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Janaparishad Nunatam sagha karyakram

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hgo'4sf] dfWodaf6 ljBdfg c4{–;fdGtL / c4{–cf}klgj]lzs cfly{s, ;fdflhs,
/fhg}lts ;+/rgfsf] cGTo u/L gofF hgjfbL jf hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;QfnfO{
;+:yfut ug]{ dfWodsf] ¿kdf ul7t g]kfnsf ;a} b]zeQm, hgjfbL, jfdkGyL /
qmflGtsf/L zlQmx¿sf] qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{ xf] . b]zJofkL ¿kdf gofF
hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg gxf]p~h]n;Dd of] hgkl/ifb\n] d'Vo ¿kdf ;+3if{sf]
;fwgsf] ¿kdf sfd ug]{ eg] cfw/Onfsfx¿df ;Qfsf] ;fwg / s]Gb|Lo:t/df hg;/sf/
;+u7g ;ldltsf] ¿kdf ;d]t sfo{qmd ub}{ hfg]5 . dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–dfcf]jfb /
k|r08kynfO{ dfu{lgb]{zs l;4fGt dfGg] g]kfnL               ;j{xf/f ju{sf] cu|b:tf
g]=s=kf=
-dfcf]jfbL_ p;sf] g]t[Tjdf ul7t hgd'lQm ;]gf, ljleGg pTkLl8t ju{, hflt, ln+u,
If]qsf hg;d'bfo / pgLx¿sf k|ltlglw ;+u7g / ljljw b]zeQm, hgjfbL / jfdkGyL
kf6L{x¿sf k|ltlglwx¿ / :jtGq b]zeQm JolQmTjx¿ ;lDdlnt of] kl/ifb\sf] k|yd
/fli6«o e]nfn] Jofks 5nkmnkZrft\ of] Go"gtd ;femf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf]
d:of}bf kfl/t u/]sf] 5 / hgqmflGtsf] lgsf; ;Fu;Fu} cGo ljljw kIfx¿;Fu 5nkmn
cGt/lqmof u/L o;nfO{ cem} kl/dfh{g ub}{ n}hfg] / pko'Qm ;dodf /fli6«o
;Dd]ngåf/f clGtd ¿k lbg] ;xdlt sfod u/]sf] 5 .
     ;j{k|yd, of] hgkl/ifb\ g]kfndf ;fdGtjfb tyf ;fd|fHojfb÷lj:tf/jfb lj/f]wL
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jL/tfk"0f{ zxfbt k|fKt ug'{ x'g] cd/ zxLbx¿k|lt efjk"0f{ >4f~hnL ck{0f
ub{5 .

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    g]kfn pQ/lt/ ljzfn rLgsf] :jzfl;t If]q ltAat tyf cGo tLglt/ lj;tf/jfbL ef/tn]
3]l/Ps] Pp6f cw{–cf}klgj]lzs d'n's xf] . &( k|ltzt kxf8L / @! k|ltztdfq
d}bfgL Onfsf ePsf] tyf kfFr bh{geGbf a9L efiffefifLsf hfltx¿n] a;f]af; ug]{
of] k|fs[lts / ;fdflhs lx;fan] c;fWo} a9L ljljwtf ePsf] d'n's klg xf] . k|fu–
P]ltxfl;s sfnb]lv dfgj hfltn] a;f]af; ub}{ cfPsf] / Oltxf;sf kl5Nnf r/0fx¿df
pQ/ blIf0flt/af6 k|j]z ug]{ c;+Vo cfk|jf;L wf/x¿sf] ;'/lIft ;+ud:ynsf] ¿kdf
/x]sf] g]kfnsf sltko ljlzi6 k|fs[lts P]ltxfl;s lj/f;tx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . h;n] ;du| ;dfhsf]
ultsf] lgodnfO{ kl/eflift u/]sf 5g\ / b]zsf] juL{o ;+/rgfnfO{ klg clxn];Dd
lgb]{lzt ul//x]sf 5g\ . cf};t pTkfbg zlQmx¿sf] c;fWo} Go"g ljsf; ePsf],
d"ntM c4{–;fdGtL ;fdflhs pTkfbg ;DaGw eP klg ljljw pTkfbg k|0ffnLx¿sf]
lvr8L ;+/rgf sfod ePsf] / cTolws ;+Vofdf ls;fg / ufpFn] Onfsf eP klg
pNn]vgLo If]qLo ljljwtf / tLj| juL{o c;dfgtf ePsf] jt{dfg g]kfnL ;dfhsf] b'|tt/
k|ultzLn ¿kfGt/0fsf] lglDt To;sf] P]ltxfl;s ljs;qmdnfO{ /fd|/L a'em\g h?/L
x'G5 .
     cltl/Qm s[lif pTkfbgsf] lglDt k|fs[lts cg's"ntf ePsf] / blIf0f ef/tLo d}bfg
tyf pQ/sf] ltAatL k7f/sf] aLrdf Jofkfl/s dfu{df kg]{ ePsfn] sf7df8f}F
pkTosfdf klxnf] ;x;|fAbLsf] ;'?df g} ljsl;t gu/ /fHox¿ / ;fdGtL pTkfbg
;DaGwsf] ljsf; eO;s]sf] lyof] . pkTosf aflx/sf clwsf+z kxf8L e"–efudf eg]
klxnf] ;x;|fAbLsf] ;'?jftkZrft\ ljleGg ;dodf ef/tLo d]bfgx¿df d'l:ndx¿sf]
cfqmd0faf6 efu]sf cfo{ lxGb"x¿sf] kxf8lt/sf] k|j]zn] jt{dfg g]kfnsf] kxf8L
e"efux¿df juL{o ;dfhsf] ljsf;n] tLj|tf kfpg yfNof] . k/Gt' d}bfgsf] ;fk]If ¿kn]
pRr pTkfbg k|ljlw;lxt cfPsf cfo{ lxGb"x¿ :jo+ g} z/0ffyL{ x'gfn] pgLx¿n]
k'/fgf] sljnfO{ ;+/rgfnfO{ k"0f{ ¿kn] eTsfpg ;Dej lyPg / kmn:j¿k clwsf+z
kxf8L e"efu -vf;u/L u08sL / s0ff{nL e]u_ df Ps k|sf/sf] vRr8 ;+/rgf cyf{t\
cfwf sljnfO{ / cfwf ;fdGtL vfnsf] …/fHo sljnfO{Ú ;+/rgf ljsl;t x'g'k'Uof] .
;fy} To;}a]nfb]lv ;dfhdf juL{o ;Fu;Fu} hftLo pTkL8gsf] qmd klg ;'? eof] .
c7f/f}+ ztfAbLsf] dWo;Dd cfOk'Ubf jt{dfg g]kfnsf] e"–efudf To:tf sl/a
;f7L ;–;fgf /fHox¿ alg;s]sf lyP .
     sfdrf]/ zf;s ju{sf] a9\bf] ;+Vof / pgLx¿sf] ljnfl;tfsf] pkef]udf lglDg
cltl/Qm pTkfbgsf] a9\bf] cfjZostf Psflt/ / csf]{lt/ / csf]{lt/ ;fgf /fHox¿ blIf0f
ef/tLo d}bfgdf tLj| ultn] km}nFbf] la|l6; pklgj]zdf 5'§f5'§} ¿kdf uflegaf6
aRg} j:t'ut cfjZostfsf] k[i7e"lddf c7f/f}F ztfAbLsf] k"jf{4{df uf]/vfsf v;–cfo{
hfltsf lxGb"jfbL /fhf k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] g]t[Tjdf g]kfnsf] s]Gb|Ls[t ;fdGtL
a|fx\d0fjfbL /fHosf] :yfkgf eof] . To;kl5 pGgfO;f}+ ztfAbLsf] bf];|f]
bzs;Dd rn]sf] /fHolj:tf/sf cleofgsf] qmddf g]kfnsf] l;dfgf k"j{df l6:6fb]lv
klZrddf ;tnhkfl/ / blIf0fdf u+uf lsgf/;Dd k'u]sf] lyof] . k/Gt' Psflt/ pTkfbg
zlQm / k|ljlwsf] cGTo cNk ljsf;sf] Tof] k|f/lDes cj:yfdf Tolt 7"nf] kxf8L
e"–efudf Pp6} s]Gb|Ls[t ;fdGtL /fHo;Qf sfod ug]{ j:t'ut hl6ntf / csf]{lt/
ljnfl;tf / cfk;L åGådf kmF:b} uO/x]sf] ;fdGtL zf;sju{sf]

    g]t[Tj ug]{ cfTdut sdhf]/Lsf] s'Voft ;'uf}nL ;lGwkZrft\ b]zsf] If]qkmn
jt{dfg l;dfgfleq afFlwg dfq k'u]g b]z la|l6; ef/tsf] c4{–pklgj]z aGg k'Uof] .
o;/L s]Gb|Ls[t /fHo;Qf u7g ePb]lv ;fdGtjfbL :j¿k u|x0f ug{ k'u]sf] g]kfnL
;dfhn] ;'uf}nL ;lGwkZrft\ ;fdGtL / c4{ cf}klgj]lzs rl/q u|x0f u¥of] . ;fy} anft\
s]Gb|Lo ;fdGtL /fHo;Qfdf ufleg k'u]sf u}/cfo hghfltsf /fHox¿ cfGtl/s
cf}klgj]lzs pTkL8gdf kb}{ uP . pGgfO;f}+ ztfAbLsf] cGTo;Dd g]kfnsf]
blIf0f ;Ldf;Dd ef/tLo /]n g]6js{ lj:tfl/t ePkZrft\ t/fO{sf] h+un km8fgL eP/
7"nf] e"–efu s[lifof]Uo hldgdf kl/0ft ePkl5 g]kfndf ;fdGtjfbsf] ljsf; cfˆgf]
r/df]Tsif{df k'Uof], t/ klg clwsf+z e"–efu kxf8L ePsfn] / 7"nf] k}dfgdf
v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] cefj ePsfn] g]kfndf o'/f]ksf] h:tf] zf:qLo ;fdGtjfbsf] ljsf;
x'g ;s]g . cyf{t\ cfd ¿kdf oxfF ;fdGtjfbsf] h/f] bx|f] x'g ;s]g / b]zJofkL ¿kdf
To;sf] ljsf; c;dfg k|s[ltsf] /x\of] . To;/L g] ;fdGtjfbsf] ljsf;sf] ;'?sf] cj:yfb]lv
g} Tof] c4{–cf}klgj]lzs ;f+Unf]df afFlwg k'u]sfn] To;leq}af6 k'“hLjfbsf]
ljsf; klg cj?4 x'g k'Uof] . lsgls s[lif If]qaf6 ;l~rt k|f/lDes k'“hL ;fdGtL
zf;gju{sf] ljnfl;tfsf] pkef]u / 7"nf b/af/x¿ agfpg] sfddf vr{ eof], u|fdL0f
If]qsf cltl/Qm >ldsx¿ /fHo lj:tf/sf] qmd /f]lsPkl5 ljb]zL ef8fsf ;}lgs aGg
k'u] jf ef/tlt/ cGo /f]huf/Lsf] vf]hLdf knfog x'g yfn] / b]zleqsf] ahf/ ef/tLo
ˆofS6«L pBf]uaf6 lgld{t j:t'x¿sf] aGbL ahf/ aGg k'Uof] . kmn:j¿k
pGgfO;f}+ ztfAbL;Dd kmNbf]km'Nbf] cj:yfdf /x]sf] 3/]n' pBf]ux¿ aL;f}+
ztfAbL;Dd cfOk'Ubf qmdzM ;'Sb} hfg yfn] / :jb]zL ;fdGtjfbsf] ue{leqaf6
k'“hLjfbsf] ljsf; x'g] k|lqmof cj?4 aGof] .
      bf];|f] ljZjo'4sf] ljlzi6 kl/j]zdf d"ntM afx\o k|efj :j¿k !(#) sf] bzsdf
g]kfndf cfw'lgs ˆofS6«L, pBf]usf] :yfkgfsf] ;fy;fy} cf}Bf]lus k'“hLjfb / ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] hGd eof] / g]kfn gof“ P]ltxfl;s o'udf k|j]z u¥of] . o;/L g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs
pTkfbg k|0ffnLsf] rl/q c4{;fdGtL / c4{cf}klgj]lzs aGof] . k/Gt' gof“ :yflkt
clwsQ/ cfw'lgs pBf]ux¿ tfTsfnLg ;fdGtjfbL /f0ff zf;s / ef/tLo d'n'ssf
Psflwsf/ k'“hLkltx¿sf] ;+o'Qm nufgLdf :yflkt x'gfn] ltgLx¿sf] rl/q ;'?b]lv
g} bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLjfbL rl/qsf] /xg uof] . ef/tdf la|l6; pklgj]zjfbsf]
cGtsf] nuQ} kl5 / g]kfndf /f0ff zf;gsf] cGTosf] k"j{ ;GWofdf ef/tsf] gof“
lj:tf/jfbL zf;sju{n] g]kfndfly yf]k/]sf] !(%) sf] c;dfg ;lGwn] klxn] em}+
g]kfnnfO{ c4{cf}klgj]lzs ;fª\nf]df afFlw/fVof], h'g cBfjlw sfod 5 . csf]{lt/
!(%!
-cyf{t\ @))& lj=;+=_ df /f0ff zf;gsf] cGTokZrft\ klg g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs pTkfbg
k|0ffnLdf s'g} cfwf/e"t juL{o km]/abn ePg / To;sf] rl/q c4{–;fdGtL / c4{–
cf}klgj]lzs g} /lx/x\of], h'g ;fdfGo km]/abn ;fy clxn];Dd oyfjt\ /x]sf] 5 .
      !(%) of !(^) sf] bzskZrft\ ef/tLo Psflwsf/ k'“hLsf] ;fy;fy g]kfndf ljb]zL
ljQLo ;xfotf / Jofkf/ ljljwLs/0fsf] gfp“df cGo ljb]zL Jofkfl/s tyf ljQLo
k'“hLsf] 3';k}7 klg a9]/ uof] . t}klg d"n ¿kdf k/Dk/fut c4{cf}klgj]lzs
ljz]ifflwsf/ / e"–/fhg}lts cg's"ntfsf] sf/0f g]kfndfly ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbL Psflwsf/
sfod g} /lx/x\of] . cfGtl/s ¿kdf lg/+s'z /fhtGqfTds k~rfotLsfnsf] !(^$ -
lj=;+= @)@!_ sf] slyt e"ld;'wf/n] e"lddflysf] ;fdGtjfbL ;DaGwnfO{ s]xL
dfqfdf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLjfbL ;DaGwdf ¿kfGt/0f x'g d2t ug{ afx]s o; cjlwdf
s'g} df}lns juL{o ;+/rgfTds kl/jt{g ePg . o;/L aL;f}+ ztfAbLsf] cGTo;Dd
cfOk'Ubf g]kfnL ;dfh cfGtl/s lx;fan] ;fdGtjfbL gf]s/zfxL k'FhLjfbL ;DaGw
/ afx\o lx;fan] ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb;+usf] c4{–cf}klgj]lzs / cGo ;fd|fHojfbL
zlQmx¿sf] gj cf}klgj]lzs ;DaGwdf afFlwP/ Pp6f eo+s/ ult/f]w / cNkljsf;sf]
e"d/Ldf km:g k'u]sf] 5 / ljZjsf] bl/b|td b]zdWo] Ps aGg k'u]sf] 5 .
pk/f]Qm ef}uf]lns / P]ltxfl;s ljlzi6tfsf] sf/0fn] g]kfnsf] c4{;fdGtL /
c4{cf}klgj]lzs ;+/rgfsf s]xL cfˆg} df}lns ljz]iftfx¿ /x]sf 5g\ . Psflt/ d"ntM
kxf8L hldg / s[lifdfly cfl>t pTkfbs zlQmx¿sf] cToGt Go"g ljsf;n] ;dfhsf]
cfd juL{o lje]bLs/0f Go"g /xg uPsf] 5 eg] csf]{lt/ sljnfO{, ;fdGtL /
gf]s/zfxL k'FhLjfbL ;DaGwx¿ ldl;Psf] lvr8L pTkfbg ;DaGw ljBdfg /xgfn]
juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo c;dfgtf klg plQs} tLj| /x]sf 5g\ . s'n >d zlQmsf] @
k|ltzt hltdfq pBf]u If]qdf, *! k|ltzt s[lif If]qdf / af“sL cGo ;]jf If]qdf nfu]af6
;dfhsf] clt lk5l8Psf] tyf Go"g juL{o lje]bLs/0f cj:yf emNsG5 .
     cf}Bf]lus If]qdf nfu]sf dhb'/x¿dWo] klg clwsf+zsf] ufp“n] s[lif;“usf]
k'/fgf] ;DaGw k"0f{ ¿kn] 6'l6;s]sf] 5}g / To;}n] pgLx¿df j}1flgs ;j{xf/fjfbL
r]tgfsf ljsf; / lj:tf/ Hofb} dGb ultdf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . kl5Nnf] r/0fdf slyt
pbf/Ls/0f / e"d08nLs/0fsf] gfp“df ;fd|fHojfbL / lj:tf/jfbL 3';k}7 c¿ tLj|
ePkl5 ;fgf tyf demf}nf /fli6«o pBf]uwGbfx¿ emg\ rf}k6 x'“b} uPsf 5g\ /
b]zleq d'7\7Le/ bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLkltx¿sf] af]njfnf a9]/ uPsf] 5 .
cTolws hg;+Vof cfl>t /x]sf] s[lif If]qsf] l:ylt emg\ eofjx / lbgx'“ c¿ uDeL/
aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . lk5l8Psf] c4{;fdGtL s[lif If]qdf nfu]sf] hg;+VofdWo] !)
k|ltzt hlt k"/} e"ldxLg 5 eg] hUuf x'g]x¿dWo] ^% k|ltzt ul/a ls;fgsf] xftdf
!) k|ltzt dfq hldg, @% k|ltzt dWod ls;fgsf] xftdf @% k|ltzt hlt g} hldg / !)
k|ltzt wgL ls;fg tyf ;fdGtx¿sf] xftdf ^% k|ltzt hldg 5 . o;/L ;du|df x]bf{ s'n
% k|ltzt hlt ;+Vofdf /x]sf] ;fdGt tyf bnfn / gf]s/zfxL k'FhLklt ju{n] dfq
ljBdfg /fHo;Qfaf6 nfe p7fO/x]sf] 5 / afFsL (% k|ltzt hgtf ;a} ;fwg /
;|f]tx¿af6 jl~rt x'g'sf] ;fy;fy} ljljw k|sf/sf zf]if0f / pTkL8gsf] df/df k/]sf 5g\ .
     of] eLif0f juL{o pTkL8gsf] cltl/Qm hg;d'bfosf] 7"nf] lx:;f aa{/ hftLo tyf
If]qLo pTkL8gdf klg k/]sf] 5 . P]ltxfl;s lx;fan] s]Gb|Lo ;fdGtL /fHo;Qfsf]
u7gkZrft\ lg/Gt/ ¿kdf /fHo;Qfdf cfo{ lxGb" slyt pRr hftsf] jr{:j /xFb}
cfPsfn] b]zsf] ax';+Vofdf /x]sf d+uf]n tyf ci6«f] b|lj8 d"nsf hflt tyf
hghfltx¿ -du/, u'?ª, tfdfª, /fO{, lnDa", g]jf/, yf¿ cflb_ /fhg}lts, cfly{s,
;fdflhs, eflifs cflb ljljw ¿kn] pTkL8gdf kb}{ cfO/xsf 5g\ . t/fO{df a;f]af;
ug]{ d}lynL, ef]hk'/L, cjlw efifL dw];L ;d'bfo / cGo hghfltx¿n] b'j} hftLo
tyf If]qLo pTkL8g ef]Ug' kl//x]sf] 5 . pRr lxdfnL If]q, s0ff{nL If]q tyf
;'b"/klZrd ;]tL dxfsfnL If]qsf hg;d'bfon] nfdf] ;dob]lv sf7df8f}+ s]lGb|t
/fHo;Qfsf] If]qLo e]befj / pTkL8g Joxf]b}{ cfO/x]sf 5g\ . kl5Nnf] r/0fdf
gf]s/zfxL k'FhLjfbsf] lj:tf/;+u;+u} ;Dk"0f{ ljsf; ;ldlt ;x/L If]qx¿df s]lGb|t
x'“b} uPsfn] () k|ltzt hgtf a;f]af; ug]{ ljzfn u|fdL0f If]q c;dfg ljsf; / If]qLo
pTkL8gsf] df/df kb}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 .
     hg;+Vofsf] csf]{ 7"nf] lx:;f ln+uLo / ;fdflhs–;f+:s[lts pTkL8gsf] yk
df/df kg]{ u/]sf] 5 . cfwf hg;+Vof cf]u6\g] dlxnfx¿ o'uf}+b]lv ;fdGtL
lkt[;QfjfbL zf]if0f pTkL8gsf] hf“tf]df lkl;+b} cfPsf 5g\ . kl5Nnf] r/0fdf
pgLx¿dfly k'“hLjfbL k|ltzt hlt /x]sf blntx¿ lxGb"x¿sf] j0ff{>d Joj:yf 5'jf5"t
k|yfsf] cdfgjLo pTkL8gdf kb}{ cfO/xsf 5g\ . To;/L g} s]Gb|Lo ;fdGtL
/fHo;Qf ag]otf /fHonfO{ lxGb" /fHo 3f]lift ul/Fb} cfPsf]n] u}/–lxGb"
wfld{s ;d'bfox¿ / vf;u/L pNn]Vo ;+Vofdf /x]sf d'l:ndx¿n] bf];|f] bhf{sf]
gful/ssf] Jojxf/ ;xg ug'{ kl//x]sf] 5 . o;/L ljBdfg c4{;fdGtL / c4{cf}klgj]lzs
;+/rgfcGtu{t Psflt/ l;+uf] b]z g} ;fd|fHojfb / ljz]iftM ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbsf] /fli6«o
pTkL8gdf k/]sf] 5 eg] csf]{lt/ b]zleqsf] cTolws ax';+Vos hg;d'bfo juL{o,
hftLo, If]qLo, ln+uLo / ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts zf]if0f–pTkL8gdf k/]sf] 5 . To;}n]
zf]if0f pTkL8gsf oL ;a} ¿kx¿sf] cGTo ug{ Ps};fy /fli6«o / hgjfbL–qmflGt
;DkGg ug'{ / gof“ vfnsf] /fli6«o k'“hLjfbL Joj:yf jf gof“ hgjfb jf hgtfsf]
hgjfbsf] :yfkgf ug'{ P]ltxfl;s ¿kn] ckl/xfo{ aGg uPsf] 5 . To;sf] lglDt b]zdf
s'g} Pp6f ju{ jf ;d'bfo dfq geP/ zf]if0f pTkL8gdf k/]sf ;a} ju{, hflt, ln+u,
If]q / ;d'bfodf hghtfsf] PsLs[t / ;femf k|of; x'g'kg]{ :jtM l;4 5 / To:tf]
qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lglDt b]zdf alnof] j:t'ut cfwf/ ljBdfg /x]sf] 5 .

@= ju{;+3if{sf] ljsf;qmd / l:ylt
     Oltxf;sf] ;'?b]lv g} ljs6 kxf8, gbLgfnf, jgh+un cflbsf k|fs[lts
k|lts"ntfx¿;+u ;+3if{ ub}{ / pQ/ tyf blIf0flt/af6 x'g] u/]sf cfjlws cfk|jf; /
cfqmd0f;Fu ;fd"lxs 9+un] h'Wb} cfpg] u/]sfn] g]kfnL hgtfsf] b'Mvsi6
em]Ng] / ;+3if{ ug]{ nfdf] tyf ulx/f] k/Dk/f /lxcfPsf] 5 . ;fy} nfdf] P]ltxfl;s
sfnel/ sljnfO{ ;+/rgf sfod /x“b} cfPsfn] / kl5Nnf] sfnv08df klg sljnfO{
cjz]if k"0f{¿kn] gi6 gePsfn] ;fd"lxs 9+un] n8\g, le8\g tof/ x'g] g]kfnL
hgtfsf] ljlzi6 rl/q /xg] u/]sf] 5 . cfo{ lxGb"x¿sf] g]t[Tjdf s]Gb|Lo ;fdGtL
/fHo lgdf{0fsf] qmddf b]lvPsf] ljz]iftM k"j{sf ls/f“t hghfltx¿sf] Jofks
k|lt/f]w / kl5 c+u|hx¿;+usf] n8fOdf gfnfkfgLnufotsf df]rf{x¿df dlxnf tyf
s]6fs]6Lx¿;d]tsf] Jofks ;+nUgtfsf] g]kfnL hgtfsf] h'emf? rl/q / n8fs"
k/Dk/fsf] k'li6 ub{5g\ . b]zJofkL ¿kdf ;fdGtjfbsf] ljsf; / vf;u/L s'Voft
;'uf}nL ;lGwkl5 zf;sju{sf] d'Vo tKsfn] ljb]zLx¿sf] bnfgL u/]/ cfˆgf] s';L{
hf]ufpg] k/Dk/fsf] yfngL u/]kl5 / lxhf] c+u|]h pklgj]zjfbLx¿ lj?4 Hofg 5f8]/
n8\g] g]kfnL o'jfx¿ g} c+u|]hx¿sf] ef8fsf] l;kfxL aGg] sn+sk"0f{ Oltxf;sf]
;'?jft ePkl5 g]kfndf bnfnL, cfTd;dk{0f / u2f/Lsf] Oltxf; klg ;'? eof] . t}klg
sfhL cd/ l;+x yfkf, hg/n eLd;]g yfkf nufotsf zf;sju{sf] Pp6f tKsfn] eg]
c+u|]hx¿sf lj?4 b]zelQmsf] emG8f p7fO/x\of] / To;n] kl5;Dd hgtfdf
/fli6«o cfTd;Ddfgsf] efjgf ;~rf/ ul//x\of] . cfGtl/s ¿kdf ;fdGtL,
c4{cf}klgj]lzs -jf cf}klgj]lzs_ d'n'sx¿df cfPsf] /fli6«o d'lQm tyf k'“hLjfbL
hgjfbL cfGbf]ngsf] nx/sf] k|efj :j¿k g]kfndf klg ;fdGtL /f0ff zf;glj/f]wL
cfGbf]ng tLj| aGof] . t/ g]kfndf /fli6«o k'“hLklt ju{sf] cToGt sdhf]/ l:yltsf
sf/0fn] Tof] cfGbf]ngn] ;xL qmflGtsf/L g]t[Tj k|fKt ug{ ;s]g / Tof] s'Voft
/fhf–/f0ff sf+u|]; lqkIfLo lbNnL ;Demf}tfdf t'lxof] .
     ToxL cfGbf]ngs} qmddf g]kfnsf] lzz' ;j{xf/fju{sf] cu|b:tfsf] ¿kdf s=
k'iknfnsf] g]t[Tjdf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ -g]=s=kf=_ sf] :yfkgf x'g' / To;n]
/fli6«o k'“hLjfbL qmflGtsf] sfo{qmdsf] ¿kdf gof“ hgjfbL sfo{qmd cufl8
;fg'{ g]kfnL hgqmflGtsf] Oltxf;df Pp6f cu|ufdL 5nfª lyof] . !($( df ev{/}
:yfkgf ePsf] sf/0fn] To;n] !(%! -@))& lj=;+=_ sf] /f0fflj/f]wL hgjfbL
cfGbf]ngdf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng g;s] klg To;n] cl3 ;f/]sf] ;xL s[lif
qmflGt / ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] sfo{qmdn] b]zdf Psflt/ h'emf? ls;fg cfGbf]ng
p7fpg / csf]{lt/ b]zeQmLo hgjfbL ;+o'Qm df]rf{nfO{ lj:tfl/t ug{ pNn]vgLo
sfd u¥of] . To;} l;nl;nfdf k"jL{ t/fO{df ePsf h'emf? ls;fg ;+3if{x¿ /
;'b"/klZrddf eLdbQ kGtsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf ;z:q hgljb|f]xx¿ g]kfnsf]
hgqmflGtsf] Oltxf;sf dxŒjk"0f{ sf];]9'+uf x'g\ . ;fy} To;}a]nf s'Voft lbNnL
;Demf}tfsf] lj?4 s]=cfO{= l;+xsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] c;kmn ;z:q ljb|f]x / k"j{df
/fdk|;fb /fO{x¿n] u/]sf] ljb|f]xnfO{ klg hgjfbL cfGbf]ngsf] Pp6f dxŒjk"0f{
s8L dfGg'kb{5 . clg !(%) sf] bzsdf klxn] sf]zL ;Demf}tf / kl5 u08s
;Demf}tfx¿ lj?4 ePsf ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb lj/f]wL /fli6«o hgcfGbf]ngx¿n] g]kfndf
b]zelQmk"0f{ ;+3if{sf] wf/nfO{ cl3 a9fpg 7"nf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/] .
     To;kl5 g]kfnsf] Oltxf;d 7"nf] lj8Dagfk"0f{ 36gf s] eof] eg] xfd|f] h:tf]
c4{ ;fdGtL / c4{ cf}klgj]lzs b]zdf ;fd|fHojfb lj/f]wL /fli6«o cfGbf]ng /
;fdGtjfb lj/f]wL hgjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ PsLs[t 9+un] / Ps csf{sf k"/ssf] ¿kdf
cl3 a9fpg'kg]{df /fli6«o / hgjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ Ps csf{sf] lj/f]wLsf] ¿kdf jf
cnu–cnu 9+un] lng] k|lqmof ;'? eof] . b]zdf cf}Bf]lus k'“hLjfbsf] ljsf;sf]
sdL / /fli6«o k'FhLklt ju{sf] sdhf]/ l:yltsf sf/0fn] To;f] x'g' :jfefljs lyof] .
Psflt/ d"ntM bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{sf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ g]kfnL
sf+u|];n] …k|hftGqÚ sf] gfp“df ;fd|fHojfb / ljz]iftM ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbsf] bnfnL
ug]{ af6f] lnof] eg] csf]{lt/ d"ntM ;fdGtjfbsf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ /fhtGqn]
…/fli6«otfÚ sf] gfp“df ;ldlt k'“hLjfbL hgjfbL clwsf/x¿nfO{ ;d]t vf];]/ lg/+s'z
k~rfotL Joj:yf b]zdfly yf]k¥of] . sdhf]/ ;j{xf/f ju{sf] kf6L{ g]=s=kf= g]t[Tjdf
Tolta]nf;Dd blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbLx¿ xfjL eO;s]sf x'gfn] sDo'lg:6x¿ klg
sf]xL …hgjfbÚ sf] gfp“df sf+u|];sf] k'R5/ aGg] / sf]xL …/fli6«otfÚ sf]
gfp“df /fhtGqsf] k'R5/ aGg] u/L ljleGg 6'qmfdf ljeflht x'g k'u] . To;kl5sf]
k~rfotLsfnsf] tL; jif{ -!(^) b]lv !(()_ ;Dd d"ntM k~rfotL lg/+s'ztf lj/f]wL
;'wf/jfbL cfGbf]ngdf jf …/fli6«otfÚ / …hgjfbÚ nfO{ PSnfPSn} 9+un]
x]g]{ Psf+uL, ;sL0f{tfjfbL cfGbf]ngdf g} lat] . To;qmddf ePsf dxŒjk"0f{
;+3if{x¿df emfkfsf o'jf qmflGtsf/Lx¿sf] g]t[Tjdf rn]sf] P]ltxfl;s ;z:q ;+3if{,
k'iknfn ;d"xsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] x/]{–a/]{ nufotsf] ls;fg ;+3if{, dhb'/ ls;fg
;+u7gsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] h'u]8L–h'6kfgL ls;fg ;+3if{, !(*) -@)#%÷#^
lj=;+=_ sf] ljBfyL{sf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] k~rfotL Joj:yf lj/f]wL hgcfGbf]ng,
hgsk'/ c~rndf s= Clif b]jsf]6f …cfhfbÚ sf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] u|fdL0f ju{–
;+3if{, lj=;+= @)#* df /f]Nkfsf] yjfªdf ePsf] k~rfotL r'gfj alxisf/;DaGwL
k|lt/f]w ;+3if{, /fd/fhfk|;fb l;+xsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] /fhtGq lj/f]wL adsf08, ;':tf–
dx]zk'/ nufotdf ;Ldf cltqmd0f / l;lSsd ljnosf] ;Gbe{df ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb lj/f]wL
/fli6«o cfGbf]ng, !(() -lj=;+= @)$^÷)$&_ sf] k~rfotL Joj:yf lj/f]wL ;+o'Qm
hgcfGbf]ng cflbnfO{ lng ;lsG5 . g]kfnL sf+u|];sf] g]t[Tjsf] ;fdGtjfb tyf
;fd|fHojfb÷lj:tf/jfbk|ltsf] bnfnL / cfTd;dk{0fjfbL gLltsf afah'b To;leq
h'emf? sfo{stf{x¿n] l6Da'/af]6] sf08nufotsf 36gfx¿df b]vfPsf] Tofu /
pT;u{sf] klg k~rfotL lg/+s'ztf lj/f]wL cfGbf]ngdf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf /x]sf]
:jLsfg'{kb{5 . tLdWo] !(() sf] hgcfGbf]ngn] lg/+s'z /fhtGqfTds k~rfotL
Joj:yfsf] cGTo u/]/ ;+j}wflgs /fhtGqfTds ;+;bLo ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] :yfkgf
u/] klg To;n] b]zdf s'g} df}lns ;+/rgfTds kl/jt{g Nofpg ;s]g, a? Tof] k'/fg}
;fdGt tyf bnfn / gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{sf] /fHo;QfnfO{ gof“ sn]j/df lg/Gt/tf
lbg] dfWod dfq aGof] . jf:tjdf jt{dfg ;fd|fHojfbsf] o'udf ;+;bLo Joj:yf hxf“
sxL“ klg Psflwsf/ k'“hLjfbL u'6x¿sf] :jfy{l;4 ug]{ v]nf}gf dfq ePsf]n] To;n]
cfd hg;d'bfonfO{ ;Rrf hgjfbsf] k|Tofe"lt u/fpg g;Sg' / pTkLl8t b]zx¿df
/fli6«otfsf] /Iff ug{ g;Sg' ljns'n :jfefljs s'/f xf] .
     of] k[i7e"ldsf s= k|r08sf] g]t[Tjdf ;j{xf/f ju{sf] ;Rrf qmflGtsf/L cu|b:tfsf]
¿kdf klxn] g]=s=kf= -Pstf s]Gb|_ / kl5 g]=s=kf= -dfcf]jfbL_ sf] gfp“df
ljR5[+vlnt sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] k'gu{7g x'g' / ;g\ !((^ -lj=;+= @)%@ kmfu'g_
b]lv gof“ hgjfbL /fHo;Qf :yfkgf ug]{ 3f]lift nIosf ;fy ;z:q hgo'4sf] yfngL
x'g' g]kfnL hgqmflGtsf] Oltxf;df Pp6f o'ufGtsf/L kl/36gf lyof] lsgls ;z:q
hgo'4sf] yfngLn] bzsf}+b]lv ;'wf/jfbL bnbndf km;]sf] sDo'lg:6
cfGbf]ngnfO{ dfq gof“ qmflGtsf/L lbzfaf]w u/]g ls To;n] /fli6«otf /
hgjfbaLr nfdf] ;dob]lv 6'6]sf] s8LnfO{ hf]8]/ b]zsf] ;fdGtjfb tyf
;fd|fHojfb÷lj:tf/jfb lj/f]wL /fli6«o hgjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ g} gof“ prfOdf
p7fOlbof] . hgo'4sf] klxnf] ;f9] kfFr jif{n] b]zdf juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo,
ln+uLo d'lQm cfGbf]ngsf x/]s If]qdf gof“ sLlt{dfg :yfkgf u/]sf] 5 . kf6L{sf]
g]t[Tjdf ul7t / a6flnog:t/;Dd ljsl;t eO;s]sf] hg;]gfn] Pskl5 csf]{ pRr
kmf}hL sf/afxLx¿ ;DkGg u/]/ b]zsf] 7"nf] e"–efudf cfwf/ Onfsfx¿sf]
lgdf{0fnfO{ ;Dej agfPsf] 5 . cfwf/ Onfsf jl/kl/ 5fkfdf/ Onfsf / 5fkfdf/ Onfsf
jl/kl/ 5fkfdf/ sf/afxLsf Onfsfx¿sf] of]hgfa4 lgdf{0fn] ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ g}
qmdzM nk]6\b} nlu/x]sf] 5 . cfwf/ Onfsfx¿df d'7\7Le/ ;fdGt / bnfn tyf
gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{ afx]ssf ;Dk"0f{ hg;d'bfosf] ;+nUgtfdf hg;Qfsf] cEof;
eO/x]sf 5g\ / Toxf“ /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts x/]s If]qdf cfd"n
kl/jt{gx¿ eO/x]sf 5g\ . hg;Qfx¿df dhb'/ / ul/a ls;fgb]lv /fli6«o
k'“hLklt;Ddsf k|ultzLn ju{x¿sf] ;femf ;+nUgtfsf] cltl/Qm pTkLl8t hflt, blnt
hflt / dlxnfx¿sf] ljz]if ;xeflutf /xg] u/]sfn] hgo'4sf] k|lqmof;+u;+u} b]zdf
ljleGg pTkLl8t ju{, hflt, If]q / ln+usf hg;d'bfosf] ;+o'Qm df]rf{ aGg] qmd
Psbd tLj| x'“b} uPsf] 5 . d"ntM u|fdL0f If]qx¿df 3gLe"t /x]sf] of] ju{
;+3if{sf] pRr tfkn] ;x/L If]qx¿nfO{ klg qmdzM k|efljt ub}{ nlu/x]sf] 5 /
To;}sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k h'emf? k|s[ltsf b]zJofkL hgcfGbf]ngx¿ klg kl5Nnf]
r/0fdf a9]/ uPsf 5g\ .
     o;sf ;fy} ljleGg b]zeQm, hgjfbL / jfdkGyL zlQmx¿sf] ;+nUgtfdf b]zdf
;fd|fHojfb / ljz]if u/L ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbsf] pTkL8g lj/f]wL /fli6«o cfGbf]ng klg
a]nfavtdf cfˆgf] ultdf p7\g] u/]sf] 5 . vf;u/L !(() sf] bzsdf rn]sf] klxn] 6gsk'/
;Demf}tf / kl5 slyt PsLs[t dxfsfnL ;lGw lj/f]wL b]zelQmk"0f{ cfGbf]ngsf]
ljz]if dxŒj /x]sf] 5 .
     o;/L g]kfnL ;dfhdf ju{ ;+3if{sf] pRrtd cleJolQmsf ¿kdf hgo'4sf] ljsf;n]
Oltxf;sf ;a} qmflGtsf/L ljb|f]xsf s8Lx¿nfO{ hf]8]/ nlu/x]sf] 5 . tnaf6 dfly /
:yfgLoaf6 s]Gb|Lo tx;Dd ljsf; x'g] qmddf of] k|lqmof /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o
k|ltlqmofjfbL zlQmx¿;Fu 6qm\ofpg] lglZrt k|foM 5 . vf;u/L s]Gb|Lo
;Qfdfly sAhf hdfP/ b]z / hgtfdfly zf]if0f–pTkL8g ub}{ cfPsf] d'7\7Le/
;fdGt / bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{sf] k|ltlglwTj ug]{ zf;s u'6 / To;nfO{
cf8 e/f];f lbg] ljb]zL ;fd|fHojfb / ljz]iftM ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbn] g]kfnL hgtfsf] of]
dxfg\ d'lQm ;+3if{sf lj?4 cfˆgf] clGtd ;z:q zlQm vGofpg] 68\sf/f] ;Defjgf
5 . To;}n] /fli6«otf / hgjfbsf] of] dxfg\ lg0ff{os n8fOFdf Oltxf;b]lvsf] kf7
l;s]/ ;a} pTkLl8t ju{, hflt, If]q / ln+usf hg;d'bfo uf]naGb x'g' h?/L ePsf] 5 .
     @)%* h]7 !( ut] if8\oGqk"0f{ 9+un] 36fOPsf] s'Voft gf/fo0flx6L
xTofsf08dfkm{t ;fk]If ¿kn] pbf/ / sltko b]zelQmk"0f{ c8fg /fVg] /fhf
jL/]Gb|sf] j+z gfz ul/Pkl5 g]kfndf ;fdGtL /fi6«jfbdf cfwfl/t k/Dk/fut
/fhtGqsf] j:t'tM cj;fg ePsf] 5 . b]zdf k|ltlqmofjfbL ju{x¿sf] ;aeGbf k'/fgf] /
dha't ;+:yf /fhtGq o;/L cfsl:ds 9+un] w/fzfoL ePkl5 / vf; s'g} alnof]
cfGtl/s h/f] gePsf] ;+;bLo Joj:yf Pskl5 csf]{ ;+s6df km:b} uPkl5 b]zdf
k|ltlqmofjfbLsf] s]Gb|Lo /fHo;Qf g} tLj| ¿kn] lj36glt/ pGd'v x'“b} uO/x]sf]
5 . of] l:yltdf s]Gb|Lo:t/df g} hgu0ftGqfTds /fHo;QfnfO{ ;+:yfut ug{
qmflGtsf/Lx¿n] cfˆgf] kxnnfO{ tLj| kfg'{k/]sf] 5 .

#=      qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] cf}lrTo / :j¿k
     nfdf] ;dob]lv ;'wf/jfbL / cj;/jfbL bnbndf km:b} cfO/x]sf g]kfnsf] /fli6«o
hgjfbL / sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf ;+o'Qm df]rf{ eGg] ljlQs} Ifl0fs tyf tfTsfnLg
p2]Zosf nflu ljleGg ;d"xx¿aLr sfod ul/g] c:yfoL u7aGwg jf cfˆg} kf6L{ jf
;d"xsf glhssf hg;+u7g / JolQmTjx¿nfO{ dfq cl3 ;f/]/ agfOg] ;+sL0f{ /
oflGqs vfnsf] cf}krfl/s df]rf{ dfq a'lemg] k|rng 5 . /fHo;QfnfO{ s]Gb|df
/fv]/ ;z:q ;+3if{ cufl8 a9L g;]sf] / hg;]gf tyf hg;Qfsf] hGd geO;s]sf] Tof]
cj:yfdf ;+o'Qm df]rf{af/] To:tf] s]6f}n] cjwf/0ff dfq cl3 cfpg' :jfefljs lyof] .
g]kfndf ;DejtM klxnf] k6s !(%! -lj=;+= @))*_ df g]=s=kf= sf] kxndf g]kfn
k|hfkl/ifb\;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf ;fdGtjfb tyf ;fd|fHojfb–lj/f]wL ;+3if{sf] nIo /fv]/,
…hftLo hgtflGqs ;+o'Qm df]rf{Ú sf] u7g ePsf] lyof], k/Gt' Tof] nfdf]
;do;Dd l6Sg / cufl8 a9\g ;s]g . kl5 aLraLrdf / vf;u/L k~rfotLsfnel/
tfTsfnLg / vfln ;fdfGo ;'wf/fTds ;+3if{sf nIo /fv]/ ;fgfltgf df]rf{x¿ agfpg]
k|of; eP . t/ :ki6 qmflGtsf/L /fhg}lts sfo{lbzf / g]t[Tjsf] cefjdf ltgLx¿sf] vf;}
cy{ / dxŒj /xg ;s]g . ;g\ !(() sf] k~rfotL Joj:yf lj/f]wL lg0ff{os
hgcfGbf]ngsf] a]nf æ;+o'Qm /fli6«o hgcfGbf]ngÆ -;+=/f=h=cf=_ sf]
¿kdf jfdkGyL / qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 ;d"xx¿sf aLr 5'§f5'§} df]rf{x¿ cl:tTjdf
cfP . jfddf]rf{sf nIo ax'bnLo ;+;bLo Joj:yf k|fKt ug'{ dfq ePsf]n] ;+;bLo
Joj:yfsf] :yfkgfkZrft\ Tof] :jtM lj36g eP/ uof] eg] hgtfsf] hgjfbL qmflGtsf]
nIo /fv]/ ul7t qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6 ;d"xx¿sf] df]rf{ ;+=/f=h=cf= klg gof“
kl/j]zdf cufl8 a9\g ;s]g . k/Gt' ;+=/f=h=cf= s} kblrGxdf nueu To;}sf] hf/L
tyf leGg ¿kdf !((! -lj=;+= @)$& df3_ df ;+o'Qm hgdf]rf{, g]kfn -
;+=h=df]=_ sf] u7g eof] / To;n] b]zdf gofF hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg ug]{
cfˆgf] nIo /fVof] . kl5 To;leq j}rfl/s, /fhgLlts cGt/lj/f]wx¿ rs{b} uPkl5
To;af6 Pp6f tKsf km'6]/ ;+;bLo / ;'wf/jfbL /fhg}lts wf/ klqmof] eg] csf]{
qmflGtsf/L wf/n] u}/;+;bLo ;+3if{sf] wf/ kqm]/ g]=sf=kf= -dfcf]jfb_ sf]
g]t[Tjdf ;'? ePsf] ;z:q hgo'4sf] tof/L / ljsf;df dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgefof] .
b]zdf hgqmflGtsf] tLj| ljsf;sf] ;fk]Iftfdf To;sf] k'/fgf] :j¿k / e"ldsf ;f“3'/f] /
ckof{Kt b]lvPsfn] gof“ / pRr k|sf/sf] qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lglDt kxn
ug]{ 3f]if0ffsf ;fy ;g\ @))) sf] km]a|'c/L -lj=;+= @)%^ kmfu'g_ df ;+=
h=df]= sf] lj36g eof] . o;}qmddf, b]zdf o'ufGtsf/L hgo'4sf] ;kmn g]t[Tj
ul//x]sf] ;j{xf/f ju{sf ;Rrf cu|b:tf g]=s=kf= -dfcf]jfbL_ n] ljleGg ;dox¿df
;+o'Qm df]rf{ ;DaGwdf lnPsf dxŒjk"0f{ lg0f{ox¿ tyf ;r]t kxnn] g]kfndf
gof“ 9+un] qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lgdf{0fsf lglDt j:t'ut / cfTdut kl/l:ylt
pko'Qm aGb} uof] . hgo'4sf] yfngL ePsf] sl/a jif{b]lv leq} lj=;+= @)%#
k';df                                ePsf]                             g]=s=kf=
-dfcf]jfbL_ sf] kf]ln6Ao"/f]sf] a}7sdf tfTsfnLg dxfdGqL s= k|r08åf/f k|:t't
tyf a}7såf/f kfl/t k|:tfjn] g]kfndf ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0fsf] lglDt juL{o k|Zgsf]
cltl/Qm hftLo / If]qLo pTkL8gsf] k|ZgnfO{ ;d]t Psfsf/ u/]/ n}hfg'kg]{
dxŒjk"0f{ cjwf/0ff cl3 ;f¥of] / kmn:j¿k b]zdf cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ /
:jzf;gsf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd lnP/ pTkLl8t hflt tyf If]qx¿sf ljleGg
d'lQmdf]rf{x¿ cl3 cfP . lj=;+= @)%% efb|df ;DkGg g]=s=kf= -dfcf]jfbL_
sf] rf}yf] lj:tfl/t a}7sn] b]zdf jt{dfg k|ltlqmofjfbL Joj:yfsf] cGTo u/]/
b]zeQm, hgjfbL, jfdkGyL / k|ultzLn zlQmx¿sf] ;+o'Qm qmflGtsf/L ;/sf/
lgdf{0f ug'{kg]{ k|:tfj cl3 ;f/]kl5 ljleGg b]zeQm / hgjfbL /fhg}lts
zlQmx¿aLr ljleGg :t/sf] ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0f lglDt jftf{, 5nkmn,
cGt/lqmofsf] k|lqmof ;'? eof] . ;fy}, hgo'4sf] tLj| ljsf;;+u;+u} b]zsf sltko
/0fgLlts Onfsfx¿ / vf;u/L klZrd g]kfnsf kxf8L Onfsfx¿df qmflGtsf/L cfwf/
Onfsfx¿sf] ljsf; / :yfgLo hg;Qfx¿sf] :yfkgfn] ;Qfsf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf
qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lgdf{0fsf] j:t'ut cfwf/ tof/ x'“b} uof] . lj=;+=
@)%& df3 kmfu'gdf ;DkGg g]=sf=kf= -dfcf]jfbL_ sf] P]ltxfl;s æbf];|f]
/fli6«o ;Dd]ngÆ df cWoIf s= k|r08åf/f k|:t't tyf æ;Dd]ngÆ åf/f kfl/t
/fhg}lts k|ltj]bgn] b]zdf :yfgLo cfwf/ Onfsfx¿nfO{ lj:tf/ / ;'b[9 ub}{ s]Gb|Lo
hg;/sf/ lgdf{0fsf] lbzfdf cl3 a9\g] k|:tfj cl3 ;f/]kl5 qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm
df]rf{nfO{ ;Qf / ;+3if{sf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf tyf :yfgLo / s]Gb|Lo b'j} txdf ;+ul7t
ug]{ j:t'ut / cfTdut kl/l:yltn] u'0ffTds 5nfË xfGof] . of] P]ltxfl;s k[i7e"lddf
;+o'Qm df]rf{;DalGw lgtfGt gof“ / kl/dflh{t ;f]rsf ;fy ;+o'Qm qmflGtsf/L
hgkl/ifb\ g]kfn u7g ePsf] 5 .
     clxn] xfdLn] oxf“ qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{ eGgfn] ljBdfg c4{–;fdGtL
tyf c4{–cf}klgj]lzs /fHo;QfnfO{ ;d"n gi6 u/]/ To;sf] :yfgdf gof“ 9+usf]
/fli6«o k'“hLjfbL jf gof“ hgjfbL /fHo;Qf :yfkgf ug{ ljBdfg /fHo;Qfåf/f
pTkLl8t ;a} ju{, hflt / If]qsf hgtf / pgLx¿sf k|ltlglw ;+u7gx¿sf] ;+o'Qm
df]rf{ eGg] a'em\g' kb{5 . dflysf] ;+lIfKt P]ltxfl;s l;+xfjnf]sgaf6 :ki6
eO;s]sf] 5 ls cf}Bf]lus ;j{xf/f ju{sf] c;fWo} ;fgf] ;+Vof /x]sf] / ax';+Vos ul/a
ls;fgx¿ /x]sf] ax'juL{o g]kfnL ;dfhdf dhb'/–ls;fg Pstf g} ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf]
d'Vo juL{o cfwf/ x'G5 / cGo ;fdGt / bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{ afx]ssf
ju{x¿ -cyf{t\ dWod ls;fg, wgL ls;fg, Go"g k'“hLjfbL ju{ / /fli6«o k'“hLklt
ju{_ sf] ;d]t To;df ;xeflutf /xG5 / /xg'k5{ . ;fy} k|fs[–k'“hLjfbL ;dfhsf]
g};lu{s ljz]iftf cg'¿k juL{o pTkL8gsf] cltl/Qm hftLo, If]qLo, ln+uLo
;f+:s[lts pTkL8g klg ;dfhdf JofKt /xg] ePsn] qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{df
pTkLl8t hflt hghflt / If]qsf hg;d'bfo, blnt, hflt, dlxnf cNk;+Vos wfld{s
;d'bfo cflbsf hgtfsf] ;xeflutf klg clgjfo{ x'G5 . To;sf] cltl/Qm c4{–
cf}klgj]lzs b]z / g]kfn h:tf] P]ltxfl;s ¿kn] ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbåf/f ljz]if 9+un]
pTkLl8t b]zdf b]zelQmsf] efjgf ePsf] ;fdGtju{sf] Pp6f tKsf;d]t ¿kfGtl/t
eP/ ;+o'Qm df]rf{df cfpg ;Sg] ;DefjgfnfO{ Vofn /fVg'kb{5 . hgqmflGtsf]
ljsf;sf] ;fk]Iftfdf ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] Jofjxfl/s bfo/f ;f“3'/f] jf km/flsnf] x'g]
s'/fnfO{ klg xd]zf Wofg lbg'kb{5 . ;du|df, d"ne"t gLltx¿leq /x]/ qmflGtsf]
cfjZostfcg';f/ ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0f ug]{ k|lqmofdf qmflGtsf/Lx¿ clwstd\
nlrnf] / l;h{gzLn x'g ;Sg'kb{5 .

tTsfn ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] :j¿k / lgdf{0f k|lqmofaf/] lgDg s'/fx¿df ljz]if
Wofg lbg h?/L 5
     ;j{k|yd, qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lgdf{0f ubf{ ;j{xf/f ju{sf cu|b:tfsf]
¿kdf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{, p;sf] g]t[Tjdf /x]sf] hg;]gf / cGo hgju{, kf6L{ ;d"x
JolQmx¿ aLrsf] cGt/;DaGwnfO{ 7Ls;+u :yflkt ug{ cToGt} h?/L x'G5 .
cGttM of] s'/fn] g} ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] rl/q qmflGtsf/L x'g] ls cj;/jfbL x'g]
eGg] 6'+uf] nufp“5 lsgls jt{dfg ;fd|fHojfbsf] o'udf u'dfpgsf] lglDt xTs8L
l;jfo s]xL gePsf] ;j{xf/f ju{n] dfq} qmflGtsf/LnfO{ cGTo;Dd 8f]¥ofpg ;S5 /
To; lx;fan] ;+o'Qm gePsf] ;j{xf/f ju{n] dfq} qmflGtsf/LnfO{ cGTo;Dd
8f]¥ofpg ;S5 / To; lx;fan] ;+o'Qm df]rf{df ;j{xf/f ju{sf] PsLs[t g]t[Tj clgjfo{
x'G5 . ;j{xf/f ju{sf] g]t[Tj p;sf] cu|b:tf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfkm{t cleJoQm
x'G5 . clxn]sf] ljZjdf dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb dfcf]jfbnfO{ dfu{lgb]{zs l;4fGt
dfGg] dfq} ;Rrf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ x'g ;Sb5 . g]kfnsf] ljlzi6 ;Gbe{df df–n]–df
jfbL lj1fgsf] k|of]uaf6 ljsl;t ljrf/ z[v+nf k|r08kynfO{ ;Rrf sDo'lg:6x¿n]
cg';/0f ug'{ klg plQs} h?/L x'G5 . ljleGg b]zsf] cg'ejx¿n] k'li6 u/] em}+
;j{xf/fsf] ;xL g]t[Tjlagf jt{dfg ljZjdf /fli6«o hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg x'g /
lg/Gt/ ¿kdf cufl8 a9\g ;Dej g} 5}g . To;/L g} hg;]gflagf k'/fgf] ;Qfsf Wj+;
ug{ / gof“ ;Qfsf] /Iff ug{ ;Dej x'“b}g . To;}n] hlxn];'s} klg ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf]
d]?b08sf] ¿kdf alnof] hg;]gf /x]sf] x'g'kb{5 / cGTodf cGo k|ultzLn ju{,
kf6L{ / ;d"x jf JolQmx¿sf] ;+nUgtflagf ;+o'Qm df]rf{ Jofks hg;d'bfodf
emf“lug ;Sb}g / hg;d'bfosf] ;+nUgtflagf s'g} klg qmflGt ;kmn x'g ;Sb}g .
To;}n] o;nfO{ o;/L klg eGg ;lsG5 qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{df sDo'lg:6
kf6L{n] …6fpsf]Ú jf dl:tissf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u5{, hg;]gfsf] d]?b08sf] sfd u5{
/ cGo kIfx¿n] …xftv'§fÚ sf] e"ldsf lgjfx ub{5g\ eg] To;/L k"0f{ z/L/
aGb5 . Pp6fsf] cefjdf csf]{ k"0f{ x'g ;Sb}g .
    bf];|f] s'/f, ;j{xf/f ju{ jf p;sf] cu|b:tf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ;+o'Qm df]rf{df
cfk;L ;DaGw s:tf] /xG5 eGg] s'/fn] g} cGttM ;+o'Qm df]rf{ aGg] jf gaGg]
eGg] s'/fsf] 6'+uf] nufp“5 . ;j{xf/fju{sf] g]t[Tj eg]sf] ljrf/, /fhgLlt,
sfo{z}nLsf] g]t[Tj xf] / Tof] oflGqs / anhkm\tL 9Ën] geP/ hgjfbL / :j]lR5s
9+un] tyf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] qmflGtsf/L Jojxf/df cfkm\gf] >]i7tf Tofu /
alnbfgåf/f k|fKt ug'{kb{5 . ;fy} sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / cGo kf6L{ tyf
;d"xx¿aLrsf] ;DaGw cfk;L ;xof]ufTds / ;'kl/j]If0ffTds x'g'kb{5 . sDo'lg:6
kf6L{n] cfkm\gf] ;j{xf/f rl/q hf]ufO{ /fVg dxfg\ lrlgof“ ;j{xf/f ;f+:s[lts
qmflGtn] ljsl;t u/]sf] ljlwåf/f cfkm"nfO{ lg/Gt/ k|lzlIft u/L /fVg'kb{5 / c?
hgjfbL kf6L{x¿n] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] d}qLk"0f{ cfnf]rgf ug{ kfpg'kb{5 /
ug'{kb{5 .
    t];|f] s'/f, qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{df d'Vo ¿kdf juL{o k|ltlglwTj x'g] eP
klg cj:yfcg';f/ ;+u7gfTds k|ltlglwTj x'g' / x'g'kg]{ s'/fnfO{ :jLsfg'{kb{5 .
vf;u/L juL{o lje]bLs/0f /fd|f];Fu geO;s]sf] xfd|f] h:tf] k|fs–k'FhLJfbL
;dfhdf ;+u7gx¿sf] juL{o x}l;ot cS;/ 5'6\ofpg ufx|f] x'G5 / Pp6} ju{sf]
PseGbf a9L k|ltlglw ;+u7gx¿ x'g] -jf ePsf] bfjL ug]{_ ;Defjgf /xG5 .
Pp6} b]zdf PseGbf a9L kf6L{x¿n] cfkm"nfO{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ eGg] bfjL
ug'{ To;}sf] k|ltljDag xf] . Tof] l:yltdf ljleGg sDo'lg:6 jf jfdkGyL eGg]
kf6L{x¿;+u j}rfl/s ;+3if{ rnfp“b} ltgLx¿;+u qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{ sfod
ub}{ hfg] gLlt lng'kb{5 .
    rf}yf] s'/f, qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] d'Vo sfd ;+3if{ / ;Qfsf] ;fwgsf]
e"ldsf lgjf{x ug'{ xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L cfTd;ft\ ug'{kb{5 . klxn] ;+3if{åf/f
k'/fgf] ;Qfsf] Wj+; ug'{ / kl5 gof“ ;Qfsf] ;+rfng ug'{ ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] k|d'v
Wo]o xf] . cyf{t\ ;+3if{åf/f ;Qf k|fKt ug'{ / pRr tyf lg/Gt/ ;+3if{sf lglDt
;Qfsf] k|of]u ug'{ ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] sfdsf] k|s[lt leGg x'g] s'/fnfO{ 7Ls;+u
a'em\g'kb{5 . g]kfndf clxn] sltko e"–efux¿df cfwf/Onfsfx¿ aGb} uO/x]sf]
/ cGoq 5fkdf/ Onfsf tyf 5fkfdf/ sf/afxLsf Onfsfx¿ dfq ag]sf] l:yltdf
cfwf/Onfsfx¿df ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] rl/q d"ntM ;Qfsf] ;fwg x'g], 5fkfdf/
Onfsfx¿df cf+lzs ;Qfsf] ;fwg / cf+lzs ;+3if{sf] ;fwg x'g] tyf 5fkfdf/
sf/afxLsf Onfsfx¿df d"ntM ;+3if{sf] ;fwg x'g] s'/f :jtM l;4 5 .
    kf“rf}+ s'/f ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0f cS;/ :6fgLo / s]Gb|Lonufot ljleGg
txdf x'g] / k|foM To;sf] ljsf; :yfgLoaf6 ljsl;t x'“b} s]Gb|Lo tx;Dd x'g] eP
klg To;sf] s'g} lglZrt kmd'{nf eg] x'“b}g . jt{dfg g]kfnsf] kl/j]zdf :yfgLo
txdf ;Qfsf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] tLj| lj:tf/ x'“b} uPsfn] ltgsf] /Iff /
ljsf;sf] lglDt / hgqmflGtnfO{ u'0ffTds prfO k|bfg ug{sf] lglDt s]Gb|Lo:t/df
;Qf / ;+3if{sf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] lgdf{0f cfjZos
b]lvPsf] 5 . hgo'4n] lg0ff{os ljho xfl;n gu/];Dd ;Qfsf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf
s]Gb|Lo:t/df ;+o'Qm df]rf{ plt sfdsfhL x'g g;s] klg qmflGtsf] ljsf;sf] lglDt
To;sf] cf}lrTo / dxŒj /xg] ;':ki6 5 . hgqmflGtsf] pRrt/ ljsf; ;+u;+u}
s]Gb|Lo:t/df ;Qfsf] ;fwgsf] ¿kdf ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] e"ldsfnfO{ qmdzM j[l4
ub}{ n}hfg'kb{5 / ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] bfo/fnfO{ klg km/flsnf] kfb}{
n}hfg'kb{5 . ;'?df s]Gb|Lo:t/sf] ;+o'Qm df]rf{ d"ntM tnaf6 ljsl;t x'“b}
uO/x]sf hg;Qf / cfwf/ Onfsfx¿sf] s'n of]usf] ¿kdf ltgLx¿sf] ;+of]hg ug]{ /
ltgLx¿nfO{ lgb]{lzt ug]{ lgsfo x'g] :jtM l;4 5 . k/Gt' g]kfnsf] P]ltxfl;s
ljlzi6tfdf ;'?b]lv g} clwstd b]zeQm hgjfbL, jfdkGyL / k|ultzLn kf6L{, ;d"x,
hgju{ / JolQmTjx¿nfO{ ;+nUg ub}{ To;nfO{ ;s];Dd km/flsnf] kfg]{ sf]l;;
ug'{kb{5 .
     5}6f}+ s'/f, cfd ¿kdf ;a} c4{–;fdGtL / c4{–cf}klgj]lzs kl/l:ylt / g]kfnsf]
ljlzi6 e"–P]ltxfl;s kl/j]zdf gof“ hgjfbL qmflGtsf] r/0fel/ qmflGtsf] /fli6«o /
hgjfbL kIfaLr cleGg / åGåfTds ;DaGw /xg] s'/fnfO{ xd];f Vofn
/fVg'kb{5 . /, ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0fsf] qmddf tL b'O{aLrsf] ;xL ;Gt'ng
ldnfp“b} b'j} pbf/jfbL / ;+sL0f{jfbL uNtL ug{af6 aRg'kb{5 .
     qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{ lgdf{0f;DaGwL pk/f]Qm d"ne"t dfGotfx¿k|lt
k|lta4 x'“b} g]kfnL gof“ hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg ug] qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm
df]rf{sf] d"n cleJolQmsf ¿kdf ;+o'Qm qmflGtsf/L hgkl/ifb\, g]kfnsf] u7g
ul/Psf] 5 .

$=     /fHo;Qf;DaGwL j}1flgs cjwf/0ff
    cfh b]zdf dxfg\ hgo'4sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k w]/} e"–efux¿df :yfgLo hg;Qfx¿ /
qmflGtsf/L cfwf/Onfsfx¿ aGb} uO/x]sf] / s]Gb|Lo ¿kdf ;d]t of] gof“ :yflkt
qmflGtsf/L ;+o'Qm df]rf{n] a9\bf] ¿kdf /fHo;Qfsf] e"ldsf lgjf{x ub}{
hfg'kg]{ ePsf]n] xfdLn] /fHo;Qf;DaGwL j}1flgs cjwf/0ffaf/] ;femf
;dembf/L sfod ug'{ h?/L 5 . lxhf] ?;, rLgnufot ljZjsf ljleGg b]zx¿df ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] g]t[Tjdf :yflkt /fHo;Qfx¿;d]t ktg eO;s]sf] l:yltdf ca PSsfO;f}+
ztfAbLdf aGg] gof“ /fHo;Qfx¿n] tL ljutsf k|ltqmflGtaf6 ;d]t kf7 l;s]/ ;'?b]lv
g} cfkm\gf] hu cem} j}1flgs / dha't 9Ën] a:ffNg' cfjZos ePsf] 5 .
    klxnf] s'/f, cfh;Ddsf] dfgj ;dfhsf] ljsf;sf] Oltxf;af6 k|:6 x'G5 ls ;+;f/df
lghL ;DklQ / ju{sf] pbo ;+u;+u} /fHo;Qfsf] klg hGd ePsf] xf] / To;}n]
/fHo;Qf eg]sf] Pp6f ju{n] csf]{ ju{dfly ank"j{s cfkm\gf] x}sd sfod /fVg]
;fwg xf] . juL{o ;dfh /x'~h]n /fHo;Qfsf] rl/q klg xd];f juL{o g} /xG5 / ;a}
ju{sf] lxt ug]{ jf ju{eGbf dfly /x]sf] …lgjuL{oÚ /fHo;Qf eGg] s'/f x'g}
;Sb}g . ;dfh ljsf;sf] r/0fcg';f/ Oltxf;df /fHo;Qfsf ljleGg ¿kdf b]lvPsf 5g\ -
h:t}–;fdGtL, k'“hLjfbL cflb jf /fhtGqfTds, u0ftGqfTds, ;+;bLo cflb_ t/
;f/tŒjdf ltgLx¿ ;w}+ Pp6f jf csf]{ zf]ifs ju{sf] clwgfosTj g} x'g] u/]sf 5g\ .
Oltxf;df hlGdPsf ;a} rLh Oltxf;d} ljlng eP em}+ juL{o ;dfhsf] cGTosf
;fy;fy /fHo;Qfsf] klg cGTo x'g] clgjfo{ 5 .
     bf];|f] s'/f, /fHo;Qf hlxn];'s} klg lx+;fsf] andf l6s]sf] x'G5 . ;}Go
zlQmnfO{ s]Gb|df /fv]/ /fHo;Qfn] Ao"/f]qm];L, Gofofno, h]n, lgod, sfg'g /
cfkm\gf] juL{o lrGtg cg'¿ksf] ;f+:s[lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f u/]sf] x'G5 . To;}n]
cfkm\gf] cflwkTo sfod ug{ rfxg] Oltxf;sf] gofF pbLodfg ju{n] k'/fgf]
/fHo;QfnfO{ ank"j{s Wj+; u/]/ cfkm\gf] gof“ /fHo;Qf lgdf{0f ub{5 /
ug'{kb{5 . Oltxf;df clxn];Ddsf bf;o'uLg, ;fdGtL / >dhLjL zf]lift–
pTkLl8tx¿dfly clwgfosTj nfu" ug]{ leGg ¿kdf ;fwg dfq oyfjt\ sfod /fVg'
:jfefljs lyof] . t/ ca ;j{xf/fju{sf] g]t[Tjdf ;dfhsf ax';+Vos >dhLjL, k|ultzLn,
b]zeQm hgtfn] lgdf{0f ug]{ /fHo;Qf Oltxf;df klxnf]rf]l6 ax';+Vosn]
cNk;+Vosdfly zf;g ug]{ u'0ffTds ¿kn] leGg k|s[ltsf] /fHo;Qf x'g] x'gfn]
To; lglDt k'/fgf] /fHo;Qfsf] ;a} cjojx¿nfO{ k"0f{ ¿kn] Wj+; u/]/ gof“ cjoj
v8f ug'{ clgjfo{ x'G5 .
     t];|f] s'/f, xfd|f] h:tf] c4{–;fdGtL tyf c4{–cf}klgj]zs b]zdf /fHo;Qfsf] rl/q
;fdGt / bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLklt ju{sf] clwgfosTj x'g] x'gfn] tyf
;fd|fHojfb÷lj:tf/jfb lj/f]w zlQmx¿sf] ;+o'Qm clwgfosTj jf hgtfsf] hgjfbL
clwgfsoTj ePsf] gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;Qf sfod ug'{kb{5 . ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] g]t[Tjdf sfod x'g] To:tf] hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;Qf sfod ug'{kb{5 . ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] g]t[Tjdf sfod x'g] To:tf] hgtfsf] hgjfbL clwgfosTjn] ;j{xf/f cNk;+Vos
;fdGt / bnfn tyf k'“hLklt ju{dfly …clwgfsTjÚ nfu" ub{5 . ax';+Vos
hg;d'bfosf] ;lqmo ;xeflutf /x]sf] t/ c;fWo PsLs[t / s]Gb|Ls[t To:tf] cGtl/d
/fHo;Qfn] dfq} ;dfhjfb x'“b} ju{xLg ;dfhtkm{ ;+qmd0f ug]{ j:t'ut cfwf/ tof/
ug{ ;S5 .
     rf}yf] s'/f, jt{dfg ;fd|fHojfbsf] o'udf cfkm\gf] s'g} lghL :jfy{ gePsf] ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] g]t[Tjdf dfq} k'/fgf] k|ltlqmofjfbL /fHo;QfnfO{ gi6 u/]/ gof“
qmflGtsf/L /fHo;Qf :yfkgf ug'{ / To;nfO{ ju{ljxLg cj:yflt/ 8f]¥ofpg' ;Dej
x'G5 . ;j{xf/f ju{sf] g]t[Tj p;sf] cu|b:tf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{dfkm{t nfu" x'g ;S5 .
To;}n] k'/fgf] /fHo;Qfsf] Wj+; / gof“ /fHo;Qfsf] lgdf{0fsf] b'j} cjlwdf
;aeGbf ;d'Ggt j}1flgs ljrf/wf/f dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–dfcf]jfbL / xfd|f] b]zsf]
ljlzi6 ;Gbe{df dfS;{jfb–n]lggjfb–dfcf]jfb / k|r08kyn] ;';lHht sDo'lg:6
kf6L{sf] g]t[TjbfoL e"ldsfsf] dxŒjnfO{ k6Ss} Go"gLs/0f ul/g' x'“b}g . ;fy}
juL{o ;dfh /lx/x];Dd c¿ jfdkGyL tyf hgjfbL kf6L{ / zlQmx¿sf] /fHo;Qfdf
;xeflutf / /rgfTds ;xof]u klg c;fWo} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . To;}n] ljutsf ;dfhjfbL
b]zx¿df ljljw sf/0fjz x'g k'u]sf] sdL sdhf]/Lx¿nfO{ ;d]t ;RofP/ qmflGtsf/L
/fHo;Qfdf nfdf] cjlw;Dd cfk;L ;xof]u / ;'kl/j]If0fsf cfwf/df cGo jfkdGyL tyf
hgjfbL kf6L{ / zlQmx¿sf] ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ klg plQs} Wofg lbg'k5{ .
     kf“rf}+ s'/f, dfgj Oltxf;df klxnf]rf]l6 ;dfhsf ax';+Vos hg;d'bfosf]
clwgfosTj /xg] qmflGtsf/L /fHo;Qf -gof“ hgjfbL tyf ;dfhjfbL_ df x'g] /
x'g'kg]{ df}lns ljz]iftfx¿nfO{ ;'?b]lv g} sfof{Gjog u/]/ n}hfg'kb{5 . tLdWo]
;aeGbf 7"nf] / dxŒjk"0f{ ljz]iftf s] xf] eg] k'/fgf] /fHo;Qfdf em}+ Toxf“
hgtfeGbf dfly /x]sf], hgtfaf6 s6]sf] / hgtfdfly x}sd rnfpg] s'g} ;z:q an -;]gf
jf k'ln;_ / k|zf;goGq x'“b}g / x'g'x'“b}g . To;sf] ljk/Lt ;Dk"0f{ hgtfnfO{ g}
;z:qLs/0f ug]{ gLlt cg'¿k Jofks ¿kdf hgldlnl;of lgdf{0f ug'{kb{5 . csf]{
dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f, k'/fgf] kfv08L ;+;bLo ;+oGqsf] ljk/Lt gof“ hgk|ltlglw;efdf
Psflt/ ljleGg ju{ / tKsfsf hgtfnfO{ ;Lw} r'lgg] Uof/]G6L u/]/ / r'lgPsf
k|ltlglwx¿nfO{ hgtfn] rfx]df lkmtf{ af]nfpg] clwsf/ ;+:yfut u/]/ jf:tljs hgtfsf]
hgjfbsf] Uof/]G6L ug'{k5{ eGg] csf]{lt/ hgk|ltlglw;efdf ljwflosL /
sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ b'j} s]lGb|t u/]/ hgtfnfO{ g} ;j{zlQm ;DkGg u/fpg'kb{5 .
To;/L g} /fHo;Qfsf ;a} c+ux¿df cfd hg;d'bfosf] qmlds ;xeflutf / lgoGq0f
a9fP/ cGttM /fHo;Qfsf] ljnf]kLs/0fsf] dfu{ k|z:t ug'{ ;j{xf/fjfbL /fHo;Qfsf]
df}lnsf ljz]iftf xf] / x'g'k5{ .
     5}6f}+ s'/f, oL 3f]lift dfGotfx¿sf afah'b lxhf]sf ;a} hgtfsf] hgjfbL /
;dfhjfbL /fHo;Qfx¿df k|ltqmflGt ePsf 36gfx¿af6 P]ltxfl;s kf7 l;s]/
PSsfO;f}+ ztfAbLsf] gof“ hg;Qfx¿sf] hu a9L dha't 9Ën] a;fNg xfdLn]
a]n}df Wofg lbg'kb{5 . To; ;DaGwdf ;aeGbf a9L dxŒjk"0f{ kIf rflx“ s] xf]
eg] ljZj ;fd|fHojfb /lx/x];Dd / To;df cGt/lglxt c;dfg tyf ljifd ljsf;sf]
k|lqmofsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ Pp6} b]zdf dfq qmflGt ;DkGg u/]/ cl3 a9\g] k|of;
ul//xg'kg]{ l:ylt alg/x];Dd j:t'ut ¿kn] k|ltqmflGtsf] vt/f /lx/xG5 / To;nfO{
s;}sf] dgf]ut rfxgfn] dfq /f]Sg] Uof/]G6L ug{ ;ls+b}g . ;fy} ;DalGwt
;dfhleq / qmflGtsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{leq ;d]t k'/fgf] k|ltlqmofjfbL
ju{ k'gM hlGd/xg] / x's{g] cfly{s / ;f+:s[lts cfwf/x¿ nfdf] ;do;Dd /lx/xg]
x'gfn] leq}af6 klg k|ltqmflGtsf] vt/f /lx/xG5 . To;}n] Tof] ;Defjgfk|lt rgfvf]
/x“b} k|ltqmflGtsf/L zlQmx¿ lj?4 s8fOk"j{s clwgfosTj nfu" ug'{ g}
qmflGtsf/L /fHo;Qfsf] d'Vo bfloTj x'G5 . t}klg cfTdut kIfdf b]lvPsf
sdLsdhf]/Lx¿nfO{ gof“ o'usf qmflGtsf/Lx¿n] ;RofP/ cl3 a9\g] lxDdt
ug}{k5{ . tLdWo] k|ydtM qmflGt / /fHo;Qfsf] g]t[Tj ug]{ sDo'lg:6
kf6L{leq}af6 cj;/jfbL ;+zf]wgjfbLx¿ x's]{/ wf]sfk"0f{ tl/sfn] k|ltqmflGtsf]
g]t[Tj u/]sf] b]lvPsfn] kf6L{sf] ;j{xf/f rl/q hf]ufO/fVg kf6L{leqaf6 dfq xf]Og
kf6L{ aflx/sf hg;d'bfon] klg lg/Gt/ ;+3if{ rnfpg] / va/bf/L ug]{ h'g ljlw
dxfg\ ;j{xf/f ;f+:s[lts qmflGtsf] ¿kdf dfcf]sf] g]t[Tjdf rLgdf ckgfOPsf] lyof],
To;nfO{ casf gof“ qmflGtsf/L hg;Qfx¿n] klg cem} kl/dflh{t u/]/ ;+rfng
ug'{kb{5 . To;/L g} csf]{ s'/f, P]ltxfl;s k]l/; sDo'g / ?;L ;f]leotsf] df]8]ndf
ljsl;t hgk|ltlglw ;+:yfx¿ kl5 qmdzM lghL{j aGb} uPsf] jf:tljstfsf] 5fglag u/L
/fHo;Qfsf ;a} c+ux¿df hg;d'bfosf] ;+nUgtf a9fpFb} n}hfg] ljlwx¿sf] :yfkgf
ul/g'k5{ . ;du|df, ;j{xf/f g]t[TjcGtu{t ;dfhsf cfwf/ / pk/L ;+/rgfsf ;a} If]qdf
lg/Gt/ qmflGt ;+rfng u/]/ g} k|ltqmflGtnfO{ /f]s]/ ju{ljxLg :jtGqtfsf]
b'lgof“lt/ pGd'v x'g ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ bx|f];+u cfTd;ft\ ug{ / ;'?b]lv g}
To;nfO{ nfu" u/]/ hfg h?/L 5 .
    ;ftf}+ s'/f, c4{–;fdGtL / c4{–cf}klgj]lzs b]zx¿df hftLo tyf If]qLo
pTkL8gsf lj?4 sfod x'g] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/;lxtsf ;Qfx¿sf] :jfoQtf /
s]Gb|LotfaLrsf] åGåfTds cGt/;DaGwnfO{ 7Ls;+u a'em\g, sfof{Gjog ug{
h?/L x'G5 . pTkLl8t hflt / If]qx¿sf] cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/nfO{
qmflGtsf/Lx¿n] lgMzt{ :jLsfg'{ kb{5 . t/ hftLo / If]qLo pTkL8g cGttM
juL{o pTkL8gs} leGg / hf/L ¿k ePsfn] jt{dfg ;fd|fHojfbsf] o'udf ;j{xf/f
ju{sf] g]t[Tjafx]s cGo s'g} tl/sfn] pTkLl8t hflt / If]qx¿sf] k"0f{ d'lQm x'g
;Sb}g . To;}n] pTkLl8t hflt / If]qx¿n] sfod ug]{ :jfoQ ;Qfsf] ;j{xf/f g]t[Tj
clgjfo{ x'G5 . s'g} lghL :jfy{ gePsf] / ;aeGbf j}1flgs r]tgfn] n}; ;j{xf/f ju{n]
dfq} Psflt/ ;a} hflt / If]qx¿sf pTkLl8t hg;d'bfo aLrdf Pstf sfod u/]/ ;a}
k|sf/sf juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo zf]if0f–pTkL8gaf6 d'Qm PsLs[t dfgj ;fh;Dd
8f]¥ofpg ;S5 .
    cf7f}+ / tTsfnLg ;Gbe{df ;aeGbf dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f, bL3{sfnLg hgo'4sf]
dfWodaf6 :yfgLo ;Qf sAhf ub}{ s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhf ug]{ lbzfdf cl3
a9\g'kg]{ xfd|f] h:tf] c4{–;fdGtL / c4{–cf}klgj]lzs kl/j]zdf s]Gb|Lo ;Qf sAhf
geP;Dd :yfgLo hg;Qfx¿sf] k|wfg sfd hgo'4 ;+rfng ug'{ / hgo'4nfO{ ;xof]u
ug'{ g} x'G5 eGg] s'/f /fd|/L cfTd;ft\ ug{ h?/L x'G5 . ;fy} s]Gb|Lo ;Qf
eO;s]kl5 klg ;Defljt ;fd|fHojfbL÷lj:tf/jfbL ;}lgs x:tIf]k / v'nf 5b\d cfGtl/s
k|ltqmflGtsf/L o'4sf lj?4 nfdf] ;do;Dd qmflGtsf/L ;Qfn] kmf}hL sfo{nfO{
k|wfgtf lbg'kg]{ x'g ;S5 / x'G5 . To;}n] ;fk]If ¿kn] nfdf] cjlw;Dd ;z:q
hgo'4sf] g]t[Tj ug{ nfos c;fWo} dha't / s]Gb|Ls[t /fHo;Qf Pp6f j:t'ut
cfjZostf x'g] s'/fnfO{ ulx/f];+u af]w ug'{kb{5 .

Go"gtd ;femf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd
    gofF hgjfbL jf hgtfsf] jgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg ug]{ qmddf ;+3if{sf] dfu{
lgb]{zg / qmflGtkZrft\ ;Qfsf] dfu{ lgb]{zg ug]{ x]t'n] ;+o'Qm qmflGtsf/L
hgkl/ifb\ g]kfnsf] of] Go"gtd ;femf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd to ul/Psf] 5 .
hgqmflGtsf] ljsf;sf] qmddf :yfgLo hg;Qf lgdf{0f ePsf Onfsfx¿df ltgnfO{
sfof{Gjog ub}{ hfg] k|of; ul/g]5 eg] cGo Onfsfx¿ s]Gb|Lo:t/df ltgnfO{
d"ntM k|rf/fTd jf cfGbf]ngfTds cy{df p7fpFb} nlug]5 .

                                  v08– b'O{
                                 kl/R5]b– Ps

                               cfwf/e"t gLltx¿

!= hgkl/ifb\sf] k|d'v nIo b]zdf gof“ hgjfbL / hgtfsf] hgtfsf] hgjfbL
   u0ftGqfTds /fHo;QfnfO{ ;+:yfut ug'{ xf] . gof“ hgjfbL jf hgtfsf] hgjfbL
   u0ftGqfTds /fHo;Qfsf] cfwf/e"t rl/q ;j{xf/fju{sf] g]t[Tjdf dhb"/–ls;fg
   Pstfdf cfwfl/t tyf /fli6«o k'“hLjfb / ;fd|fHojfb÷lj:tf/jfbsf zf]if0f pTkLl8gsf
   ;a} ¿kx¿nfO{ cGTo ug]{ / hgtfnfO{ hgjfb tyf hgtfsf] b'Zdgdfly
   clwgfosTj nfu" ug]{ 5 .
@= g]kfndf gof“ hgjfbL jf hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;Qf ufp“n] Onfsfx¿df
   :yfgLo cfwf/ Onfsf lgdf{0f ub}{ cl3 a9\g] / 5fkfdf/ o'4sf] /0fgLlts
   e"ldsf x'g] bL3{sfnLg hgo'4sf] af6f]af6 dfq :yfkgf ug{ ;lsG5 ;fy}
   g]kfnsf] ljlzi6 e"–P]ltxfl;s kl/l:ylt / jt{dfg ljZj kl/j]zdf hgo'4sf] ;'?b]lv g}
   ;z:q ljb|f]xsf] /0fgLltsf sltko c+zx¿nfO{ ;dfj]z u/]/ n}hfg' h?/L x'G5 .
   o;}n] of] ljlzi6 kmf}hL /0fgLltnfO{ sfof{Gjog ub}{ hgqmflGtnfO{ clGtd
   ljho;Dd k'¥ofpg hgkl/ifb\n] ;a} ;fdfGtjfb tyf ;fd|fHojfb lj:tf/jfb lj/f]w
   zlQmx¿ / cfd hg;d'bfonfO{ uf]naGb / kl/rfng ug]{5 .
#= gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] Joj:yfdf ;fj{ef}d;Qf k"0f{ ¿kn] hgtfdf lglxt x'g]5 .
   To;sf] k|Tofe"lt ug{ ljBdfg k|ltlqmofjfbL /fHo;QfnfO{ hgo'4sf]
   dfWodn] Wj+; ul/;s]kl5 ;a} ;fdGtjfb tyf ;fd|fHojfb lj:tf/jfb lj/f]wL
   zlQmx¿ ;lDdlnt Ps cGtl/d ;/sf/ u7g u/]/ To;sf] dftxtdf aflnu dtflwsf/sf]
   cfwf/df ePsf] lgjf{rgåf/f r'lgPsf hglk|lglwx¿dfkm{t gof ;+ljwfg lgdf{0f
   u/L nfu" ul/g]5 .
$= gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL Joj:yfdf ;a} hgtfnfO{ af]Ng], n]Vg],
   r'Gg]÷r'lgg], wd{ dfGg] jf gdfGg], dg nfu]sf] 7fp“df a;f]af; ug]{ nufotsf
   ;a} df}lns tyf /fhg}lts clwsf/x¿sf] Uof/]G6L ul/g]5 . /f]huf/L, lzIff /
   :jf:Yo hgtfsf] df}lns clwsf/sf ¿kdf ;'/lIft x'g]5g\ . gof“ hgjfb÷hgtfsf]
   hgjfbdf sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] PsbnLo tfgfzfxL x'G5 eGg]
   k|ltlqmofjfbLx¿sf] b'ik|rf/ ljkl/t Toxf“ ljleGg b]zeQm, hgjfbL / jfdkGyL
   kf6L{x¿nfO{ nfdf] ;do;Dd sDo'lg:6 kf6L{;+u, kf/:kl/s ;xof]u /
   ;'kl/j]If0fsf cfwf/df k"0f{ :jtGqtfsf] Uof/]G6L ul/g]5 . hgqmflGtsf] a]nf
   k|ltqmflGtsf/Lsf] e"ldsf v]Ng] / b]z / hgtfsf] lxt ljk/Lt sfd ug]{
   k|ltlqmofjfbL ju{sf JolQmx¿nfO{ eg] lglZrt cjlw;Dd ;a} /fhg}lts
   clwsf/x¿af6 jl~rt ul/g]5 . df}lns clwsf/x¿sf] pkef]usf ;fy;fy} ;a}
   gful/sx¿n] b]zsf /Iff ug]{, ;+ljwfg / sfg'gsf] kfngf ug]{, ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf]
   /Iff ug]{, >d cg'zf;g kfngf ug]{, ;}lgs ;]jf ug]{ s/ ltg]{ cflb st{Jox¿sf]
   kfngf ug'{kg]{5 .
%= j0f{, hflt, wd{, efiff, ln+u, If]q cflbsf cfwf/df s;}dfly klg s'g} e]befj ul/g]
   5}g / /fHoåf/f ;a}dfly ;dfg Jojxf/ / ;a}sf lgldQ ;dfg cj;/sf] Uof/]G6L
   ul/g]5 . ;a}nfO{ ;dfg sfdsf ;dfg Hofnf ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
^= /fHonfO{ wd{af6 cnu ul/g]5 / k"0f{ ¿kn] wd{ lg/k]If /fHosf] :yfkgf
   ul/g]5 . wd{nfO{ JolQmsf] lghL dfldnf dflgG5 / s'g} klg wd{nfO{ sfv
   jf kfvf ul/g] 5}g . wd{sf] gfp“df x'g] 7uL e|i6frf/ zf]if0f–pTkLl8g,
   Wj+;fTds ultljlw cflb /f]lsg]5 .
&= ;fd|fHojfb tyf lj:tf/jfbåf/f b]zdfly yf]kl/Psf ;g\ !(%) nufotsf ;a} cw{–
   cf}klgj]lzs / gj–cf}klgj]lzs ;lGw–;Demf}tf tyf C0fef/x¿sf] cGTo u/L
   b]znfO{ k"0f{ ¿kn] ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg, :jfwLg / cfTdlge{/ agfOg]5 .
   /fli6«o sn+ssf] ¿kdf /x]sf] uf]vf{–etL{ s]Gb| aGb u/L ;a} gful/sx¿nfO{
   b]zleq} plrt /f]huf/Lsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . k|r'/ hn;|f]tnufotsf /fli6«o
   ;Dkbfx¿dfly ;fd|fHojfbL lj:tf/jfbLx¿åf/f eO/x]sf] a|x\dn'6sf] cGTo u/L
   ;Dk"0f{ /fli6«o ;Dkbfx¿ hgtfsf] ;femf lxtdf k|of]u ul/g]5 .
*= cy{tGqdf /x]sf ;a} ;fdGtL gf]s/zfxL, k'FhLjfbL / ;fd|fHojfbL lj:tf/jfbL
   ;DaGwsf] cGTo ul/g]5 / /fli6«o k'“hLjfbL ;DaGw ljsf; ul/g]5 .
   cy{tGqdf ;'?df g} ;dfhjfbL ;DaGwx¿ nfu" gu/]/ ;dfhjfb pGd'v k'“hLjfbL
   ;DaGw sfod ul/g]5 . To;}n] gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL Joj:yfdf lghL,
   ;+o'Qm / ;fd"lxs :jfldTjsf] plrt ;Gt'ng sfod ul/g]5 cyf{t\ 7"nf pTkfbgsf
   ;fwgdfly /fHo / JolQmsf] ;+o'Qm :jfldTj / cy{tGqsf] cy{tGqsf] cToflws
   7"nf] lx:;f /xg] s[lifdf ls;fgx¿sf] tyf ;fgf / dWod pBf]u tyf Jofkf/df pBdL
   / Jofkf/Lx¿sf] lghL :jfldTj /xg]5 . sfg'gL tl/sfn] afx]s s;}sf] klg lghL
   ;DklQ x/0f ul/g] 5}g . pTkfbs zlQmx¿sf] clt lk5l8Psf] cj:yfnfO{
   ¿kfGtl/t ub}{ n}hfg …qmflGtnfO{ b/f];+u kqm / pTkfbg a9fpmÚ
   eGg] l;4fGtnfO{ cfly{s ljsf;sf] d"n dfu{ lgb]{zs gLlt agfOg]5 .
(= /fHo ;+rfngsf] d"ne"t l;4fGt hgjfbL s]Gb|Lotf x'g]5 / xd];f hgjfb /
   s]Gb|Lotfsf] plrt ;Gt'ng ldnfpg Wofg lbOg]5 . /fHosf c+ux¿sf]
   gf]s/zfxLs/0f x'g glbg / ;a} If]qdf ;j{xf/f g]t[Tj sfod /fVg xd];f
   /fhgLltnfO{ sdfgdf /fVg] gLlt ckgfOg]5 / hglbzfsf] pRr k|of]u ug]{ ljlw
   ckgfOg]5 . /fHon] cfd hg;d'bfosf v'nf ax; ug]{, :jtGq ljrf/ k|s6 ug]{,
   ;jf{hlgs :ynx¿df 7"nf leQ] kf]i6/ 6f“Ug] cflb hgjfbL cEof;sf
   clwsf/x¿nfO{ k"0f{ ;'/Iff lbOg]5, dhb"/x¿sf] x8tfn ug]{ clwsf/ ;'/lIft
   ul/g]5 .




                               kl/R5]b– b'O{
                                /fHok|0ffnL

!)= /fHo;Qf k"0f{ ¿kn] hgtfsf] xftdf x'g]5 . ljleGg txsf hgk|ltlglw;ef /
    hg;ldlt hg;/sf/x¿ hgtfsf] /fHo;Qfsf c+u x'g]5g\ . ;a} txsf hglk|ltlglw
    ;efx¿ hgtfåf/f aflnu dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df lgjf{lrt x'g]5g\ . hgk|ltlglw
    ;efx¿n] ;DalGwt txsf] hg;ldlt hg;/sf/sf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ . hg;ldlt
    hg;/sf/x¿n] hgk|ltlglw;efsf] a}7s ga;]sf] a]nf ;DalGwt txsf] /fHo;Qf
    ;+rfng ug]{ c+usf] ¿kdf sfd ug]{5g\ .
!!= hgk|ltlglw;ef / hg;ldlt hg;/sf/x¿ rf/ tx s]Gb|, :jfoQ k|b]z, lhNnf, :jfoQ
    lhNnf, ufp“÷gu/, :jfoQ ufp“÷gu/ u7g x'g]5g\ . o'4sf] ljlzi6 cj:yfdf
    cfjZostfcg';f/ ufp“eGbf tn jf8{df ;Lw} jf8{ hg;ldlt dfq x'g]5g\ . /, ltgn]
    ufp“ hglk|ltlglw;ef jf ufp“ hg;ldltsf] dftxtdf sfd ug]{5g\ . hftLo :jfoQ
    Onfsfx¿df ;f]xL :t/sf] hgk|ltlglw;ef / hg;ldlt hg;/sf/ x'g]5g\ .
!@= hgk|ltlglw ;efx¿ a'h'{jf ;+;b\ geP/ Joj:yflksf / sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/n]
    ;';lHht ;j{zlQmdfg c+ux¿ x'g]5g\ . ltgLx¿df ljleGg ju{, hflt, If]qsf hgtf /
    hg;]gfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g'sf] ;fy} b]zeQm / hgjfbL JolQmTjx¿sf] ljlzi6
    k|ltlglwTj klg x'g] x'gfn] ltgLx¿n] hgtfnfO{ cf}krfl/s hgjfb dfq x}g jf:tljs
    hgjfbsf] k|Tofe"lt u/fpg]5g\ . hgtfnfO{ cfkm\gf lgjf{lrt k|ltlglwx¿sf]
    7Ls;+u sfd gu/]df pgLx¿nfO{ lkmtf{ af]nfpg] clwsf/ x'g] x'“bf
    hgk|ltlglwx¿ a9L pQ/bfoL x'g]5g\ .
!#= hgkl/ifb\ dhb"/, ls;fg, hg;]gf, lgDg k'“hLklt ju{, /fli6«o k'“hLklt ju{,
    pTkLl8t hflt hghfltx¿ blnt, hflt, dlxnf, k|jf;L g]kfnL / ljleGg b]zeQm,
    hgjfbL / jfdkGyL zlQmx¿ ;d]tsf] k|ltlglwTj ePsf] hgtfsf] qmflGtsf/L
    ;+o'Qm df]rf{sf] ;+oGq ePsf] x'“bf aflnu dtflwsf/sf] cfwf/df /fli6«o
    hgk|ltlglw;efsf]        lgjf{rg    x'g]     kl/l:ylt    gag'~h]n      o;sf]
    -hkl/ifb\sf]_ /fli6«o ;Dd]ngn] g} /fli6«o hgk|ltlglw;efsf] sfd / clwsf/
    k|of]u ug]{5 / To;n] g} cfjZos ljwfg / lgodx¿ kfl/t ug'{sf] ;fy} s]Gb|Lo
    hg;/sf/sf] klg lgjf{rg ug]{5 / p;nfO{ /fHo;Qf ;+rfng ug]{ k|flwsf/ k|bfg
    ug]{5 .
!$= o'4sf] sfnel/ k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qf Wj+; ePsf t/ ljleGg txsf hgk|ltlglw
    ;efx¿sf] k|ToIf lgjf{rg ug{ ;Dej gePsf 7fp“x¿df s]Gb|Lo hg;/sf/n]
    :yfgLo hg ;/sf/ j7g ug{ ;}lgs / u}/–;}lgs k|ltlglwx¿ v6fpg]5 / tL
    k|ltlglwx¿n] :yfgLo ;j{kIfLo ;Dd]ng e]nfsf] cfof]hgf u/]/ :yfgLo
    hg;/sf/sf] u7g ug]{5g\ . kl5 pko'Qm kl/l:ylt tof/ ePkl5 Toxf“ :yfgLo
    hgk|ltlglw;efsf] lglDt lgjf{rg ;DkGg ul/g]5 .
!%= ljleGg txsf hgk|ltlglw;ef / hg;ldlt, hg;/sf/x¿ hgjfbL s]Gb|Lotfsf]
    l;4fGtadf]lhd ;+rflnt x'g]5g\ . h; cg';f/ hgk|ltlglw;efx¿ hgtfk|lt pQ/bfoL
    x'g]5g\ . hgk|ltlglw;ef / hg;/sf/leq cNkdtn] ax'dtsf] lg0f{o dfGg'kg]{5,
    ljleGg txsf hg;/sf/x¿sf] lgo'lQmnfO{ pkNnf] txaf6 cg'df]bg
    u/fpg'kg]{5, tNnf] txsf hg;/sf/x¿n] pkNnf] txsf hg;/sf/x¿sf]
    lg0f{ox¿nfO{ kfngf ug]{5g\ . :jfoQ c+ux¿sf] xsdf hgjfbL cEof;åf/f
    ;xdlt sfod ug]{ k|of; ul/g]5 .
!^= s]Gb|Lo hg;/sf/ / :yfgLo hg;/sf/sf] clwsf/ If]q ljleGg sfo{sf] k|s[lt /
    cfjZostfcg';f/ kl/eflift ul/g]5 / s]Gb|Lo hg ;/sf/n] /fli6«o Pstf / :yfgLo
    pkof]lutfnfO{ Wofgdf /fv]/ cfjZos cfb]z hf/L ug]{5 .
!&= hgtfdfly zf]if0f–pTkL8g sfod ug]{ k'/fgf] k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfsf ;a}
    sfg'g, cfb]z / Goflos k|0ffnL vf/]h ul/g]5 . hgtfsf] lxt cg's"nsf gof“
    sfg'g / cfb]zx¿ hf/L ul/g]5g\ . / hgtfsf] hgjfbL Goflos k|0ffnL :yfkgf
    ul/g]5 .
!*= Gofo ;Dkfbg ug{ ljleGg txsf hg–cbfntx¿ u7g ul/g]5g\ . h;sf
    kbflwsf/Lx¿ ;DalGwt txsf hgk|ltlglw;efåf/f lgo'Qm x'g]5g\ / tLk|lt
    pQ/bfoL /xg]5g\ .
!(= ck/fwLdfly d'2f rnfpg] cleof]ustf{sf] sfd / clwsf/sf] k|of]u ;DalGwt
    txsf] ;'/Iff lgsfon] ug]{5 . s;}dfly d'2f rnfp“bf hglbzfsf] plrt k|of]u
    ug'{kb{5 / k|d'v k|ltqmflGtsf/L cfk/flws d'2fx¿sf] ax;df ;d'bfonfO{
    ;+nUg u/fpg'kb{5 .
@)= /fHosf ;a} c+ux¿n] OdfGbfl/tf, ;/ntf / hg;]jfsf] qmflGtsf/L sfo{z}nL
    ckgfpg'kb{5 / e|i6frf/ kmh'n vrL{ / nfnlkmQfzfxLsf] tLj| lj/f]w
    ug'{kb{5 .
@!= ljleGg txsf hg;/sf/x¿sf kbflwsf/Lx¿sf] sfdsf] lgu/fgL ug{ / pgLx¿n]
    sfg'gsf] pNn+3g u/] jf 7Ls;+u st{Jo lgjf{x gu/]df pgLx¿dfly
    cg'zf;gfTds sf/afxL ug{ hg;'kl/j]If0f lgsfosf] :yfkgf ul/g]5 . To:tf
    kbflwsf/L jf /fHo lgsfo lj?4 hg;'kl/j]If0f lgsfo jf Goflos lgsfodf ph'/L
    ug]{ clwsf/ hgtfnfO{ / hgtfsf ;+u7gx¿nfO{ x'g]5 .

                              kl/R5]b– tLg
                         hg;]gf / hg;'/Iff k|0ffnL

@@=         k'/fgf] k|ltlqmofjfbL ;QfnfO{ hgo'4sf] dfWodn] k"0f{t Wj+;
  ug{ / gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;Qfsf] /Iff ug{ d'Vo zlQm ;xfos
  :yfgLo zlQm / hgldlnl;of ;lDdlnt Pp6f PsLs[t hgd'lQm ;]gf /xg]5 .
  hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] ;jf]{Rr sdfG8/ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] s]Gb|Lo ;ldltsf] cWoIf
  /xg'x'g]5 . /, To;sf] kl/rfng kf6L{sf] g]t[Tjdf /x]sf] s]Gb|Lo hg
  ;/sf/dfkm{t x'g]5 . d'Vo zlQm s]Gb|Lo ¿kdf / ;xfos :yfgLo zlQm
  :yfgLo ¿kdf kl/rflng x'g]5 eg] hgldlnl;ofn] :yfgLo zflGt ;'/Iff k|bfg
  ug]{5 .
@#= jt{dfg ;fd|fHojfbsf] o'udf k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfsf] clt s]Gb|Ls[t kmf}hL
  zlQm;+u n8\g hg;]gfnfO{ klg s]Gb|Ls[t 9Ën] ;+ul7t ug'{ h?/L x'g]5 t/
  k|ltlqmofjfbL ;]gfdf em}+ k]z]j/jfb x'ls{g glbg hg;]gfnfO{ xd];f
  qmlGtnfO{ /fhgLltsf] sdfgdf /fVg], hg;d'bfo;+u Psfsf/ u/fpg] /
  hg;]gfleq clkm;/ / l;kfxLsf] aLrdf pRr hgjfbL ;DaGw sfod /fVg] gLlt
  cg';/0f ul/g]5 . k|ltqmflGtsf] vt/fnfO{ /f]Sg ;Dk"0f{ hg;d'bfonfO{ g}
  kmf}hLs/0f ug]{ gLlt cjnDag ul/g]5 / To;sf] lglDt hgldlnl;ofnfO{ Jofks
  ¿kdf lj:tf/ ul/g]5 .
@$= hg;]gfsf] k|d'v sfd qmflGt ;DkGg x'g'eGbf klxn] hgo'4sf] lg/Gt/
  ;+rfng ug'{ / qmflGtkZrft\ gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL /fHo;Qf tyf
  dft[e"ldsf] /Iff ug'{x'g]5, t/ km';{b / zflGtsf] ;dodf p;n] hgtfaLr
  ;+u7gstf{ / pTkfbgstf{sf] e"ldsf klg lgjf{x ug'{kg]{5 .
@%= qmflGtsfnel/ hg;d'bfonfO{ hg;]gfdf etL{ x'g ljz]if 9Ën] clek|]l/t
  ul/g]5 / hg;]gf tyf ;lxbsf cfl>t kl/jf/x¿ tyf o'4sf 3fOt] / ckfËx¿sf]
  x]/rfxnfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . hg;]gfnfO{ cfjZos ;fwg / >f]t h'6fpg
  hg;/sf/n] ljz]if Wofg lbg]5 . k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfsf] ;]gf / k|x/Laf6 ljb|f]x
  u/]/ qmflGtsf/L lsQfdf cfpg]x¿nfO{ ljz]if k|f]T;fxg lbOg]5 .

                                 kl/R5]b– rf/
                              s[lif tyf e"ld;'wf/

@^= gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL qmflGtsf] d'Vo cfwf/ g} s[lif qmflGt xf] .
    To;}n] e"lddf /x]sf] ;fdGtL cw{–;fdGtL / gf]s/zfxL k'“hLjfbL pTkfbg
    ;DaGwsf] cGTo u/]/ /fli6«o k'“hLjfbL ;DaGwsf] ljsf; ug'{ s[lif
    qmflGtsf] d'Vo gLlt /xg]5, h;sf] k|d'v gLltut cfwf/ …hldg hf]Tg]sf]Ú
    /xg]5 cyf{t\ k'/fgf] /fHo;Qf Wj+; ePsf] 7fp“x¿df ;fdGt, gf]s/zfxL
    k'“hLkltx¿ / ljleGg k|sf/sf u'7Lx¿sf] :jfldTjdf /x]sf] hldglagf d'cfAhf
    hkmt u/]/ e"ldxLg tyf ul/a ls;fgx¿df ljt/0f ul/g]5 / hf]tfxfnfO{ hldgsf]
    dflns agfOg]5 . wgL ty dWod ls;fgx¿sf] xsdf eg] pgLx¿sf] hldg
    hkmt ul/g] 5}g . t/ hldgsf] pknAwtf / hg;+Vofsf] cg'kft x]/L xbaGbL
    sfod u/]/ nfu" ul/g]5 .
    k'/fgf] ;Qf k"0f{ ¿kn] Wj+; gePsf jf hg;Qf sfod x'g g;s]sf 7fp“df eg]
    ;'?sf] r/0fdf ;'wf/fTds sbdx¿ dfq rflng]5g\ . h;cg';f/ hldgsf] xbaGbLsf]
    sfod ul/g]5 . df]lxofgL clwsf/ ;+/lIft ul/g]5 . s'tsf] b/ 36fP/ lqv08L
    ul/g]5, C0fsf] Aofhb/ 36fOg]5, u'7L hUuf /}s/df kl/0ft ul/g]5, OToflb .
@&= e"ldxLg tyf ul/a ls;fgx¿nfO{ ;a} k|sf/sf] C0faf6 k"0f{ ¿kn] d'Qm
    ul/g]5 / pgLx¿dfly nflbPsf >d ;]jf / cGo z'Nsx¿ vf/]h ul/g]5 .
@*= sd}of, x?jf, r?jf cflb dWo'uLg ;fdGtL k|yf k"0f{ ¿kn] d'Qm ul/g]5 /
    pgLx¿nfO{ k'g{jf; tyf /f]huf/Lsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
@(= s[lif dhb'/x¿sf] Go"gtd Hofnf lgwf{/0f ul/g]5 / To;sf] s8fOk"j{s
    sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . dlxnf dhb'/x¿nfO{ k'?if;/x ;dfg Hofnf lbOg]5 .
#)= s[lif C0f ;:tf] Aofhb/df / ;'ne tl/sfn] pknAw u/fOg]5 . ;a} v]tLof]Uo /
    l;+rfOof]Uo hldgdf l;+rfOsf] plrt Joj:yf ul/g]5 . s[lifdf ljBdfg cltl/Qm
    >dzlQmsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u u/]/ u|fdL0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ul/g]5 .
#!= ls;fgx¿nfO{ dn, aLp, sL6gfzs cf}iflw, s[lif cf}hf/ ;:tf] / ;'ne tl/sfn]
    pknAw u/fOg]5 . s[lif pBf]ux¿sf] ljsf;df ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . /, s[lif
    ahf/sf] plrt Joj:yf ul/g]5 . cf}Bf]lus / s[lif pTkfbgsf] d"Nodf ;fdGh:o
    sfod ul/g]5 .
#@= qmflGtsf/L e"ld;'wf/ sfof{Gjogsf] qmddf vf;u/L hldgsf] :jfldTjsf]
    jf:tljs /]s8{ tof/ ug{, ufp“df ls;fgx¿sf] juL{o x}l;ot -cyf{t\ e"ldxLg, ul/a
    dWod, wgL ls;fg / ;fdGt_ / rl/q lgwf{/0f ug{, jf:tljs hf]tfxfsf] ls6fg
    ug]{b]lv lnP/ e"ld;'wf/nfO{ ufp“:t/df k|efjsf/L 9Ën] nfu" ug{ :yfgLo
    qmflGtsf/L ls;fg ;+3sf] ;xof]u lnOg]5 / cfd ls;fg hg;d'bfonfO{ kl/rfng
    ul/g]5 . ;fy} e"ld;'wf/ sfo{qmd juL{o tyf If]qLo b'j} lx;fan] r/0fa4 k|sf/n]
    nfu" ul/g]5 / To;qmddf :yfgLo ljz]iftfx¿nfO{ k"/f Wofg lbOg]5 .
    pTkLl8t hflt jf If]qsf :jfoQ Onsfx¿df qmflGtsf/L e"ld;'wf/ sfo{qmd nfu"
    ubf{ Toxf“ P]ltxfl;s ¿kn] x'b} cfO/x]sf] cltqmd0fnfO{ /f]Sg Wofg
    lbOg]5 .
##= e"ld;'wf/sf] qmddf ;fdGt tyf gf]s/zfx k'“hLkltx¿af6 hkmt ul/Psf] /
    wgL ls;fgx¿af6 b/aGbLeGbf a9L eP/ k|fKt hldg tyf ;fj{hlgs ktL{ hldg,
    lagf s'g} hftLo jf ln+uLo e]befj gu/L e]befj gu/L ufp“sf ;a} ls;fgx¿df
    pgLx¿sf] cfkm\gf] :jfldTj hldg;d]t lx;fa u/]/ a/fa/Lsf] cfwf/df ljt/0f
    ul/g]5 / Tof] pgLx¿sf] lghL ;DklQ x'g]5 . To; l;nl;nfdf :jfefljs ¿kn] v]t /
    kfvf] jf hldgsf] u'0f:t/sf] cg'kftnfO{ 7Ls 9Ën] d"Nof+sg ul/g]5 .
#$= ;fdGtx¿af6 hkmt ul/Psf] kz'wg, s[lif, ;fdu|L, 3/, cGg cflb ;fwgx¿sf]
    sdL ePsf ul/a tyf cGo ls;fgx¿df ljt/0f ul/g]5 / Tof] pgLx¿sf] lghL
    ;DklQ x'g]5 .
#%= 7"nf h+un 7"nf l;+rfO of]hgfx¿, vfgLx¿, vs{x¿, 7"nf a~h/ hldgx¿,
    gbLx¿, tfnx¿ cflb ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf] ¿kdf :yfgLo hg;/sf/sf] cwLgdf
    /xg]5g\ . To:t} P]ltxfl;s tyf ko{6sLo dxŒjsf :ynx¿, snfs[ltx¿ cflb klg
    hg;/sf/sf] cwLgdf /xg]5g\ .
#^= ufp“df 3/ ePsf, hg;]gf, hg;/sf/ / hg;+u7gsf kbflwsf/x¿ / pgLx¿sf]
    kl/jf/nfO{ c¿ ;fdfGo ls;fg;/x hldg / ;DklQ ljt/0f ul/g]5 . To:tf] ljt/0fdf
    ;lxbsf kl/jf/nfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbOg]5 . k'/fgf hldGbf/ / pgLx¿sf kl/jf/x¿
    tyf ufp“df 3/ ePsf k'/fgf] ;Qfsf kbflwsf/Lx¿ / pgLx¿sf kl/jf/nfO{
    cfkm}+n] >d u/]/ vfgsf] lgldQ ;fwf/0f ls;fg;/x hldg / ;DklQ lbOg]5 . t/,
    cfk/flws ultljlwdf ;+nUg gePsf / cfkm}+n] >d u/]/ af“Rg rfxg] pgLx¿sf
    kl/jf/ ;b:ox¿nfO{ eg] cfd ls;fg;/x hldg / ;DklQ lbOg]5 .
#&= qmflGtsf/L e"ld;'wf/eGbf klxn]sf ;a} hldgsf] :jfldTj, sf/f]af/ /
    C0f;DaGwL sfuhftx¿ cdfGo 3f]lift ul/g]5g\ / hg;/sf/x¿n] hfFra'em u/]/
    ;a}nfO{ gof“ sfuhftx¿ k|bfg ul/g]5g\ . qmflGtsf/L e"ld;'wf/ sfo{qmdsf]
    k|lt/f]w ug]{ / lgod sfg'gx¿sf] pNn+3g ug]{x¿nfO{ hgcbfntx¿n] bl08t
    ug]{5g\ .
#*= gof“ hgjfbL hgtfsf] qmflGtsf] r/0fdf hldg / cGo ;DklQdflysf] :jfldTj
    lghL eP klg ljz]iftM kxf8L e"–efudf v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] cf};t cfsf/ ;fgf]
    ePsf] / cfd ¿kdf pTkfbs zlQmx¿sf] ljsf; clt lgDg ePsf] x'“bf pTkfbsTj
    a[l4 ug{ >dsf] plrt ;b'kof]u ug{ cfly{s ljsf; b/ tLj| ug{sf] lglDt s[lifsf]
    pTkfbgnfO{ ljleGg k|sf/sf] ;xsf/Lx¿ ;+ul7t ug{ k|]l/t ul/g]5 . pTkfbg /
    ljt/0fsf ;xsf/Lx¿nfO{ qmdzM ;fgf]af6 7"nf]df / lglDt txaf6 pRr txdf
    lsjl;t ub}{ n}hfg] gLlt cg';/0f ul/g]5 .
#(= lxdfn, kxf8, t/fO{sf] ef}uf]lns ljljwtfnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} / ltgdf kz'kfng,
    hl8a'6L, afujfgL, jgk}bfj/ / cGg pTkfbgsf] 5'§f5'§} ljlzi6Ls/0fsf]
    ;Defjgf /x]sf] tYonfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ tL ljljw If]q / s[lifsf] c+ux¿sf]
    PsLs[t, ;Gt'lnt / cGof]Gofl>t ljsf; ug]{ gLlt cg';/0f ul/g]5 o'4sfnel/ /
    eljiodf klg vfBfGgdf cfTdlge{/ x'g] s'/fnfO{ ljz]if hf]8 lbOg]5 .

                                kl/R5]b– kfFr
                      pBf]u, jfl0fHo ljQ / k"jf{wf/ ljsf;

$)= r/d ul/aL, a]/f]huf/L, cw{–a]/f]hfu/L, cNkljsf; / k/lge{/tfsf] dfv];fËf]nfdf
    g/fd|/L km;]sf] g]kfnsf] jt{dfg cy{tGqnfO{ sfofkn6 ug{ / ;dfhsf] pGgt
    ef}lts / ;f+:s[lts cfjZostfx¿sf] kl/k"lt{ ug{ b|'tt/ /fli6«o cf}Bf]uLs/0f ljgf
    ;Dej} 5}g . To;}n] gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL Joj:yfdf pBf]unfO{
    cy{tGqsf] g]t[TjbfoL If]q dfg]/ To;sf] tLa| ljsf;sf] lglDt Psflt/ b]zleq
    bnfn tyf gf]s/zfxL k'“hLkltx¿sf] xftdf b'?kof]u eO/x]sf] k'“hLnfO{
    /fli6«os/0f u/]/ tyf csf]{lt/ ;fd|fHojfbL / ljz]iftM ef/tLo Psflwsf/L k'“hLsf]
    r+u'naf6 /fli6«o pBf]uwGbfx¿nfO{ d'Qm u/]/ b]zdf tLj| cf}Bf]lus/0fsf]
    dfu{ k|z:t ul/g]5 . ;fy} b]zdf 7"nf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf ;fgf tyf 3/]n' pBdLx¿ /
    cNk;+Vofdf /x]sf /fli6«o k'“hLkltx¿sf] k'“hLkltx¿sf] k'FhLnfO{ ;+/If0f /
    k|f]T;fxg u/]/ cf}Bf]lus/0fnfO{ 6]jf lbOg]5 .
$!= o'4 cjlwe/ cTofjZos o'4;fdu|L cfk"lt{ ug]{ cfwf/ Onfsfx¿df pkef]Uo /
    cGo j:t'x¿ -h:t}– sk8f, h'Qf, sfuh_ cflb cfk"lt{ ug]{, :yfgLo sRrf kbfy{ /
    ;Lkdf cfwfl/t pBf]ux¿sf] ljsf;df ljz]if hf]8 lbOg]5 . o'4e/ / o'4kZrft\ ;d]t
    ;Defljt ;fd|fHojfbL / lj:tf/jfbL cfly{s gfsfaGbLnfO{ dWogh/ /fVb} cfoft
    k|lt:yfkg ug]{ pBf]ux¿nfO{ ljz]if k|>o lbOg]5 .
$@= nfdf] cjlw;Dd b]zdf k'“hLsf] sdL / >dsf] cflwSo /xg] x'gfn] >dk|wfg
    cf}Bf]lus/0fdf d'Vo hf]8 nufOg]5 . :yfgLo k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / k|of]udf ljz]if
    Wofg lbOg]5 . vf;u/L ;fgf hnljB't\ of]hgfx¿dfkm{t b]zsf] ljzfn
    hgzlQmnfO{ k|of]udf NofP/ cTofjZos cf}Bf]lus pmhf{sf] cfk"lt{ ug]{ /
    cfTdlge{/, k|b"if0f/lxt tyf lbuf] ljsf;sf] Uof/]G6L ug]{ s'/fdf ljz]if hf]8
    lbOg]5 .
    xfn eO/x]sf] cfly{s If]qut / ef}uf]lns Onfsfut c;dfgtf / alxd'{vL ljsf;sf]
    k|lqmofsf] cGTo u/]/ s[lif / pBf]u, ;fgf pBf]u / 7"nf pBf]u, 3/]n' /
    cfw'lgs pBf]u, ufp“ / ;x/, kxf8 / t/fO{aLrsf] ;Gt'lnt ljsf;sf] lglDt of]hgfa4
    k|of; ul/g]5 .
$#= dhb'/x¿sf] lglDt xKtfdf $) 306fsf] sfo{ lbg / Go"gtd Hofnf lgwf{l/t
    u/L To;f] s8fOk"j{s sfof{Gjog ul/g]5 . pBf]ux¿sf] Joj:yfkgdf
    dhb'/x¿sf] ;xeflutfsf] Uof/]G6L ul/g]5 . 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]ux¿df ;xsf/L
    k|yfnfO{ k|>o lbg] gLlt ckgfOg]5 .
$$= cfwf/e"t j:t'x¿sf] Jofkf/ / ljb]z Jofkf/ /fHosf] lgoGq0fdf x'g]5 eg]
    cGo If]qsf] Jofkf/ lghL If]qsf] xftdf x'g]5 . b]zsf] jfl0fHo If]qdf ef/tLo
    Psflwsf/ k'“hLkltx¿sf] lgoGq0fsf] cGTo ul/g]5 . :jb]zL Jofkf/Lx¿nfO{
    /fHon] ;+/If0f lbg]5 cfk;L kmfObf / a/fa/Lsf] cfwf/df ;a};“u Jofkf/Ls/0f
    ;DaGw /flvg]5 .
$%= pkef]Uo j:t' cfd hg;d'bfonfO{ ;'ne / ;'ky d"Nodf pknAw u/fpg
    pkef]Qmf ;xsf/Lx¿nfO{ k|>o lbOg]5 . /fHon] j:t'sf] d"No l:y/ / Jojl:yt
    /fVg cfjZos x:tIf]k ug]{5 . :jb]zL j:t'x¿nfO{ k|>o lbg cfjZos eG;f/ gLlt
    ckgfOg] 5 . b'u{d If]qx¿df pkef]Uo j:t'x¿ plrt d"Nodf pknAw u/fpg
    ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
$^= b]zleq ;fd|fHojfbL ljQLo k'“hLsf] zf]if0f–pTkL8gsf] cGTo ul/g]5,
    b]znfO{ ljb]zL C0fhfnaf6 d'Qm ul/g]5 . ufp“x¿df shf{ ;'ne 9Ën]
    pknAw u/fpg ljQLo ;+:yfx¿nfO{ sfd ug{ 5'6 lbOg]5 . t/ Aofh b/dfly
    lgoGq0f /flvg]5 .
$&= ;fj{hlgs vr{ Jojl:yt ah]6 k|0ffnLcGtu{t ul/g]5 . o'4sf] cfjZostf / cfly{s
    k'glg{df{0fnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL s/ gLlt nfu" ul/g]5 .
$*= Pg=hL=cf]=÷cfO{=Pg=hL=cf]= sf] gfp“df eO/x]sf] ;fd|fHojfbL
    ljQLo 3';k}7 / cGt/Wj+;sf] cGTo ul/g]5 .
$(= clwsf+z kxf8L e"–efusf] ljs6tf / hl6ntfnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ of]hgfa4
    9Ën] oftfoft / ;~rf/ k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ul/g]5 . u|fdL0f If]qdf af6f]3f6f], k'n,
    /fhdfu{ cflb k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . ;x/x¿sf] cJojl:yt
    lj:tf/nfO{ lgoGq0f u/L of]hgfa4 ;x/Ls/0fsf] gLlt cjnDa ul/g]5 . gof“
    d'Qm Onfsfx¿df Jojl:yt a:tL k|0ffnL ljsf; ug{ Wofg lbOg]5 .
%)= 7"nf / k/lge{/ hnljB't\ cfof]hgfx¿sf] ;§f tyf demf}nf / ax'p2]ZoLo tyf
    cfTdlge{/ cfof]hgfx¿sf] lgdf{0fdf hf]8 lbOg]5 . ko{6g If]qsf] ljsf;
    /fli6«o / cfd hg;d'bfosf] lxt x'g] u/L ug{ Wofg lbOg]5 .

                                   kl/R5]b– 5
                                ;f+:s[lts tyf lzIff

%!= gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL ;+:s[lt / lzIffsf] d"n rl/q /fli6«o hgjfbL /
   j}1flgs x'g]5 . ;+:s[lts / lzIffsf] hg;/sf/sf] d'Vo sfd hgtfsf] ;f+:s[lts :t/
   clea[l4 ug'{ ;fdflhs tyf /fli6«o k'g{lgdf{0fsf] lglDt nfn / bIf hgzlQm
   pTkfbg ug'{ / ;fdGtL, bnfn / hglj/f]wL ljrf/wf/fsf] ;§f hgtfsf] ;]jf ug]{,
   k|ultzLn, j}1flgs ljrf/wf/fsf] ljsf; ug'{x'g]5 . gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfnL
   >4f / ;fd"lxs ;DklQk|lt rf;f]sf] efj k}bf ug]{5 .
%@= lzIffnfO{ ;j{;'ne, lgMz'Ns / clgjfo{ u/fOg]5 . ljz]if ;fIf/tf cleofg ;+rfng
   u/]/ k|f}9nufot ;a} lg/If/tf pGd"ng ul/g]5, lzIffnfO{ >d;+u hf]8]/ nlug]5 /
   hLjgf]kof]uL agfOg]5 . k|s[lt lj1fg / ;dfh lj1fgsf] ;Gt'ng ldnfP/ lzIff
   k|bfg ul/g]5 . kf]ln6]lSgsn lzIffdf ljz]if hf]8 lbOg]5 . pRr lzIff / lj1fg
   k|ljlw lzIffdf cfjZos Wofg lbOg]5 . ;a}nfO{ v]ns'b / dgf]/~hgsf] plrt
   Joj:yf u/fOg]5 .
%#= k'/fgf kf7\ok':tsx¿ vf/]h u/L gof“ j}1flgs d"No dfGotf cg';f/sf
  kf7\ok':ts tof/ ul/g]5 . ;a}nfO{ lglZrt tx;Dd cfkm\g} dft[efiffdf lzIff k|fKt
  ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOg]5 .
%$= ;flxTo / snfsf] ;+/If0f / ljsf;nfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . hgtfsf] ;]jf ug]{,
  hgtfsf] /fhg}lts r]tgf clej[l4 ug]{, >dk|lt >4f a9fpg] vfnsf] ;flxTo /
  snfnfO{ k|>o lbOg]5 . hggf6\o / hgl;g]dfx¿nfO{ k|f]T;flxg ul/g]5 .
  pTs[i6 ;flxTo / snfsf s[ltx¿nfO{ k'/:s[t ul/g]5 . 5f8f / cZnLn ;flxTo tyf
  lkmNdx¿dfly /f]s nufOg]5 .
%%= hgtfsf] cleJolQmsf] :jtGqtfnfO{ ;+/If0f ul/g]5 . tYok"0f{ ;dfrf/
  ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ kqklqsfx¿sf] k|sfzgnfO{ clek|]l/t ul/g]5 . hgtfsf] /]l8of] /
  k|sfzg sfo{nfO{ k|j4{g ul/g]5 . hgpkof]uL / nf]slk|o k':ts / klqsfx¿sf]
  k|sfzgdf ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 .
%^= k'/fgf ;f+:s[lts w/f]x/x¿sf] ;+/If0fdf plrt Wofg lbOg]5 . pTkLl8t
  hfltx¿sf] efiff–;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0fdf ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 .

                                kl/R5]b– ;ft
                           :jf:Yo tyf ;dfhsNof0f

%&= :jf:Yo ;]jf ;a}nfO{ lgMz'Ns / ;j{;'ne 9Ën] pknAw u/fOg]5 . ufp“n]
    If]qdf :jf:Yo ;]jfsf] lj:tf/df ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . wfdL emfFqmLh:tf
    k'/fgf ¿9jfbL k4lt cGTo u/]/ cfw'lgs, j}1flgs lrlsT;f k4lt nfu" ul/g]5 .
    lglDg / dWod tflnd k|fKt :jf:YosdL{x¿sf] pTkfbgdf ljz]if hf]8
    nufOg]5 . ;fd|fHojfbLx¿n] km}nfPsf sltko xflgsf/sf cf}iflwx¿sf] cfoft
    ug'{ ;§f :j]bzL hl8a'6Ldf cfwfl/t cf}iflwx¿sf] k|of]unfO{ k|f]T;fxg
    lbOg]5 .
%*= ckfË, a[4, c;xfo, afnaflnsfx¿sf] clwsf/sf] /Iff ul/g]5 / pgLx¿sf]
    x]rf/xsf] ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
%(= ;a}nfO{ Go"gtd cfjf; ;'ljwfsf] Uof/]G6L ul/g]5 . ;'s'Daf;Lx¿sf]
    a;f]af;sf] lglDt plrt Joj:yf ul/g]5 .

                               kl/R5]b– cf7
                           hftLo tyf If]qLo k|Zg

^)= b]zsf] ;Ldfleqsf] ;a} hflt hghfltx¿ / efiffefifLk|lt /fHon] ;dfg Jojxf/
    ug]{5 . k/Dk/fut ¿kdf cfo–vf; zf;s hfltåf/f pTkLl8t ;a} hfltx¿n]
    cfTdlg0f{osf] clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ ;Sg]5g\ k/Gt' gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf]
    hgjfbL /fHo;QfcGtu{t pgLx¿sf] ;d:of hftLo :jfoQtfsf] sfo{qmdcGtu{t
    xn ul/g]5 . h;cg';f/ pTkLl8t hfltx¿dfly nflbPsf ;a} zf]if0f pTkL8gsf
    ¿kx¿sf] cGTo ul/g]5 / pgLx¿sf] cfkm" a;f]af; ug]{ Onfsfdf cfkm\g}
    :jfoQ zf;g ;+rfng ug]{5g\ . PseGbf a9L Onfsfdf 5l/P/ /x]sf] hfltx¿sf]
    xsdf PseGbf a9L :jfoQ zf;g OsfO x'g ;Sg]5g\ . pgLx¿åf/} lgjf{lrt
    hgk|ltlg;ef / hg;ldlt hg;/sf/ pgLx¿sf] ;Qfsf] ;fwg x'g]5g\ . hg;]gf,
    k//fi6« ;DaGw, ljQ, d'2f, gfktf}n, ;+rf/, cGt/f{li6«o Jofkf/, 7"nf cfwf/e"t
    pBf]ux¿, 7"nf hnljB't\ cfof]hgfx¿afx]s cGo ljifox¿ :jzf;gsf]
    If]qflwsf/leq kg]{5g\ . :jLs[t lgod sfg'gsf] kl/lwleq /x]/ pgLx¿n]
    cfkm\gf] :jfoQtfsf] k|of]u ug]{5g\ .
^!= ljleGg hfltx¿sf ldl>t Onfsfx¿df cyjf s'g} hfltsf] :jfoQ Onfsfleq c?
    hfltx¿ klg ePdf Toxf“sf] :yfgLo hg;Qfdf ;dfg'kflts cfwf/df pgLx¿ ;a}sf]
    k|ltlglwTj /xg]5 .
^@= ;a} pTkLl8t hfltx¿nfO{ hgd'lQm ;]gfdf etL{ x'g] clwsf/ x'g]5 /
    s]Gb|Lo sdfgleq /x]/ :yfgLo ¿kdf ;'/Iff ansf] ¿kdf hgldlnl;of u7g ug{
    ;Sg]5g\ .
^#= ;a} pTkLl8t hfltx¿nfO{ cfkm\gf] efiffsf] ljsf; ug]{, k/Dk/fut dfGotfx¿,
    k|rngx¿ sfod} /fVg] jf ;'wf/ ug]{ :jtGqtf x'g]5 . s]Gb|Lo hg;/sf/n]
    pTkLl8t hfltsf hg;'dbfonfO{ pgLx¿sf] /fhg}lts, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts / z}lIfs
    gLlt lgdf{0f sfo{df d2t ug]{5 .
^$= c;dfg cfly{s ljsf;sf] sf/0f If]qLo ¿kdf pTkLl8t /x“b} cfPsf pRr lxdfnL
    If]q, s0ff{nL If]q / ;]tL dxfsfnL If]qdf If]qLo :jfoQ zf;g u7g ul/g]5 .
    If]qLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] :j¿k cfwf/e"t ¿kdf hftLo :jfoQ zf;gsf] h:t} x'g]5 .
^%= ljljw efifL hftLx¿n] a;f]af; ug]{, t/fO{sf] k|Zg b'j} hftLo / If]qLo
    pTkL8gsf] k|Zg xf] . t}klg d"n ¿kdf hftLo pTkL8gs} k|Zg x'gfn]
    t/fO{df cnu cnu efifL -h:t} d}lynL, ef]hk'/L, cjlw cflb_ hfltx¿df Pp6} jf
    5'§f5'§} hftLo :jfoQ Onfsfx¿ u7g ul/g]5g\ / t/fO{jf;L / ljz]ifM dw];L
    hgtfdfly x'“b} cfO/x]sf ;a} pTkLl8t / c;dfg Jojxf/sf] cGTo ul/g]5 . nfdf]
    ;dob]lv /x“b} cfPsf] t/fO{sf] gful/stfsf] ;d:of j}1flgs, Gofok"0f{ / hgjfbL
    9Ën] xn ul/g]5 .

                                kl/R5]b– gf}
                               dlxnf tyf kl/jf/

^^=   dlxnfx¿dfly ePsf lkt[;QfTds zf]if0fsf ;a} ¿kx¿sf] cGTo ul/g]5 . /
   dlxnfx¿nfO{ ;a} If]qdf k'?if;/x ;dfg clwsf/ lbOg]5 . 5f]/LnfO{ 5f]/f;/x
   k}t[s ;DklQdfly ;dfg clwsf/ x'g]5 . ;Qfsf ;a} c+ux¿df ;xeflutfsf lglDt
   dlxnfx¿nfO{ ljz]ifflwsf/ k|bfg ul/g]5 . ;a} k|sf/sf j]Zofj[lQdfly /f]s
   nufOg]5 . /, jfbL, em'df cflb k"0f{ ¿kn] cGTo ul/g]5 . dlxnf a]rlavg
   ug]{ / anfTsf/LnfO{ s8f b08 lbOg]5 . b]zleq / ljb]z, ljz]iftM ef/tsf
   a]Zofnox¿df a]lrPsf g]kfnL dlxnfx¿nfO{ d'Qm u/]/ ;–;Ddfg k'g:yf{kg
   ul/g]5 .
^&= dlxnf / k'?ifaLr ljjfx b'j}sf] / :jtGq OR5fn] afx]s c? s'g} s/sfk jf
   k/Dk/fsf] cfwf/df x'g ;Sg] 5}g . ljjfxdf k"0f{ Pslgi7tf x'g'kg]{5 . ax'ljjfx
    alh{t ul/g]5 . ljjfxsf] lglDt Go"gtd pd]/ dlxnfsf] @) jif{ / k'?ifsf] @@ jif{
    x'g'kg]{5 . b'j} :yfgLo hg;/sf/sf kbflwsf/L;dIf ljjfxsf] lglDt lgj]bg lbPdf
    cfjZos 5fglagkl5 ljjfx btf{ u/L k|df0fkq lbOg]5 . kl/jf/ lgof]hg ug'{ / ;fgf
    kl/jf/ sfod ug'{ bDktLx¿sf] bfloTj x'g]5 . ue{ktg ug{ kfpg] dlxnfsf]
    clwsf/nfO{ ;+/If0f ul/g]5 . ljw'jf ljjfxnfO{ k|>o lbOg]5 . lzz' :ofxf/sf]
    ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
^*= b'j} klt kTgLn] rfx]df / cg'/f]w u/]df ;DaGw ljR5]b x'g ;Sg]5 . Ps kIfn]
    dfq dfu u/]df cfjZos 5fglagkl5 :jLs[lt lbg] jf glbg] clwsf/ hg;/sf/df
    /xg]5 . dlxnfdflysf k/Dk/fut pTkL8gsf] l:yltnfO{ Vofn u/L ;fdfGotM
    To:tf] ljjfbdf dlxnfsf] kIfnfO{ a9L k|fyldtf lbg'k5{ . a/fa/Lsf] cfwf/df
    x'g]5 / afnaRrfsf] nfngkfng ug]{ bfloTj b'O{ ltxfO afa'sf] / Ps ltxfO
    cfdfsf] x'g]5 .

                                 kl/R5]b– b;
                                   blnt hflt

^(= lxGb" j0ff{>d Joj:yfcg';f/ blnt hfltx¿dfly x'“b} cfPsf] zf]if0f pTkL8gsf
    ;a} ¿kx¿sf] cGTo x'g]5 / blntx¿ ;Dk"0f{ ¿kn] c¿ gful/s;/x ;dfg
    x'g]5g\ . 5'jf5'tsf] Jojxf/ ug]{sf lj?4 s8f cfk/flws sf/afxL ul/g]5 .
&)= nfdf] ;dob]lv hftLut pTkL8gdf /x“b} cfPsf / cS;/ cfly{s, ;fdflhs,
    ;f+:s[lts ;a} k|sf/n] sdhf]/ lk5l8Psf] cj:yfdf /x“b} cfPsf x'gfn]
    blntx¿nfO{ Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf c¿;/x ;dfg gxf]pGh]n;Dd /fHon] ljz]if
    clwsf/x¿sf] Joj:yf ug]{5, h'g lgodx¿åf/f Jojl:yt x'g]5g\ .

                                kl/R5]b– P3f/
                                  ljb]z gLlt

&!= ljZjsf ;a} /fi6«;+u k~rzLnsf kf“r l;4fGtx¿, ;fj{ef}d;Qf / /fli6«o
   cv08tfsf] cfk;L ;Ddfg Ps csf{sf cfGtl/s dfldnfx¿df x:tIf]k gug]{ gLlt,
   ;dfgtf / cfk;L lxt / zflGtk"0f{ ;xcl:tTjsf cfwf/df bf}To ;DaGw sfod ul/g]5
   / d}qL ;DaGw ljsf; ug]{ sf]l;; ul/g]5 .
&@= hgjfbL u0ftGq g]kfnsf] ljb]z ;DaGwsf] d'Vo cfwf/ b]zsf] :jtGqtf /
   /fli6«o cv08tfsf] /Iff, gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL Joj:yfsf] /Iff, hgtfsf lxt
   / ;'v ;Da[l4sf] k|j4{g, ;fd|fHojfb / lj:tf/jfbsf] lj/f]w, ljleGg b]zsf /fli6«
   d'lQm cfGbf]ngx¿ ljZje/sf gofF hgjfbL jf ;dfhjfbL cfGbf]ngx¿sf] ;dy{g
   x'g]5g\ .
&#= gof“ hgjfbL÷hgtfsf] hgjfbL ;/sf/n] k'/fgf] /fHo;Qfåf/f ljleGg b]z / ;+3
   ;+:yfx¿;Fu u/]sf ;a} ;Demf}tfx¿sf] 5fglag u/L b]z / hgtfsf] lxt ljkl/tsf
   ;lGw ;Demf}tfx¿;Fu gjLs/0f ul/g]5 .
&$= ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb g} g]kfn / blIf0f Pl;ofsf] ;a} /fi6«x¿sf] d'Vo aflx/L
  b'Zdg / vt/f ePsf]n] ef/tLo lj:tf/jfbL lj?4 nl8/x]sf ljleGg sDo'lg:6
  qmflGtsf/L ;d"xx¿ / /fli6«o d'lQm cfGbf]ng;+u ljz]if 3lgi6 ;DaGw ljsf;
  ul/g]5 / cGttM If]qsf ;a} b]zx¿df qmflGt ;DkGg u/]/ blIf0f Pl;ofnL
  ;f]leot km]8/]zg agfpg] lbzfdf k|oTg ul/g]5 .
&%= ljb]z / ljz]iftM ef/tdf a:g] g]kfnLx¿sf] lxtsf] /Iff ul/g]5 . ul/aL /
  a]/f]huf/Lsf] sf/0fn] ljb]lzg afWo g]kfnLx¿nfO{ :jb]zdf /f]huf/L /
  a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . a9\bf] af}l4s knfog /f]Sg / pgLx¿sf] ;fwg,
  ;Lksf] pkof]u :jb]zleq} ug{ ljz]if Wofg lbOg]5 . g]kfndf sfg'g dfg]/ a:g]
  ljb]zL gful/sx¿nfO{ ;+/If0f lbOg]5 . qmflGtsf/L ultljlwdf ;+nUg eP jkft
  b]z 5f]8\g ePsf ljZjsf s'g} klg b]zsf gful/sx¿nfO{ /fhg}lts z/0f lbOg]5 .


   ldlt M– @)%* ebf}                                afa'/fd e§/fO{
                                                  ;+of]hs
                                        ;+o'Qm qmflGtsf/L hgkl/ifb\ ,
   g]kfn
                                    

				
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posted:6/2/2011
language:English
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