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					Benefits of Plant Biotechnology
        November 2002
    Plant biotech 101:

    • What is plant biotechnology?
    • Products on the market
    • Benefits of biotechnology
    • Safety and regulation




2
            Thomas Fairchild     Fairchild’s mule

3 What is plant biotechnology?
          Fairchild’s mule gave birth to many
               of today’s hybrid flowers

4 What is plant biotechnology?
          “We have recently advanced our knowledge of
           genetics to a point where we can manipulate life
           in a way never intended by nature. We must
           proceed with the utmost caution in the application
           of this new-found knowledge.”

                                     — Luther Burbank




5 What is plant biotechnology?
     Burbank was a pioneer
     in the development of
     several hybrid plants in
     the late 1800s and
     early 1900s
         – plums
         – berries
         – prunes
         – peaches
         – potatoes



6 What is plant biotechnology?
                                 Selective breeding
                                 led to higher-yielding
                                 varieties.




7 What is plant biotechnology?
                  Teosinte       Modern corn

8 What is plant biotechnology?
     Gregor Johann Mendel




9 What is plant biotechnology?
     Traditional plant breeding
                                   Traditional donor        Commercial variety      New variety
      DNA is a strand of genes,                                                     (many genes are transferred)
      much like a strand of
      pearls. Traditional plant
      breeding combines many                                                    =
                                                           X
      genes at once.
                                   Desired Gene        (crosses)
                                                                                    Desired gene



      Plant biotechnology
                                     Desired gene        Commercial variety New variety
      Using plant biotechnology,                                             (only desired gene is transferred)
      a single gene may be
      added to the strand.                                                  =
                                                  (transfers)
                                                                                Desired gene




10 What is plant biotechnology?
     Plant biotechnology definition:

     A precise process in which
     scientific techniques are
     used to develop useful
     and beneficial plants.




11 What is plant biotechnology?
           “No conceptual distinction exists between genetic
            modification of plants and microorganisms by
            classical methods or by molecular techniques
            that modify DNA and transfer genes.”

                                    — National Research Council




12 What is plant biotechnology?
     Products on the market




13
     More than 50 biotech food products
     have been approved for commercial
     use in the United States

     • Canola               • Soybeans
     • Corn                 • Squash
     • Cotton               • Sugarbeets
     • Papaya               • Sweet corn
     • Potato               • Tomato



14 Products on the market
       Four crops accounted for nearly all of
       the global biotech crop area in 2001

        Soybeans                                                                  63%



                Corn                                         19%



             Cotton                                13%



            Canola                   5%


 Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications


15 Products on the market
     Four countries accounted for 99 percent*
     of the global biotech crop area in 2001
  United States                                                                                    68%



      Argentina                                    22%



        Canada              6%



          China         3%

                  *Australia, Bulgaria, Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, Romania, South Africa, Spain and
                   Uruguay accounted for the remaining 1 percent of biotech crop acres.
                  Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications


16 Products on the market
                   Global plantings of biotech crops
                   increased nearly 20 percent in 2001
                   60
                        Global Area of GM Crops
                                                                                                        52.6
                   50
 Million Hectars




                   40                                                                         44.2
                                                                                     39.9
                   30
                                                                        27.8
                   20


                   10                             11
                          1.7
                   0
                         1996               1997                   1998           1999      2000     2001

 Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications


17 Products on the market
          “Adoption rates for transgenic crops are unprecedented
           and are the highest for any new technologies by
           agricultural industry standards.”

                                   — Clive James, Chair of
                                     the International Service
                                     for the Acquisition of
                                     Agri-biotech Applications




18 Products on the market
        Benefits of biotechnology
     More food
                             Better food




        Better for the environment

19
     More food


                                                  Net economic       Pesticide
                              Yield increase         impact          reduction

 Current cultivars            4 billion pounds    $1.5 billion   46 million pounds

 Potential cultivars          10 billion pounds   $1 billion     117 million pounds

 Total                        14 billion pounds $2.5 billion     163 million pounds




20 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
       More food
       • Bt corn – 3.5 billion pound yield
         increase and $125 million in
         additional income
       • Bt cotton – 185 million pound yield
         increase and $102 million in
         additional income
       • Biotech soybeans – $1 billion
         in additional income through
         production cost savings

 Source: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy


21 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
     Products in the pipeline
     Agronomic benefits

     • Oranges resistant
       to citrus canker
     • Disease-resistant
       sweet potatoes
     • Pest- and disease-
       resistant cassava
     • Disease-resistant
       bananas

22 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
                       Agricultural yield increases are declining
                       3
                                                                                                                         1967–1982
                                                                                                                         1982–1994
 Percentage per year




                                                                                                                         1995–2020
                       2




                       1




                       0
                            Developing countries                                    World                     Developed countries
                           Source: C.S. Prakash, Center for Plant Biotechnology Research, Tuskegee University, Alabama


23 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
    By 2025, there will be another
    2 billion mouths to feed
                       — United Nations
                         Population Fund




24 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
    Distribution of world population growth
    to 2010

                                                        Former Soviet Union 0%



                                Europe 0%
     North                                                               Asia 51%
     America 5%

                                           Africa 35%
     South America 8%




25 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
    Distribution of world income growth
    to 2010

                                                       Former Soviet Union 4%


                                Europe 24%
     North                                                              Asia 32%
     America 27%

                                           Africa 6%
     South America 9%




26 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
                                           Developed world
                                           (EU, U.S., Japan)
                                           – Population: 1 billion
                                           – Income: $5,000+
  More food
will be needed                             Developing world
                                           (Asia, Latin America)
   to feed a                               – Population: 4.2 billion
                                           – Income: $400 -
growing global                             $5,000

 middle class
                                           Impoverished areas
                                           (Africa)
                                           – Population: 800
                                           million
                                           – Income: <$400

27 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
                                           Farmers will need to at least double
                                           production over the next 25 years to
                                           meet increased demand.

                                                          — Consultative Group
                                                            on International
                                                            Agricultural Research




28 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
         Without an increase in farm productivity, an additional
         4 billion acres of arable land will need to come under
         the plow by 2050.
                                           — C.S. Prakash, founder and
                                             president of the nonprofit
                                             AgBioWorld Foundation


29 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
      Better food




30 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
      Products in the pipeline
      Enhanced nutritional qualities

      • Tomatoes enriched
        with flavonols
      • Soybean and canola
        oils with higher levels
        of vitamin E
      • Vitamin-enriched rice
      • Decaffeinated coffee


31 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
      Products in the pipeline
      Enhanced nutritional qualities

      “I think in the long term we will
       have foods that are less hazardous
       because biotechnology will
       have eliminated or diminished
       their allergenicity.”
                               — Steve Taylor, Ph.D.
                                 Department of Food Science and Technology,
                                 University of Nebraska


32 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
      Products in the pipeline
      Functional foods

      • Bananas to deliver
        a hepatitis vaccine
      • Apples to protect
        against Respiratory
        Syncytial virus
      • Potatoes to protect
        against cholera, E. coli
        and Norwalk virus

33 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
Better for the environment
“The results clearly show that
 soil, air and water quality are
 enhanced through the
 responsible use of current
 biotechnology-derived soybean,
 corn and cotton crops.”
                     — Teresa Gruber, executive director
                       of the Council for Agricultural
                       Science and Technology (CAST)


34 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
      Conservation tillage improves
      wildlife habitat, water quality
      Nearly three-fourths
      of no-till soybean
      acres and 86 percent
      of no-till cotton acres
      were planted with
      biotech varieties.



 Source: Conservation Technology Information Center


35 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
     Better for the environment
                                             “We have wildlife on the farm today
                                              that my dad has never seen before,
                                              and he’s over 90 years old.”

                                                           — Iowa farmer Roy Bardole




36 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
     Government Regulation




                             37
37
38
     • American Dietetic Association
     • American Medical Association
     • Institute of Food Technologists
     • World Health Organization




39
     “The College supports the use of biotechnology to
      develop food crops that contribute to global food
      security and enhance the safety and nutritional
      value of the food supply.”

                               — American College of Nutrition
                                 Statement on Crop Biotechnology




40
     “There is no reason to suppose that the process of
      food production through biotechnology leads to risks
      of a different nature than those ... created by
      conventional breeding.”

                               — Society of Toxicology
                                 Statement on the Safety
                                 of Foods Produced
                                 Through Biotechnology




41
     “Biotechnology experts believe that the current
      regimen of tests has been adequate for ensuring
      that GM foods marketed to consumers are as safe
      as conventional foods.”

                             — General Accounting Office




42
     “Indeed, the use of more precise technology
      and the greater regulatory scrutiny probably
      make them [biotech foods] even safer than
      conventional plants and foods.”

                               — European Commission
                                 research report




43
     USDA report says
     impact of Bt corn
     on butterflies is
     “negligible”




44
     Increasing production on existing land
     preserves forests, enhancing biodiversity
     U.N. report says biodiversity
     will be threatened on
     72 percent of global land
     area in 30 years.




45
     Biotech foods are labeled when they
     are significantly different from their
     conventional counterparts




46
     USDA Organic Seal program provides
     consumers with choices




47
     Hybrid wheat gave birth to agriculture and some
     say civilization itself.
                                 — Jacob Bronowski, author
                                   The Ascent of Man




48
     Plant biotechnology represents
          the next leap forward




49
     Making progress

     • India approves planting
       of biotech cotton
     • U.N. report says GMOs
       could be ―breakthrough technology
       for developing countries‖
     • African scientists call biotech a ―major
       opportunity to enhance the production
       of food crops‖

50
    Making progress
    • ―Biotech crops boost farm income,
      yields‖ – Reuters
    • ―Biotechnology tastes sweeter and
      sweeter‖ – Omaha World Herald
    • ―Biotech crops, an environmental ally‖
      – Akron Beacon Journal
    • ―Biotech food great for farmers, eaters‖
      – The Spokesman Review
    • ―Biotech crop report cites benefits for
      food production, environment‖
      – Feedstuffs
    • ―Genetic crops could help reduce
      pesticides‖ – UPI
    • ―Biotech holds great promise for beets‖
      – Grand Forks Herald
51 CBI
     “We are increasingly encouraged that the advantages
      of genetic engineering of plants and animals are
      greater than the risks. ... We cannot agree with the
      position of some groups that say it is against the will
      of God to meddle with the genetic make-up of plants
      and animals.”
                                — Bishop Elio Sgreccia,
                                  vice president of the
                                  Pontifical Academy for Life



52
     “If they can give us a better
      tomato, I’m for it.”
                       — Julia Child




53
            The more people know, the more they
            support biotechnology
                            Percentage who support biotechnology to...

            Develop new                                                 67%
             varieties of
                                                          51%
                   crops



                                                          50%
             Genetically
            modify foods                      32%

                                                     Heard some or a lot
                                                     Heard little or nothing
Jul. ‘02

   54 CBI
     Council for Biotechnology Information
             www.whybiotech.com

    Helping improve people’s
    understanding of the
    products of agricultural
    and food biotechnology.




55 CBI

				
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