Integrating Quotations in your Essay

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					English 20-1                                                                        Wasilenko




                                      The Crucible:
                         Integrating Quotations in your Essay



Your Crucible essay must contain a minimum of three quotations, one in each body
paragraph. In order to effectively incorporate these quotations, it is important to
keep in mind the following rules:


   When using a quotation to defend your point, ALWAYS introduce the
    quotation and explain how this quotation defends what you are saying;
    consequently, you will be able to maintain your unifying effect by referring back to
    your controlling idea. It is essential to establish context prior to introducing your
    quotation in order to transition smoothly from your idea to your support.



    Example:           Darkness lurks in every corner and crevasse of Salem and it is
                       believed by many Salemites that the answers lie with those that
                       possess an abundant knowledge pertaining to religion and it is
                       their hope that this knowledge will enlighten those that have
                       turned toward individualism. Hale is considered well educated
                       and considers himself comparable to great kings, philosophers
                       and scientists. Upon his arrival from Beverly, prior to examining
                       Betty and the other girls suspected of witchcraft, Miller writes,
                       “[h]is goal is light, goodness and its preservation” (36). Here,
                       Miller specifically emphasizes Hale‟s motivation to suggest that
                       his intentions are good through the use “light imagery.” It is clear
                       that Hale comes to purify this inflicted village rather than gain
                       material wealth, seek revenge or further overt blame, like Putnam.
                       Therefore, his goodness is foreshadowed in the first act, and is
                       overshadowed by the hypocrisy he demonstrates in the final act
                       in an attempt to overcome his guilt.
English 20-1                                                                        Wasilenko




   When reading the sentence aloud, it should be impossible to tell where the
    quotation starts and where it ends. In other words, the quotation must fit into the
    text naturally.


         Example:     It is clear that Danforth does believe that Abigail is capable of
                      lying and even suspects that she may have tricked Mary Warren
                      when he makes reference to the “poppet discovered in Mr.
                      Proctor‟s house, stabbed by a needle”(103). When questioning
                      Abigail about her prior testimony, he casts doubt in regards to
                      his initial decision which is instrumental in highlighting the notion
                      that those who possess power are reluctant to relinquish power
                      in the event that it will cause others to question their
                      competence, and in this instance, God‟s competence.



   Pronouns (you, s/he, I, me) should match. If the pronoun in the quotation is
    different, simply delete the pronoun and add your own in [square brackets].


         Example:     John suggests that Hale is narrow minded and lacks common
                      sense pertaining to the alleged proof that his wife is responsible
                      for Abigail‟s injuries when he states, “ „If [Elisabeth] is innocent!
                      Why do you never wonder if Parris be innocent, or Abigail?‟ ”
                      (77).


                      Or


                      Giles vehemently pronounces Putnam‟s true motivations for
                      accusing others of witchcraft: “ “there is none but [him] with the
                      coin to buy so great a piece. This man is killing his neighbors for
                      their land!‟”(96).


   After a quotation, always put the page number that it is located on in the book;
    however, you must wait until the sentence is complete before including the page
    number. Please refer to the examples above.
English 20-1                                                                      Wasilenko




   The punctuation for a quotation should be as follows: “quotation
    mark...text...end quotation mark” (bracket ... page number....end bracket)period. If
    your quotation ends with a question mark or and exclamation point, you will place
    this punctuation before the end quotation mark.


         Example:      Miller describes Francis Nurse as “one of those men for whom
                       both sides of the argument had to have respect” (25).


                       Proctor reinforces the importance of honest when addressing
                       Mary: “God damns all liars, Mary!”(117).


   If you want parts of the text, but not the whole sentence, simply put an ellipse in
    the middle to indicate that you have subtracted part of the text.


         Example:      Miller describes the motivation behind scapgeoating when
                       stating that it was “a long overdue opportunity for everyone so
                       inclined to express publicly his guilt and sins [because]…one
                       could not ordinarily speak such things in public”(7).


   If you are quoting something that is already in quotations then just use single
    quotation marks.


         Example:      As Mary tries very hard to adhere to her ethical obligations she
                       is coerced into providing another false confession when the girls
                       continue to mimic her responses and when she sees Abigail, who
                       “keeps watching the „bird‟ above” (117).

				
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