIN -205, NC-6129, SALT
     Improved Gold and Wild Fires Orinaco
 ●   Promising Specific combiners identified were NC-12/Hema, Strain-205/Hema, DR-1/ VT1158,
     Oxford-101/VT1158, Wild Fires Orinaco/ Hema and NC-6129/ VT1158

Seed Technology

 ●   Seed treatment with 50 ppm gibberellic acid results in uniform and good seed germination even
     under adverse climatic conditions
 ●   Seed treatment with 100 ppm silver nitrate solution helps in the control of seed borne diseases
 ●   Tobacco seed storage at 4% seed moisture at ambient temperature keeps the seed viable for prolonged
     periods (15 years and above)
Nursery Management
 ●   Growing tobacco nurseries on raised beds with a sowing depth of 0.25 cm and seed rate of 3 to 5
     kg/ha was recommended
 ●   Covering the seed beds with paddy straw till 20 days after germination results in higher number of
 ●   Phosphorus availability during first 10 days after germination is the most critical factor for successful
     nursery in mitigating adverse effect of excess N application
 ●   Nitrogen @ 50 kg/ha in five split doses was recommended for production of good quality transplants

4.2. Crop Production
 ◆   Deep ploughing in summer with tractor in heavy soils (Vertisols) and disc ploughing in light soils
     were found to be beneficial for enhancing the yields of all types of tobaccos
 ◆   Deep placement of fertilizers in planting rows (plant row-plough furrow) in heavy black soils &
     southern light soils and by dollop method in northern light soils & Karnataka light soils were
 ◆   Flat planting followed by ridging was found better for FCV tobacco in southern light soils
 ◆   Application of organic manure to supply 25% of N and inorganic nitrogen at 75% gave better
     results under SLS conditions. In situ green manuring either with sunnhemp or dhaincha improved
     the yields in light soils of NLS and SLS
 ◆   A spacing of 70 x 50 cm with 40:80:80 N:P2O5:K2O/ha and topping at 20 leaves were found optimum
     for SLS

◆   Transplanting of FCV tobacco in early October with a spacing of 100 x 60 cm with 70 kg N/ha for
    the variety 16/103, 80 kg N/ha for CM-12 (KA), 90 kg N/ha for McNair-12 & 115 kg N/ha for
    Kanchan (NLS-4) , 60 kg P2O5 and 80 kg K2O/ha were found optimum under NLS conditions
◆   For FCV tobacco under Karnataka light soils, adopting a spacing of 100 x 40 cm with 50 kg N, 80
    kg P2O5 and 80 kg K2O/ha was found to be optimum
◆   The newly released burley tobacco variety Banket A-1, has recorded significantly higher yields
    over Burley-21. Planting at a spacing of 90 x 45 cm on ridges during mid July to mid August
    enhanced the yields of burley tobacco. Application of FYM @ 10 t/ha, 3 weeks before planting
    and 125 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 50 kg K2O/ha was found to be optimum for Banket-A1
◆   Planting chewing tobacco at 105 x 90 cm spacing, topping at 16 leaf and application of 200 kg N/
    ha gave higher yields and more net returns under Bihar conditions
◆   For Motihari tobacco a spacing of 60 x 60 cm with 110 kg N/ha and topping at 10 leaves level is
◆   Bud topping followed by sucker control with 4% Decanol controlled the suckers effectively and
    increased the yields of NLS tobacco
◆   Increased plant density (70x50 cm) resulted in an increase of cured leaf and bright leaf of FCV
    tobacco production in traditional black soils with 45 kg N/ha
◆   Groundnut or paddy or greengram or blackgram preceding FCV tobacco in northern black soils,
    and gingelly - tobacco in Central Black soils were found remunerative
◆   Groundnut, greengram and cluster bean as Kharif crops preceding FCV tobacco were found to be
    remunerative in SLS area
◆   Growing groundnut - redgram followed by gingelly - tobacco was found to be remunerative in
◆   Ragi or gingelly in Rabi followed by FCV tobacco in Kharif was a good crop rotation for KLS
◆   Bajra - Ragi - Chewing tobacco was more profitable than fallow-tobacco in Tamil Nadu
◆   Tobacco based cropping systems viz., maize - tobacco - maize, maize - tobacco - greengram with
    inter cropping of garlic, onion, radish and coriander were found remunerative for chewing tobacco
    in Bihar
◆   Inter cropping of bidi tobacco with groundnut was found beneficial giving additional income in
◆   Growing soybean + redgram or groundnut + redgram was found remunerative as an alternative to
    FCV tobacco in Vertisols
◆   In southern light soils groundnut, redgram, chillies were found remunerative as alternative crops to
    FCV tobacco
◆   Maize + potato system was found to be alternative to chewing tobacco in Bihar
◆   Potato + garlic, and maize + potato systems were found to be more profitable than the sole crop of
    tobacco under North Bengal conditions for Motihari tobacco

Rainfed Vertisols

 ◆   For northern Vertisols, hybrid maize-bengalgram is suitable alternate sequence (Rs 33,239 /ha) to
     tobacco sole cropping (Rs 5,748 /ha) followed by groundnut – tobacco (Rs 26,963/ha)
 ◆   Blackgram – FCV tobacco is more remunerative (Rs 26,706/ha), followed by maize + soybean-
     Bengalgram (Rs 23,520/ha) compared to tobacco sole cropping (Rs 10,705/ha)
 ◆   Under maize based cropping system, maize-bengalgram (Rs 22,345/ha), maize- mustard (Rs 20,358/
     ha) and maize-tobacco (Rs 19,393/ha) are profitable over sole tobacco (Rs 14,212/ha)
 ◆   Under soybean based cropping system, soybean-bengalgram (Rs 15,904/ha) is profitable over sole
     tobacco (Rs14, 212/ha)
 ◆   Dual inoculation of soybean with Rhizobium + phosphorus solubilizers improved soybean grain
     yield by 6.8% over sole Rhizobium inoculation. The carry over effect of dual inoculation on
     succeeding tobacco was 9.62% in cured leaf, 21.37% in bright leaf and 14.68% in grade index
 ◆   In blackgram - tobacco sequence, treating blackgram seed with 3g Mo/kg seed improved blackgram
     yield by 6.0% and in succeeding FCV tobacco cured leaf yield by 12%
 ◆   Tobacco cured leaf yields increased by 30% due to integrated nutrient management (7.5t FYM +
     PSB + Azo+ 0.2% foliar spray each of Fe, Mg, Zn at 35 DAP + vermicompost to supply 10 kg N +
     30 kg N (A/s) over 7.5t FYM + 40 kg N (A/s)
 ◆   Fertilizers application to rainfed FCV tobacco in band placement at the time of marking and earthing
     up later at 35 days after planting improved cured leaf by 19.10% and generated an extra income of
     Rs 7,338 per hectare
 ◆   In crop residue management in dry land paddy- FCV tobacco sequence, treating the paddy stubble
     immediately after harvest, with 4% urea and cellulose degraders and incorporation recorded 4.7%
     increased cured leaf in succeeding FCV tobacco over 4% urea spray alone
 ◆   The preceding crops to FCV tobacco in Vertisols maize and soybean recorded 42.75 q and 18.40 q
     grain per hectare and maize- tobacco recorded higher income compared to FCV tobacco sole cropping
 ◆   In fallow- tobacco sole cropping, the pipe line variety V-3884 recorded significantly higher leaf
     yield over VT 1158. In paddy- FCV tobacco system, the pipe line varieties V 3886 and V 3884
     recorded higher yields. In soybean – FCV tobacco system, the pipe line varieties V 3386 recorded
     higher yield among the tested varieties. In blackgram – FCV tobacco, the pipe line varieties V-
     3886 and V-3884 recorded higher cured leaf over VT- 1158
 ◆   Different sources of organic manures on equal nutrient basis are on par in the production of tobacco
     leaf yields. A ratio of 25:75 organics : inorganics application improved cured leaf significantly
     over 50:50 ratio of the same
 ◆   Organic manure FYM @ 10 t/ha significantly superior to 0 t/ha in the production of cured leaf by
 ◆   In situ green manuring with pearl millet, Italian millet reduced the leaf nicotine 1.65% and 1.59%
     respectively compared to sole cropping (1.77%) while the corresponding sugars are 19.67% and
     18.51% in pearl millet and Italian millet while sole tobacco recorded only 15.51%

◆   Application of 40 kg N + 100 kg MgSO4 along with foliar application of 2.5% K2SO4 at 30, 60, 90
    and 120 DAP recorded maximum cured leaf 2829 kg with a grade index of 2514 kg compared to
    2098 kg and 1845 kg in tobacco with 40 N alone. The increment being 13.93% in cured leaf and
    12.28% in grade index
◆   Bio compost prepared out of tobacco stems by degrading with lignin degraders and 4% urea was
    superior to FYM level by 12.88% in cured leaf and 14.40% in grade index
◆   Among the mustard varieties, Sej -2 recorded 906 kg seed/ha with a harvest index of 20.9
◆   Vermicompost application @ 2.5 t/ha to soil had shown its superiority in increasing cured leaf,
    bright leaf and grade index over control
◆   HDBRG tobacco ranked first for solanesol and protein production while A 145 ranked first for
    nicotine production both under conserved moisture conditions and irrigated conditions
◆   Among the varieties tested, HDBRG tobacco recorded 958 by seed /ha with 27.16 % oil
◆   The crops GT-7 x A-145 recorded 33.38% increased seed yield over A145 and 96.71% over GT-7
    at 150 kg N level
◆   Priming all leaves or bottom and middle leaves showed adverse effect on seed yield in HDBRG
◆   Among the three systems maize – tobacco recorded significantly higher green and cured leaf yields
    followed by fallow – tobacco whereas significantly lower tobacco yields were observed in the
    soybean – tobacco system in Vertisols
◆   In soybean-bengalgram system application of vermicompost to soybean has increased the
    productivity of the system where as the net returns was higher with FYM application
◆   Closer spacing of 0.7 x 0.5 m and application of 45 kg N/ha were found to be optimum for the FCV
    advanced breeding lines Cy 135 and Cy 139 for higher cured leaf production

BTRC, Jeddangi

◆   Banket A1 variety of white Burley is recommended for agency areas of East Godavari and
    Visakhapatnam Districts
◆   Banket A1 out yielded the existing variety of Burley - 21 by 31.6% in cured leaf
◆   Banket A1 requires a spacing of 90 x 45 cm with 120 kg N for potential yield
◆   Calcium nutrition of Burley (40 kg Ca /ha) enhanced leaf production by 10% and the net income by
    Rs 2,500/ha
◆   Lower leaf of burley showed lower leaf nicotine ranging from 0.80 to 0.84% while topping at 25
    and 30 leaves showed nicotine content of 3.01 % and 2.78%
◆   FYM @ 10 t /ha is highly essential for expression of potential leaf yield of 1,757 kg/ha
◆   Nitrogen @ 120 kg/ha in the form of organic – inorganics in the ratio of 25: 75 is essential for
    quality leaf production by 19.8% over 60 kg N

 ◆   Cowpea improves soil organic carbon content in intercropping with burley tobacco
 ◆   Magnesium application to soil @ 20 kg /ha increased cured leaf in burley tobacco by 38.80 % over
 ◆   Compost prepared out of tobacco stems is as good as farm yard manure in the production of cured
     leaf in burley tobacco. Boron deficient burley tobacco leaf recorded 19.36 ppm B
 ◆   Air curing the burley tobacco leaf in the curing barns without midrib reduced the TSNAs when
     compared to tobacco cured with midrib. Application of Azotobacter along with 75% of recommended
     dose of nitrogen /ha and 25% organic + 75% inorganic N/ha resulted in 29.1 and 18.4% reduction
     in TSNAs respectively when compared to 120 kg N/ha, cured with midrib
 ◆   For the variety Swetha, closer spacing of 0.7 x 0.5 m recorded significantly higher yield of 4.8 and
     11.1 per cent respectively over 0.8 x 0.5 and 0.9 x 0.5 m spacing 120 kg N/ha was found to be

CTRI RS, Jeelugumilli

 ◆   The variety Kanchan was superior to var. CM-12(KA) by 29.3% in terms of tobacco leaf yields
 ◆   Topping at 22 leaf stage was superior to 18 leaf stage for higher leaf production by 5.76%
 ◆   Gross and net returns were higher for blackgram – tobacco – maize (Rs1,35,783 and 61,520 /ha)
     and greengram – tobacco - fodder sorghum (Rs 1, 16,369 and 45,707 /ha) sequences in irrigated
     Alfisols compared to sole tobacco (Rs 94,480 and 33,668 /ha)
 ◆   Natu tobacco required 400 kg N at a spacing of 80 x 80 cm and topping at 16 leaves for getting
     maximum cured leaf (2,952 kg/ha)
 ◆   In situ green manuring with sunnhemp was at par with FYM (10t/ha) application in NLS for achieving
     superior quality and higher quantity of tobacco by 14.75% compared to no organic manure application
 ◆   Application of 120 kg N /ha to Kanchan (NLS - 4) resulted in 15.2% increase in cured leaf yield
     (2,394 kg/ha) and 9.74% increase in grade index (1,712) compared to 80 kg
 ◆   The schedule of irrigations IW/ CPE ratio of 1.00 from 40-75 DAP/ (IW 50 mm) and 0.8 till harvest
     (IW 25 mm) with a total quantum of water amounting to 427 mm is necessary for successful crop
     growth with the variety Kanchan with an yield potential of 2,393 kg/ha
 ◆   Application of 110 kg N/ha at a topping level of 26 leaves at bud stage is optimum for var. Kanchan
     for getting higher yields (2,324 kg/ha)
 ◆   The variety Kanchan requires a spacing of 100 x 70 cm at a nitrogen level 110 kg applied in 3 splits
     at 7-10 DAP, 215-30 DAP and 40-45 DAP in 1:2:1 ratio for higher leaf production (2,281 kg/ha)
 ◆   Nitrogen application (110 kg/ha) in three splits produced 4.48% more cured leaf yield (2284 kg/ha)
     and 6.37% more grade index (1620) as compared to two splits for variety Kanchan
 ◆   In alternate crop sequences for FCV tobacco in low fertile alfisols, the net returns realized by
     redgram + maize – greengram was Rs 28,553/ha, followed by redgram + groundnut -greengram
     systems Rs 26,720/ha while that of green manured tobacco was Rs 30,490/ha

CTRI RS, Guntur

◆   Pillipesara in situ green manuring followed by 40 kg N + 0.2% each of Zn and Mg foliar spray
    recorded significantly higher leaf yields
◆   Redgram + coriander (1+3) recorded maximum net income of Rs 32,489/ha compared to sole crop
    of tobacco (Rs 29,779/ha)
◆   A 2 m alley of sorghum after every 20 rows of FCV tobacco recorded significant improvement in
    tobacco leaf yields
◆   Groundnut cake application improved bright leaf. Green leaf manuring HDBRG at 180 kg N level
    in 25:75 organic : inorganic ratio was superior to Groundnut cake by 44 kg cured leaf/ha
◆   Bajra in situ green manuring followed by application of Azospirillum + PSB + VAM gave
    significantly higher leaf yields (1030 kg/ha) compared to sole cropping (760 kg cured leaf/ha)

CTRI RS, Kandukur

◆   The pipe line variety Cy-79 out yielded the var. Hema by 11% in cured leaf and 8.5% in grade
◆   Two crop sequences groundnut-mustard (Rs 12,000 /ha), greengram - mustard/ blackgram-mustard
    (Rs 12,400/ha) are economical
◆   Redgram + groundnut intercropping is superior (Rs 11,638/ha) and cotton sole crop gave comparable
    income to FCV tobacco
◆   Maximum net returns were recorded from lemongrass (Rs 34,235/ha) followed by palmorosa (Rs
    32,100/ha) and Bhutalasi (Rs 17,000/ha)
◆   Use of PR to supply 80 kg P2O5/ha in combination with 3t FYM can be recommended to Alfisols of
    Prakasam district
◆   Higher levels of 120 kg P2O5/ha is necessary to apply through PR to get the same response from 60
    kg P2O5 application through SSP or DAP
◆   The pipe line variety N-98 requires a spacing of 70 x 50 cm with 60-60-80 kg/ha NPK and topping
    for higher leaf yields of 1,753 kg/ha
◆   All forms of compost prepared through different methods are at par while vermicompost tended
    slightly superior in cured leaf production by 100 kg/ha. Reduction in N levels reduced leaf yields
    under all form of compost
◆   The variety Rathna under SLS conditions requires to be planted in 1st week of October with a
    spacing of 70 x 70 cm at a fertility level of 45 kg N/ha for optimum leaf yields of 1530 kg/ha
◆   The run off and soil loss, estimated by H-flumes using stage level recorders with cushocton wheel
    samplers were reduced under live bed system when compared to control. The yield of FCV tobacco
    was high under live bed system compared to control even after accounting for the area occupied by
    live beds

◆    One life saving irrigation utilizing water harvested from farm ponds improved yields by 23.5 % in
     cured leaf and 20.2 % in bright leaf when translated into the net increase in the income by
     Rs 9,000/- per one hectare basis

CTRI RS, Hunsur

◆    Under KLS conditions, 40 kg P2O5/ha produced maximum cured leaf in low ‘P’ status conditions
     while under medium status ‘P’ application has negative effect
◆    The net profit with press mud application to KLS was higher by Rs 3,000 over FYM besides
     reducing RKI
◆    The variety Kanchan was superior to variety Rathna for all yield characters. Bud topping with 60
     kg N application recorded 2,196 kg cured leaf and 1,644 kg TGE
◆    Application of 140 K2O kg/ha (100 kg as basal and 40 kg as foliar spray) recorded 2,311 kg cured
     leaf and 1,750 kg TGE
◆    Maximum number of tobacco transplants were recorded by soil application of glyphosate as
     weedicide @ 1.25 kg a.i./ha + ASPA followed by soil solarisation and periodical weeding 566, 546,
     536/m2, respectively.
◆    Tray nursery seedling raised using coir pith or in combination with FYM resulted in minimum field
     planted gaps
◆    Application of potassium nitrate (as a source of K) was found to increase the cured leaf yield by
     6.8% and bright grade out turn by 7.3% as compared to application of recommended SOP. The
     quality parameters of the cured leaf were not affected

CTRI RS, Vedasandur
 ◆   The variety VR-2 under Vedaranyam conditions required 150 kg N and topped at 18 leaves for
     higher net return and B.C. ratio
◆    Under limited water supply for 3-4 months, chewing tobacco (Rs 64,287 /ha) or chewing tobacco
     + onion (Rs 83,211 /ha) is profitable where as under good supply of water, annual moringa (Rs
     53,903/ha) and chillies are more profitable
◆    Application of 75 kg P2O5 + PSB @ 10 kg/ha could be applied instead of 100 kg P2O5 through
     inorganic source for achieving the same leaf yields
◆    Application of 25 t NSC is comparable with sunnhemp/ cowpea in situ green manuring. Application
     of Glyricidia @ 21.5 t/ha recorded highest gross and net return and CB ratio in chewing tobacco
◆    For chewing tobacco under Vedasandur conditions, P application through SSP and N application
     through Ammonium sulphate or urea is better for quality leaf production over DAP application
◆    The intercropping systems viz., chewing tobacco + annual moringa (Rs 1,01,808/ha) followed by
     chewing tobacco + beet root (Rs 74,245/ha) are profitable compared to chewing tobacco
◆    The sequence sunflower-tobacco-groundnut recorded a net income of Rs 75,849/ha compared to
     sole crop. The C : B ratio was 1:3.17 and per day return was Rs 526 with respect to sole tobacco

 ◆   Coir pith @ 12.5 t/ha with IW/CPE ratio of 1.0 and 50 kg N/ha would be optimum for getting
     maximum cured leaf yield and net return in chewing tobacco cultivation
 ◆   For GJ-108 hybrid tobacco, 60 x 50 cm spacing (Rs 90,708/ha) N at 60- kg/ha (Rs 79,372/ha) and
     topping at 16 leaves (Rs 84,876/ha). The net return and CB ratio were higher for the spacing 60 x
     50 cm, N at 60 kg/ha topped at 16 leaves

CTRI RS, Pusa (transferred to ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna)
 ◆   Application of 25% N as mustard cake + 25% N as castor cake + 50% N as urea is at par with a the
     existing practice of applying 50 N as mustard cake + 50 N as urea + 25 t FYM/ha in terms of total
     cured leaf, first grade out turn and physical leaf quality. It recorded a net income of Rs 55,356/ha
     and Rs 54,830/ha, respectively
 ◆   Irrigation to chewing tobacco based cropping system improved net return by Rs 14,171/ha compared
     to rainfed conditions
 ◆   The crop sequence sesame - tobacco - greengram was promising in terms of quantity and quality
     leaf production in tobacco
 ◆   The fertilizer schedule 250-70-70 NPK kg/ha was superior to 150-50-50 kg NPK/ha in terms of
     leaf yields and quality
 ◆   Intercropping garlic and rajma in chewing tobacco produced maximum total and first grade leaf
     while 75% recommended dose of fertilizer is at par with 100% RDF to intercrops in production of
     cured leaf
 ◆   Net return was maximum Rs 42,948/ha under tobacco + garlic followed by tobacco + rajma

CTRI RS, Dinhata
 ◆   Motihari tobacco required lime @ 250 kg/ha for higher leaf yields
 ◆   Quality leaf production was more in Motihari tobacco due to application of 100 kg N by dollop
 ◆   Sunflower - paddy - potato + garlic was the best alternate sequence with a net return of
     Rs 78,498/ha
 ◆   Motihari tobacco requires a spacing of 45 x 60 cm and 120 kg N/ha for potential leaf yield
 ◆   The yield and quality of Motihari tobacco Sel. 8-4-1 in superior to the check DD 437 by 15% and
     6.5% cured and first grade leaf
 ◆   Topping at 10 leaf stage increased the leaf yield over 8 leaf stage
 ◆   For Motihari tobacco, P application @ 50 kg/ha and K2O @ 75 kg/ha is essential for higher leaf
     production by 2,022 kg/ha
 ◆   Maximum net returns of Rs 36,476/ha was realized where tobacco was grown with RDF + 50% N
     for intercrop with garlic in one row in every alternate row of tobacco
 ◆   For Motihari tobacco N K requirement at N125 and K75 recorded maximum cured leaf of 2,029
     kg/ha and maximum first grade leaf at N100 and K75

 ◆   For newly released Jati tobacco variety Manasi 150 kg N/ha + 50 kg K2O/ha was found to be more
     profitable and was beneficial in terms of higher nutrient composition in leaves and increase in the
     available nutrient status of the soil
 ◆   Basal application of 125 kg N/ha applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate was found
     beneficial in terms of quantitative and qualitative production besides fetching higher monetary
     returns in Jati tobacco
 ◆   A spacing of 75 x 75cm and topping at 12-14 leaves gave significantly more cured leaf yield and
     also fetched highest monetary return in Jati tobacco

Curing technology
 ◆   Low profile barn of 7.3 x 4.9 x 3.2 m dimension has recorded a saving of 30% coal and 21 hours
     curing duration as compared to conventional barn
 ◆   Barn roof insulation with admixture of cement and thermocol, strawmit and red earth mixture with
     paddy husk recorded a saving of 14 and 26% in coal respectively compared normal barn

4.3. Crop Protection

 ❖   Soil solarisation of seed beds with white transparent alkathene sheet of 50 or 100 G for 4 to 6
     weeks during summer or rabbing the seed bed with paddy husk or agricultural wastes during
     summer offered initial protection to tobacco seedlings against soil-borne fungal and nematode
 ❖   Among 185 species of botanicals screened, a few like Azadirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Cassia
     occidentalis, Tridax procumbens, Ocimum sanctum, Euphorbia hirta, Tagetes spp. and Eucalyptus
     sp. possess strong anti-fungal, anti- viral and anti-nematode components in leaf and fruit extracts
     which are to be commercially exploited
 ❖   In order to identify resistant donors to tobacco pests, diseases and nematodes, tobacco germplasm
     consisting of 1760 accessions and 35 wild Nicotiana spp. were screened and resistant donors
     located for tobacco mosaic virus, tobacco leaf curl virus, Phytophthora parasitica, Cercospora
     nicotianae, Colletotrichum tabacum, Alternaria alternata, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica,
     Spodoptera litura, Heliothis armigera and Myzus persicae for further studies on development
     of pest and disease resistant tobacco varieties
 ❖   CORESTA International collaborative experiments on powdery mildew, Orobanche cernua, black
     shank have been undertaken to study the reaction of resistant varieties and to identify races, biotypes
     or pathotypes prevalent in specific zones
 ❖   Studies on the role of fungal bioagents like Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride for the control of
     Pythium aphanidermatum causing damping-off of tobacco in nursery revealed their utility in the
     initial stages of seedling growth up to 35 days. They form a component of IPM
 ❖   Predominant race of Phytophthora parasitica on tobacco was race 0 although race 1 and new race
     are found to be associated with black shank disease in certain localities of Karnataka and Gujarat
 ❖   Quantification of favourable meteorological factors responsible for incidence and spread of
     anthracnose and brown spot pathogens of tobacco have been studied

❖   Life cycle of Orobanche cernua on tobacco was 12-14 weeks after planting tobacco
❖   Blackgram, greengram, pillipesara, gingelly and jowar were identified as good trap crops of
❖   Periodical hand weeding with spear before flower setting offers good control of Orobanche
❖   Tobacco Mosaic Virus resistant tobacco varieties like CTRI Spl. (MR); Godavari Spl; Jayasri
    (MR), V.T.-1158 and Banquet A.1 and black shank tolerant varieties like CM-12 (KA) and Mc.
    Nair-12 were released for large scale cultivation in A.P. Bhavya, a nematode resistant and black
    shank tolerant variety, Swarna a powdery mildew resistant variety were released for Karnataka
    light soils
❖   Copper fungicides and dithiocarbamates were screened for bio-efficacy and recommended for large
    scale usage in nursery and field for control of damping-off, leaf blight, black shank, anthracnose
    and frog-eye spot diseases
❖   Systemic fungicides like Metalaxyl (Ridomil MZ 72 WP) @ 0.2% for damping-off control,
    Carbendazim (Bavistin 50%) @ 0.03% for the control of frog-eye spot and anthracnose and
    Bayleton @ 0.02% for powdery mildew control have been recommended
❖   A simple and quick ‘Flask’ technique has been developed for screening the breeding materials
    under controlled condition for black shank resistance at Anand
❖   Soil fumigation with methyl bromide or durofume @ 15-18 ml/m2, 2 weeks before sowing was
    effective in controlling weeds, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and soil insects upto 14
❖   Summer ploughing with disc harrow and growing of cotton, redgram, chillies, jowar or marigold
    during kharif and rabi seasons reduced root-knot nematode incidence in nursery
❖   Application of phenamiphos (Nemacur 10G) or Sebufos (Rugby 10G) @ 60 to 75 kg/ha has given
    90% control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) of tobacco in nursery
❖   Survey of Karnataka light soils (KLS) and Northern light soils (NLS) of A.P. revealed that
    Meloidogyne javanica is the most predominant sp. in NLS whereas in KLS M. incognita and M.
    javanica are predominant apart from low population of M. arenaria and M. thamesi
❖   Weed hosts, non-hosts and susceptible hosts among crop plants have been identified for Meloidogyne
    javanica and M. incognita for crop rotation studies in light soils
❖   Bio-ecology of whitefly Bemisia tabaci, its flight activity and migration pattern were studied
❖   Economic threshold level for green peach aphid Myzus persicae and tobacco aphid M. nicotianae
    was fixed at 2% level
❖   Diflubenzuron @ 0.009% a growth inhibitor at weekly interval spray gave significant control of
    Spodoptera litura in nursery
❖   Neem and neem based pesticides have been identified against S. litura
❖   Integration of NSKS spray along with field releases of Telenomus remus gave good control of S.
    litura in nursery

❖   Neem based pesticides in combination of NPV and bioagents like Telenomus, Chrysopa and
    Apanteles and growing of castor around the tobacco nursery formed an effective IPM to control
    Spodoptera damage of tobacco seedlings
❖   Development of resistance to insecticides in Heliothis armigera was very high at flowering stage
    in cotton and redgram. Population of H. armigera showed highest level of resistance to cypermethrin
❖   NPV @ 250 LE/ha along with neem formulations was effective in reducing Heliothis incidence
❖   Dried powder of neem seed kernel mixed with barn ash effectively protected tobacco seed from
    cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne
❖   Nicotiana gossei and N. benthamiana were resistant donors to Spodoptera litura and Myzus persicae.
    Aphid and caterpillar resistant selections in tobacco were identified utilising these donors. DWFC
    (N. tabacum) was resistant to S. litura and is being utilised as a donor
❖   Insecticides like acephate, monocrotophos, chlorpyriphos, endosulfan, imidacloprid and
    thiamethoxam have been critically evaluated for bioefficacy and suitable recommendations made
    on their use in nursery and field for the control of aphids, leaf eating caterpillar, bud worm, ground
    beetle and other insect pests
❖   Soil application of phorate 10G @ 10 kg/ha or endosulfan dust 4% @ 40 kg/ha has given good
    control of root bug (Stibaropus tabulatus) in lanka tobacco
❖   Application of half of the recommended doses of fenvalerate (0.005%) and quinalphos (0.025%) in
    combination with NPV gave effective control of Spodoptera larvae. Diflubenzuron @ 250 g/ha in
    combination with chlorpyriphos (0.02%) and quinalphos (0.25%) were found effective against
    Spodoptera larvae in tobacco nursery at Anand
❖   Random planting of marigold was found effective in attracting Heliothis moths. They lay significantly
    greater number of eggs on marigold flower than on tobacco thus, reducing larval infestation of
    tobacco seed crop at Anand
❖   Nivar (24 to 30 ppm azadirachtin) gave protection to tobacco seedlings from Spodoptera damage,
    on par with that of NSKS 2% and chlorpyrifos 0.05%
❖   Life table studies on budworm, Helicoverpa armigera indicated that insect pathogenic virus is the
    key mortality factor. The trend index was 7.30 and mean generation survival was 0.061
❖   Tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa armigera can be effectively managed with sequential sprays of
    profenofos 0.15% followed by Ha NPV 1.5X1012 PIBs/ha or leufenuron 0.005% or Bacillus
    thuringiensis var. Kurstaki @ 1.5 kg/ha
❖   Studies on nutrient mediated effect on insect pests of tobacco showed that optimum levels of N and
    higher levels of K interfere with the development of insects and reduced the infestation level in
    tobacco in respect of tobacco caterpillar, aphids and whitefly
❖   Magnesium phosphide plates (Degesch plates) at a dose of 1 g/m3 with 5 days exposure period is
    sufficient to cause cent per cent mortality of all the stages of cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricornae
❖   Jowar or maize or bajra grown as border/ barrier crop around tobacco was significantly superior
    than tobacco sole crop in reducing the major insect pests of tobacco and increasing the natural
    enemy population

❖   Neem cake at 0.50 t/ha was effective in reducing stem borer infestation by 80% in Burley tobacco
    (var. Banket A1) in the agency area of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh
❖   Profenofos 50 EC at 0.15% was highly effective in reducing stem borer infestation by 90% in NLS
❖   Out of 150 germplasm lines of FCV tobacco screened against stem borer, Karedu was found resistant
❖   Barrier crops viz., jowar, maize and bajra (2 rows) prevented aphid infestation in tobacco by 60%.
    Barrier crops in combination with 1 spray of imidacloprid @ 25 g a.i./ha at 55 DAP completely
    managed aphid problem in tobacco
❖   The need based application of selective insecticides, growing castor and Tagetes (single whorled)
    around the plots to serve as trap crops and application of NPV (bio-control) were found effective
    for tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura and budworm, Helicoverpa armigera
❖   Stem application of imidacloprid @ 1:40 and thiamethoxam @1:20 were able to check aphid
    infestation on FCV tobacco and supported higher natural enemy activity as compared to foliar
    spray of the insecticides
❖   Infestation of budworm, tobacco caterpillar, leaf curl and tobacco aphid was less in IPM plot as
    compared to chemical control in burley tobacco. Border crop of sorghum served as reservoir for
    natural enemies
❖   Clothianidin (Dantop) 50 WDG @ 22.5 g a.i./ha effectively checked aphids on FCV tobacco
❖   Out of 35 newly acquired germplasm lines of FCV tobacco screened artificially, four lines, namely,
    53MX1-19-9-5, 137MX1-1, 178-3-5 and 56-12 were totally free from tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera
    litura incidence
❖   Bio-pesticides viz., Nomuraea rileyi, Baeuvaria bassiana and B.t kurstaki were equally effective
    against Spodoptera exigua in tobacco nurseries
❖   The hexane extract of Clerodendron inerme and Andrographis paniculata recorded the highest
    inhibition of growth and development of Spodoptera exigua
❖   Mango leaf polyphenols (MLP) @ 5000 ppm could impart maximum resistance to Sl NPV on
    exposure to sunlight followed by MLP @ 1000 ppm, robin blue and casein. 23.33% original activity
    of the virus could be retained even on the third day of exposure to sunlight in case of MLP at 5000
    ppm concentration
❖   The neonate stage of Spodoptera litura, S. exigua and H. armigera pests is the most susceptible to
    predation by the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis. Predatory ability of the bug was not influenced by
    the tobacco type
❖   SDS-PAGE analysis of TMV resistant lines showed a prominent band at Rf value of 0.137 under
    artificial inoculated conditions. These studies will help in identifying the reaction of the varieties
    even in seedling stage itself.
❖   Combined resistance to black shank and TMV was observed in all the lines involving Gauthami, V
    1158 and V 3569. These materials showed 100% resistance to TMV. Similar resistance against
    black shank, TMV and root knot was exhibited in L 1134

 ❖   Seven AT/ JL series derivatives of inter-specific crosses were screened against root-knot nematode
     in nematode sick nursery. Out of them, four lines viz., AT-1A, AT-2B, AT-3B and JL-1 were considered
     as resistant with less than 1.0 root-knot index
 ❖   Highest mortality (90 %) of larvae of H. armigera was recorded at 10 ml after 72 hr with the
     extracts of Calotropis procera and D. aphyllum
 ❖    The extracts of Leucas spp. and Piper sp. inhibited the development of the grub of L. serricorny
     and caused highest mortality at 10 ìl concentration
 ❖   The IPM Module-5 (Need based Bio. and Chemical Control) with fluctuating insect population of
     S. litura, H. armigera and less Whitefly and aphid incidence gave higher green leaf, cured leaf and
     bright leaf yields
 ❖   An integrated wilt management module in KLS is recommended comprising seven tips including
     chemical control with carbendazim or copper hydroxide which gave a CBR of 1: 1.2 and 1:1.39,
 ❖   Tobacco germplasm materials, when screened at Hunsur against root-knot nematodes under sick
     field conditions exhibited varied level of resistance reaction. The following materials viz., 147 M
     x 1-21, V 4212, FCH 201, FCH 187, FCH 194, KST 29, RK 9, RK 11 and RK-1 were found
     promising against root-knot nematodes with root-knot index < 1.5 under 0-5 scale
 ❖   Bacterial wilt in Jati and Motihari tobacco nurseries and field can effectively be controlled by the
     application of lime dust @ 560 kg/ha after land preparation and keeping the land fallow for a
     period of 20-30 days
 ❖   Molecular characterization of R. solanacearum isolates from West Bengal and Shimla (H.P.)
     exhibited wide divergence in polymorphic DNA when RAPD – PCR was employed using 12 decamer
 ❖   Hollow stalk manifested under field conditions and latent infection in Motihari tobacco can be
     prophylactically managed by slurry / paste application of bordeaux mixture or blitox at the topped
     stem end and desuckered points in the axils of leaves

4.4. Crop Chemistry and Soil Science
 ■   Soil fertility maps of flue-cured, burley, Jati and Motihari tobacco growing soils were prepared
 ■   Whitish incrustation, which was considered to be essential quality parameter of chewing tobacco
     (Tamil Nadu and Bihar) predominantly, contains SiO2, K2O, chloride, carbonate, malic and citric
 ■   Studies with 15N in NLS revealed that plant utilised only 46% of fertiliser N and leaching of N was
     observed upto a depth of 6 feet
 ■   Approximately 300 organic compounds were identified by GC-MS technique in lanka tobacco.
     Rishitin and solavetivone were identified for the first time in lanka tobacco. The flavourful
     compounds like megastigmatrienones, solanone, neophytadiene, cis-abienol, labdonoids and
     thumberganoids were isolated in essential oil fraction of lanka tobacco
 ■   Accumulation of free fatty acids and disintegration of membrane structure of the seed are responsible
     factors for loss of viability of tobacco seed
■   Biochemical studies on resistance mechanism in tobacco were examined by studying the isozyme
    patterns of the resistant and susceptible tobacco species
■   A positive correlation between the level of N fertiliser and NR-ase activity was observed which is
    reflected in tobacco yield. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between NR-ase
    activity and age of plant
■   Methods for determining physical quality characteristics like filling value, pore volume, shatterability,
    leaf burn and chemical characteristics like chlorides (electrotitrimetric & auto analyser), carbonyls
    (spectrophotometric) and nicotine (UV-spectrophotometric) were developed and are being widely
■   Objective quality criteria for FCV tobacco has been developed and adopted for quality evaluation
■   Ormandy’s maturity index test was employed for judging maturity in FCV tobacco
■   The toxic principles present in N. gossei and pongamia oil were identified as saponins and karanjin
    respectively and they were found effective against S .litura under laboratory conditions
■   PMI technique was adopted for rapid screening of germplasm/breeding material for tar evaluation
■   Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine are the major alkaloids in Indian tobaccos. The
    nornicotine levels of Indian tobaccos are in the range of 2 to 5% of the total alkaloids
■   Studies on tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) which are considered to be health-risk factors
    revealed that in N. rustica and N. tabacum, TSNA were detected in green mature tobacco leaves
    and they increased further in sun drying and during processing. N. rustica showed relatively higher
    amounts of nornicotine and N-Nitroso nornicotine (NNN) than N. tabacum
■   Agronomical practices such as spacing, N fertilisation, topping etc., aimed at increasing the yield
    and quality had a positive correlation with tar levels. However, increased K content in leaf had a
    negative correlation on the smoke constituents
■   Exogenous application of potassium salts (organic and inorganic) resulted in considerable reduction
    of tar, nicotine, CO, phenols and tumorigenicity. Incorporation of tobacco midrib in cigarettes
    resulted in reduction of tar
■   Indian tobaccos are free from heavy metals - cadmium and lead compared to tobaccos from USA,
    West Germany and Canada
■   Tobaccos rich in aroma contained higher amounts of total carbonyls and higher proportions of
    beta-methyl valeric, isovaleric and palmitic acids and lesser proportions of unsaturated fatty acids
    when compared to aroma lean tobaccos. An inverse relationship between carotenoids and aroma-
    bearing constituents was established
■   Fraction-1 edible protein (80% pure) was isolated from left over tobacco seedlings and was found
    to be on par with milk protein in nutritional evaluation studies
■   Nicotine, solanesol and organic acids (malic and citric) were identified as potential phytochemicals
    present in tobacco for chemurgic development. Bench scale technologies were developed for
    recovery of nicotine and solanesol
■   Mature green leaf of bidi tobacco was found to be a good source for extraction of nicotine and
    solanesol. TI-163 and TI-1112 were found to possess higher levels of solanesol
■   Crude organic acid fraction, a by-product from nicotine recovery process, was found effective for
    the release of phosphorus from rock phosphate

■   Process for conversion of nicotine sulphate to nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and nikethamide was
■   Continuous monitoring of Indian tobaccos for pesticide residues indicated that they are within
    tolerance limits
■   Time gap of four weeks between the last spray of endosulfan and first harvest is necessary to
    reduce the level below tolerance limits
■   Three weeks time gap was essential between last spray and harvest in TBS for carbaryl. In light
    soils, an interval of 15 days was found necessary to reduce the residues below tolerance limits
■   Enriched neem extracts and their formulations which are on the anvil registered superiority over
    the neem formulations available in the market
■   Areas having high chloride (>100 ppm) have been delineated for not growing FCV tobacco
■   For tobacco nurseries 100 kg K2O/ha for low, 50 kg K2O/ha for medium and 25 kg K2O/ha for high
    K status soils was recommended
■   Yellowing in tobacco nurseries can be corrected by applying magnesium sulphate @ 45-60 g/
    10m2 bed in two or three splits
■   Healthy tobacco seedlings can be grown by adding paddy husk ash @ 1kg/m2
■   The salt injury due to irrigation waters containing high chlorides in SLS can be overcome by
    application of FYM/paddy husk ash @ 1.5 kg/m2 or Sunnhemp green manuring
■   Copper induced iron chlorosis in tobacco nurseries can be corrected by applying 0.1% ferrous
    sulphate solution
■   Sodium potassium nitrate as a top dresser was found to be superior to CAN in NLS area and to
    ammonium sulphate in KLS area
■   In NLS, a maintenance dose of 30kg P2O5/ha for soils having high P-status was recommended
■   In NLS 80-120 kg K2O/ha was recommended depending on the soil K-status
■   Dolomite need not be applied to NLS tobacco for supplying calcium and magnesium as long as
    CAN is used for top dressings
■   Application of zinc to soil up to 15 kg/ha or foliar spray of zinc sulphate @ 5 kg/ha alone or in
    combination with application of zinc to soil up to 10 kg/ha did not significantly influence yield and
    quality of FCV tobacco in NLS over the two year experimental period
■   Prilled potassium nitrate fertilizer is on par with sulphate of potash as a source of potassium for
    flue-cured tobacco crop in irrigated Northern Light Soils of Andhra Pradesh in respect of its influence
    on yield, leaf quality, TSNA content and smoke quality parameters
■   Phosphate rock was at par with DAP in its effect on yield and quality of FCV tobacco and hence it
    can be used as a phosphatic fertilizer for FCV tobacco in NLS
■   Drip irrigation could save 305mm water with concomitant increase in yield in NLS. It was found
    useful where water chlorides are marginally high
■   In NLS of AP topping at button stage and sucker control increases the yield and quality of FCV
    tobacco. In TBS judicious topping was recommended
■   Decanol at 4% and neem oil emulsion at 20% as suckericides effectively controlled suckers. Neem
    oil emulsion was found to be effective in non-FCV tobaccos also
■   Micronutrient status of tobacco growing soils and tobaccos was surveyed and found that
    micronutrients were in sufficient quantities except in tobacco growing areas of Dinhata where
    Boron deficiency was noticed and application of Borax @ 5 kg/ha was recommended
■   It is recommended to avoid K application to flue-cured tobacco in CBS and NBS areas under
    monocropping system and to avoid P application to flue-cured tobacco in CBS and NBS areas
    under monocropping system if soil test rating for P is medium or high. In special cases where soil
    test rating for K is medium or low K application is to be continued. If soil test rating for P is low P
    application is to be continued
■   A life saving irrigation in TBS whenever necessary is recommended with water containing less
    than 30 ppm chlorides
■   Calcium deficiency was recorded in the burley crop of agency area of East Godavari and calcium
    @ 40 kg/ha was recommended
■   Application of 200 to 300 kg N/ha depending on texture and nitrogen status of soil and 100 kg K2O/
    ha improved the yield, quality and leaf burn of irrigated natu tobacco
■   Application of 300 kg N/ha by dollop method was recommended for lanka tobacco in riverside
■   Application of one tonne lime/ha with 10 tonnes FYM was recommended for cigar filler tobacco to
    correct soil acidity in sandy soils of West Bengal
■   Highest protein potential, oil potential and nicotine potential were recorded in bidi varieties A-
    119, A-145 and GT-5 respectively at Anand
■   Soil fertility survey of FCV soils in Mysore districts of Karnataka was published in research bulletin
    No.7 for the benefit of growers and extension workers
■   Studies on changes in soil fertility during two decades of FCV tobacco cultivation in NLS showed
    that there was depletion in organic carbon and available potassium status and heavy buildup of
    phosphorus in light soils under continuous FCV tobacco cultivation
■   In flue-cured tobacco of NLS, balanced dose of 60 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 80 kg K2O/ha has been
    found to be essential for higher yields and better quality for 16/103 variety
■   FCV yields in NLS were higher with application of N in nitrate form in basal dressing and 1:1 ratio
    of ammonia and nitrate form or completely nitrate form in top dressing
■   Chilean nitrates were evaluated as a source of N & K in NLS, Andhra Pradesh. Sodium potassium
    nitrate was found suitable
■   Bio-fertilizers, Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza have shown complementary effects for the production
    of FCV tobacco
■   It is observed that supplementation of micronutrients has not shown any beneficial effect on the
    production of tobacco crop in different agro climatic zones
■   Studies on the causes of poor leaf quality and burn rate of H.D. Burley and Cigarette Natu tobaccos
    growing in Kurnool, Guntur and Mehaboobnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh revealed that excess
    N fertilization and use of irrigation waters containing high chlorides in excess of 0.85 mg/L were
    the major causes for the production of poor quality Cigarette Natu and H.D. Burley tobaccos in
    these areas

■   Studies on the effect of varying N and K fertilizer levels on the yield and quality of agency burley
    tobacco variety Banket A-1 revealed N @ 125 kg/ ha and potash @ 50 kg K2O / ha along with 50 kg
    P2O5 and 10 tonnes FYM / ha as the optimum for the producing quality Burley tobacco from the
    light soils of Agency area in Andhra Pradesh
■   Different suckericides were evaluated and their compatibility with neem oil was studied
■   The viability of tobacco seed was maintained when moisture content was below 4%
■   Study of the inhibitory factors on the germination of tobacco seed was undertaken through protein
■   High temperature inhibited germination in burley tobacco variety Banket A1, which was overcome
    with GA3 treatment and it was concentration dependent. Seed treatment with 50 ppm GA3 helped
    nursery men to achieve uniform germination and seedling stand under adverse weather conditions
■   Tobacco seed drying using ventilating dryer at 55 oC for two hours was found suitable for obtaining
    the required seed moisture for seed packing. The cost of fuel for drying was only Rs 1.00 per kg
    seed. Germination count or transplant production was not affected by seed drying in the ventilating
■   Seed moisture is more critical in maintenance of seed viability in FCV tobacco and the accelerated
    ageing condition resulted in faster biochemical changes in the seed and consequent loss of viability.
    At the ambient temperature with seed moisture below 4.0% using a desiccant calcium chloride, the
    rate of seed metabolism and the consequent biochemical deterioration of the seed was slow and
    kept the seed viable for prolonged period of 28 years
■   Electrophoretic characterization of tobacco cultivars by isozymes was initiated
■   Molecular (DNA) markers for identifying different tobacco varieties were developed
■   Exotic varieties viz. NLS-1, NLS-2, NLS-3, NLS-4 and NLS-5 contain higher levels of carbonyls,
    one of the contributory factors for aroma
■   Petroleum ether extractives, total carbonyls and solanesol considered important for flavour in tobacco
    were higher in NLS samples when compared to KLS samples
■   Modified midrib processing could reduce TPM content by 13%, nicotine by 32.5%, carbon monoxide
    by 14.8%
■   Significant reduction in smoke constituents, tar (27.2%), nicotine (45.9%) and carbon monoxide
    (12 .9%) was achieved by utilizing tobacco with low tar potential and by increasing the potassium
    content and filling value of blend
■   Agronomic practices were developed for optimizing phytochemical from tobacco. Standardized
    the procedures for isolating proteins, solanesol, nicotine and organic acids from green leaf and also
    oil from seed
■   Nicotine sulphate based formulations were found effective on controlling H. armigera in tobacco
    and their persistence was studied
■   Rock phosphate mixed with crude organic acid fraction could partially supplement SSP for groundnut
■   Process was developed for recovery of pure solanesol 95%. Tobacco with higher solanesol content
    was identified. Synthesis of vitamin K2 starting from solanesol was accomplished. Preparation of
    new bioactive compounds from solanesol is under progress

 ■   There is a significant reduction in the number of samples exceeding tolerance limits for
     organochlorine pesticide residues in FCV tobacco grown in different agro-climatic zones of the
 ■   Three neem formulations were developed for the control of S. litura in tobacco and their efficacy
     was evaluated along with commercial formulations. Process for enrichment of azadirachtin has
     been developed
 ■   Pure azadirachtin (95+ %) was isolated employing preparative HPLC Methods were standardized
     for extraction of enriched products. Bio-efficacy of crude extracts and evolved formulations was
     compared with known formulations viz., NeemAzal and Azardin. With continued efforts, the
     following CTRI formulations were developed NOE (90%EC), AZT (1.0%) + 20% neem oil,
     azadirachtin 1% and crude extracts (0.4%)
 ■   Streptomyces treatment at 2 ml concentration exhibited good nematicidal effect by showing 100
     per cent mortality of nematode larvae in laboratory studies
 ■   Pseudomonas fluorescens talc based formulation @ 2 kg / 3 kg tobacco seed produced maximum
     number of healthy seedlings and dry matter production, and minimum number of Pythium effected
     seedlings showing promise in damping-off management in tobacco nurseries
 ■   Nitrate nitrogen of burley tobacco leaf decreased with increased levels of spacing (0.7 x 0.5, 0.8 x
     0.5 and 0.9 x 0.5 m). Starch content decreased with increased levels of nitrogen (100, 120 and 140
     kg/ha). Topping at bud initiation stage increased starch, polyphenols and nitrate nitrogen content of
     burley tobacco compared to no topping
 ■   In the studies of DNA markers for Fusarium wilt, a marker with 500 bp linked to the resistance was
 ■   Smoke constituents, tar: 18.18 to 22.23 mg/cig, nicotine: 1.76 to 3.05 mg/cig and carbon monoxide:
     9.43 to 12.75 mg/cig were recorded in FCV tobacco samples from different regions as compared to
     tar: 16.41 to 19.50 mg/cig, nicotine: 1.11 to 2.90 mg/cig and carbon monoxide: 8.42 to 9.31 mg/cig
     in HD Burley tobacco samples
 ■   During flue-curing, 12.4 to 95.5% increase in solanesol content was observed from green leaf to
     yellowing stage. About 50% increase was recorded at colour fixing stage when compared to
     yellowing stage. Marginal increase was observed at colour fixing and leaf drying stages. About
     32% increase was observed from leaf drying to stem drying stages in samples from different harvests
 ■   As the coumarin nucleus appended to solanesol had shown anti-diabetic activity, in vitro, its further
     modification / variation was carried out and the compounds were prepared
 ■   SDB ethylenediamine [N- Solanesyl-N,N-bis (3,4 di methoxybenzylethylene -di-amine] which is
     known to inhibit the colony formation of multi-drug resistant mutant cell-line derived from Chinese
     hamster V-79 was prepared and the biological evaluation is under progress

4.5. Library and Documentation Services
 ❏   Acquired nearly 13000 books, 7000 other micro documents such as reprints, reports, bulletins,
     standards etc., on tobacco and related subjects and subscribed 115 journals from India and abroad
     and bounded 11000 back volumes
 ❏   Indexed tobacco literature and stored on different concepts on card form for retrieval

 ❏   Prepared retrospective literature searches and bibliographies. A bibliography on “Indian Tobacco
     Literature1900- 83” and its 1984 supplement and “Neem in Agriculture” are worth mentioning
 ❏   Provided Current Awareness Services (CAS) and Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI)
 ❏   Provided reference as well as referral services and Reprographic and binding services
 ❏   Conducted user training programmes for research workers and made user surveys
 ❏   Prepared Information, Consolidation Products such as Tobacco Statistics Bulletins etc.
 ❏   Developed software packages for Information Storage and Retrieval, Loan issue of publications
 ❏   Created data bases on electronic media for different topics
 ❏   Developed Research Stations’ libraries

4.6. ARIS Cell
 ✤   Agricultural Research Information System (ARIS) Cell was established in 1998.
 ✤   Software systems developed for Tobacco Research:
     ✦   Tobacco Germplasm Information System
     ✦   Meteorological Database Management System
     ✦   Decision support system for soil fertility evaluation and recommendations to FCV tobacco
     ✦   Research projects information system
     ✦   Designing of website for CTRI and its maintenance
     ✦   Nicotiana species information system
     ✦   Tobacco pest information system

 ✤   Software systems developed for office automation:
     ✦   Pay roll system under UNIX environment
     ✦   Co-operative system
     ✦   Pay roll system for sub-stations

 ✤   Software systems developed for statistical analysis
     ✦   Various statistical software packages were developed in FORTRAN under UNIX Environment
         for analysis of experimental data
     ✦   ‘Design of Experiments’ package was developed under DOS for easy execution

                                    5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT

       Sustained research and developmental efforts by the scientists of CTRI have resulted in evolving
high yielding varieties and appropriate agro-technologies, which made a significant impact on tobacco
production, marketing and export earnings. Progressive increase in productivity levels, from 730 kg/ha
in the 1950’s to nearly 1500 kg/ha in 2005, significantly added to the profitability of tobacco farming and
increased net income of the farmers.

      Improvement in physical and chemical leaf quality attributes of the produce including lower levels
of harmful constituents like TSNA, tar etc. has made the place of Indian tobacco secure in the international
market as quality filler ensuring foreign exchange earnings worth around Rs 1300 crores every year.
Significant reduction in cost of production achieved through the adoption of high yielding varieties and
good crop management strategies have made Indian tobacco ‘value for money’ giving a competitive
edge in the international market.

      Adoption of recommended IPM strategies for pest management has considerably brought down
the pesticide residue levels much below the Guidance Residue Levels, thus enhancing the acceptability
and salability of our tobacco in the international market. Judicious fertilizer management practices
involving integrated nutrient management, withdrawal of K application in black soils and reducing the P
doses in NBS, NLS and KLS have contributed to significant savings in foreign exchange. Tobacco based
cropping systems developed for different agro-climatic zones have significantly improved the socio
economic status of the farming community. Alternative crops/cropping systems recommended for
unsuitable areas provided remunerative alternative sources of livelihood to the traditional tobacco farmers
thereby releasing considerable area for other food crops.

      Technology developed by CTRI for the integrated use of tobacco for extraction of value added
phytochemicals viz., solanesol, nicotine, tobacco seed oil etc. has enthused several entrepreneurs to
actively undertake commercialization of the technologies.

5.1. Growth in Area and Production

 Year                           All tobaccos                           Exportable tobacco (FCV)
                 Area           Production       Productivity     Area       Production Productivity
             (Thousand ha)      (Million kg)       (kg/ha)    (Thousand ha) (Million kg)     (kg/ha)
 1940-41          366.00          361.70           988.00           40.10          31.50         785.50
 1950-51          357.50           261.10           730.30          61.50          42.70          694.00
                  (-2.32)         (-27.81)         (-26.08)        (53.37)        (35.56)        (-11.65)
 1960-61         400.20           306.80           767.00           89.40          70.10         784.00
                 (11.94)          (17.50)          (5.03)          (45.37)        (64.17)        (12.97)
 1970-71         446.90           361.90           810.00          159.00          96.20         605.00
                 (11.67)          (17.96)          (5.61)          (77.85)        (37.23)       (-22.83)
 1980-81         451-50           480.80           1064.50         149.08         117.46         787.00
                 (1.03)           (32.85)          (31.42)         (-6.24)        (22.10)        (30.08)
 1990-91          410.30          558.40           1361.00         122.40         109.50         894.00
                  (-9.13)         (16.14)          (27.85)        (-17.90)        (-6.78)        (13.60)

 Year                         All tobaccos                           Exportable tobacco (FCV)
                 Area         Production       Productivity     Area       Production Productivity
             (Thousand ha)    (Million kg)       (kg/ha)    (Thousand ha) (Million kg)     (kg/ha)

 1991-92         427.00          584.40          1367.00        158.60         164.70    1037.00
                 (4.07)          (4.66)           (0.44)        (29.58)        (50.41)   (16.00)
 1992-93         417.70          580.60          1389.00        155.20         161.40    1038.00
                 (-2.18)         (-0.65)          (1.61)        (-2.14)        (-2.00)    (0.10)
 1993-94         417.00          520.20          1247.00        120.00         126.00    1050.00
                 (-0.17)        (-10.40)         (-10.22)      (-22.68)       (-21.93)    (1.16)
 1994-95         401.50          533.50          1328.00        110.02         107.00    973.00
                 (-3.72)         (2.56)           (6.50)        (-8.32)       (-15.08)   (-7.33)
 1995-96         406.30          576.20          1418.00        126.80         126.00    994.00
                 (1.20)          (7.41)           (6.35)        (13.23)        (15.00)   (2.11)
 1996-97         430.00          620.00          1444.00        152.72         143.22    938.00
                  (5.8)           (7.6)           (1.83)        (20.44)        (20.44)   (-5.65)
 1997-98         470.00          650.00          1394.00        154.02         176.33    1145.00
                 (9.30)           (4.8)           (-3.4)        (0.85)         (23.11)   (22.06)
 1998-99         460.00          700.00          1522.00        183.46         201.87    1100.00
                 (-2.12)          (7.6)           (9.18)        (19.1)         (14.48)   (-3.93)
 1999-00         433.00          609.00          1406.00        180.74         176.58     978.00
                 (-5.8)           (-13)          (-0.005)       (-1.48)       (-12.52)   (-11.09)
 2000-01         262.00          345.00          2022.00         40.47         42.70     1055.00
                (-39.49)        (-43.34)          (43.8)       (-77.60)       (-75.81)    (7.8)
 2001-02         326.00          385.00          1691.00        135.45         167.97    1240.00
                 (24.42)         (11.59)         (-16.37)      (234.69)       (293.37)   (17.53)
 2002-03         330.00          595.00          1803.00        149.57         190.93    1277.00
                 (-5.70)         (0.51)           (6.62)        (10.42)        (13.67)    (3.00)
 2003-04         350.00          650.00          1857.00        178.53         223.30    1251.00
                 (6.06)          (9.24)           (3.00)        (19.36)        (16.95)    (-2.0)
 2004-05         375.00          696.00          1858.00        183.03         236.55    1292.00
                 (7.14)          (7.08)           (0.00)        (2.52)         (5.93)     (3.30)
 2005-06         400.00          700.00          1750.00        190.54         245.00    1286.00
                 (6.66)          (0.57)          (-5.81)        (0.92)         (3.57)     (-0.5)
(Figures in parentheses are percentage ‘increase/decrease’ over the previous years)

Growth in Excise Revenue and Foreign Exchange Earnings
  Year                    Excise Revenue               Foreign Exchange               Total Revenue
                           (Rs in crores)                (Rs in crores)               (Rs in crores)
  1967-68                  153.70                        35.60                         189.30
  1968-69                  180.00(17.11)                 33.80(-5.06)                  213.80(12.94)
  1969-70                  204.20(13.44)                 33.30(-1.48)                  237.50(11.09)
  1970-71                  228.40(11.85)                 32.60(-2.10)                  261.00(9.89)
  1971-72                  308.90(35.25)                 45.10(38.34)                  354.00(35.63)
  1972-73                  291.10(-5.76)                 63.90(41.69)                  355.00(0.28)
  1973-74                  324.80(11.58)                 70.90(10.95)                  395.70(11.46)
  Total                    1357.40                       245.80                        1603.20
  1974-75                  387.40(19.27)                 82.30(16.08)                  469.70(18.70)
  1975-76                  449.80(16.11)                 98.40(19.56)                  548.20(16.71)
  1976-77                  502.00(11.61)                 102.10(3.76)                  604.10(10.20)
  1977-78                  561.80(11.91)                 114.60(12.24)                 676.40(11.97)
  1978-79                  625.40(11.32)                 117.40(2.44)                  742.80(9.82)
  Total                    2526.40(86.12)                514.80(109.44)                3041.20(89.70)
  1979-80                  716.30(14.53)                 116.20(-1.02)                 832.50(12.08)
  1980-81                  755.30(5.44)                  140.68(21.07)                 895.98(7.62)
  1981-82                  834.90(10.54)                 235.47(67.38)                 1070.37(19.46)
  1982-83                  835.00(1.20)                  247.88(5.27)                  1082.88(1.17)
  1983-84                  1070.30(28.18)                178.09(-28.15)                1248.39(15.28)
  1984-85                  1177.40(10.00)                178.33(0.13)                  1355.73(8.60)
  Total                    4672.90(84.96)                980.45(90.45)                 5653.35(85.89)
  1985-86                  1404.10(19.25)                169.56(-4.92)                 1573.66(16.07)
  1986-87                  1556.60(10.86)                171.80(1.32)                  1728.40(9.83)
  1987-88                  1398.60(-10.00)               116.30(-32.31)                1514.90(-12.35)
  1988-89                  1845.50(31.95)                126.00(8.34)                  1971.50(30.14)
  1989-90                  2180(18.17)                   172.00(36.51)                 2352.80(19.34)
  Total                    8385.60(79.45)                755.66(-22.93)                9141.26(61.70)
  1990-91                  2357.10(8.08)                 263.40(53.14)                 2620.50(11.38)
  1991-92                  2695.60(14.36)                390.40(48.22)                 30.86.00(17.76)
  1992-93                  2500.00(-7.26)                507.74(30.06)                 3007.74(-2.54)
  1993-94                  3000.00(20.00)                485.70(-4.34)                 3485.70(15.89)
  1994-95                  2800.00(-6.67)                267.78(-44.87)                3067.78(-11.99)
  1995-96                  4068.00(45.29)                421.04(57.23)                 4489.04(46.33)
  1996-97                  3982.00(-21.07)               827.52(96.54                  4809.52(7.13)
  1997-98                  5516.00(38.52)                1061.19(28.24)                6577.19(36.75)
  1998-99                  6537.00(18.50)                806.19(-24.03)                7343.19(11.64)
  1999-00                  7262.00(11.09)                1050.22(30.27)                8312.22(13.19)
  2000-01                  8182.00(12.66)                903.38(-13.98)                9085.38(9.30)
  2001-02                  6443.67(3.88)                 888.52(-1.64)                 7332.19(3.33)
  2002-03                  6397.23(5.88)                 1095.95(23.35)                7493.18(7.5)
  2003-04                  6635.61(3.59)                 1175.64(7.27)                 7811.25(4.24)
  2004-05                  7170.84(8.06)                 1362.17( 15.86)               8533.01(9.24)
  2005-06                  NA                            1413.46( 3.76)                NA
 NA = Not available
(Figures in parentheses are percentage ‘increase/decrease’ over the previous years)

5.2. Input – Output Assessment
      As a result of adoption of high yielding varieties and proven production and protection technologies,
there has been quantum jump in average productivity levels in FCV tobacco and non-FCV tobacco.

Financial Research   FCV tobacco Non-FCV         Total          FCV           Non-FCV     Total        Input :
Year      Budget (Rs production tobacco           tobacco       tobacco net   tobacco net net retu-    Output
          in crores) (Million kg) production     production     returns (Rs   returns (Rs rns (Rs       Ratio
                                  (Million kg)   (Million kg)   in crores)    in crores)  in crores)
2001-02    10.2       182.25        410          592.25         98.73         214.02      312.75       1:30.66
2002-03    9.63       201.36        394          595.36         102.82        205.67      308.49       1:32.03
2003-04   11.38       239.28        410          649.28         194.03        214.02      408.05       1:35.85
2004-05   15.06       235.91        464          699.91         209.22        242.21      451.43       1:29.97
2005-06   13.39       237.00        463          700.00         209.88        241.69      451.57       1:33.72

*Input : Output Ratio =        Net Returns/Research Budget

Net Returns = Production in million kg X Average price (Rs/kg) - Production in million kg X Cost
               of production (Rs/kg)

5.3. Gaps and Shortcomings

     Even though, India is one of the largest producers of tobacco, its share in the world tobacco import/
export trade is only 0.7% in terms of value.

      In the formative years the FCV varieties developed were of coloury filler type with dark-cast nature
suitable for black soils only and as a result, the Indian tobacco has got a set back in the international
market. Indian tobacco could not get international brand name due to trade monopoly and filler quality
and as a result Brazil took the advantage, though a late-comer in tobacco cultivation. Although, tobacco
cultivation was extended to light soils, due to unfavourable climatic conditions and lack of suitable
varieties, India could not produce flavourful tobaccos even in light soils, as per international demand.
Varieties cultivated in light soils were prone to diseases because of congenial weather conditions resulting
in considerable yield losses. In the black soils, cultivation of tobacco in low-lying areas, tank-bed soil
and paddy fallows resulted in saline tobacco production, which has no export market.

       As compared to FCV tobacco, lack of organized market system for non-FCV types led to significant
loss of income to the tobacco growers. Further, due to lack of international exposure, the export potential
of these varieties could not be exploited. In the earlier years, India used to have a good cigar market. Due
to loss of traditional cigar wrapper areas in North Bengal during partition to Bangladesh, the country has
lost its share in the world market. Further, absence of scientific grades in bidi tobacco resulted in the
exploitation of farmers by tobacco trade.

5.4. Lessons learnt, suggestions and options for future

 Lessons learnt                     Suggestions                      Options for future
 Filler tobacco market sinking as   Search for new markets           Evolve flavourful and semi-
 a result of the disintegration                                      flavourful tobacco for export
 of USSR                                                             market
 Demand for low TSNA, low tar,      Evolve processing technology     Varietal development for low
 low nicotine tobaccos due to       to reduce TSNA, tar and          TSNA, low tar and nicotine
 increased health consciousness     nicotine in the final products
 Loss in revenue to the country     Export of value-added products Research on product
 due to export of unmanufactured    like cigarettes, scented bidis, development to meet the
 tobacco                            solanesol and nicotine          export market
 Market vagaries in tobacco         Ensure remunerative prices       Production of quality tobacco
 creating uncertainty among         to the tobacco growers           by following the recommended
 the farmers                                                         crop production technology
                                                                     and good agricultural practices
 Yield losses due to biotic and     Follow INM, IPM and good         Breeding resistant varieties
 abiotic stresses                   agricultural practices           and development of INM and
                                                                     IPM modules
 Global anti-tobacco campaign       Promote alternative uses         Strengthening of research on
                                    of tobacco                       development of value-added
                                                                     products from tobacco

 Low productivity due to lack       Adopt zone specific agro-        Developing micro-zone
 of varieties suitable for          technologies                     specific varieties/ with wider
 micro-zones                                                         adaptability

                            6. SCENARIO AND SWOT ANALYSIS

6.1. Scenario


       Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India grown in an area of 0.40 million ha
(0.27% of the net cultivated area) producing about 700 million kg of tobacco. The production of Flue-
cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is about 270 million kg from an area of 0.20 million ha. India produces
almost all types of tobacco and FCV and burley tobacco are the main exportable types earning Rs 1,713
crores as foreign exchange and Rs 9,100 crores as excise duty during 2006-07, besides providing
employment to about 36 million people including six million farmers.

      India occupies third place in area and production (Fig. 1) after China and Brazil, accounting for
10% of world’s area and 9% of tobacco production. India is one of the leading exporters of tobacco,
occupying fifth place in overall exports of tobacco after Brazil, USA, China and Malawi (Fig. 2). The
country accounts for about 6 % by volume and 0.7% by value of the world tobacco import/export trade.
In the case of FCV tobacco, its share is about 4.6% and burley tobacco exports account for 2.6%. The
bulk of the exports (70-85%) continue to be FCV only. During 2005-06, there was an increase in the
Indian tobacco exports by about 2% in quantity and 4% in terms of value, when compared to 2004-05.
Exports of tobacco and tobacco products from India increased by 8% in quantity terms and 21% in rupee
terms during 2006-07 over the previous year. UK, Germany, Belgium and the erstwhile USSR are the
major importers of Indian FCV tobacco accounting for more than 60% of our exports. Zimbabwe, Brazil,
Turkey, China and Indonesia are the competitors to India in the export market. As tobacco is a non-food
luxury crop, its exportability depends upon producing quality leaf at a reasonably competitive price.
Zimbabwe and Brazil are meeting these demands as they are producing more of flavourful leaf with a
higher productivity level. These countries are also enjoying the support from Government as their National
economy is linked to tobacco.

       Increasing world-wide preference for blended cigarettes offers scope for production and export of
burley, oriental and flavourful FCV tobaccos. Indian tobacco has an edge over the leading tobacco
producing countries in terms of low production cost, average farm price (Table 1) and average export
price (Table 2). Hence, Indian tobacco is considered as ‘value for money’. India’s share in the world
exports of cigarettes is less than 1%. However, the exports of scented bidis and non-smoking products
like, hookah tobacco paste, scented chewing tobacco and zarda are note-worthy and there is a scope for
augmenting the exports of these products. Some of the other positive and significant features of Indian
tobacco are: lower levels of heavy metals (Table 3), tobacco specific nitrosamines (Table 4) and pesticide
residues (Table 5) compared to other tobacco producing countries. Thus, the situation presents a significant
opportunity for the Indian tobacco industry to extend and consolidate its position in the world market.
India is endowed with favourable climate and vast arable land available and by virtue of these features,
the country has the potential to produce FCV tobacco of different styles, ranging from the coloury neutral
filler to flavourful leaf catering to the requirements of different importing countries. Production and
processing costs of tobacco are also quite low in India. However, productivity of tobacco in India is
relatively low compared to the competing countries. Improving the productivity and quality of Indian
tobacco offers an excellent opportunity to overcome the competition in the export markets. In view of
growing health consciousness, reducing the harmful substances and pesticide residues is important to
augment exports.


      The total tobacco production in the world is in the range of 5500 - 7300 million kg, but in India,
tobacco area and production are fluctuating between 0.40 - 0.50 million ha and 370 - 700 million kg,
respectively in the last 13 years. China tops the list with an annual production of around 2000 million kg
tobacco. The production in US was reduced by 58% during 2005 compared to 1998. Brazil has increased
the production in the last five years, reaching a peak of 700 million kg in 2004. Due to recent developments
in Zimbabwe, there has been considerable reduction in tobacco production (73 million kg during 2005).
In Brazil and Malawi, cost of production has gone up necessitating the MNCs to look for cheaper source
for tobacco like India.

Fig.1 : Leading tobacco producing countries                   Fig. 2 : Leading tobacco exporting countries
                             Quantity in metric tonnes                                    Quantity in metric tonnes

Table 1: Global farm prices of FCV tobacco (US$/kg)

 Country                     2002                  2003                    2004                2005
 Canada                      2.54                  2.96                    3.25                3.00
 USA                         4.02                  4.08                    4.07                3.29
 Zimbabwe                    2.27                  2.25                    2.00                1.61
 Malawi                      1.86                  1.60                    1.60                1.71
 Brazil                      1.18                  1.19                    1.43                1.76
 Argentina                   1.92^(0.83*)          1.85^(1.27*)            1.90^(1.37*)        1.80^
 India                       0.74                  0.76                    0.84                0.92
 KLS (India)                 0.90                  0.82                    1.05                1.08
 NLS (India)                 0.82                  0.87                    0.91                0.98
 SLS (India)                 0.65                  0.72                    0.75                0.82
 BCS (India)                 0.64                  0.67                    0.70                0.77

^ includes Govt. subsidy of about US$ 1.20 $ 0.57 $ / kg
* excluding Govt., subsidy

Table 2: Global FCV export prices (US$/kg)

 Country            1999    2000         2001         2002      2003      2004   2005
 U.S.A.             7.04    7.45         7.37         7.29      7.36      7.31   NA
 Brazil             2.77    2.83         2.13         2.33      2.28      2.92   2.71
 Argentina          NA      NA           2.62         2.46      NA        2.74   NA
 China              1.80    1.53         1.27         1.34      1.37      NA     NA
 Italy              2.14    2.06         2.05         NA        2.60      NA     NA
 Malawi             2.00    2.21         2.18         2.26      2.27      2.27   NA
 India              2.29    1.78         1.80         1.65      1.54      1.73   1.76
 Zimbabwe           2.95    2.91         3.00         3.03      3.21      3.25   3.21
 NA : Not available

Table 3: Heavy Metals (ppm) in FCV tobacco

 Country                           Cadmium                       Lead
 India                             0.22 – 0.49                   0.31 – 0.42
 USA                               1.70 – 2.90                   2.00
 Germany                           1.07 – 2.30                   2.40 – 4.30
 Canada                            1.25 – 7.02                   0.80 – 9.15
 New Zealand                       0.28 – 0.56                   0.48 – 0.55

Table 4: Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Indian tobacco

  Tobacco type                               Total TSNA (ppm)
  FCV (NLS)                                  0.42 – 1.44
  FCV (KLS)                                  ND – 0.19
  FCV (SLS)                                  0.30 – 0.74
  Oriental                                   ND – 0.07
  Burley                                     5.24 – 14.61
  Motihari (W.B.)                            0.93
  Chewing (T.N)                              2.95
  Chewing (Bihar)                            10.50

Table 5: Pesticide Residues in FCV tobacco of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka (2005)

  Pesticide                  Residue level (ppm)             GRL* (ppm)
  BHC (œ+ß+ð)                       0.14                        0.50
  BHC (ã)                           0.05                        0.50
  Chlorpyriphos                     0.13                        0.50
  Dieldrin                          0.02                        0.10
  Endosulfan (Total)                0.44                        1.00
  DDT (OP’+PP’)                     0.05                        0.40

    *   Guidance residue level

6.2. SWOT Analysis


      Indian tobacco has an edge over the leading tobacco producing countries like USA, Brazil, Zimbabwe
and Malawi in terms of low production cost, average farm price, average export price, low conversion
cost of tobacco into cigarettes, low ocean freights from India and availability of processed quality tobacco
in threshed lamina form at export price well below the farm prices in USA. Hence, Indian tobacco is
considered as ‘value for money’. Some of the other positive and significant features of Indian tobacco
are: lower levels of heavy metals like cadmium and lead, tobacco specific nitrosamines, radioactive
Polonium 210 content and pesticide residues, free from blue mold disease, a quarantine problem compared
to other tobacco producing countries.

      India is endowed with favourable climate and vast arable land available and by virtue of these
features, the country has the potential to produce FCV tobacco of different styles, ranging from the
coloury neutral filler to flavourful leaf catering to the requirements of different importing countries.
Now, customer preference is increasing for naturally grown neutral fillers with low to medium nicotine,
suitable for easy blending and the light soil tobacco, particularly from Karnataka is meeting these


       In India, mostly filler to semi-flavourful type of tobacco is produced and only low proportion of
flavourful tobacco is available for export which are considered as the important factors for low export
earnings. However, internationally there is great demand for flavourful tobacco. Due to non-availability
of export surpluses of quality FCV, oriental, burley and cigar tobaccos in large quantities, inadequate
market intelligence and meagre exports of value added products, the full export potential is not being


       In recent years, there is considerable drop in tobacco production in USA and Zimbabwe, due to
various reasons. The multi-nationals are shifting to sources of quality FCV tobacco at a competitive
price. Availability of suitable areas for producing semi-flavourful and flavourful tobaccos and the possibility
for improving filler tobacco to neutral filler and superior quality filler provide excellent opportunity for
India. Now, Iraq, Egypt, Algeria, Nepal, Singapore and Bangladesh are promising markets for Indian
FCV tobacco and small markets like France, Portugal, Spain, Australia, Tunisia, Morocco and Finland
could become potential markets in future. Also, there is wide scope for export of value-added tobacco
products like cigarettes and scented bidis. With the identification of several tobacco phytochemicals
beneficial to mankind, exploitation of tobacco for alternative uses is another promising opportunity.


       Pressure from anti-tobacco lobby and stringent regulations being enforced by governments in
different countries, including India, are posing a major threat to tobacco production. Environmentalists’
campaign on denudation of forests regarding use of firewood for tobacco curing due to shortage of coal
is a concern.

      Increase in cost of production day-by-day and competition from China due to its low cost of
production are likely to influence tobacco exports from the country. Tobacco cultivation may be forced
out of traditional areas due to high value competitive crops and high labour cost.

      Large scale of smuggling of cigarettes into the country is a major problem faced by the Indian
cigarette industry.

                                          7. PERSPECTIVE

      In view of the price competitiveness and positive features of Indian tobacco, substantial growth in
exports is foreseen. It is estimated that a total annual export requirement of FCV tobacco will be around
200 million kg in the near future. Similarly, exports of non-FCV tobacco/ tobacco products are likely to
increase. Tobacco is a source of several value-added chemicals of medicinal and industrial applications.
Hence, there is a need for concerted research efforts to produce tobacco meeting international requirements.
For enhancing productivity and quality of Indian tobacco and to make it more remunerative, globally
competitive and to sustain the crop on a long-term basis, the following perspective plan is proposed.

      The Crop Improvement programme aims at developing high yielding, superior quality tobacco
varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, developing tobacco varieties for good flavour, high
biomass, value-added products and exploitation of hybrid vigour to break yield barriers.

      Suitable agro-techniques will be developed to reduce the cost of production and to increase the
factor productivity. Similarly, emphasis will be laid on production of organic tobacco and developing
remunerative cropping systems. So as to conserve the natural resources, efforts will be made for soil
health improvement through carbon sequestration, PGPR in INM, irrigation technology and watershed
technology. Due emphasis will be given to labour and energy saving devices/techniques and post-harvest
product management. In view of the increasing awareness, it is imperative to reduce harmful/carcinogenic
substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke. IPM strategies will be developed to meet the global regulations
on agro-chemical residues.

     Attempts will be made to extract, purify and commercialize the technologies for value-added
phytochemicals viz. solanesol, nicotine, edible protein and edible oil.

                              8. ISSUES AND STRATEGIES

8.1 General

 S.No. Issues                                          Strategies
 1.    There is no brand name for Indian tobacco       Development of international bench-
        in the world market                            mark quality and style
 2.    Quality of Indian tobaccos is considered as     Identification of new zones for consistent
       inconsistent and subject to fluctuations        quality and adoption of good agricultural
                                                       practices (GAP)
 3.    Demand for US blend (USB) cigarettes            Developing cigarettes to meet the ever
       having low tar and low nicotine is increasing   changing consumer preferences
 4.    Effect of increased cost of inputs and labour   Introduction of mechanization and energy
       on tobacco production                           saving technologies
 5.    Productivity is low in India as compared to     Improvement of productivity and quality
       USA, Zimbabwe and Brazil                        through identification of new areas and
                                                       developing high yielding varieties/hybrids
                                                       with suitable agro-techniques
 6.    Export potential of non-FCV types not fully     Evolving suitable market strategy
       explored                                        and linkages
 7.    Un-organized marketing facilities for           Non-FCV tobacco are also to be brought
       non-FCV tobaccos                                under the purview of Tobacco Board
 8.    Pressure from anti-tobacco lobby and            Reduction of harmful substances.
       health regulations                              Alternative uses of tobacco

8.2. Crop Improvement
 S.No. Issues                                                             Strategies
 1.    Productivity continues to be low in certain       To breed varieties with drought tolerance and
       tobacco zones especially in the rainfed areas     suitable for the rainfed areas of SLS, SBS and
       of SLS, SBS and KLS primarily on account          KLS zones. Development and deployment of
       of drought/ inadequate moisture supply            ‘Hybrids’
 2.    Fluctuations in productivity due to               To develop varieties/ hybrids possessing
       capricious weather                                genetic resilience for performance under
                                                         both favourable and unfavourable
                                                         climatic conditions
 3.    Fluctuations and loss in productivity due to      Incorporation of resistant genes through
       biotic stress factors - most of the current       conventional and biotechnological
       cultivars being susceptible                       approaches
 4.    Low to moderate nutrient use-efficiency of        Selection for nutrient use-efficiency to be an
       the existing cultivars                            additional objective in breeding programmes
 5.    The present varieties being products of           Tailoring of appropriate plant types for
       directional selection for leaf yield and quality, maximizing the yield of the desired end
       may not constitute the most ideal raw             product viz., seed, seed oil, proteins,
       material for alternative uses of tobacco          phytochemicals etc.

 6.    Low photosynthetic efficiency of the                Breeding for enhanced photosynthetic
       existing cultivars                                  efficiency – conventional as well as
                                                           biotechnological approaches
 7.    The selection gain in our conventional              Broadening the genetic base of hybrid
       breeding programmes has tapered off -               populations following modified selection
       narrow genetic base                                 procedures
 8.    Non-availability/ limited availability of           Development of transgenic lines by bio-
       donors for pest resistance at varietal level        technological approach and utilizing donors
                                                           at species level
 9.    The breakdown of vertical resistance and            Breeding for stable resistance through gene
       the prevalence of varied biotypes/ races in         pyramiding
       the pest complex
 10.   Non-availability of screening procedures            Development of appropriate screening
       appropriate to early segregating generations        procedures in collaboration with organic
       for flavour, Tar, TSNA etc.                         chemistry/ biochemistry
 11.   ‘Linkage drag’ in resistance breeding               Biotechnological approach

8.3. Crop Production

 S.No. Issues                                                                Strategies
 1.    Low productivity in rainfed Vertisols and           Developing agro-techniques and watershed
       Alfisols                                            management for life saving irrigations
 2.    Quality improvement for export purpose              INM and water use-efficiency
 3.    False ripening                                      Identification of the physiological reasons to
                                                           combat false ripening
 4.    Flavourful tobacco production                       Organic farming/ integrated nutrient
 5.    Improving water use-efficiency                      Evaluation of micro irrigation techniques
 6.    Increasing factor productivity                      Integrated nutrient and water management
 7.    Reduced yields due to deficiency of                 Identification and replenishing these nutrients
       secondary and micronutrients                        and giving need based recommendations
 8.    Alternative crops / tobacco based                   Developing suitable systems to each zone
       cropping systems                                    and systems based agro-techniques
 9.    Higher production cost                              Cost effective techniques in crop production
                                                           and post-harvest technology
 10.   Less fuel efficiency                                Energy saving devices and identification
                                                           of alternative fuels

8.4. Crop Protection

 S.No. Issues                                            Strategies
 1.     Pesticide resistance / races of plant pathogens Morphological and molecular characterization
                                                        of biotypes / races of insect pests and pathogens
                                                         Monitoring and management of pesticide
                                                         resistance in insect pests and
                                                         pathogens of tobacco
 2.     Low field efficacy of botanicals and             Identification of promising botanicals/
        biopesticides                                    biopesticides/ antagonists against insect pests
                                                         and diseases of tobacco
                                                         Improving the field efficacy of potential
                                                         botanicals / biopesticides/ antagonists
 3.     Habitat management / farm-scaping to             Utilization of trap / insectory / barrier / alley /
        enhance natural biocontrol                       decoy crops to enhance natural enemy activity
                                                         in tobacco
                                                         Studies on the effect of cropping sequence / inter
                                                         crops on the insect pests and natural enemies
 4.     Weather - based forecasting of pests and         To study the effect of abiotic and biotic factors
        diseases of tobacco                              on the incidence of insect pests and diseases
                                                         Development of short and medium range
                                                         forecasting models for the insect pests
                                                         and diseases of tobacco
 5.     Pesticide application technology                 Studies on novel methods of pesticide
                                                         application to minimize the pesticide residues
                                                         in tobacco and to minimize the adverse
                                                         ecological affects
                                                         To improve the efficiency of pesticide
                                                         application equipment
 6.     Pesticide residues in tobacco                    Studies on efficacy of new pesticide molecules
                                                         against insect pests and diseases of tobacco
                                                         To study the persistence / dissipation of
                                                         pesticides on tobacco to minimize residues
                                                         in cured leaf

8.5. Crop Chemistry and Soil Science

 S.No. Issues                                         Strategies

 1.     Balanced leaf chemistry for acceptable        Adoption of INM to improve the balanced
        smoking quality                               smoke chemistry
 2.     Soil compaction, surface crusting, and        Improvement of the soil physical conditions
        hardening is a serious problem in SLS/SBS     by addition of green/organic manures and
                                                      by manipulating cultural practices
 3.     Nutrient recovery in tobacco based cropping   Enhancing the recovery of added nutrients by
        systems is low, particularly for N, P, K      altering method/time/ dose of NPK and by
                                                      screening cultivars with high nutrient use-
                                                      efficiency and nutrient recovery from the
                                                      soil system
 4.     Reduction of harmful substances like          Improving the burn related potassium and by
        TSNA, Tar, Nicotine, CO etc.                  adopting suitable post- harvest strategies
                                                      for reduction of harmful smoke constituents
 5.     Value-added products from tobacco/            Development of technologies for extraction and
        tobacco waste                                 purification of value-added products and novel
                                                      bioactive compounds from tobacco
 6.     Production of flavourful tobacco to           Characterization of compounds responsible for
        enhance Indian exports                        tobacco aroma/smoke flavour and to identify
                                                      suitable varieties
 7.     GM tobacco                                    Detection of GM tobaccos is essential for
                                                      Indian tobacco exports
 8.     Production of quality seedlings               Adoption of modern techniques like seed
                                                      pelleting, tray seedlings etc.

                        FUND REQUIREMENTS


  1.   Germplasm Resource Management
  2.   Tobacco Cultivar Development
  3.   Biotechnology in Tobacco Improvement
  4.   Crop Production Technology
  5.   Cropping Systems for Sustainable Production
  6.   Bio-Ecological and Pathological Studies on Pests and Diseases
  7.   Integrated Pest and Disease Management
  8.   Soil Fertility, Water Quality and Nutrient Management
  9.   Alternative Uses of Tobacco and Reduction of Harmful Substances
  10. Agricultural Extension and Information Technology

Activity           Milestone                                  Time frame          Execution
                                                    2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
1. Genetic Resource Management
Plant Genetic     Exploration in Eastern,               ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
Resources (PGR) Northeastern and Southern
augmentation      regions for collection of land
                  races of indigenous smoking
                  and non-smoking types
Conservation    Short and medium term                   ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
and maintenance storage; regular rejuvenation,                                    Stations
of germplasm    type- and species-specific
                in-vitro protocols for rescue
                and Micropropagation of
                accessions having irregular
                sexual cycle, flowering
                behaviour and seed fertility
Genetic diversity Analysis of genetic diversity         ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
analysis          in different tobacco types
                  based on morphological and
                  molecular characterization
Germplasm          Interspecific hybridization,         ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
enhancement        molecular breeding, genetic
                   engineering for resistance to
                   important biotic and abiotic
                   stress factors

Activity              Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                          2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

Pre-breeding and      Development and use                     ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
germplasm             of PGR databases on
enhancement -         various tobacco germplasm
Accumulation of       collections
genes for             Multilocation evaluation for a          ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
productivity,         constellation of morphological,                                   Stations &
resistance/           agronomic, resistance, and                                        AINRPT
tolerance to stress   other attributes relevant                                         Centres
and quality           for systematic utilization
                      Progeny / recurrent selection           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                      for target traits                                                 Stations
2. Tobacco Cultivar Development
Genetic               Identification of                       ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
enhancement of        genotypes with                                                    Stations
tobacco               efficient nutrient
                      uptake (especially
                      K) for improving
                      enhancing leaf
                      quality and
                      carcinogenic/ harmful
                      Identification of sources               ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                      of resistance to biotic stresses                                  Stations
                      and abiotic stresses, esp.
                      Genetic studies on specific             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                      agronomically / commercially
                      important traits such as TSNA,
                      tar, seed oil, value added
                      chemicals and standardization
                      of screening procedures/
                      techniques appropriate to
                      early segregating generations
                      Synthesis of broad-based gene           ✔         ✔               CTRI & Res.
                      pool for enhancing the genetic                                    Stations
                      variability base and improved
                      selection gain

Activity           Milestone                                   Time frame          Execution
                                                     2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
Developing          Integrated conventional             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
improved varieties approaches involving                                            Stations
and hybrids of      multiple parental inputs,
FCV and non-        intermating in segregating
FCV types of        generations and recurrent
tobacco for         selection schemes for
quality,            realizing enhanced selection
productivity,       gain
lower levels of
substances and
other target traits
                   Development of commercially          ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                   viable varieties of                                             Stations
                    appropriate plant type for
                   diversified uses of tobacco
                   Identification and                   ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   diversification of both eu-
                   and alloplasmic sources of
                   CMS to ensure longevity
                   and stability of productivity
                   of hybrids
                   Understanding of the                 ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   molecular basis of male sterile
                   and restorer systems for
                   making heterosis breeding
                   programme more effective
                   and predictable
                   Exploitation of heterosis for        ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                   breaking yield barriers,                                        Stations
                   improving quality attributes
                   and for capitalizing on the
                   genetic resilience of hybrids
                   for stabilizing productivity
                   Prospecting restorer genes           ✔                          CTRI & Res.
                   for fertility restoration in                                    Stations
                   breeding for enhanced
                   seed/oil yield
                   Targeted genetic improvement         ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                   for important biotic stresses                                   Stations

Activity           Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                       2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

                   Production and distribution            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                   of genetically pure and quality                                   Stations
                   seeds/seedlings of approved
                   Development of seed standards          ✔                          CTRI & Res.
                   for different tobacco types                                       Stations
Developing         Breeding cultivars for high            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
tobacco for        biomass, seed yield, solanesol,                                   Stations
alternative uses   seed oil, bio-rational pesticides
                   and biomedicals
3. Biotechnology for Tobacco Improvement
Molecular          Development of protocols for           ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
Characterization   molecular characterization of
                   varieties, elite lines and
                   Fingerprinting of varieties            ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   and important genetic
                   resources using molecular
                   Development of molecular               ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   maps to important tobacco                                         BTRC,
                   traits viz. TSNA, solanesol                                       Jeddangi
                   and nicotine
Development of     Identification of molecular            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
molecular          markers linked to disease and
markers for        pest resistance
biotic and         Screening germplasm lines for          ✔                          CTRI, RJY
abiotic factors    nutrient uptake efficiency
                   under stress and non-stress
Integrated gene    Diversification and utilization        ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
management         of transgenes
Quality seed       Establishment of reference             ✔          ✔               CTRI & Res.
production and     molecular herbarium of                                            Stations
testing            released tobacco varieties.
                   Standardization of molecular
                   tests for maintaining varietal
Transgene          Molecular detection of                 ✔                          CTRI, RJY
detection          transgenes for insect resistance

Activity        Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                    2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
Resistance      Gene pyramiding esp. for biotic         ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
breeding        and abiotic stress factors for                                    Stations
                durable resistance and
                stabilized productivity
                Development of somaclones               ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY &
                for leaf curl and CMV                                             CTRI RS, JML
                Genome characterization of              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY &
                tobacco leaf curl virus and                                       CTRI RS, JML
                transgenic tobacco
4. Crop Production Technology
Seed and        Development of new                      ✔                         CTRI, RJY
seedling        techniques in
production      seedling production
                Factors affecting the seed              ✔                         CTRI, RJY
                viability and seed storage
Cultural        Analysis of varietal                    ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
management      response to different                                             Stations
                cultural practices
                Soil characterization under             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                tillage operations                                                Stations
                Development and evaluation              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                of tillage implements for                                         Stations
                different soil types
                Growth response in relation to          ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
                soil physical conditions and its
                path analysis
                False ripening management               ✔                         CTRI and
                through soil tillage operations                                   AINRPT
Nutrient        Nutrient use- efficiency in             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
management      relation to varieties, water and
                replenishment of nutrients
                against depletion
                IPNM in various micro-climatic          ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                zones                                                             Stations,
                Crop residue management for             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                sustainable production                                            Stations,

Activity          Milestone                                    Time frame          Execution
                                                     2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
                  Evaluation of various microbial       ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  fertilisers in supplementing crop                                Stations,
                  nutrient requirement                                             AINRPT
Irrigation        Improving WUE through                 ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
management        different methods                                                Stations
                  Water budgeting for effective         ✔                          CTRI & Res.
                  nutrient use-efficiency on a                                     Stations,
                  system based approach                                            AINRPT
                  Budgeting and forecasting             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  water requirement for upland                                     Stations
                  crops, alternative to tobacco                                    AINRPT
                  Development of water                  ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  requirement schedules for                                        Stations
                  different tobacco types                                          AINRPT
                  Evaluation of sprinklers and          ✔                          CTRI & Res.
                  micro irrigation systems to suit                                 Stations
                  to various soil types.                                           AINRPT
                  Scheduling irrigations based on       ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  climatological approach                                          Stations
Weed              Allelopathic interaction of crop      ✔          ✔               CTRI & Res.
management        species with different weeds                                     Stations
                  Classification of weed flora in       ✔                          CTRI & Res.
                  various micro zones of tobacco                                   Stations
                  cultivation                                                      AINRPT
                  Integrated approach to combat         ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  the adverse effects of weed                                      Stations
                  flora through cultural, chemical                                 AINRPT
                  and biological means
Watershed         Structural development and            ✔          ✔               CTRI RS
management        evaporation loss minimization                                    Kandukur and
                  of farm ponds for effective                                      AINRPT
                  storage and utilization of run
                  off water
Organic farming   Identification and evaluation         ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  of different organic manures                                     Stations
                  for sustainable crop production

Activity           Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                       2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

                   Production of quality leaf with        ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   flavour components through
                   organic farming
Farming systems Component analysis and                    ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                development of modules for                                           Stations
                small and marginal farmers                                           AINRPT
Post harvest       Development of energy saving           ✔          ✔               CTRI and
technology         devices and curing technology                                     AINRPT
                   for tobacco curing
                   Identification and evaluation of       ✔          ✔               CTRI, CTRI
                   alternative fuels for FCV tobacco                                 RS Hunsur and
                   curing                                                            Kandukur
                   Methods to reduce handling             ✔          ✔               CTRI & Res.
                   losses from harvesting                                            Stations,
                   to baling                                                         AINRPT
Crop growth        Development of crop growth             ✔                          CTRI, RJY
modelling          models in flue cured tobacco
Development of     Mid course management under            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
contingent plan    exigency of weather factors                                       Stations,
under natural
Biomass            Agronomical practices for              ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
production for     higher biomass production and                                     Stations
phytochemicals     phytochemicals
Increasing seed    Technology for high seed and           ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
oil productivity   oil production
Leaf maturity      Physiological and biochemical          ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   basis of leaf maturity in tobacco
                   Management of parameters               ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                   responsible for false ripening                                    Stations
Mechanization in Development of implements for            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
tobacco          fertilizer application, planting
production       and leaf stitching to reduce
                 cost of cultivation

Activity          Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                      2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

5. Cropping Systems for Sustainable Production
Tobacco and       Identification of suitable crops       ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
non-tobacco       for tobacco and non tobacco                                       Stations
based cropping    cropping systems
                  Rhizosphere engineering and            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  substrate dynamics in cropping                                    Stations,
                  systems                                                           AINRPT
                  Nutrient and water management          ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  on the system based approach                                      Stations,
                  Conservation tillage in different      ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  systems for reducing moisture                                     Stations
                  and nutrient losses
                  Sustainable productivity and           ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  land use efficiency in various                                    Stations
                  cropping systems
                  Varietal response of crops             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  suitable for high productivity                                    Stations,
                  and sustainability of the system                                  AINRPT
                  Marketing analysis for the             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI & Res.
                  diversified systems                                               Stations,
6. Bio-ecological and Pathological Studies of Pests and Diseases
Bio-ecological    Identification of races and            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
and epidemio-     biotypes of fungal pathogens,                                     CTRI RS,
logical studies   insects and nematodes                                             Hunsur &
of insect pests                                                                     Dinhata
and diseases
                  Influence of weather factors on        ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                  Black shank, Hollow stalk,                                        CTRI RS,
                  Bacterial wilt, Fusarium wilt                                     Hunsur,
                  and Leaf spot diseases                                            Kandukur
                                                                                    and Dinhata
                  Bio-ecological studies of              ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                  Spodoptera exigua, an emerging
                  pest of tobacco nurseries
                  Epidemiological studies of new         ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                  viral diseases like TEV, PVY,
                  TRSV etc.

Activity        Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                    2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

7. Integrated Pest and Disease Management
Biopesticides   Identification of effective            ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                botanical/ microbial pesticides                                   CTRI RS,
                Studies on allelopathic effect of      ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI RS,
                plant exudates in suppressing                                     Hunsur
                Utilization of promising               ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                botanicals and microbial                                          CTRI RS,
                pesticides                                                        Hunsur &
Biological      Identification, rearing and            ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
control of      mass multiplication of natural                                    CTRI RS,
insect pests    enemies of insect pests,                                          Hunsur
and diseases    antagonists of plant pathogens                                    & Guntur
                and nematodes
                Evaluation of biocontrol agents        ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                for the management of insect                                      CTRI RS,
                pests and diseases                                                Hunsur &
                Studies on conservation and            ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                augmentation of bioagents for                                     CTRI RS,
                enhancing biological control                                      Hunsur &
                Habitat management and                 ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                farmscaping                                                       CTRI RS,
                                                                                  Guntur &
Resistance      Evaluation of GM tobaccos              ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
management in   for the management of insect
GM tobacco      pests / diseases
                Monitoring and management              ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI and its
                of pest resistance in transgenic                                  Stations
Host plant      Histological and biochemical           ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
resistance to   studies of resistance to insect                                   CTRI RS,
insect pests    pests and diseases                                                Hunsur
and diseases
                Identification of various              ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                resistance sources to major                                       CTRI RS,
                pests and diseases of tobacco                                     Hunsur

Activity           Milestone                                   Time frame          Execution
                                                     2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

Pesticide          Development of molecular              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
resistance         markers for the identification                                  CTRI RS,
management         of resistance in insect pests                                   Hunsur
                   and diseases
                   Monitoring and management             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   of insecticide resistance in                                    and CTRI
                   tobacco insect pests                                            RS,Guntur
                   Monitoring and management             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   of fungicide resistance in                                      and CTRI
                   pathogens                                                       RS,Hunsur
Management of      Development, validation and           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI and its
insect pests and   refinement of IPM modules                                       Stations
diseases           for different tobacco zones
                   Development, validation and           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI and its
                   refinement of IDM modules                                       Stations
                   for different tobacco zones
                   Use of semio-chemicals for            ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   monitoring and management
                   of insect pests
                   Development of prediction             ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY,
                   models for pests and diseases                                   CTRI RS,
                   of tobacco                                                      Kandukur and
                   Studies on the influence of           ✔         ✔               CTRI and its
                   tobacco based cropping                                          Stations
                   systems on the incidence of
                   pests and diseases
Chemical control Evaluation of new pesticide             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                 molecules for their efficacy,                                     CTRI RS,
                 safety and persistency                                            Kandukur
                   Monitoring of pesticide               ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   residues and their degradation                                  CTRI RS,
Post-harvest pest Use of pheromones for                  ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
management        monitoring and management
                  of cigarette beetle
                   Evaluation of insecticides for        ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   management of cigarette beetle

Activity           Milestone                                   Time frame          Execution
                                                     2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
                   Monitoring insecticide                ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   resistance in cigarette beetle
                   Studies on the influence of           ✔         ✔               CTRI RS,
                   storage conditions on the                                       Hunsur
                   development of molds in
                   cured tobacco
8. Soil Fertility, Water Quality and Nutrient Management
Soil management Characterization of tobacco              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                growing soils
                   Fertility survey of tobacco           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   growing soils
                   Improving the physical                ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY &
                   conditions of tobacco growing                                   CTRI RS,
                   soils of SLS                                                    Kandukur
Rhizosphere        Isolation, characterization,          ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
microbial          conservation and multiplication
management         of agriculturally important
                   Use of microbial technology for       ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   rapid decomposition of organic
                   biomass and use of bio-fertilisers
Water quality      Characterization of water             ✔                         CTRI, RJY
management         quality and its influence on
                   chemistry of different tobacco
Integrated plant   Exploiting different                  ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
nutrient supply    components of INM for
system             quality tobacco production
                   Strategies for improving              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   nutrient use efficiency in FCV
                   and non FCV tobaccos
                   Integrated nutrient management        ✔                         CTRI, RJY
                   in tobacco based cropping
                   Improving recovery of major           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   nutrients under different soil

Activity           Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                       2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025
                   Monitoring of secondary and             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   micronutrients status in
                   different tobaccos and tobacco
                   growing soils and their
                   Improving organic K content             ✔                         CTRI, RJY
                   of tobacco to promote leaf burn
                   Chloride nutrition in flue cured        ✔                         CTRI, RJY
9. Alternative Uses of Tobacco and Reduction of Harmful Substances
Alternative uses   Development of novel                    ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
of tobacco         bio-active substances from
                   Value added phytochemicals,             ✔         ✔               CTRI, RJY
                   refined seed oil and quality
                   leaf protein from tobacco
                   Development of tobacco for                        ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   secondary metabolite
                   Production of biomolecules              ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   through transgenic tobacco
                   Identification of varieties and         ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   production technology for
                   higher biomass production
Reduction of       Development of post-harvest             ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
harmful            strategies for reduction of
substances         harmful substances in tobacco
                   and tobacco products
Pesticide residues Standardisation of analytical           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   procedures for new pesticides
                   and monitoring of pesticide
                   residues in different types of
Quality            Establishment of referral               ✔                         CTRI, RJY
appraisal of       laboratory for testing and
tobacco and        certifying for export / internal
tobacco products   consumption

Activity         Milestone                                     Time frame          Execution
                                                     2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

10. Agricultural Extension and Information Technology
Technology       Identification of Micro zones          ✔                          CTRI, RJY
Assessment       in tobacco growing areas
                 Preparation of resource                ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 inventory based on Biophysical
                 and socio-economic
                 Delineation of unproductive/           ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 unsuitable areas for FCV
                 tobacco cultivation
                 Technology testing through             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                 on-farm trials
                 Adoption status of various             ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                 Identification of slow-moving          ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                 Constraint analysis                    ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 Diversification of farmers from        ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 tobacco cultivation
                 Identification of other crops          ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 as viable alternatives to tobacco
                 Technology refinement                  ✔                          CTRI, RJY
Technology       Development of innovative              ✔                          CTRI, RJY
Transfer         extension methodologies for
                 farm extension
                 Analyzing the impact of                ✔                          CTRI, RJY
                 various extension efforts
                 Studies on attitudinal and             ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                 behavioural traits of farmers
                 in adoption
                 Scanning of identical                  ✔          ✔               CTRI, RJY
                 socio-psychological results
                 and its testing in tobacco based
                 cropping systems
                 Conducting frontline                   ✔          ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY in
                 demonstrations                                                    collaboration
                                                                                   with Tobacco
                                                                                   Board & Trade

Activity           Milestone                                    Time frame          Execution
                                                      2007-2012 2012-2017 2017-2025

                   Development of clientele               ✔         ✔         ✔         - do -
                   based training modules and
                   organizing demand oriented
                   training programmes
                   Using kiosks for online                ✔         ✔         ✔         - do -
                   interaction with farmers on the
                   farm & marketing information
                   Using ‘video on wheels’ for            ✔         ✔         ✔         - do -
                   wider adoption
                   Production and distribution of         ✔         ✔         ✔         - do -
                   farm literature
Designing          Modification and designing             ✔                         CTRI, RJY
Algorithms for     techniques for data
Data               classification and testing
Software           Developing the software using          ✔                         CTRI, RJY
development        various parameters stored in
for Leaf Quality   the Database
                   Testing and data entry into the        ✔                         CTRI, RJY
Expert system      Selection of parameters,               ✔                         CTRI, RJY
on yield losses    Data-sheet preparation and
due to abiotic     Database Design
                   Software Development, Testing          ✔                         CTRI, RJY
                   and data entry into the Database
Updating           CTRI website with the latest           ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
Information        information and provide
Systems            hyperlinks
                   Meteorological Database                ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   Management System
                   Online database for personnel          ✔         ✔         ✔     CTRI, RJY
                   management information
                   system network (PERMISNET)

9.2. Research Facilities Required

 ●    Seed Technology Laboratory
 ●    Testing for GM tobaccos
 ●    Diagnostic kits for nutrient deficiencies and their management
 ●    Virology Laboratory with ELISA and PCR facilities
 ●    Referral Laboratory for quality evaluation of tobacco and tobacco products
 ●    Imparting training to farmers in production of biocontrol agents
 ●    Information resources like e-books, e-journals, consortia, tobacco literature network system and
      Bioinformatics Centre

9.3. Commercialization of Technologies
 ●    Process for purification of solanesol from tobacco / tobacco waste
 ●    Value – added tobacco products from tobacco

9.4. Fund Requirements (Rs in Crores)

 S.No Programme                                                     2007-12      2012-17    2017-25

 1      Germplasm Resource Management                                     7.47     15.01      61.47
 2      Tobacco Cultivar Development                                     30.92     62.19     254.67
 3      Biotechnology in Tobacco Improvement                              3.20      6.43      26.32
 4      Crop Production Technology                                       35.18     70.76     289.77
 5      Cropping Systems for Sustainable Production                       6.40     12.87      52.70
 6      Bio-Ecological and Pathological Studies on Pests                  7.46     15.01      61.47
        and Diseases
 7      Integrated Pest and Disease Management                            5.33     10.73      43.93
 8      Soil Fertility, Water Quality and Nutrient Management             4.26      8.57      35.10
 9      Alternative Uses of Tobacco and Reduction of                      4.26      8.57      35.10
        Harmful Substances
 10     Agricultural Extension and Information Technology                 2.13      4.28      17.55

       CTRI has developed strong linkages with various organizations at regional, national and international
level. At regional level, linkage between CTRI and various state government departments and Agril.
Universities in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat and West Bengal
were established to provide an effective thrust to tobacco development. Central organizations like Tobacco
Board, Directorate of Tobacco Development, Chennai, Department of Biotechnology and lead banks are
associated with different tobacco development programmes.
    Research projects have been taken up in collaboration with various research organizations such as
CRIDA, Hyderabad, CDRI (CSIR), Lucknow, CIAE, Bhopal and PDBC, Bangalore.

10.1. Linkages
 S. No. Name of the Collaborating Agency       Project title/Activity
 a) National Institutes and Agricultural Universities
 1.      Central Drug Research                 Synthesis and biological evaluation of solanesol
         Institute, Lucknow                    derivatives as novel bioactive substances
 2.      Bureau of Indian Standards            Development of Indian standards for
                                               tobacco and tobacco products
 3.      Tobacco Board                         Model Project Area scheme for improving the
                                               FCV tobacco yield and quality in KLS, SLS,
                                               SBS, CBS, NBS and NLS areas
                                               On-farm trials for production of flavourful
                                               tobacco in KLS area
 4.      CRIDA, Hyderabad                      Watershed based NRM strategies for rainfed
                                               areas of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh
 5.      NRC for PB, New Delhi and             Biotechnological research
         CPRI, Shimla
 6.      NRC for Soybean, Indore               Conducting coordinated varietal trials of soybean lines
 7.      NBSS & LUP, Nagpur                    Soil resource mapping of tobacco growing soils
                                               in India
 8.      NRC for Oil Palm, Pedavegi            Production technology of oil palm and intercropping
                                               of FCV/Natu tobacco in oil palm
 9.      State Departments of Agriculture      Transfer of technology in non-FCV types
                                               and supply of inputs
 10.     Indian Meteorology Department, Pune Maintenance of Meteorological observatories
                                               in different Stations
 11.     M/s ITC Ltd., ILTD Division,          Research and developmental activities, organizing
         M/s. Godfrey Phillips India Ltd.,     training programmes, field trials on latest packages,
         Indian Tobacco Association            variety release proposals, manufacturing tests,
                                               storage tests, Tobacco Portal etc.
 12.     PDBC, Bangalore                       Coordinated trials in Biological Control
 (b)     International Institutions
 1.      CORESTA, France                            Evaluation of pest and disease resistant varieties
 2.      Tobacco Institute of Japan, Tokyo          Asia Collaborative Study on smoke constituents

10.2. Execution Arrangements

A) Research: The research activities are looked after by different Divisions of the Institute, its
Research Stations and AINRPT centres

i) Heads of Divisions              Crop Improvement
                                   Crop Production
                                   Crop Protection
                                   Crop Chemistry & Soil Science
ii) Heads of the Res. Stations     CTRI Research Station, Guntur
                                   CTRI Research Station, Kandukur
                                   CTRI Research Station, Jeelugumilli
                                   CTRI Research Station, Vedasandur
                                   CTRI Research Station, Hunsur
                                   CTRI Research Station, Dinhata
                                   CTRI Research Centre, Jeddangi

iii) All India Network Research Project on Tobacco

 Name                   Location                                           University
 AINRPT Centre          Zonal Agrl. Research Station, Shimoga              UAS, Bangalore
 AINRPT Centre          Agrl. Research Station, Nipani                     UAS, Dharwad
 AINRPT Centre          BTRS, Anand                                        AAU, Anand
 AINRPT Centre          Regional Agrl. Research Station, Nandyal           ANGRAU, Hyderabad
 AINRPT Centre          Pulses Research Centre, Berhampur                  OUAT, Bhubaneswar
 AINRPT Centre          Agrl. Research Station, Araul                      CSAUA&T, Kanpur

* Four centres are functioning at CTRI, Rajahmundry, CTRI RS Guntur, CTRI RS Hunsur, CTRI RS
Dinhata. There are four voluntary centres located at Ladol, Jeelugumilli, Kandukur and Vedasandur.

B) Developmental Activity: The following agencies are associated with tobacco production and
developmental activities

   i)      Tobacco Board
   ii)     Directorate of Tobacco Development
   iii)    Department of Agriculture
   iv)     State Agricultural Universities
   v)      R&D Divisions of Trade and Industry
   vi)     Krishi Vigyan Kendras

                                     11. CRITICAL INPUTS

S.No Critical inputs                                        Working arrangements

1.    Root-knot nematode is a limiting factor in the        Nemacur (Phenamiphos)/ Sebuphos gave
      production of light soil tobacco. Traditional         excellent control of root-knot nematodes.
      zone of Karnataka is identified as hot spot           These nematicides are not available in India as
      for root-knot nematodes Phenamiphos and               a result, growers are incurring heavy losses
      Sebuphos are critical inputs
2.    Weed management is one of the costly                  Diphenamide is effective in controlling weeds
      inputs in the production of tobacco in light          and does not leave residues in the leaf. But it is
      soils - Diphenamide is a critical input for           not available in India and is to be imported to
      weed control                                          meet the farmers’ requirements
3.    Potash plays a significant role in tobacco            Muriate of Potash cannot be used as a source
      production in light soils. It influences not          of K due to chlorides. Potassium sulphate is
      only the yield and quality but also reduces           essential for FCV tobacco production. Prilled
      the tar levels thus making the smoking                potassium nitrate is also an equal source of
      less harmful. SOP is a critical input for             potassium
      leaf quality
4.    In burley and FCV tobacco CAN is                      The farmers face much difficulty in getting the
      recommended as a top dresser fertiliser.              CAN fertilizer. Hence, timely supply of CAN
      It has the added advantage of correcting Ca           should be ensured
      deficiency in burley tobacco.
      CAN is a critical input for higher yields
5.    Development of fertiliser mixtures is                 Fertilizer manufacturers should develop
      necessary to meet the requirement of major            mixtures specific for tobacco to reduce cost
      nutrients in different tobacco types.                 of production and to avoid excess
      Fertilizer mixtures are critical inputs               supply of nutrients
6.    Pesticides and fertilizers are critical inputs        Timely distribution by Tobacco Board is essential
7.    Coal for flue-curing is a critical input              Coal is in short supply and hence, arrangements
                                                            have to be made for its adequate supply. Also,
                                                            alternative fuels like solar energy and agri-
                                                            bye-products have to be explored on priority basis
8.    Irrigation water is a critical input as it            Micro-irrigation systems like drip/sprinkler
      influences the growth, yield and quality              systems and watershed technologies should be
      of tobacco                                            given priority and propagated

11.1. Funds

 ●   Plan and non-plan funds from the Council
 ●   Special funds generated by extending service to tobacco trade and industry
 ●   Sponsored projects/schemes etc.

11.2. Manpower

     Manpower requirements are met by utilizing the funds received from the Council

11.3. Human Resource Development (HRD)

S. No. Core                   Research              Specific                Training Institute(s)
       Research               Discipline            Competencies and        Identified
       Programme                                    Skills / Techniques
1.     Application of         Genetics &            Latest techniques       International Plant
       biotechnological       Cytogenetics,         for germplasm           Genetic Resources Instt.,
       and molecular tools    Plant breeding        conservation and        Rome, Italy
       for improving                                management,
       productivity and                             fingerprinting &
       quality of tobacco,                          characterization
       reducing the
       harmful substances     Biotechnology         Genetic engineering     N.C State Univ.,Raleigh,
       and imparting                                for reduction of        USA
       resistance to biotic                         harmful constituents
       and abiotic stresses
                                                    Developing tobacco      Univ. of Kentucky,
                                                    based bio-rational      Lexington, USA
                                                    pesticides and
                                                    important phyto-        International
                                                    chemicals for control   Laboratory for Tropical
                                                    of insect pests and     Agril. Biotechnology,
                                                    diseases / use in       La Jolla,CA, USA

                                                    Training for            International Potato
                                                    developing leaf curl    Centre, Peru, Chile
                                                    and CMV resistant       Laboratory for Tropical
                                                    tobacco                 Agril. Biotechnology,
                                                                            La Jolla, CA, USA.
2.     Developing cost      Agronomy                Training in latest    Institute of Plant
       effective production                         methodologies and     Nutrition, Univ. of
       technologies and                             techniques in water   Honnenheim, Germany
       technologies for                             and natural resources
       reduction of harmful                         management
       substances and
       diversified uses     Soil Science &          Latest techniques/      Research Institute for
       of tobacco           Agril. Chemistry        modern scientific       Agro-biology and Soil
                                                    gadgets                 Fertility, Wageningen,
                                                    in crop production      The Netherlands
                                                    and post- harvest
                                                    management in
                                                    exportable types of

S. No. Core               Research                  Specific                 Training Institute(s)
       Research           Discipline                Competencies and         Identified
       Programme                                    Skills / Techniques

                          Plant Physiology          Recent advancements      International Centre for
                          Microbiology              in crop nutrition        Tropical Agriculture,
                                                    vis-à-vis nutrient       Cali, Colombia, USA.
                                                    use-efficiency            Institute of Arable
                                                                             Crops Research
                                                                             Rothamsted, UK
                          Biochemistry              Latest techniques in     Univ. of Virginia,
                                                    isolation of genes for   Charlotterville, USA
                                                    demethalyses and         Univ. of Minnesolta,
                                                    plastid and root         Dulutte, USA
                                                    specific gene
                          Organic chemistry         Characterisation of      Tobacco Instt. of Japan,
                                                    flavour components       Tokyo, Japan.
                                                    in tobacco

                                                    Latest methodologies Midwest Res. Instt.,
                                                    in the analysis of   Kansas City, USA.
                                                    Hoffmann compounds
3.   Bio-ecological studies Plant Pathology         Synthesis of synthetic Centre for Research on
     of different insect                            germination            Wild Plants, Utsunomiya,
     pests & diseases and                           stimulants for         Uni., Utsonomily, Japan
     Integrated pest and                            Orobanche
     disease management
                            Agrl. Entomology        Induction of herbicide Catholic Univ. of
                                                    tolerance in tobacco Nijmegen, Netherlands

                          Plant Nematology          Molecular aspects of Auburn Univ. USA.
                                                    PGPR on plant growth
                                                    promotion and
                                                    induced resistance

                                                    Pesticide application  International Pesticide
                                                    technology             Application Res. Centre,
                                                    Field efficacy and     Univ. of California,
                                                    persistence of nuclear California, USA
                                                    polyhedrosis viruses

S. No. Core                   Research                 Specific              Training Institute(s)
       Research               Discipline               Competencies and      Identified
       Programme                                       Skills / Techniques
                                                       Techniques in         International Agril.
                                                       integrated pest       Centre, Wagenigen Univ.,
                                                       management            Netherlands
                                                                             Common- wealth Instt.
                                                                             of Biological Control,
                                                                             Royal Slough, UK

                                                                             Instt. of Plant Diseases
                                                                             and Plant Protection,
                                                                             Univ. of Hannover,

                                                       Techniques in         Univ. of Southampton,
                                                       identification and    U.K.
                                                       synthesis of insect

                         12. RISK ANALYSIS BASED ON SWOT

1.   Tobacco cultivation may be forced out of traditional areas due to non-remunerative prices and
     competition from high value crops

2.   Since quality is an everchanging phenomenon, there is need to develop products to suit the consumer

3.   Non-renewable sources of energy like wood fuel and coal may not be available for curing tobacco
     in future and also pressure from environmentalists is increasing

4.   Stringent national and international regulations on smoking may affect the production and
     consumption of tobacco

5.   Increase in labour and input costs may make tobacco production less remunerative

6.   Developments in the tobacco producing and importing countries will have major influence on
     Indian exports

7.   Indiscriminate use of pesticides on neighbouring crops may lead to out- break of minor pests and
     pesticide residues in tobacco


Evaluation of the projects

 ✦   Evaluation is designed to examine the effectiveness of implementation of the project and
     achievements of the envisaged objectives
 ✦   An important aspect of evaluation is to determine whether the problem being investigated is still
     relevant in relation to the situation in the field
 ✦   Monitoring and evaluation should be done during the implementation of the project to make a
     judgement about the efficiency of the work in progress
 ✦   Progress reports are required for keeping the Director informed about the progress of the research
     on individual project
 ✦   An important by-product of review is to improve the morale of the scientists by giving constructive
     criticism, proper support and appreciation of the work
 ✦   Critical review of the projects should be made for the following course of action after completion
     of the project
 ✦   Allocation of funds and resources to the different components of the project
 ✦   Modifying the original time-table, if required
 ✦   Modifying the original goals, if required
 ✦   Changing the priority of the project, if required
 ✦   Termination of the project
 ✦   Original contribution of researches

Programme of Review

In addition to reviewing the projects it is also useful to conduct the review of entire programme of the
department at an appropriate interval:

 ✦   By a team of scientists from other Institutes/peer review
 ✦   By a panel of experts

                                14. RESOURCE GENERATION

 Receipts (Rs in Crores)

 S.No Source                                   IX Plan actual      X Plan actual     XI Plan Projections
 1      Non-plan revenue receipts                     2.98                4.41                  6.00
 2      RF Scheme on tobacco seed and                 1.48                2.77                  5.00
        seedling production
 3      Special fund through analysis,                1.03                0.61                  1.00
        product testing etc.
        Total                                         5.49                7.79                 12.00

                                            15. OUTPUTS

      The added emphasis on higher productivity, better quality, higher nutrient-use-efficiency, lower
levels of harmful substances and agrochemicals, natural resource conservation and developing tobacco
as a source of value-added phytochemicals, seed oil, enzymes, vaccines etc. to sustain the crop, to get
remunerative prices to the farmer and to enhance the exports.

      In view of the price competitiveness and positive features of Indian tobacco, substantial growth in
exports is forecast. Similarly, exports of non-FCV tobacco/ tobacco products are likely to increase in the
near future. Tobacco is expected to be a source of several value-added chemicals of medicinal and industrial

                       TRADE, INDUSTRIES AND FARMERS

 ✤    It is estimated that a total annual export requirement of FCV tobacco will be around 200 million
      kilos by 2015. Out of this, about 100 million kilos would come from Andhra Pradesh and 100
      million kilos from Karnataka, with the concerted and coordinated efforts of all the stake holders,
 ✤    Foreign exchange earnings may reach the level of Rs 3,000 crores by 2015
 ✤    Increased productivity will release the land for other high value crops
 ✤    Semi-flavourful, flavourful, neutral-filler tobacco will dominate the Indian tobacco production
 ✤    India will be a major low-cost producer and high quality cigarette exporter with lower tar deliveries
 ✤    Tobacco becomes a source of several value-added chemicals of medicinal and industrial applications
 ✤    Exports of non-FCV tobacco/ tobacco products would substantially increase in future
 ✤    The expected production of cigarettes by next decade will be about 150 billion pieces as against the
      present production of 106 billion pieces


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