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An-Introduction-to-MLA-and-APA-Documentation

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 19

									AN INTRODUCTION TO MLA AND APA
DOCUMENTATION
               Part One:

DOCUMENTATION BASICS
WHAT IS DOCUMENTATION?

 When your teacher states that you must use
  APA or MLA documentation style, he or she is
  simply directing you to use a system that
  reveals to your reader what sources and
  information you have utilized in writing your
  paper.
 The documentation style also determines
  certain formatting practices in your paper.
GENERAL PAPER FORMAT RULES

 Double space entire paper.
 Use 12 point, Times New Roman font

 Do not bold titles or the bibliography page
  heading
 Set all margins to 1”

 New paragraphs should be indented ½” from
  the margin
PARTS OF DOCUMENTATION
 In-text (parenthetical) citation
 Bibliography (Works Cited Page, References)


The in-text citation acts as a key to your
bibliography and directs your reader to specific
sources. The in-text citation includes the author’s
last name (and/or) the title of the work so that
you can easily locate the complete source
information in the bibliography.
IN-TEXT CITATIONS

You need to give credit to a source any time you
use information from the source in the following
ways:
 Direct Quotation

 Paraphrase

 Summary
TYPES OF QUOTATIONS

 Block Quotations – must be longer than three
  lines, set off from main body of paragraph (like
  a block)
 Integrated Quotations – three lines of text or
  fewer, flows seamlessly in the paragraph
BLOCK QUOTATION FORMAT

                         No quotation
                            marks
Indented
 1” and
 double
 spaced

                             Citation
 Period
                             follows
comes at
                               the
 end of
                              period
  quote
 INTEGRATED QUOTE FORMAT
  Quote                    Quotation
integrated                   marks
    into                    needed
paragraph




 Quotation                 Period
   mark                    follows
 precedes                  citation
  citation
 FORMATTING A PARAPHRASE OR SUMMARY

                    The suggestion that
     The
paraphrase
              there is a continuity in the
      or      linguistic abilities of apes and
summary is    humans has created much
in your own
 words and
              controversy. Linguist Noam
    flows     Chomsky has strongly
 smoothly     asserted that language is a Period follows
  with the
paragraph.
              unique human characteristic citation.
              (Booth, 1990).
      Part Two:

APA VS. MLA
 An Example of an APA Title Page

•The header includes the running
head (formatted as the following:
Running head: TITLE OF ESSAY)
against the left margin and the
page number against the right
margin.
•The title of the essay, your name,
and the university name should
appear centered, double spaced,
and on the top half of the page.
•All text should be in 12 pt. Times
New Roman font and should not be
bolded.
•Author’s note (optional) contains
contact information and
acknowledgements and should be
placed at the bottom half of essay.
                      MLA Sample First Page
•MLA format does not require a
title page.
•On the first page, the student
includes a heading (name,
professor, course number and
date). The first page heading
begins on the first line of text
(not the header) and is double
spaced.
•The title appears centered in
plain text after the first page
heading.
•The header contains only the
student’s last name and page
number.
APA                                 MLA
             On each page after
             the title page, APA
              requires that the
              title appear in all
               caps on the left
                 and the page
              number appears
                  on the right.

             MLA format uses
             the same header
                 (last name
             followed by page
               number in the
              right corner) for
                 ever y page



SUBSEQUENT PAGE HEADERS
A QUICK EXERCISE

Look at the Bibliography of the APA Model Paper
and the MLA Model Paper and do the following
tasks:
 List all the similarities do you see.

 List all the differences you see.
SIMILARITIES                             DIFFERENCES
   Entries are double-spaced               MLA uses the heading “Works
   The first line of each entry             Cited” while APA refers to the
    begins at the margin.                    page as “References.”
    Subsequent lines display a ½”           In MLA entries the title follows
    hanging indent.
                                             the author’s name, but in APA,
   Entries are alphabetized by the          the year (in parentheses)
    first word in each entry
    (typically the author’s last             follows the author’s name.
    name)                                   Essay titles in MLA are put in
   The words “References” and               quotation marks and all
    “Works Cited” are both                   important words are
    centered, at the top of the              capitalized. APA capitalizes
    page, and in plain text.                 only the first word of an essay’s
   The important words in all               title and does not put
    journal titles and book titles are       punctuation marks around the
    capitalized.                             title.


BIBLIOGRAPHY COMPARISON
IN-TEXT CITATION DIFFERENCES

Look at the in-text citations below and list the
similarities and differences:
APA Example:                             MLA Example:
Obesity can be a devastating             Frances Bents,
problem from both an                     an expert on the relation
individual and a societal perspective.   between cell phones and
Obesity puts children at risk            accidents,
for a number of medical                  estimates that between 450
complications, including Type 2          and 1,000 crashes a year
diabetes,                                have some
hypertension, sleep apnea, and           connection to cell phone use
orthopedic problems (Henry J.            (Layton C9).
Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004, p.
1).
SIMILARITIES                      DIFFERENCES

   Both reveal the author’s         APA lists the year, but MLA
    name (or the title if the         does not
    source is anonymous)
   Both reveal the page number
    where the information can
    be found if the source has
    page numbers listed




IN-TEXT CITATIONS
A HELPFUL WEBSITE

 The Online Writing Lab at Purdue
This website includes accurate guides to both
MLA and APA format, annotated sample papers,
examples of different types of works cited entries,
and detailed information concerning punctuation,
grammar, and other writing related topics.

								
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