English 9 Grammar: Sentences Types of Sentences: Simple, Compound, Complex (from: http://www.communitymx.com/content/article.cfm?page=2&cid=F95AD) Not too many of us think about all the different kinds of sentences we use in our writing. When used in balanced proportions, they can give our prose a lovely, poetic flow. Let's look at sentence types from the shortest and sweetest to the longest and most complex. 1. Sentence fragments: They're not against the law. Really! Used carefully, an occasional sentence fragment can give your writing immediacy and punch. 2. Simple sentences: These sentences have one subject and one verb. A series of short, simple sentences can make your writing choppy, so be careful with them. 3. Compound sentences: This kind of sentence joins two or more simple sentences that could exist as independent clauses. We use commas and coordinating conjunctions (such as and, but, and or) to combine these equal elements. 4. Complex sentences: Here we are dealing with relationships that aren't equal. Complex sentences include one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses that are connected with subordinating conjunctions (such as although, when, if, after, and since). 5. Compound and complex sentences: Now we are combining at least two independent clauses with one dependent clause. Let's look at some examples: 1. Sentence fragment: The cat didn't. 2. Simple sentence: The cat didn't purr. 3. Compound sentence: The cat didn't purr, but he hissed at the dog. 4. Complex sentence: Although the cat didn't purr, he licked my hand. 5. Compound and complex sentence: Although the cat didn't purr, he licked my hand, and I think he liked me. Choppy Simple Sentences: The cat is hissing. You are the cause. Make him stop. Correction: The cat is hissing, and you are the cause, so make him stop. What kind of sentence did I use in the corrected choppy sentence example above? What’s a conjunction? It is a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. A coordinating conjunction connects two equal parts (including independent clauses and compound For subjects). When a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses, it is often (but not And always) accompanied by a comma: Nor But Ulysses wants to play for UW, but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements. Or Yet When the two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction are nicely balanced or So brief, many writers will omit the comma: Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isn't quick on his feet. A subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of a dependent clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It can turn an independent clause into a dependent clause. Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies. Unless we act now, all is lost. after as though if rather than though whenever although because if only since till where as before in order that so that unless whereas as if even if now that than until wherever as long as even though once that when while PRACTICE: Writing Compound and Complex Sentences Directions: Transform the following simple sentences into compound sentences. Use coordinating conjunctions. 1. My dog jumped out the window. 2. A frog landed on the patio. 3. I finished my homework. 4. Write your own compound sentence: Directions: Transform the following simple sentences into complex sentences. Use the subordinate conjunction in parentheses. 1. (when) It wasn’t funny 2. (as) the audience applauded 3. (although) I wanted to win 4. Write your own complex sentence.