Module 6 by ashrafp

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									Module 6: Land Application Procedures and
Equipment
By Mark Risse, University of Georgia, and Ron Sheffield, University of Idaho




Intended Outcomes
The participants will
    Understand key considerations in selecting and managing land application sites.
    Identify activities related to timing of applications that may lead to higher environmental risk.
    Become familiar with various land application systems and methods.
    Understand the importance of equipment calibration.
    Identify appropriate land application best management practices for their farm.
    Develop procedures for proper record keeping for land application systems.


Contents
1. Introduction
2. Selecting Land Application Sites
3. Timing of Manure Applications
4. Application Methods and Equipment
   A. Environmental Performance
   B. Solid Manure Application Systems
   C. Slurry Manure Application Systems (Sludge)
   D. Surface Broadcast of Liquid Manure
   E. Irrigation
5. Equipment Calibration
6. Best Management Practices (BMPs)
   A. Factors Controlling BMP Effectiveness
   B. Land Application BMPs
7. Record Keeping

References

Questions


Reviewers
The authors wish to thank Hailin Zhang, Oklahoma State University, and Al Sutton, Purdue University,
for their review of this module.




Note: This module was adapted from the Livestock and Poultry Environmental
Stewardship (LPES) curriculum, Lesson 30 authored by Pat Murphy, Kansas State
University; Lesson 31 authored by Karl Shaffer, North Carolina State University; Lesson


                                                    1                                    November 2003
32 authored by Ron Sheffield, now at the University of Idaho; Lesson 33 authored by Ron
Sheffield, now at the University of Idaho, and Pat Murphy, Kansas State University;
Lesson 34 authored by Andrew Sharpley, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, and Ron
Sheffield, now at the University of Idaho; Lesson 35 authored by Karl Shaffer, North
Carolina State University, and Ron Sheffield, now at the University of Idaho; and Lesson
36 authored by Ron Sheffield, now at the University of Idaho, courtesy of MidWest Plan
Service, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, 50011-3080.




                                           2                              November 2003
                                            Introduction
     As agricultural producers strive to develop a more sustainable agriculture, the potential of animal
manure to recycle nutrients, build soil quality, and maintain crop productivity becomes more important.
At the same time, however, the nature of modern animal agriculture, with its highly concentrated
production facilities has raised serious questions about the effects of animal manure on the quality of our
soil, water, atmosphere, and food supply. Because land application is effective, environmentally sound,
and the only practical alternative for much of animal-based agriculture, the cornerstone of most manure
management programs will be a solid understanding of how animal manure and manure-amended soils
affect the surrounding environment. The soil is a very effective manure treatment system if manure is
applied at the proper rate, time, and location. While operators who need the nutrient resource in manure
tend to use it better, even those who are using land application as a waste disposal practice can do it in an
environmentally sound manner provided they know the impacts of their practices.
     Land application planning is a two-part process. The first step involves the process of determining
the amount of manure to apply, developing a general cropping plan, and estimating the number of acres
needed to properly land apply the manure. This step will be covered in Module 7. The second step deals
with the implementation of this plan including knowledge of how, when, and where this manure will be
applied. It covers such things as the planned times for manure applications, manure application methods,
best management practices (BMPs), and records of manure applications and crop yields. Often these
factors can have as much or more impact on the environment than the application amount.


                         Selecting Land Application Sites
     Site selection is one of the major factors that directly affect an operation's success. Spend the time up
front selecting the best sites for land application of manure so that future, potentially expensive
environmental problems and adverse public relations can be avoided. Even though a site may look good
initially, its use may result in problems that could easily have been avoided by choosing another site.
     One of the most important criteria in site selection is finding a site where the soils are suitable for the
crops that are intended to be grown. The goal of land application is to use the manure nutrients in crop
production. If the soil does not sustain crop production, then the nutrients will probably end up in the
surface or groundwater. Sometimes certain areas of land application fields do not sustain vegetation. In
these areas, soil testing is an essential diagnostic tool for determining what the problem is and developing
solutions for correcting the problem. You may need to consider different crops or tillage systems that will
sustain vegetative growth. Remember, if the intended crop is not growing, then the nutrients are going
some place else.
     The soil texture and other physical characteristics are also very important. Ideally, the soils at the site
would not be too sandy. The clays and organic matter in soils help hold the nutrients and metals found in
the manure, thereby preventing their movement to the groundwater and maximizing the potential for plant
uptake. Sandy soils are prone to groundwater contamination while heavy clay soils tend to create more
runoff and surface water impacts. To prevent nitrogen (N) from leaching to groundwater, limit N
applications on sandy soil and avoid soils with high water tables, tile drains, or controlled drainage. A
deep soil (greater than 12 inches) that has good separation from bedrock is preferred. Shallow soils tend
to produce more runoff and will not hold the nutrients in place for crop utilization.
     Since phosphorus (P) is usually applied in excess of plant needs in manure land application systems,
sites with low soil test P are preferred. To receive the most value from your manure, apply high-P
manure to fields with the lowest soil test P levels. Economically, it also makes sense to haul the highest
nutrient content manure to the farthest fields and apply the lowest nutrient content manure to the closest
fields. For lagoon systems, this would usually result in irrigating the closest fields with collected runoff
water and lagoon effluent and hauling sludge to fields farther away.


                                                       3                                      November 2003
     Animal manure should not reach surface waters or wetlands by runoff, drift, manmade conveyances
(such as pipes or ditches), direct application, or direct discharge during operation or land application. For
regulated operations, EPA requirements call for a 100-ft setback or a 35-ft vegetated buffer between any
application area and surface waters. Therefore, sites with least potential for surface water runoff reaching
streams would be more suited for land application systems. Sites that have a deep groundwater table are
also preferred. This can reduce the risk of potential groundwater contamination. Tile-drained systems
artificially lower the water table by draining the soil. These systems are therefore more prone to nutrients
seeping into the shallow groundwater and ending up in surface water.
     Slopes steeper than 6% should also be avoided unless there is sufficient crop residue to prevent
runoff, or unless manure is injected or incorporated into the soil. Sites that are too steep will have greater
losses to runoff, will have more soil erosion, and often have shallower topsoil. In general, flatter slopes
have better soils for land application and make the maintenance of a crop easier.
     Odor associated with land application is unavoidable so isolated sites are better that those near
neighbors or in the public view. Always check with local city and county officials for applicable
regulations on zoning, health, and building codes to ensure that the site can legally have manure applied
to it. Buffer or set-back restrictions can significantly reduce available land for manure application.
Buffers are designed to minimize the potential for impacts to adjacent homeowners as well as to the
environment. Having trees or other visual barriers around the site will also help you to avoid odor
complaints. In addition, it is crucial to consider the direction of the prevailing wind in relation to the site
and residential development in the area.
     Obviously, not every site is perfect for manure applications, but knowing the limitations of potential
sites is important. Evaluating the environmental suitability of your fields is one method you can use to
identify those fields where manure application is most appropriate. Table 6-1 will allow you to measure
the relative “risk” to the environment of various land application sites. Evaluations such as these can be
done on each field and included as part of your nutrient management plan (NMP). Assessments such as
Table 6-1 can also help you determine which fields to use if several alternatives are available.


Table 6-1. Field assessment for manure application.
                                                                              P
                         Category                            Points         Field # ____
1. Planned crop (check one)
a. Continuous corn or corn not following legume                  10
b. Second-year corn following legume                              8
c. First-year corn following legume                               1
d. First-year corn following nonforage legume                     8
e. Nonforage legume                                               2
f. Small grains (for grain)                                       6
g. Small grain with seeding (removed as grain)                    2
h. Small grain with seeding (removed as hay or silage)            4
i. Prior to direct seeding legume forage                          8
j. Topdress (good legume stand)                                   1
k. Topdress (fair legume stand)                                   2
l. Topdress (poor legume stand)                                   3
m. Grass pasture or other nonlegumes                              6          ________
2. Soil test P (check one for each category)
a. > 200 lbs/acre                                                 1
b. 100-200 lbs/acre                                               3
c. 30-100 lbs/acre                                                5
d. < 30 lbs/acre                                                 10
3. Site/soil limitations (check one for each category)
a. Surface or groundwater proximity


                                                         4                                   November 2003
1. Applied and incorporated within 10-year floodplain or
   within 200 feet of surface water or groundwater access        1
2. Application above these restrictions                          5
b. Slope
1. > 12%                                                          1
2. 6%-12%; > 12% (incorporated, contoured, or terraced)           3
3. 2%-6 %; 6%-12% (incorporated, contoured, or terraced)          5
4. < 2%; <6% (incorporated, contoured, or terraced)              10
c. Soil texture
1. Sands, loamy sands                                            1
2. Sandy loams, loams/sands, loamy sands                         3
3. Other soils                                                   5
d. Depth to bedrock, inches
1. 0–10                                                          0
2. 10–20                                                         1
3. > 20                                                          5
4. Odor and Public Access Concerns (check one)
a. Field along public road or near many houses without
visual screening/buffer                                          0
b. Field along public road or near many house with visual
screen or buffer                                                 3
c. Field is isolated from non-farm neighbors and public view     5       + ________
5. Total Points
   (Higher field score = higher priority for land application)            = ________



                                    Timing of Manure Applications
     With respect to nutrient management, timing is everything. While there are certainly other factors
that affect crop yields and nutrient management, timing is very important. If crops have access to
nutrients when they are needed, quality and yields are higher. If, however, nutrients are supplied at times
when crop need is low, then these nutrients pose a greater environmental risk, especially in regions with
higher rainfall. Also, applications when the soil is saturated is not recommended or allowed by most state
regulations as it may lead to nutrient losses.
     Crop growth rates and application conditions are not uniform throughout the year. Likewise, crop
nutrient requirement is not uniform among various crops. All nutrient sources should be applied at times
that will maximize crop use and minimize loss. Ideally, manure nutrients should be applied to an actively
growing crop or within 30 days of planting a crop. If crops for human consumption are grown, manure
should not be applied within three weeks of harvest. Some common crops grown to use nutrients in
manure are shown in Table 6-2. A cropping system with a variety of crops offers the most flexibility for
manure application over many parts of the year.




                                                           5                              November 2003
       Table 6-2. Crops useful for manure utilization and their maximum uptake period
                in the southeastern United States.1
       Crop                                         Uptake Period2
       Corn (grain)
       Corn (silage)                                Apr-July
       Sorghum (grain)
       Small grains (grain)
       Small grains (hay, pasture)                  Feb-Apr
       Soybean                                      July-Sept
       Cotton                                       June-Aug
       Bermudagrass (hay, pasture)                  Apr-Sept
       Tall fescue (hay, pasture)                   Feb-Apr and Sept-Nov
       Alfalfa (hay)
       Millet (hay, silage)                         May–Aug
       Annual ryegrass (hay, silage, pasture)       Feb-Apr and Sept-Oct
       1
        Relevant crop growth periods for your local area should be substituted in this table.
       2
        Application should occur no more than 30 days before planting or green up of perennial
         forages.



    As seen in Figure 6-1, there are several months during the year when most crops are dormant. For
example, bermudagrass is dormant in January and February, and growth is “slow” during March,
November, and December. These would be periods prone to nutrient losses when manure application
would not be recommended. The risk of encountering an emergency situation can be significantly
reduced by utilizing a cropping system that provides the flexibility of extending the application season
throughout most of the year. For example, if bermudagrass is overseeded with rye in the winter, you have
a cropping system in place that can accept some manure almost all the time.
    Local weather conditions also impact the timing of manure application. Manure should not be
applied to saturated soils, during rainfall events, or when the soil surface is frozen. Timing is most
important for nutrients applied to soils with a high leaching potential. Applying N to a sandy soil when
there is no crop to remove it will almost certainly result in loss of N to the shallow groundwater. Manure
with the highest N content should be applied in the spring to take advantage of lower temperatures. You
must also plan for significant wet weather periods if you live in an area that normally receives abundant
rainfall in certain months.
    In some cases, manure storage capacity dictates the frequency of manure applications. Ideally,
manure management systems should be designed to avoid this situation by allowing adequate storage
capacity, but extreme events can cause application events in conditions that are less than ideal.
Insufficient manure storage capacity will require frequent applications and year-round cropping systems,
while larger storage volumes may facilitate less frequent applications to a single crop. Many storage
structures are designed for 180 to 270 days of temporary storage, which means that an actively growing
crop must be present in both summer and winter. Double cropping or overseeding of perennial forages
can be used to meet this requirement in some climates, but additional land will be required in other areas.
For existing facilities, the temporary storage volume should be known or can be calculated and used to
determine the number of days of temporary storage. Because manure production and storage capacity
determine the maximum amount of time between manure applications, these factors strongly influence
crop selection and land requirements.




                                                             6                                   November 2003
Figure 6-1. Growth rate of selected forage crops. Growth is expressed as pounds of forage produced per day per
acre.



                                   Application Methods and Equipment
     An environmentally friendly land application system for manure will require careful review of
equipment specifications and application practices. Critical to this approach is the producer’s willingness
to treat manure or other animal byproducts as a nutrient resource and not as a waste. Often the type of
manure is the primary consideration in equipment selection. Dry manures must be handled with
spreading equipment while liquids and slurries present more options. Manure application equipment
must be selected and managed as fertilizer-spreading equipment as opposed to waste disposal equipment.
Spreaders and irrigation equipment will need to provide a uniform application of manure, a consistent
application rate, and a simple means of calibration.
     Different application equipment offers advantages and disadvantages over other equipment. While
most operators do not have the luxury of being able to select among several types of equipment, it is
important to be aware of the limitations your equipment may have on your system. Table 6-3 lists the
environmental performance of common application equipment. The criteria for these comparisons is
given below.




                                                        7                                        November 2003
Environmental Performance
Application uniformity
    To manage manure nutrients as a resource, your application equipment must provide uniform and
controllable applications for you to manage manure nutrients as a resource. Uneven distribution of
nutrients results in reduced crop production where application is deficient and in increased nutrient losses
where nutrients exceed crop requirements.

Timeliness of application
    The ability to move large quantities of manure during short periods of time is critical. Limited times
of opportunity exist for the application of manure to meet crop nutrient needs and minimize nutrient loss.
Investments and planning decisions that enhance the operation’s capacity to move manure or that store
manure in closer proximity to application sites will facilitate improved timing of manure applications.

Conservation of N
    The ammonium fraction of manure, which could represent more than half of the potentially available
N, is lost by long-term, open lot storage of manure, anaerobic lagoons, and surface spreading of manure.
Systems that conserve ammonium N and provide nutrients more in balance with crop needs increase the
economic value of manure.

Odor nuisances
    Odor nuisances are the primary driving factor behind more restrictive local zoning laws for
agriculture. Manure application systems that provide you with more flexibility in application timing and
location can reduce odor nuisances. Application systems that minimize odor deserve consideration and
preference when neighbors live close to application sites.

Soil compaction
    Manure spreaders are heavy. The manure in a 3,000-gallon liquid manure tank weighs more than 12
tons. In addition, manure is often applied at times of the year, late fall and early spring, when high soil
moisture levels and the potential for compaction are common. Soil compaction can reduce yields and
increase surface water runoff.


Table 6-3. Environmental rating of various manure application systems.
                                                                                                  Timeliness
                                 Uniformity of    Conservation of                                 of Manure
                                  Application      Ammonium*             Odor    Compaction       Application
Solid Systems
  Box spreader: tractor pulled                                                                  poor
  Box spreader: truck
       mounted                   poor                                                           fair
  Flail-type spreader                            very poor           fair       fair
  Side-discharge spreader                                                                       poor
  Spinner spreader               fair
  Dump truck                     very poor                                      poor            fair
Liquid Systems: Surface
Spread
  Liquid tanker with splash
       plate                     poor            poor                poor
  Liquid tanker with drop                                                       poor            fair
       hoses                     fair            fair                good
  Big gun irrigation system      good




                                                        8                                  November 2003
  Center pivot irrigation                            very poor             very poor      excellent          excellent
      system                       excellent
Liquid Systems:
Incorporation
  Tanker with knife injectors
  Tanker with shallow                                                                     poor               fair
      incorporation                good                           excellent
  Drag hose with shallow                                                                  good               good
      incorporation
*Solid or liquid manure applications may be followed by immediate incorporation to improve ammonia conservation.



Solid Manure Application Systems
    Manure of 20% solids or more is typically handled by box, side discharge, or spinner-type spreaders.
Box-type spreaders range in size from under three tons (100 cubic ft) to 20 tons (725 cubic ft). A
spreader mechanism at the rear of the spreader (paddles, flails, or augers) distributes the manure. Both
truck-mounted and tractor-towed spreaders are common. Flail-type spreaders provide an alternative for
handling drier manure. They have a partially open top tank with chain flails for throwing manure out the
side of the spreader. Flail units have the capability of handling a wider range of manure moisture levels
ranging from dry to thick slurries. Side-discharge spreaders are open-top spreaders that use augers within
the hopper to move wet manure toward a discharge gate. Manure is then discharged from the spreader by
either a rotating paddle or a set of spinning hammers. Side-discharge spreaders provide a uniform
application of manure for many types of manure with the exception of dry poultry litter. Spinner-type
spreaders are similar to hopper-style spreaders used to apply dry commercial fertilizer or lime and are
traditionally used to apply dry poultry litter. Manure placed in the storage hopper is moved toward an
adjustable gate via a chain drive. Manure then falls out of the spreader onto two spinning discs that
propel the litter away from the spreader. Uniform application can easily be achieved with spinner
spreaders by either varying the spinner speed or angle. Application rates can be adjusted by changing the
travel speed and by opening or closing the opening on the spreader gate.
    With the growing concern about manure contamination of water and air resources, spreaders must be
capable of performing as fertilizer spreaders. Typically, such equipment has been designed as disposal
equipment with limited ability to calibrate application rates or to maintain uniform and consistent
application rates. Several considerations specific to solids application equipment follow:
     The operator must control the application rate. Most dry spreaders offer several means of doing
         this and the operator must be knowledgeable in these techniques.
     Uniformity of manure application is critical. Variations are common in both perpendicular and
         parallel (to the direction of travel) application rates.
     Transport speed and box or tank capacity affect timely delivery of manure. Often 50% or more of
         the time hauling manure is for transit between the manure storage and field. Truck-mounted
         spreaders can provide substantial timesavings over truck-pulled units for medium- and long-
         distance hauls. Trucks used for manure application must also be designed to travel in agriculture
         fields. Consider four-wheel drive and duel or flotation-type tires for trucks that will apply
         manure. Increased box or tank capacities speed delivery.
     Ammonia losses are substantial for solid manure application that is not incorporated into the soil.
         Most of the ammonia N, representing between 20% and 65% of the total available N in manure,
         will be lost if not incorporated within a few days. Practices that allow for incorporating manure
         into the soil on the same day as applied will reduce ammonia losses and increase N available to
         crops.




                                                             9                                          November 2003
Slurry Manure Application Systems (Sludge)
     Tank wagons have traditionally been used to apply liquid or slurry manure. While this method has
allowed disposal of manure at a relatively low financial cost, it includes some hidden cost including soil
compaction, loss of ammonium N, and odor. Many unique approaches to land application of liquid or
slurry animal manure have appeared recently. Alternative delivery systems that speed movement of
manure or slurry to the field or within the field and systems that minimize exposure to the atmosphere
will enhance slurry application of manure.
     Remote manure storage (or storages) is an integral part of many delivery systems. Location of the
manure storage near the fields that receive manure as opposed to near the animal housing has several
potential advantages. Manure is transported by pump or tanker to a remote storage throughout the year,
minimizing the labor for moving manure during field application. Remote sites may provide location
options where odor or visual nuisances are less of a concern or soil permeability is such that storage
construction costs can be reduced.
     The standard 2,000- to 4,000-gallon tractor-pulled tanker cannot move manure fast enough for some
animal operations. In some regions, over-the-road tankers are being employed to shuttle manure from the
manure storage to the edge of the field. Manure is then transferred to application equipment or remote
storage. Often, used semi-tractor milk or fuel tankers with capacities of 6,000 gallons or more are
purchased for shuttle duty. Prior to implementing this approach, an individual should check licensing and
inspection requirements and carrying capacity of local bridges.
     Pumping of slurry from the manure storage to the field is becoming increasingly common. Manure of
up to 8% solids can be pumped several miles to a remote storage or field application equipment. Pipe
friction is the primary limiting factor. Manure at solids content below 4% can be treated as water in
estimating friction losses. An additional allowance for friction loss is required for pumping manure with
a solids content above 4%. Manure handling systems that involve addition of significant dilution water or
liquid-solids separation equipment provides a slurry that is most appropriate for this application. To pump
manure (> 4% solids) longer distances requires heavy-duty equipment. Aggressive chopper units are
often installed just prior to the pump when solids separation equipment is not used. Buried PVC piping
with higher pressure ratings (e.g., 160 psi) is generally selected. Because manure leaks are far more
hazardous than water leaks, joints must be carefully assembled and tested. Special care must also be
given to crossing streams and public roads. If public roads are to be crossed, appropriate local
governments maintaining these roads should be approached early in the planning process.

Surface Broadcast of Liquid Manure
    Surface application of liquid slurries provides a low-cost means of handling the manure stream from
many modern confinement systems. Tank wagons equipped with splash plates are commonly used to
spread manure. However, surface application suffers from several disadvantages including:
     Ammonia losses. Surface application of slurries results in losses of 10% to 25% of the available
        N, due to ammonia volatilization (Table 6-4).
     Odor. Aerosol sprays produced by mixing manure and air carry odors considerable distances.
     Uniformity. Splash plates and nozzles provide poor distribution of manure nutrients.

    A few recent developments attempt to address these concerns. Boom-style application units for
attachment to tank wagons or towed irrigation systems are appearing commercially for the first time.
These systems use nozzles or drop hoses for distributing slurry. They offer the opportunity to reduce
odor concerns and improve uniformity of distribution.




                                                    10                                    November 2003
Table 6-4. Nitrogen losses during land application. Percent of total N lost within 4 days of application.
Application Method                      Form of Manure                            N Lost, %
                                        Solid                                     15-30
Broadcast                               Liquid                                    10-25

Broadcast with immediate                Solid
incorporation                                                                    1-5
                                        Liquid
Knifing                                                                          0-1
Irrigation                                                                       0-10


Incorporation of liquid manure
     Options for direct incorporation of liquid manure are growing (Figure 6-2). Injector knives have been
the traditional option. Knives, often placed on 20- to 25-inch centers, cut 12- to 14-inch deep grooves in
the soil into which the manure is placed. Limited mixing of the soil and manure and high power
requirements are commonly reported concerns. Injector knives with sweeps that run four to six inches
below the soil surface allow manure placement in a wider band at a shallower depth. Manure is placed
immediately beneath a sweep (up to 18 inches wide), improving mixing of soil and manure. Location of
the manure higher in the profile minimizes potential leaching and reduces power requirements. Sweeps
can be used to apply a higher rate of manure than can conventional injector knife systems.
     Other shallow incorporation tillage implements (s-tine cultivators and concave disks) are increasingly
available options on many liquid manure tank wagons. These systems are most commonly used for pre-
plant application of manure. Manure is applied near the tillage tool, which immediately mixes the manure
into the soil. Speed of application, low power requirements, and uniform mixing of soil and manure have
contributed to the growing popularity of this approach. All soil incorporation systems also offer the
advantage of ammonia conservation and minimal odors.




Figure 6-2. Options for incorporation of manure in the soil.




                                                          11                                         November 2003
Irrigation
     Direct irrigation of liquid manure or slurry through a large-diameter sprinkler nozzle is an alternative
for operations that produce larger quantities of manure and have nearby pasture or cropland. Irrigation of
liquid manure requires less labor, time, and operating expense than hauling and does not compact the soil.
     Centrifugal pumps that can deliver at least 30 psi of pressure at the sprinkler nozzle are needed for
irrigation. In addition, due to the high solids content of some manure slurries, a lift pump or chopper-
agitator pump is needed to help the centrifugal pump maintain its prime. Internal pump chopper
mechanisms can help avoid clogging. Slurries with more than 4% solids cause higher friction losses in
the pipes, requiring more pump pressure and horsepower. It is essential that the irrigation lines be flushed
with clean water after slurry pumping. With proper management, slurry manure up to 8% total solids can
be irrigated.
     A properly designed irrigation system provides uniform wastewater application at agronomic rates
without direct runoff from the site. However, a “good design” does not guarantee proper land application.
Management is also critical. To keep your system in proper operating condition, you should be familiar
with the system components, range of operating conditions, and maintenance procedures and schedules.
The use of kill switches that sense system pressure and automatically shut motors or pumps down when
the pressure drops suddenly is also recommended on all irrigation systems. They will help prevent
excessive discharges of manure if the equipment malfunctions or irrigation lines break.
     As with water irrigation, no one system is superior over another system. The following systems can
be used for effluent irrigation:
      Stationary volume gun
      Solid set sprinkler
      Traveler
      Center pivot and linear move systems
      Hand-move sprinkler
      Side roll
      Furrow/Flood irrigation

    Although the equipment required for pumping and distributing lagoon effluent may be similar to
conventional irrigation equipment, the smaller volume of water handled in most animal lagoons and
holding basins generally allows the use of smaller, less costly systems. However, it is possible to use an
application system for both manure and fresh water irrigation. The type of irrigation system chosen
depends on many operation-specific parameters including the particle size of the solids in the effluent, the
amount of available capital, how much time and labor is available for pumping, and the land available for
application. Nevertheless, knowledge of the potential options available and their advantages and
disadvantages could lead you to better decisions.

Stationary volume gun
    This system can be used for smaller land application systems. The system includes a pump and a
main line that goes to single or multiple large-volume gun sprinklers. Advantages of the volume gun
systems include higher flow rates and a larger wetted area so less labor is required. Stationary volume
guns typically have nozzle sizes that range from 0.5 to 2 inches and operate best at pressures of 50 to 120
psi. Coverage areas of 1 to 4 acres can be obtained with proper selection of nozzle size and operating
pressure. Gun sprinklers typically have higher application rates; therefore, adjacent guns should not be
operated at the same time (referred to as “head to head”). Although stationary volume guns cost more
than smaller hand-carry systems, the reduced labor cost and higher flow rates may offset the higher cost.
On of the biggest disadvantages of stationary systems is that it is often difficult to move them if soil test P
levels become a problem.




                                                      12                                     November 2003
Table 6-5. Characteristics of stationary guns.
Advantages:                                                    Limitations:
Few mechanical parts to malfunction                            Moderate to high initial investment
Few plugging problems with large nozzle                        Water application pattern is easily distorted by wind
Flexible with respect to land area                             Tendency to over-apply effluents with high nutrient
Pipe requirements are slightly less than with small            concentrations
sprinklers
Moderate labor requirement



Stationary sprinkler systems
     Stationary systems for land application of lagoon liquid are usually permanent installations (lateral
lines are PVC pipes permanently installed below ground) (Figure 6-3). One of the main advantages of
stationary sprinkler systems is that these systems are well suited to irregularly shaped fields. To provide
proper overlap, sprinkler spacings are normally 50% to 65% of the sprinkler-wetted diameter. Sprinkler
spacing is based on nozzle flow rate and desired application rate. Sprinkler spacings are typically in the
range of 80 feet by 80 feet, using single-nozzle sprinklers. Most permanent systems use Class 160 PVC
plastic pipe for mains, submains, and laterals, and either 1-inch galvanized steel or Schedule 40 or 80
PVC risers near the ground surface where an aluminum quick coupling riser valve is installed. In grazing
conditions, all risers must be protected (stabilized) if left in the field with animals. The minimum
recommended nozzle size for wastewater is 1/4 inch. Typical operating pressure at the sprinkler is 50 to
60 psi. Sprinklers can operate full or partial circle. To achieve uniform application, the system should be
zoned (any sprinklers operated at one time constitutes one zone) so that all sprinklers are operating on
about the same amount of rotation.


Table 6-6. Characteristics of stationary sprinkler systems.
Advantages:                                                    Limitations:
Good for small or irregular-shaped fields                      High initial investment
Flexible with respect to land area                             Must protect from animals in fields
Do not have to move equipment                                  Small-bore nozzles likely to get plugged or broken
Low labor requirement                                          No flexibility to move to other (new) fields




Figure 6-3. Stationary sprinkler system.




                                                          13                                          November 2003
Traveling sprinklers
     Traveling sprinkler systems can be cable-tow traveler, hard-hose traveler, center pivot, or linear-move
systems. The cable-tow traveler consists of a single-gun sprinkler mounted on a trailer with water being
supplied through a flexible, synthetic fabric, rubber, or PVC-coated hose. Pressure rating on the hose is
normally 160 psi. A steel cable is used to guide the gun cart. The hose-drag traveler consists of a hose
drum, a medium-density polyethylene (PE) hose, and a gun-type sprinkler. The hose drum is mounted on
a multiwheel trailer or wagon. The gun sprinkler is mounted on a wheel or sled-type cart referred to as
the gun cart. Normally, only one gun is mounted on the gun cart. The hose supplies wastewater to the
gun sprinkler and also pulls the gun cart toward the drum. The distance between adjacent pulls is referred
to as the lane spacing. To provide proper overlap, the lane spacing is normally 70% to 80% of the gun-
wetted diameter.
     The hose drum is rotated by a water turbine, water piston, water bellows, or an internal combustion
engine commonly referred to as an auxillary drive unit. Regardless of the drive mechanism, the system
should be equipped with speed compensation so that the sprinkler cart travels at a uniform speed from the
beginning of the pull until the hose is fully wound onto the hose reel. If the solids content of the
wastewater exceeds 1%, an engine drive should be used.
     Nozzle sizes on gun-type travelers are 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter and require operating pressures of
75 to 100 psi at the gun for uniform distribution. The gun sprinkler has either a taper bore nozzle or a
ring nozzle. Generally, there are less clogging problems with taper bore nozzles. Ring nozzles provide
better breakup of the wastewater stream, which results in smaller droplets with less impact energy (less
soil compaction) and also provides better application uniformity throughout the wetted radius. But, for
the same operating pressure and flow rate, the taper bore nozzle throws water about 5% further than the
ring nozzle, i.e., the wetted diameter of a taper bore nozzle is 5% wider than the wetted diameter of a ring
nozzle, resulting in about a 10% larger wetted area. Therefore, the precipitation rate of a taper bore nozzle
is approximately 10% less than that of a ring nozzle.
     A gun sprinkler with a taper bore nozzle is normally sold with only one size nozzle, while a ring
nozzle is often provided with a set of rings ranging in size from 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter. This offers
the operator flexibility to adjust flow rate and diameter of throw without sacrificing application
uniformity. Before interchanging different nozzle sizes, system operators should be knowledgeable of the
relationships between ring nozzle size, flow rate, wetted diameter, and travel speed. As a general rule,
operators should consult with a technical specialist before changing nozzle size to a size different than
that specified in the initial installation.


Table 6-6. Characteristics of hard hose traveler systems.
Advantages:                                                      Limitations:
Few or no plugging problems with the large nozzle                High initial investment
Flexible with respect to land area                               High power requirement
Moderate labor requirement                                       More mechanical parts than the other systems, especially
                                                                 with an auxiliary engine
                                                                 High application rates



Center pivots and linear move systems
    The use of center pivot systems, available in both fixed-pivot point and towable machines, for
wastewater irrigation is increasing. They are available in sizes from single tower machines that cover
around 2 acres to multi-tower machines that can cover several hundred acres. Center pivot manufacturers
can offer almost completely automated systems that use rotary sprinklers, small guns, or spray nozzles.
There are several disadvantages including high cost, small sprinklers, and fixed land area covered. Drop-
type spray nozzles offer the advantage of applying wastewater close to the ground at low pressure, which
results in little wastewater drift due to wind. Linear-move systems are similar to center pivot systems,


                                                            14                                         November 2003
except that travel is in a straight line. Depending on the type of sprinkler used, operating pressure ranges
from 10 psi to 50 psi. Low-pressure systems reduce drift at the expense of higher application rates and
greater potential for runoff. Low-pressure systems in the 20-psi range with nozzles less than ¼ inch
diameter are not recommended for animal manure because they could be plugged by solids in the manure.

Other irrigation systems
      The least costly sprinkler system for effluent irrigation is the hand-move types that require labor to set
up and move the system. Although considerable labor input is required, these systems may be desirable
for small lagoons. Used hand-move systems may be available, but small nozzles in the sprinklers may
not be suited for effluent irrigation. A screened inlet pipe will reduce problems with small nozzles.
Depending on nozzle size and system operating pressure, nozzle sizes used for moderately to heavily
loaded lagoons are generally in the 1/2- to l-inch range and typically cover 1/2 to 2 acres per sprinkler.
      Furrow or gated pipe irrigation systems consist of a pump or gravity flow arrangement from a lagoon
storage basin to a distribution pipe that has holes at intervals along its length. Effluent is discharged
through the holes at a rate compatible with the land slope and soil infiltration rate. The gated distribution
pipe usually is laid as level as possible across the upper end of a sloped soil-plant filter or manure
receiving area. Gate pipe systems are suitable for lands from 0.2% to 5.0% slope. Flatter slopes result in
ponding or manure at the discharge point of the gated pipe, while steeper slopes cause effluent runoff with
little opportunity for infiltration into the soil.
      The advantages of gated pipe systems are relatively low cost, low operating pressures, and even
distribution of effluent if the holes in the pipe are properly located and sized. The disadvantages of the
gated pipe systems are high labor and management to ensure the proper operation of the systems. Gated
pipe systems do not perform well on uneven or steeply sloped land. Traditionally, gated pipe has been
used to irrigate row crops. However, properly designed and managed gated pipe systems have been
successfully used to apply lagoon effluent to grassed areas.


                                  Equipment Calibration
    An NMP is of little use if the designed application rate cannot be met. Calibration of manure
application equipment is essential because it lets you know the amount of manure and wastewater you are
applying to an area. More specifically, the calibrated rate and nutrient concentration of manure lets you
know the amount of plant-available nutrients you are applying. Then you can adjust your application rate
to avoid over fertilization and resulting nutrient losses. Calibration will:
     Verify actual application rates.
     Troubleshoot equipment operation.
     Determine appropriate overlaps.
     Evaluate the uniformity of application.
     Monitor changes in equipment operations (age and “wear and tear”).
     Alert you to changes in manure consistency or “thickness."

    Detailed procedures for calibrating almost any type of application equipment can be obtained from
equipment manuals or your local cooperative extension service. Operators should establish written
calibration procedures to be used on their operation and schedule calibration activities on a regular basis.
Many state regulations require some type of calibration documentation. At a minimum, annual
calibration is recommended for all application equipment.
    Tips for each type of application equipment are provided below:
Calibrating solid manure spreaders:
      Operators can adjust application rates and patterns by adjusting forward travel and/or PTO speed,
          gear box settings, gate openings, operating pressures, spread widths, and overlaps.


                                                      15                                      November 2003
   Application rates are simply a given weight of manure applied to a certain amount of area so if
    you know the capacity of the spreader and the area you covered with the load, you can determine
    an average application rate.
   Manufacturers rate solid and semisolid spreaders either in bushels or cubic feet (multiply bushels
    by 1.25 to get cubic ft). Most spreaders have two rating capacities: (1) struck or level full and
    (2) heaped.
   Calibration of solid manure spreaders based on their capacity (volume) is not precise because the
    density of solid and semisolid manure is quite variable. Manure density, the weight of the
    manure per volume of manure (lbs per cubic ft), varies depending on the type and amount of
    bedding used as well as its storage method. Therefore, if you estimate spreader application rates
    as the volume of the manure the spreader holds, you are overlooking the fact that some manure
    weighs more than other manure.
   Application rates can be changed by increasing or decreasing the speed at which the manure is
    being applied. The application rate and travel speed can be found using the following equations:

                                                          spreader load (tons)  495
               Application rate (tons/acre) =
                                                time (min)  width (ft)  travel speed (mph)



                                                   spreader load (tons)  495
                Travel speed (mph) =
                                       time (min)  width (ft)  application rate (tons/acre)



   The uniformity of spread and the amount of overlap needed can be determined using a line of
    small pans or trays (minimum of 12 inches x 12 inches or 15 inches in diameter) equally spaced
    (2-4 ft) across the spreader path. Your local Extension Service should have detailed
    recommendations. The effective spread width can be found by locating the point on either side of
    the path center where manure contents caught in the containers are half of what it is in the center.
    The distance between these points is the effective spreader width. To ensure a uniform rate over
    the entire field, the outer fringes of the coverage area beyond these points should be overlapped
    on the next path.
   “Flat-top,” “pyramid,” or “oval” patterns are most desirable and give the most uniform
    application. “M,” “W,” “steeple,” or “offset” patterns (Figure 6-4) are not satisfactory, and one
    or more of the spreader adjustments should be made. Often, a manufacturer’s representative
    should be contacted to assist in the correction of undesirable application patterns.


                                       Desirable Application Patterns

          Center of Spreader




              Flat top                               Oval                                Pyramid


                                     Undesirable Application Patterns

            Center of Spreader



                                                      16                                           November 2003
                     “W”                                  “M”                                 Steeple




                           Offset Left                                         Offset Right

Figure 6-4. Desirable and undesirable application uniformity.


Calibrating Liquid or Slurry Manure Spreaders:
     To calibrate, you must know the spreader capacity, which is normally rated by the manufacturer
        in gallons. Spread at least one full load of waste, preferably in a square or rectangular field
        pattern for ease of measuring, with normal overlaps. Measure the length and width of coverage,
        recognizing that the outer fringe areas of the coverage will receive much lighter applications than
        the overlapped areas. Multiply the length by the width and divide by 43,560 to determine the
        coverage area in acres.

                                  Coverage area (area of rectangle in ft 2 ) = length (ft)  width (ft)

                                                                  length (ft)  width (ft)
                                       Coverage area (acres) =
                                                                    43,560 ft 2 per acre

        To determine the application rate in gallons per acre, divide the gallons of wastewater in the
        spreader by the acres covered to determine the application rate in gallons per acre.

                                                                           spreader load volume (gal or tons)
                      Application rate for spreader (gal or tons/acre) =
                                                                                 coverage area (acres)

       Overlap and effective width can be determined similar to solid spreaders.

Calibrating Irrigation Systems:
     Operating an irrigation system differently than assumed in the design will alter the application
        rate, uniformity of coverage, and the application uniformity.
     Operating with excessive pressure results in smaller droplets, greater potential for drift, and
        accelerates wear of the sprinkler nozzle.
     Pump wear tends to reduce operating pressure and flow.
     With continued use, nozzle wear results in an increase in the nozzle opening, which will increase
        the discharge rate while decreasing the wetted diameter.
     Clogging of nozzles or crystallization of main lines can result in increased pump pressure but
        reduced flow at the gun.
     Plugged intakes will reduce operating pressure. An operating pressure below design pressure
        greatly reduces the coverage diameter and application uniformity. Monitoring system operating
        pressure at the nozzle is essential to maintaining proper and uniform coverage.



                                                             17                                             November 2003
       The calibration of most irrigation systems involves setting out collection containers, operating the
        system, measuring the amount of wastewater collected in each container, and then computing the
        average application volume and application uniformity. Detailed procedures for each type of
        system are available from the manufacturer or your State Extension Service.
       The average application depth is the average amount applied throughout the field. Unfortunately,
        sprinklers do not apply the same depth of water throughout their wetted diameter. Under normal
        operating conditions, application depth decreases toward the outer perimeter of the wetted
        diameter.
       An in-line flow meter installed in the main irrigation line provides a good estimate of the total
        volume pumped from the lagoon during each irrigation cycle. The average application depth can
        be determined by dividing the pumped volume by the application area. While this does not
        provide any information on uniformity and application depths can be highly variable, it should be
        the minimum in terms of calibration. The average application depth is computed from the
        following formula:

                                              Volume pumped, gal
            Average application depth, in =
                                              27,154 (gal/ac-in) x Application area, ac

       Big gun sprinkler systems typically have overlap based on a design sprinkler spacing of 70% to
        80% of the wetted sprinkler diameter to compensate for the declining application along the outer
        perimeter. When operated at the design pressure, this overlap results in acceptable application
        uniformity.
       Before adjusting nozzles or any other parameters on an irrigation system, operators should
        consult with irrigation specialists. Irrigation systems are designed to operate under certain
        constraints, and any adjustments could result in non-uniform applications that could cause yield
        reductions or excessive application.


                      Best Management Practices (BMPs)
     The term "Best Management Practices" refers to a combination of practices determined to be
effective, economical approaches to preventing or reducing pollution generated by nonpoint sources.
Even under ideal conditions with properly calculated, well timed, and appropriately placed applications,
land application systems will have losses to ground or surface water, so BMPs are necessary to minimize
the impacts of these losses. Best Management Practices can be structural like in the construction of
terraces, sedimentation basins, vegetated waterways, or fencing or they can be managerial like crop
rotation, plant tissue analysis, and conservation tillage. Both types of BMPs require good management to
effectively reduce the generation or delivery of pollutants from agricultural activities. In an NMP, it is
important to indicate the BMPs that will be used on all land application areas.

Factors Controlling BMP Effectiveness
    Best Management Practices use a variety of mechanisms that result in varying degrees of
effectiveness. Often, operators will need the assistance of a conservation planner such as your local
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) staff, Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD)
officer, Extension agent, or crop advisor to select and develop a conservation plan for each field. When
selecting BMPs, you should use a systematic approach to ensure that the practice you select will solve
your problem. The following questions can help you in the selection process:

    What pollutants are contributing to the problem?
       Sediment, nutrients, bacteria, etc.


                                                    18                                     November 2003
    Where are the pollutants being transported?
       Surface or groundwater
    How are the pollutants being delivered?
       Availability, transport paths, in the water, or on sediment

     The most effective plan will probably consist of several different BMPs that target different
mechanisms. Some BMPs may solve a surface water quality problem but create a groundwater quality
problem. An expert trained in these systems should design (and review the installation of) the BMPs for
your operation. Finally, if a BMP is not economically feasible and well suited for the site, you probably
should not use it. When selecting BMPs, consider all of the costs including effects on yield, production
and machinery costs, labor and maintenance, and field conditions. Often a very effective BMP will
rapidly become a problem if all the costs are not considered before implementation.
     Control of soil erosion is probably the best opportunity for preventing pollution from land application
areas since sediment is not only a pollutant but can also carry nutrients or pesticides with it. While soil
erosion is a natural process, it is accelerated by any activity that disturbs the soil surface. The amount of
soil erosion that occurs is a function of the rainfall and runoff generated from the site, the soil erodibility,
the slope length and steepness, the cropping and management of the soil, and any support practices that
are implemented to prevent erosion. Knowledge of rainfall patterns will also allow operators to ensure
that the soil is protected during the periods of the year when it receives the largest amounts of rainfall.
     Your primary control of soil erosion is through modifications in slope steepness and slope length and
in cropping, tillage and residue management, and support practices. Steeper slopes produce more soil
erosion, and methods of reducing slope length or steepness such as the construction of levies and terraces
can reduce soil erosion. Practices such as strip cropping and vegetated waterway construction can be
used to reduce runoff velocities and slope length. Crop canopy and surface cover or residue act as a
buffer between the soil surface and the raindrops, absorbing much of the rainfall energy and ultimately
reducing soil erosion. Therefore, crops that produce more vegetative cover, have longer growing seasons,
or produce a persistent residue will have less soil erosion. Any cropping system with less tillage or
greater amounts of vegetative production will result in less sediment leaving the field. Support practices
are structural BMPs such as terraces that are proven to reduce soil erosion. These practices are often
more expensive than management and cropping changes but may be required on some fields.
     While most BMPs reduce soil erosion and transport, some BMPs use other mechanisms to reduce the
impact of a pollutant. The three stages of the pollutant delivery process are availability, detachment, and
transport. Availability is a measure of how much of a substance in the environment can become a
pollutant. For example, an effective BMP for reducing the amount of animal manure entering surface
water may be to simply decrease the amount that you are land applying to an area so that less is available.
Once a substance is available, it must be detached from the target site to become a pollutant. Pollutants
may be detached as individual particles in the water or attached to soil particles. For example, dry
manures applied to the surface are more easily detached than the same amount of liquid manure that has
soaked into the soil. Incorporation of the dry manure into the soil is therefore a BMP that limits
detachment. Transport is the final link in the pollutant delivery chain. To cause a problem, nutrients or
other pollutants must travel from the point where they were applied to the surface or groundwater. For
instance, using a filter strip to collect sediment before it enters a stream is an example of reducing
pollutant transport.

Land Application BMPs
    When properly carried out, BMPs improve water quality. Best management practices relating to
manure management are those practices that optimize nutrient uptake by plants and minimize nutrient
impact on the environment. They will change over time as technology and understanding of the complex
environment improves. Likewise, BMPs are very site specific, and a BMP in one place may not be useful
for another location. Key BMPs for land application are listed in Table 6-8.



                                                      19                                      November 2003
Table 6-8. Common BMPs for land application of manure.
BMP                                Mode of Action
Soil, manure or plant analysis
Nutrient management plan           Ensures that proper crop nutrient requirements are met and manure is not over
Calibration of application         applied: Amount
equipment
Manure treatments such as alum     Reduces availability of nutrients to runoff: Availability
Manure injection or incorporation Places nutrients in the root zone and reduces availability to runoff: Availability
Critical area protection/Vegetated Removes areas prone to runoff and erosion from production and manure
waterways                          application: Availability
Water diversions                   Diverts water from running onto fields: Availability
Terraces or contour planting       Reduces erosion and encourages infiltration: Transport
Riparian buffers or filter strips  Acts as trap to remove pollutants before entering waterways: Transport
Cover crops, “scavenger crops, or
crop rotation                      Reduces erosion and encourages infiltration, improves soil quality and
Conservation or reduced tillage    provides additional uptake: Transport and availability
Ponds or retention structures      Acts as trap to remove pollutants before entering waterways: Transport
Rotational grazing/Pasture
management                         Reduces runoff and erosion, increases plant uptake: Transport and availability


    A summary of other BMP principles related to land application practices that enhance surface water
and groundwater quality are as follows:
    1. Application of nutrients at rates corresponding to crop uptake requirements is one of the most
        important management practice used for reduction of off site transport of nutrients.
    2. Maintaining good crop-growing conditions will reduce both surface runoff losses and subsurface
        losses of plant nutrients. Preventing pest damage to the crop, adjusting soil pH for optimum
        growth, providing good soil tilth for root development, planting suitable crop varieties, and
        improving water management practices will increase crop efficiency in nutrient uptake.
    3. Timing of nutrient application to coincide with plant growth requirements increases uptake
        efficiency and reduces exposure of applied nutrients to surface runoff and subsurface leaching.
        The optimum time of application depends on the type of crop, climate, soil conditions, and
        chemical formulation of fertilizer or manure. Consult a certified crop advisor or professional
        agronomist to discuss when manure/nutrients should be applied to maximize crop uptake.
    4. Certain soil and water conservation practices will reduce sediment-associated nutrient losses. By
        reducing sediment transport, contouring, terraces, sod-based rotations, conservation tillage, and
        no-tillage reduce edge-of-field losses of sediment-bound-N and sediment-bound-P.
    5. Proper selection and calibration of equipment will ensure proper placement and rate of nutrient
        delivery. Improper calibration and equipment maintenance will result in over or under
        application of nutrients or uneven nutrient distribution. Appropriate handling and loading
        procedures will prevent localized spills and concentration of manure nutrients.
    6. Crop sequences, cover crops, and surface crop residues are useful tools for reducing runoff and
        leaching losses of soluble nutrients. Winter cover crops may theoretically capture residual
        nutrients after harvest of a summer crop. Nutrient credits for “green manures” and cover crops
        must be taken into account to determine the appropriate rate of additional manure application. On
        soils with a high potential for leaching, multiple applications of manure at lower rates should be
        used.
    7. Deep-rooted crops, including alfalfa and to a lesser extent, soybeans, will scavenge nitrate
        leached past the usual soil-rooting zone. Used in crop rotation following shallow-rooted or




                                                         20                                       November 2003
          heavily fertilized row crops, deep-rooted crops will recover excess nitrate from the soil and
          reduce the amount available for leaching to groundwater.
    8.    Use commercial fertilizer only when manure does not meet crop requirements.
    9.    Manure should not be applied more than 30 days prior to planting of the crop or forages breaking
          dormancy. Incorporate manure to reduce N loss, odors, and nutrient runoff for crops where
          tillage is normally used.
    10.   Applications of animal manure should not be made to grassed waterways. If applications are
          made, they should be conducted at agronomic rates and during periods of low rainfall to minimize
          runoff from the site.
    11.   On manure application sites that are grazed, reduce the N rate by 25% or more to account for
          nutrient cycling through the grazing animals. Use proper stocking rates so that the vegetative
          cover is not damaged, which could result in increased soil erosion. Controlling animal traffic
          patterns can help to prevent bare spots that could lead to the formation of gullies.
    12.   The use of sediment basins or small ponds is a method of preventing off-farm pollution. A
          sediment basin is a barrier or dam constructed across a waterway to reduce the velocity of the
          runoff water so that much of the sediment and associated nutrients settle to the basin bottom.
          Small sediment basins require regular sediment removal while larger basins can almost appear to
          be a pond and may support fish and wild life. A well-placed pond can collect all of the runoff
          from an operation and have a positive impact on water quality. It acts as a detention basin by
          removing sediment and nutrients from the flow and reducing the volumes of flow occurring at
          peak conditions. It can also filter many nutrients if aquatic vegetation or fish are used. Finally,
          the pond can act as a buffer between the operation and the external environment.


                                            Record Keeping
     Regular monitoring of structures, equipment, and other critical control points and thorough record
keeping is essential on all animal feeding operations. It is your best insurance against accidental
discharges, and in the event of a compliance inspection, documents that you are doing things correctly. In
addition, to comply with regulations, your permit may require that you maintain some records. Keeping
accurate records, along with implementing proper BMPs on your operation, is the primary way you prove
to state water quality agencies and to the general public that your manure management system is not
causing an environmental impact. Assistance with record keeping can be obtained from Certified Crop
Advisors and other technical specialists, the local Cooperative Extension Service, the NRCS, and the local
SWCD.
     Record keeping is a major component of site inspections that state water quality agencies or local
SWCDs conduct. Often a complaint leading to an inspection can easily be resolved if proper records are
available. Larger operations with NPDES permits are required to keep records, but all operations should
consider keeping them for their own benefit (Table 6-9).



Table 6-9. List of NPDES permit record-keeping requirements for land application and other activities at large
CAFOs.
Parameter                                                         Units                 Frequency
Nutrient Management Plan
CAFO operators must maintain on-site a current, site-specific
NMP that reflects the existing operational characteristics.
Operators must also maintain on-site all necessary records to     N/A                   N/A
document that the NMP is being properly implemented with
respect to manure and wastewater generation, storage and



                                                         21                                       November 2003
handling, and land application.
Soil and Manure/Wastewater Nutrient Analysis
                                                                                      Conduct initial
Analysis of manure to determine N and P content                        ppm            sampling, then
                                                                       lbs/ton        at least
                                                                                      annually.
                                                                                      Conduct initial
Analysis of soil in all fields where land application activities are   lbs/acre       sampling, then
conducted to determine P content.                                                     at least once
                                                                                      every 5 yrs.
Operation and Maintenance
Visual inspection of all water lines                                   N/A            Daily
Document depth of manure and process wastewater in all liquid
impoundments                                                           Ft             Weekly
Document all corrective actions taken                                  N/A            As necessary
Document animal mortality practices                                    N/A            As needed
Design documentation for all manure, litter, and wastewater
storage structures including the following information:
      Volume for solids accumulation                                  Cubic yd/gal   Once/permit
      Design treatment volume                                         Cubic yd/gal   term unless
      Total design volume                                             Cubic yd/gal   revised weekly
      Days of storage capacity                                        Days
Document all overflows from all manure and wastewater storage
structures including their:
      Date and time                                                   Mo/day/yr      Per event
      Estimated volume                                                hr gal         Per event
Document manure application equipment inspection and
calibration.                                                           N/A            Seasonally
Land Application
For each application event where manure, litter or wastewater is
applied, document the following by field:
      Date of application                                             Mo/day/yr      Daily
      Method of application                                           N/A            Daily
      Weather conditions at the time of application                   N/A            Daily
      Total amount of N and P applied                                 Lbs/ac         Daily
Document the crop and expected yield for each field.                   Bushel/ac      Seasonally
                                                                                      Once/permit
Test methods and sampling protocols used to sample and analyze N/A                    term unless
manure, litter, wastewater, and soil.                                                 revised
Documentation showing the total N and P to be applied to each
field including nutrients from the application of manure, litter,  Lbs/ac           Once/permit
and wastewater and other sources as well as how these rates were                    term unless
determined                                                                          revised
Manure Transfer
For all manure transfer off the farm, operators must maintain the
following records:
      Date of transfer                                            N/A              As necessary
      Name and address of recipient                               N/A              As necessary
      Approximate amount of manure, litter, or wastewater         Tons/gallons     As necessary
          transferred
Water Quality and Environmental Assessment *Not required unless specified in permit
Documentation on any surface or groundwater testing and
analysis conducted on the farm. Common test parameters may
include nitrate, ammonia, total N, P, and fecal coliform bacteria. ppm or cfu/100ml As necessary



                                                            22                                November 2003
May also voluntarily include results from regular environmental
assessments.


     Most records will be part of your NMP, and you should store them with your plan. These records
should be maintained for at least five years or as long as they are useful. For items such as soil and
manure testing, be sure to include the procedures used for sampling and analysis of each test. It is
important to remember that a NMP is just a plan of what you intend to do. Without records that indicate
what you actually did, the NMP is of little use in documenting compliance on the farm.
     Weather records should include daily rainfall records. These can be obtained through simple rain
gauges or more complex weather stations. Rainfall data is very useful in both managing crops and
irrigation scheduling and in monitoring your manure storage. Where odor is an issue, some producers
have also found it useful to keep wind speed and direction data.
     For all lagoons or manure storages, you should record weekly lagoon level (freeboard) records as well
as inspection records. Often routine inspections get overlooked unless they are regularly scheduled and
recorded. These records not only prevent emergencies but can also aid in a better understanding of your
storage structures. Equipment maintenance records seem trivial, especially when maintenance is only
performed when equipment breaks down, but well-maintained equipment is more reliable and efficient.
Good maintenance programs can save you money in the long run. Many people regularly change the oil
in their cars, and as a result, get improved gas mileage and longer engine life. Do we do the same thing
with our irrigation pumps? What will happen when the lagoon is 2 inches into the freeboard and it finally
decides to breakdown?
     Water quality monitoring or environmental assessments are proactive measures that producers should
use to track their environmental performance. Usually, this type of monitoring is not required but could
be very helpful. If water quality monitoring is required as part of your permit, the permit will dictate the
frequency and types of ground and surface water monitoring you should conduct. If not, these records are
very useful in alerting you to problems early as well as documenting that the operation is not the source of
a problem. Testing all wells at least bi-annually for drinking water contaminants is also recommended.
For surface water flowing through your operation, semi-annual upstream and downstream testing for
nitrate would be the cheapest and most effective strategy. Third parties such as consultants, the NRCS, or
your local SWCD can conduct environmental assessments or you can use one of the many readily
available self-assessment tools such as Farm*A*Syst. More information about these types of assessment
tools is available in the reference section or from your local Extension office.
     Operators should maintain records on all nutrient applications including manure, commercial
fertilizer, or waste materials, such as municipal biosolids or industrial residuals. These records should
include the analytical results, application rates, and soil tests for each application site. A certain amount
of record keeping is needed to manage the manure application system and calibrate the equipment. The
record-keeping forms provided here will help you document site-specific data that is currently limited on
many animal operations. These forms will allow you to easily track your applications and provide you
with an easy resource to ensure that you do not exceed recommended application targets on any fields.
When combined with such site-specific data as your waste analysis, plant analysis, soils analysis, crop
yields, and other plan items, these forms will provide evidence that you are managing your manure
application properly and not exceeding agronomic rates.
     The forms included here are as follows:
IRR-1: Irrigation Field Record is used to record each irrigation event. The IRR–1 or 2 forms can be used
with all types of irrigation systems including solid-set sprinklers, solid-set volume guns, hard hose
travelers, center pivots, and liner move irrigation systems.
IRR-2: Cumulative Irrigation Field Record is used to record the total annual manure application to one field
per crop cycle. It enables operators to calculate the total N and P application to the field and compare it to
recommended loading rates.
SLUR-1: Liquid Manure Slurry Field Record is used to record manure application from liquid tanks.


                                                        23                                  November 2003
These forms would be used to record the broadcast or injection of any liquid manure, effluent, and sludge.
SLUR-2: Cumulative Liquid Manure Slurry Field Record is used to record the total annual manure
application to one field per crop cycle with a slurry or pump and haul system. It enables operators to
calculate the total N and P application to the field and compare it to the recommended loading rates.
SLD-1: “Solid” or Semisolid Manure Field Record is used to record each application event from a
manure box, flail, or side-discharge spreader. These forms would be used to record the broadcast of any
solid manure, separated manure solids, bedding, litter, or compost.
SLD-2: Cumulative Solid Field Record is used to record the total annual manure application to one field
per crop cycle. It enables operators to calculate the total N and P application to the field and compare it to
the recommended loading rates.

     The record forms IRR-2, SLUR-2, and SLD-2 require operators to calculate the amount of N that has
been applied to a given crop. The necessary formulas to complete the forms are provided in the first row
of the form. For recording purposes, field size is that portion of the field that receives manure
applications. When using irrigation, this is often referred to as the “wetted” or “irrigated” area. Wetted
area is equal to or less than field size due to the irrigation system layout, the area required for required or
recommended buffers, and the shape of the field. Application areas within fields may also be reduced
because their slope, seasonal wetness, or soil type makes them inaccessible to spreader equipment.
     It is important that operators obtain permission to land apply manure on land that is rented from or
owned by another person. A legal manure application agreement could be your only protection in the
event of a spill or environmental investigation. It also may be required as part of an NMP on operations
that are land limited. Several example agreements are included in this module to assist you in developing
these forms. They are only examples and may not be legally binding.
     Records should also be kept on all manure transported off the operation. When transporting manure
off-site or selling manure, the records should include the amount sold or given away, the recipient, the
manure nutrient content and the intended use. It is also advisable to give the recipient a copy of the
manure analysis and to provide information about appropriate utilization. Manure should be treated in the
same manner as commercial fertilizer; most people would not purchase fertilizer of unknown nutrient
content that did not have proper directions for utilization.




                                                      24                                     November 2003
Form IRR-1                                              Irrigation Field Record
                                           For Recording Irrigation Events on Different Fields

              Farm Owner                                                            Facility Number
       Irrigation Operator

                                Date                                                            Irrigation Time                        Number of
   Tract #          Field #                Crop Type     Field Size, ac
                              (mm/dd/yr)                                     Start Time            End Time       Total Minutes   Sprinklers Operating




                                                                      25
                                                                           November 2003
Form IRR-2                                                                       Irrigation Field Record
                                                                          One Form for Each Field per Crop Cycle

                     Tract #                                Field #                                                Facility Number
       Field Size, ac = (A)
                 Farm Owner                                                                                  Irrigation Operator

                                                                            From Manure Utilization Plan
                                                                  Recommended PAN                                                       Recommended P
          Crop Type
                                                                 Loading, lb/acre = (N)                                              Loading, lb/acre = (P)

       (1)            (2)           (3)               (4)                  (5)              (6)              (7)                (8)               (9)            (10)        (11)          (12)
                                             Irrigation
                                                                                                          Manure                                  PAN         P Applied,        N
                                                                                                                                        1
                                  # of                                Total Volume,     Volume Per                1         P Analysis ,        Applied,         lb/ac              2                2
      Date           Total                       Flow Rate,                                              Analysis                                                          Balance ,    P Balance
                                Sprinklers                                  gal         Acre, gal/ac                       lb P2O5/1,000          lb/ac        (P) x (8)
    (mm/dd/yr)      Minutes                        gal/min                                              PAN, lb/1,000                                                         lb/ac     (P) – (10)
                                Operating                             (2) × (3) × (4)    (5) ÷ (A)                              gal           [(6) × (7)] ÷
                                                                                                            gal                                  1,000                      (N) - (9)




                                                      Crop Cycle Totals

                   Owner’s Signature                                                                     Operator’s Signature




1
 See your manure management plan for sampling frequency. A recent manure analysis is your best method of properly utilizing your manure nutrients.
2
 Initially subtract the PAN or P applied (column 9 or 10) from the recommended PAN or P loading rate (N or P above). After the first iteration, subtract the amount applied from the previous
balance to keep a running total. If you reach negative numbers, it means you are over applying this nutrient.
                                                                                                   26
                                                                                                        November 2003
Form SLUR-1                                                      Slurry and Sludge Application Field Record
                                                          For Recording Slurry Application Events on Different Fields

                   Farm Owner                                                                                      Facility Number
           Spreader Operator

                                           Date                                                     Application             # of Loads
         Tract #          Field #                            Crop Type         Field Size, ac                1                                           2
                                         (mm/dd/yr)                                                  Method                  Per Field   Volume of Loads , gal




1
    SI = soil incorporated (disked); BR = broadcast (surface applied)
2
    Can be found in operator’s manual for the spreader. Contact a local dealer if you do not have your owner’s manual.



                                                                                      27             November 2003
Form SLUR-2                                                              Slurry and Sludge Application Field Record
                                                                          One Form for Each Field per Crop Cycle

                     Tract #                             Field #                                                   Facility Number
        Field Size, ac = (A)
                 Farm Owner                                                                                     Spreader Operator

                                                                                  From Manure Utilization Plan
      Crop                                            Recommended PAN                                                    Recommended P
      Type                                            Loading, lb/ac = (N)                                             Loading, lb/ac = (P)

       (1)               (2)               (3)                     (4)                (5)                (6)                 (7)                  (8)                 (9)
                                                                                            1                                                           2
                                       Volume Per                            1    P Analysis        PAN Applied,         P Applied,           N Balance ,                      2
      Date          Total Volume                        Manure Analysis                                                                                           P Balance
                                       Acre, gal/ac                              lb P2O5/1,000           lb/ac              lb/ac                 lb/ac
    (mm/dd/yr)       Applied, gal                       PAN, lb/1,000 gal                                                                                          (P) – (7)
                                        (2) ÷ (A)                                     gal        [(3) × (4)] ÷ 1,000      (P) x (5)             (N) - (6)




         Crop Cycle Totals

                  Owner’s Signature                                                                  Operator’s Signature

1
 See your manure management plan for sampling frequency. A recent manure analysis is your best method of properly utilizing your manure nutrients.
2
 Initially subtract the PAN or P applied (column 9 or 10) from the recommended PAN or P loading rate (N or P above). After the first iteration, subtract the amount applied
from the previous balance to keep a running total. If you reach negative numbers, it means you are over applying this nutrient.


                                                                                       28           November 2003
Form SLD-1                                                         Solid Manure Application Field Record
                                                      For Recording Solid Manure Application Events on Different Fields

                   Farm Owner                                                                                      Facility Number
           Spreader Operator

                                                                                                                                                        2
                                           Date                                 Field Size,         Application             # of Loads   Volume of Loads ,
         Tract #          Field #                            Crop Type                                       1
                                         (mm/dd/yr)                                 ac               Method                  Per Field         tons




1
    SI = soil incorporated (disked); BR = broadcast (surface applied)
2
    Can be found in operator’s manual for the spreader. Contact a local dealer if you do not have your owner’s manual.




                                                                                      29             November 2003
Form SLD-2                                                             Solid Manure Application Field Record
                                                                      One Form for Each Field per Crop Cycle

                    Tract #                               Field #                                                 Facility Number
       Field Size, ac = (A)
              Farm Owner                                                                                       Spreader Operator

                                                                              From Manure Utilization Plan
                                                                                                    Recommended
      Crop                                           Recommended PAN
                                                                                                         P Loading,
      Type                                           Loading, lb/ac = (N)
                                                                                                         lb/ac = (P)

       (1)                    (2)              (3)                  (4)               (5)                (6)                (7)                (8)                (9)
                                          Weight Per                                               PAN Applied,                                      2
                      Total Weight                               Manure                     1                                             N Balance ,                   2
      Date                               Acre, tons/ac                1         P Analysis , lb        lb/ac         P Applied, lb/ac                         P Balance ,
                        Applied,                              Analysis PAN,                                                                   lb/ac
    (mm/dd/yr)                                                                    P2O5/ton          (3) × (4) ÷         (P) x (5)                              (P) – (7)
                          tons              (2) ÷ (A)             lb/ton                                                                    (N) - (6)
                                                                                                      1,000




             Crop Cycle Totals

                 Owner’s Signature                                                                   Operator’s Signature
1
 See your manure management plan for sampling frequency. A recent manure analysis is your best method of properly utilizing your manure nutrients
2
 Initially subtract the PAN or P applied (column 9 or 10) from the recommended PAN or P loading rate (N or P above). After the first iteration, subtract the amount applied
from the previous balance to keep a running total. If you reach negative numbers, it means you are over applying this nutrient.

                                                                                    30              November 2003
                 Sample Forms for Manure Application Records
 Purpose
    The purpose of this section is to provide sample forms for meeting the record-keeping requirements of the
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA's) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
    (NPDES) permit program for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs).

Warning
   Many organic and inorganic nutrient planning processes are state specific. In addition, individual state
   permitting authorities may require additional records beyond those required by EPA regulations. If
   appropriate records and planning procedures are available in your state, those records and procedures should
   be used instead of these sample records. If no alternative exists, the attached forms provide a starting point.

 Regulations
    New EPA regulations supporting the NPDES program define required record-keeping activities that must be
    in place no later than December 31, 2006. The EPA rules require producers to record and maintain records
    on file for at least five year on the following topics:
     Expected crop yields.
     Dates manure, litter, or process wastewater is applied to each field.
     Weather conditions at the time of application and 24 hours before and after application.
     Test methods used to sample and analyze soil and manure, litter, or process wastewater.
     Results from manure, litter, and process water and soil sampling.
     Explanation of the basis for determining manure application rates.
     Calculations showing the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to be applied to each field, including
        sources other than manure, litter, or process water.
     Total amount of N and P actually applied to each field, including documentation of calculations for the
        total amount applied.
     Methods used to apply the manure, litter, or process water.
     Dates of manure application equipment inspection.

     In addition, the EPA rules require that a producer maintain on-site a copy of his site-specific nutrient
     management plan. Finally, large CAFOs only (see CAFO Fact Sheet #2: Am I a CAFO?) are required to
     maintain records on the transfer of manure or process wastewater to other persons provide them with current
     nutrient analysis and document recipient information in records.

 Sample Records
    1. Planned Nutrient Application Rates:
        Crop available manure nitrogen (Form 1a)
        Annual field plan for N (Form 1b)
        Annual field plan for P (Form 1c)
        Field-Specific Nutrient Application Plan (Form 1d)
    2. Manure application field records (Forms 2, 3, 4, and 5)
    3. Additional crop, soil, and water nutrient status indicators (Form 6)
    4. Continuing education summary record (Form 7)
    5. Off-farm transfers of manure (Form 8)
    6. Livestock waste discharge notification reports (Form 9)
    7. Post-cropping season summary of crop yields, manure analysis, and application rates (Form 10)
    8. Crop yield records (Form 11)

     The attached records can be modified to meet individual record-keeping needs. They can be unlocked for
     modification by accessing “View” …, “Toolbars” …, “Forms,” and then clicking on the “Lock” symbol.


                                                        31                                November 2003
                                                     Planned Nutrient Application Rate:
                                         Instructions for Crop Available Manure Nitrogen (Form 1a)
Purpose
This worksheet will estimate a crop available nitrogen credit for a known                                       Col. e: Fill in the ammonium-N availability factor based on the most
(calibrated) manure application rate.                                                                                  applicable situation from the left box in Figure 1.
                                                                                                                Col. f: Calculate crop available ammonium-N (Col. c x Col. d x Col. e)
                                                                                                                Col. g: Enter the organic-N in the manure from lab analysis (Total N -
Steps                                                                                                                  Ammonium N).
Col. a: This “Option #” is used to reference the selected manure application                                    Col. h: Enter the organic-N availability factor from the middle box in
      option.                                                                                                          Figure 1.
Col. b: Enter description of manure source (e.g. lagoon, below barn pit,                                        Col. i: Calculate the crop available organic-N (Col. f x Col. g x Col. h).
      open lot), season of application, and timing of incorporation.                                            Col. k, l, and m: Organic-N available over the next three years can be
Col. c: Enter the planned application rate. Application equipment should be                                            estimated by multiplying the appropriate availability factor in the right
      calibrated to achieve approximately the desired rate, Col. d: Enter                                              hand box of Figure 1 by the value in Col. i.
      the manure’s ammonium-N from lab analysis.                                                                This procedure should be repeated for each manure application system
                                                                                                                (or piece of equipment), each application rate, and timing of
                                                                                                                incorporation.

     Figure 1. Availability factors for manure nitrogen. Values from figure should be entered into Form 1a. If available, replace values below with state
                specific values for crop available nitrogen.

                                                                                            Total Manure                                                         Feces
                                       Urine
                                                                                              Nitrogen

             Ammonium-N Available This                                                                Organic-N Available This                                                 Organic-N
                                                                                                                                2
  SidedressYear:
              application1:            Preplant application and incorporated1:                   Beef/Dairy           Year          Poultry                                   Available:
                                                                                                                                                                         Next Year:                0.15
    Incorporated          1.0             Immediately                0.95                         Solid (e.g. feedlot) 0.25          Deep pit             0.45           2 Years From Now:         0.07
    Sprinkler irrigation  0.5             One day later         0.5*       0.7**                  Stored liquid        0.35          Solid with litter    0.30           3 Years From Now:         0.04
                                          Two days later       0.25*       0.5**                  Compost              0.15          Solid without litter 0.35
   Preplant application                   Three days later     0.15*      0.35**                 Swine                                                                   Multiply factor by organic-N
    Not Incorporated    0.0              * Solid Manure         ** Liquid Manure                  Fresh                 0.5           Stored liquid      0.35            content shown in manure analysis



        Crop Available                            Ammonium-N                                                               Organic-N                                            Organic N
           Nitrogen                =            Available This Year                            +                       Available This Year                   ++            From Past Applications
    1
     Incorporation can be accomplished by tillage or by a 0.50 inch or greater rainfall.
    2
     Organic-N availability assumes spring seeded crops such as corn and soybeans. For spring seeded crops such as wheat, barley, and oats, multiply organic-N availability factor by 0.7.



                                                                                                      32             November 2003
                                                            Form 1a. Planned Nutrient Application Rate:
                                                                 Crop Available Manure Nitrogen
                                                                                                                                                             j.
             Manure Application Options                           Ammonium-N Available This Year                Organic-N Available This Year              This
                                                                                                                                                                   Organic-N Available
                                                                                                                                                          Year’s
  a.                b.                       c.                      d.                  e.           f.                g.           h.           i.     Total N       k.         l.        m.
Option       Manure Source,              Planned              Ammonium-N              Avail-able Available     Organic-N Content Avail-able Available Avail-able Next Year 2 Years        3 years
  #             Season of             Application Rate           Content               Factor      NH4-N         (“as is” basis) Factor (see Organic-N    (f + i)   (c x g x from Now from Now
             Application, and                                 (“as is” basis)           (see     (c x d x e)                      Figure 1) (c x g x h)  (lbs./ac)   0.15)     (c x g x (c x g x
              Incorporation                                                           Figure 1) (lbs./ac.)                                    (lbs./ac.)           (lbs./ac)    0.07)      0.04)
                                                                                                                                                                              (lbs./ac.) (lbs./ac)
          Feedlot manure, surface     18      tons/ac         4       Lbs./ton                                 16      Lbs./ton
 Ex.     applied, incorporate in 24         X 1000 gal/ac           X Lbs./1000 gal      0.5          36             X Lbs./1000 gal   0.25       72        108        36        18         9
                    hrs.                      ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in
                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  1                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  2                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  3                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  4                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  5                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  6                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in

                                              tons/ac                 Lbs./ton                                         Lbs./ton
                                              1000 gal/ac             Lbs./1000 gal                                    Lbs./1000 gal
  7                                           ac-in/ac                Lbs./ac-in                                       Lbs./ac-in




                                                                                                      49       November 2003
                                                      Planned Nutrient Application Rate:
                                           Instructions for Annual Field Plan for Nitrogen (Form 1b)

  Purpose
  This planning guide will determine the amount of nitrogen that will be needed                  Col. h: Enter an irrigation credit by multiplying the nitrate-N concentration of the
                                                                                                          irrigation water by the acre-inches of water usually applied by mid season
  (including manure nitrogen) to meet crop nitrogen requirements. All crop nitrogen                       (e.g., end of silking in corn) and by the conversion factor 0.227.
  annual planning documents are organized to maintain multiple years of records for                       Example: Irrig. credit (lbs. N/ac.) = 9 inches applied X 10 ppm Nitrate-N
                                                                                                          X 0.227 = 20.
  a single field on one page. Make additional copies of Form 1b so that one copy is              Col. i: Enter any legume or green manure nitrogen credit.
  available for each field or management area receiving manure.                                  Col. j: Enter fertilizer N applied since the last harvest (e.g., as 11-52-0) or planned in
                                                                                                          addition to manure nitrogen (e.g., starter N).
                                                                                                 Col. k: Net nitrogen need before applying manure. Column f - Columns g, h, i, and
 Instructions                                                                                             j.
 At the top of each page: Identify the field or management area. Enter the soil test             Col. l: Enter the line number from Form 1a, Column a of the manure source, rate and
 organic matter3, the irrigation water nitrate concentration (if irrigated), and the                      incorporation schedule planned to be applied to this field. If none is to be
 acre-inches of water usually applied by mid season (e.g., end of silking in corn).                       applied this year, enter zeros in Columns l, m, and n.
 Cols. c & d: Planned crop and expected yield. Expected yield should be the                      Col. m: Enter the planned manure application rate that will meet most or all of the
            average yield of the past five harvests of this crop on this field (excluding                 nitrogen needs in Column k.
            years with unusual stress), multiplied by 1.05.                                      Col. n: Enter the nitrogen available at the manure application rate in Column m. If
 Col. e: Soil test nitrate-N1 (in ppm) is the weighted average of the pre-plant soil                      this is significantly above the nitrogen need (Column. k), then recalculate
            test nitrate-N in the root zone - a minimum of 24" deep.                                      the line in Form 1a, reducing application rates or delaying incorporation if
 Col. f: Enter the total nitrogen need for the crop to be grown. This estimate may                        possible.
            include credits for soil organic matter nitrogen release and soil test               Col. o: Extra fertilizer N needed to meet crop needs (Column k – Column n). If net
            nitrate. If a nitrogen recommendation table for a crop is not available, you                  nitrogen is within 20 lbs., no adjustment is necessary. A larger negative
            may substitute crop estimate nitrogen removal. Review individual state                        number suggests the need for a lower manure or commercial fertilizer
            land-grant university recommendations.                                                        application rate. A positive number suggests the need for more manure or
Col. g: Enter the total of values from prior manure applications from 1a, Columns k,                      fertilizer.
         l, and m. (Leave this column blank the first year you use this form unless
         you have actual values to enter.)




                                                                                            50       November 2003
                                 Form 1b. Planned Nutrient Application Rate: Annual Field Plan for Nitrogen
                                               Complete the line for the next year before applying any manure.
Field or Management Area:                                          Soil Organic Matter: Yr.:                ,     %.          Yr.:         ,      .%
If irrigated: Acre-inches/year (for Col. h):              NO3-N conc. of irrigation water: Yr.:             ,    ppm.          Yr.:        ,    ppm.
   a.        b.           c.          d.      e.            f.     Nitrogen Credits (lbs./acre)          j.         k.             l.          m.        n.        o.
  Year    Previous     Planned   Expect- Soil Test        Total      g.         h.         i.       Fertilizer     Net        Manure        Planned   Rate of     Extra
            Crop        Crop     ed Yield Nitrate-N     Nitrogen Manure N Irrigation Legume/        Nitrogen Nitrogen          Applic.      Manure    Manure Nitrogen
                                   (E.Y.) (average      Need or from Past Water N Green               Credit      Need         Option      Applica- Nitrogen Needed as
                                  bu./ac.,  ppm)        Removal Years        (ppm x Man. N          (Starter, Before            (write     tion Rate Available Fertilizer
                                 Tons/ac.,                (Ref. (Form 1a, 0.227 x        (Ref.         etc.)     Manure        line no.   (Form 1a, (Form 1a, (Cols. k-n)
                                   lb./ac.             Table R-4 Col. k-m) Ac.-in.)      Table      (lbs./ac.) Applica-          from        Col. c)  Col. j)   (lbs./ac.)
                                  (Avg. x               to R-16) (lbs./ac.) (lbs./ac.)    R-3)                     tion       Form 1a,     (tons/ac, (lbs./ac.)
                                    1.05)              (lbs./acre)                     (lbs./ac.)              (Cols. f -j)    Col. a)    gal./ac, or
                                                                                                                (lbs./ac.)                   in./ac.)
                                                         167 at              (10 ppm)
  2001    Soybeans      Corn         170       3 ppm                 0                     45           6          96            Ex        18 T/ac.      108     -12 lb/ac
                                                        2% OM                20 lb/ac




                                                                                51        November 2003
                                                    Planned Nutrient Application Rate:
                                       Instructions for Annual Field Plan for Phosphorus (Form 1c)



  Purpose
  This optional planning guide will determine if phosphorus (including manure                    Crop phosphorus balance may be estimated as follows:
  nitrogen) is being applied in approximate balance with crop phosphorus                         Cols. g & h: Enter the planned crop and expected yield. Expected yield should be
  requirements or removal. All phosphorus annual planning documents are                                    estimated as the average of the past five years of this crop in this field
  organized to maintain multiple year’s records for a single field on one page. Make                       multiplied by 1.05. (Exclude years with unusual stress.)
  additional copies of Form 1c so that one blank form is available for each field                Col. i: Enter this year’s soil test results in ppm, and analysis method.
  receiving manure.                                                                              Col. j: Look up the P (P2O5) recommendation for Column i. If a P recommendation
                                                                                                           table is not available for this crop, then go to Column l instead.
                                                                                                 Col. k: Enter any planned fertilizer P2O5 application.
 Instructions                                                                                    Col. l: (Use Columns l and m only if there is no P recommendation table.) Enter the
 Fill in the field or management area name at the top of the page.                                         phosphorus removal rate.
 Col. a: One line will represent each crop year.                                                 Col. m: Multiply Column l by the Expected Yield to provide a rough estimate of
 Col. b: Identify manure handling systems supplying manure.                                                crop P requirement. However, a soil test recommendation is always the
 Col. c: Enter the planned manure application rate and check the correct terms.                            preferred method of estimating crop requirements.
 Col. d: Enter the phosphorus concentration from manure analysis. If manure                      Col. n: Construct a phosphorus (P2O5) balance for this field by subtracting the Soil
            analysis is not available, Reference Table R-2 may provide an                                  Test Recommendation from the planned fertilizer and manure credits (Cols.
            approximate nutrient concentration.                                                            f + k - j) [or subtract the Total Phosphorus Removal if no soil test is
 Col. e: Enter the phosphorus availability factor. If the Bray 1 or Mehlich III                            available ( Cols. f + k - m)].
            phosphorus soil test is < 30 ppm, or the Olsen test is < 20 ppm (in col. i),         Balance = All Manure and Fertilizer P (P Recommendation). If the balance is
            assume phosphorus availability to the crop is 0.7 the first year (the rest is                  negative, then additional commercial fertilizer or manure is required to meet
            available the next year – 0.3). If soil test P levels are greater that these                   the phosphorus needs of the crop this year. If the balance is positive by
            values, assume all the P is available the first year (1.0). Soil test level                    more than 25 pounds and the P Index for this field is High or Very High,
            does not impact manure phosphorus availability. Higher soil P levels                           reduce the manure application rate.
            provide a safety factor if all manure P does not become available for crop
                                                                                                 Col. o: Calculate the potential soil test increase or decrease by dividing Column n by
            use.
                                                                                                          20. If Column o is positive, the soil test will increase; if negative, the soil
Col. f: Calculate the manure phosphorus credit (Cols. c x d x e).
                                                                                                          test will decrease. Actual changes in soil phosphorus levels may not be
                                                                                                          accurately reflected by this calculation due to the complexities of soil
                                                                                                          chemistry for phosphorus.




                                                                                            52       November 2003
                 Form 1c. Planned Nutrient Application Rate: Annual Field Plan for Phosphorus
                  Field or Management Area:
          Soil phosphorus tests above 150 ppm Bray 1 or Mehlich III, or 100 ppm Olsen tests must be reported to NDEQ.
 a.                    Manure Phosphorus Availability                                                         Crop Phosphorus Balance
Crop       b.             c.             d.            e.                 f.        Planned Crop   i.           j.     k.     Crop P (P2O5)        n.        o.
Year    Manure         Planned        Manure        Phos.               Phos-                     Soil       Phos- P Fer- Removal (use only P2O5 Potential
       Handling        Manure        Phosphorus     Avail-             phorus        g.    h.    Test        phorus tilizer if no soil test is Balance Soil P2O5
        System        Application      (P2O5)       ability            Manure            Expect- Phos-       (P2O5) Applica-    available)                Increase
                                                                                    Name
                         Rate      Concentration Factor                 Credit             ed phorus        Recom-    tion                     (Cols. f +    or
                                                                                                                               l.        m.
                                   from Analysis (0.7 or              (c x d x e)         Yield (ppm)       menda- (P2O5) Factor Total P         k - m) Decrease
                                                      1.0)             (lb./ac.)                   &          tion (lbs./ac.)        Removed              (n ÷ 20)
                                                                                                Method      (lb./ac.)                 (h x l) (lbs./ac) (ppm)
                         X Ton/ac             X lbs./ton                 250                 150      20    Row 0      10                   45         215       13 (11)
       Beef,               1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal                       Corn                                         0.3
2001                20     ac-in/ac      18     lbs./ac-in      0.7   lbs./acre             bu/ac.   Bray   Bdcst 0 (pop-up)             lbs./ac.    lbs./ac.     ppm
       dirtlot                                                                                                                 lbs./bu
                                                                                                      -1
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                           Ton/ac               lbs./ton
                           1000 gal/ac          lbs./1000 gal
                                                                                                            lbs./acre                    lbs./acre   lbs./acre
                           ac-in/ac             lbs./ac-in              lbs./acre
                                                                                    53     November 2003
                                    Instructions for Planned Nutrient Application Rate:




                                                                                                                                                  54
                                     Field-Specific Nutrient Application Plan (Form 1d)


                                                                       Instructions
Purpose
                                                                  1.      Suggested manure application rate, estimated for individual fields in
The results of the nitrogen and phosphorus management plans               Form 1b (nitrogen based), should be transferred to the Action Plan.
should be summarized into an Action Plan that is carried to the           If soil P Index is High or Very High, manure application rates based
field for defining:                                                       on a phosphorus balance (Form 1c) or no manure application would
                                                                          be recommended. Assumptions relative to incorporation of manure
   Which fields are to receive manure from which storage                 were made in Form 1a. Recommendations for incorporation
    system;                                                               recorded in the Action Plan should be compatible with those
   How much manure and other nutrients are to be applied;                assumptions.
   When manure should be applied and incorporated.               2.      Suggested timing of manure application is based on risk of runoff,
                                                                          availability of crop land, labor availability and other factors.
                                                                          For fields with high P Index levels, winter months would be
                                                                          undesirable for land application. For fields susceptible to
                                                                          compaction, wet months (e.g., spring months) also might be
                                                                          unacceptable.
                                                                  3.      Where manure and other nutrient credits do not meet crop nutrient
                                                                          requirements, additional commercial fertilizer may be needed.
                                                                          Check Forms 1b and 1c for commercial fertilizer recommendations.
                                                                       4. For a desired application rate, identify the appropriate equipment
                                                                          operational settings (table at bottom of Form 1d) that will produce
                                                                          the desired manure application rate. If these settings are unknown,
                                                                          the equipment will need to be calibrated and those operational
                                                                          settings identified for future reference.




                                                                  54      November 2003
 Field S




                   Form 1d. Planned Nutrient Application Rate: Field-Specific Nutrient Application Plan
                                                This document should be photocopied and carried to the field during land application.
                                                                                                                                           Crop Year:
                             Planned Manure Application                         Manure Nutrient                                               Commercial Fertilizer       Application Instructions
 Field ID       Manure                 Rate                 Incorporate          Applic. Rate                  Suggested Timing of               Rate (lbs./acre)
                System                                       Into Soil?           (lbs./acre)                  Manure Application
                                                                                N          P2O5                                                   N             P2O5
 Sample       Beef Finish,              X Ton/ac          X Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A     M       J
                                                                                                                                      X                                         30-ft. creek
North Pivot   dirt lot          18         1000 gal/ac     1 _ days              90         360            J      A   S     O    XN       D        0              0
                                                                                                          X                                                                       setback
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S     O    N        D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac
                                           Ton/ac           Yes,      No                                  J       F   M     A    M        J
                                           1000 gal/ac      days                                           J      A   S      O   N         D
                                           ac-in/ac


                             Tractor Settings                               Applicator Settings                                                        Pivot Settings
Application Rate
                         Gear             RPM               PTO/hydraulic                  Chain sp. or orifice           % speed              psi/gpm          Dilution: ? manure/1 gal. water
                                                                                                                                                                          gallons manure
                                                                                                                                                                          gallons manure




                                                                                            55             November 2003
Form 2. Solid Manure Application Field Record
 Farm Owner:____________________________                    Livestock/Poultry Facility:__________________________ Year:______________
 Manure Spreader:________________________                   Net Load Capacity: __________________ tons
            Field ID or                              Is Manure Incorporated    Area           Setbacks            Weather Conditions                                   Operator
   Date/    Management         Number of Loads             into Soil?         Covered        Maintained1   24 hrs.                 24 hrs.     Soil/Field Conditions
   Time        Area                                                           (acres)                       Prior      Today        After                               Initials
                           //// //// ///             ____Yes, __1__days                      30 ft from     Sunny       Cloudy     Cloudy ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
 Sample                                          H
                                                      X
                                                     ____No          later     12 ac.        Cow Creek     No Rain                                               X
                                                                                                                       No Rain 0.25” Rain ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry      JMK
                                                 o
                                                 m
                                                 e


                                                 8
                                                 0

                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                     ____Yes, _____days                                                                  ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                     ____No          later                                                               ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
  1. Permitted operations: 100-foot minimum setback is required between the edge of a stream channel, pond, or lake and the manure application. With a 35-foot buffer, manure
  application can be made to the edge of the buffer. Setbacks should be illustrated on an aerial map.




                                                                                        56         November 2003
Form 3. Slurry or Sludge Application Field Record

Farm Owner:____________________________ Livestock/Poultry Facility:__________________________ Year:______________
Manure Applicator:________________________ Net Load Capacity: _________________ gallons
   Date/         Field ID        Number of Loads          Is Storage            Is Manure           Area             Setbacks              Weather Conditions                                                       Operator
   Time                                                   Agitated At        Incorporated into     Covered          Maintained1       24 hrs.                24 hrs.     Soil/Field Conditions                       Initials
                                                          Pump Out?                Soil?           (acres)                               Prior    Today After
  Sample                          //// //// ///               X
                                                           P____Yes        X
                                                                           ____Yes, __1__days       8 acre          30 ft from         Sunny    Cloudy     Cloudy    ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered                       JMK
                                                           i ____No       ____No             later                  Cow Creek         No Rain No Rain 0.25” Rain ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry  X
                                                           v
                                                           o
                                                           t

                                                           1
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No
                                                            ____Yes       ____Yes, ____days                                                                                ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                                          ____No          later             acre                                                           ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                            ____No

1. Permitted operations: 100-foot minimum setback is required between the edge of a stream channel, pond, or lake and the manure application. With a 35-foot buffer, manure application can be made to the edge of the buffer.
Setbacks should be illustrated on an aerial map




                                                                                                             57          November 2003
Form 4. Towed Hose or Irrigation System Field Record of Manure Application

Farm Owner:____________________________ Livestock/Poultry Facility:__________________________ Year:______________
Manure Applicator:________________________                                   Manure Pumping Rate: _________________ gpm
                                             Rate of Is Storage                        Is Manure          Area    Setbacks                    Weather Conditions                                                     Operator
  Date/-      Field         Operating Hours   Clean   Agitated                   Incorporated into Soil? Covered Maintained1                                                        Soil/Field Conditions             Initials
  Time         ID         Begin          End  Water   At Pump                                            (acres)                  24 hrs.         24 hrs.
                                             Addition   Out?                                                                       Prior  Today    After
 Sample                   8:00
                        ________am ______ am 2 P 1
                                                to     X
                                                       ____Yes                   ____Yes, _____days            130 ac. 30 ft from Sunny   Cloudy   Cloudy ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
 3/30/00                ________pm ______ pm   i      ____No                      X
                                                                                 ____No          later                                                                         X
                                                                                                                       Cow Creek No Rain No Rain 0.25” Rain ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                               v
                                               o
                                               t

                                                         1
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                        ________pm ______ p                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No
                       ________am ______ am                         ____Yes      ____Yes, _____days                                                                         ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                                             to 1                ____No          later              ac.                                                     ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                       ________pm ______ pm                         ____No

1. Permitted operations: 100-foot minimum setback is required between the edge of a stream channel, pond, or lake and the manure application. With a 35-foot buffer, manure application can be made to the edge of the buffer.
Setbacks should be illustrated on an aerial map.




                                                                                                             58           November 2003
            Form 5. Irrigation Field Record of Manure Application (If Application Rate is Known)
Farm Owner:____________________________                                      Livestock/Poultry Facility:__________________________ Year:______________
Manure Applicator:________________________                                   Manure Pumping Rate:                         _________________ gpm or _______________ac-inches/hr
                               Depth of                                                                                                    Weather Conditions
                                          Rate of Clean Is Storage                  Is Manure            Area
                               Irrigation                                                                        Setbacks                                                                                           Operator
   Date/                                     Water      Agitated At              Incorporated into      Covered
                Field ID      Application                                                                       Maintained1         24 hrs.              24 hrs.          Soil/Field Conditions                      Initials
   Time                                     Addition Pump Out?                         Soil?            (acres)
                                (inches)                                                                                              Prior      Today    After
 Sample                      0.75 inch(es)      2 to 1P ____Yes              ____Yes, ____days             130 ac.                   Sunny       Cloudy    Cloudy ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
  3/30/00                                             i    X
                                                         ____No               X
                                                                             ____No        later                                    No Rain                                               X
                                                                                                                                                 No Rain 0.25” Rain ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                      v
                                                      o
                                                      t

                                                           1
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No
                                                                ____Yes      ____Yes, ____days                                                                           ___Frozen ___ Snow-covered
                                    inch(es)           to 1                  ____No         later               ac.                                                      ___ Wet ___ Moist ___ Dry
                                                                ____No

1. Permitted operations: 100-foot minimum setback is required between the edge of a stream channel, pond, or lake and the manure application. With a 35-foot buffer, manure application can be made to the edge of the buffer.
Setbacks should be illustrated on an aerial map.




                                                                                                             59          November 2003
                                          Form 6. Crop, Soil, and Water Nutrient Status Indicators
                         Instructions: Record any relevant information below that may provide insight as to the nitrogen status of the crop or soil.
     Field ID or             Pre-Sidedress Soil                         Chlorophyll Meter Readings                           Post-Season Stalk Tissue                Other Observations or
     Management                 Nitrate Test                                                                                                                               Field Test
        Area                 Date        Content            Date            Growth           Reading        Reading -           Date        Nitrate
                                          (ppm)                              Stage                            % of                          Conc.       Date                   Observation
                                                                                                            Reference                       (ppm)
       Example               6/10            15             7/15             V 18               45               98             10/1         1500       8/15          Lower 3 leaves slightly yellow




     Instructions: Summarize any available water quality measurements.
  Field ID                      Irrigation Well1                                  Nearby Well1:__________                                                Surface Water Measurements
                  Date                  Nitrate (ppm)                        Date                 Nitrate (ppm)                             Date                           Observation
  Sample           7/5                        14




1. Nitrate, ammonium, or coliform bacteria can be measured to provide an indication of contamination by fertilizer and/or manure.




                                                                                                     60                  November 2003
                                               Form 7. Continuing Education Summary
 Date      Educational Program and Location          Time            Who Taught Program?           Who Organized   Who Attended?
                                                   Involved                                          Program?
Example:    Nutrient Mgmt. Planning /Kearney        4 hrs.                                     U    NE Cattlemen     John Doe
 3/1/00                                                                                        N
                                                                                               L

                                                                                               C
                                                                                               o
                                                                                               o
                                                                                               p
                                                                                               e
                                                                                               r
                                                                                               a
                                                                                               t
                                                                                               i
                                                                                               v
                                                                                               e

                                                                                               E
                                                                                               x
                                                                                               t
                                                                                               .

                                                             hrs.


                                                             hrs.


                                                             hrs.


                                                             hrs.


                                                             hrs.


                                                             hrs.




                                                                    61         November 2003
                                               Form 8. Manure Transfer to Off-Farm Users
Method of verification of manure transfer amounts:
       ___ Scale            ___ Flow meter         ___ Count of loads        ___ Other:________________________________________________

  Date          Off-Farm User             Employee         Amount of           Manure Analysis                 Total Nutrient       Was Current Manure
                Name/Address               Making           Transfer                                              Transfer          Analysis Supplied?
                                           Entry                              N      P2O5                    N (lbs)   P2O5 (lbs)
                                                          2,00   X Tons                 X       Lbs./ton                              X
Mar. 6-9,    John Corn Grower, RR 2,
                                                                              16     19
                                          Jim Part Time   0      ntaGals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                             32,000      38,000      ____ Yes   ____No
 2001              Anytown NE                                       Ac-In.                gal
                                                                 ine                            Lbs./ac-in
                                                                 d 1Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons                        Lbs./ton
                                                                    Gals.                       Lbs./1000
                                                                                                                                     ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.                gal
                                                                                                Lbs./ac-in
                                                                    Tons
TOTAL                                                               Gals.                                                            ____ Yes   ____No
                                                                    Ac-In.



                                                                        62           November 2003
                           Instructions for Livestock Waste Discharge
                                      Notification (Form 9)
Purpose
The following form may be used in reporting any discharge, either planned or accidental, from a
livestock waste control facility.

Instructions
Step 1. If a discharge occurs, initiate the steps identified in your Emergency Response Plan.
Step 2. Within 24 hours, notify the permitting authority of the discharge.
Step 3. Complete the following form and deliver to the permitting authority at the address listed below
         within seven days of the discharge.
Step 4. If you observe dead fish that could have resulted from the discharge, contact the permitting
         authority immediately.




                                                  63                              November 2003
                                            Form 9: Livestock Waste
                                             Discharge Notification
                     Adapted from NDEQ fact sheet “Livestock Waste Discharge Notification,” September 2001.


NAME: _________________________________________________________________________________
                               Permitted Operation Name
OWNER/MANAGER: _____________________________________________________________________
ADDRESS: ______________________________________________________________________________
                                        P.O. Box, Street Address
            ______________________________________________________________________________
                                           City, State, and Zip Code


Legal Description of Operation
______, _____, of ____________, ____________ N, __________ 9 E or 9 W, _________________ County
  1/4      1/4        Section      Township            Range

Do you have an NPDES Permit? _____ Yes _____ No                If yes, Permit No. ______________________

Complete the following and submit a map or drawing of the operation, LWCF, discharge flow pattern, and stream:

    1    List reason(s) for discharge (i.e., power failure, large storm or chronic wet period, leak or break in water supply system,
         component failure of the waste control facility; and/or releases during land application due to equipment failure, accidents, or
         irrigation equipment failure):
         _________________________________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________________________________

    2.   The discharge flowed into _________________________________________________________ and
                                              (name of ditch, drainage way, stream)
         into _____________________________________________________________________________
                                     (name of primary stream)

    3.   Did the discharge flow directly into surface water or did the discharge flow over cropland prior to discharging to surface water?
         ________________________________________________________

    4.   The approximate width and depth of the surface water (which the discharge entered):
         ___________________________ (width in feet) and _________________________ (depth in feet)

    5.   Date and time the discharge started and ended. Please indicate whether the start time was the actual time or was when the
         discharge was discovered. ___________________________________________________________
         ________________________________________________________________________________
         ________________________________________________________________________________

    6.   The average flow of the discharge was: ___________________________ (gallons/minute)


    7.   Estimated total volume of discharge (cu.-ft.): ____________________________(L x W x D)
    8.   Describe any damage to the LWCF: ___________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________________________________

                                                                   64                                         November 2003
   9.   Describe actions taken, factors and conditions that helped to minimize any adverse effects to the environment from the
        discharge: ________________________________________________________________________
        _________________________________________________________________________________
        _________________________________________________________________________________

   10. Describe any obvious or known impacts to the environment from the discharge:
       _________________________________________________________________________________
        _________________________________________________________________________________
        _________________________________________________________________________________


OPTIONAL INFORMATION

   1.   On a case-by-case basis, the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality may require sampling. If not required by the
        Department, the operation may want to provide the Department with documentation that the discharge did not impact waters of
        the State or the discharge was conducted in a manner to reduce adverse effects to the environment. The following sampling
        procedure has been outlined:

        Please include procedures taken toward quality control on handling the samples. Include information on the time when the
           samples were collected and when the lab received the samples. You may wish to contact the lab for special sampling and
           handling instructions for the samples in order to eliminate contamination of the samples.

         Was sample kept cool (with ice) in the delivery/holding time? ____Yes       ____No

         The following items should be included in the analysis. Sample locations, at a minimum, must include point of discharge,
          100 feet upstream of the discharge, 100 feet downstream of the discharge, and the mixing zone (where the discharge mixes
          with surface water). Provide a map with collection sites marked.

                 a)   5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD-5);
                 b)   total ammonia-nitrogen as nitrogen;
                 c)   nitrate-nitrite;
                 d)   Total keldahl nitrate;
                 e)   pH;
                 f)   temperature of the effluent and receiving stream;
                 g)   sodium;
                 h)   total phosphorus;
                 i)   chlorides;
                 j)   Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD);
                 k)   Fecal Coliform Bacteria

I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT THE INFORMATION SUBMITTED HEREIN IS TRUE AND CORRECT TO THE BEST OF MY
KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF.

        X ______________________________________________________ ________________________
                Signature of Authorized Representative                           Date




                                                                 65                                       November 2003
                                                   Instructions for Post Cropping Season

                                                             Summary (Form 10 & 11)



Purpose
   1. Summarize actual manure application rate and manure analysis based on field records and equipment calibration records.
    2. Modify future years’ nitrogen credit and modify future recommended application rates.


Instructions
    Form 10
    1. Enter planned manure application rate from Form 1d and actual application amounts from field records (Forms 2 - 5).
    2. Enter planned manure nutrient concentrations from Form 1b (nitrogen) and Form 1c (phosphorus) and actual manure nutrient concentration from manure
       sample report.
    3. Enter moisture content from manure sample report.
    4. Is actual nitrogen and phosphorus application rate (manure application rate X nutrient concentration) within 25% of planned application rates. If a
       discrepancy exists, is it due to:
        application rate? Consider recalibrating manure application equipment or adjusting application rate used in planning to reflect the most recent
           calibration check.
        manure nutrient concentration and manure moisture content? Variations in manure moisture are the most common cause for changes in manure nutrient
           concentration. Is it possible to get a representative manure sample just prior to application so that application rates can be adjusted? Can you predict
           when manure may be drier (higher nutrient concentration) or wetter (lower nutrient concentration) and make last minute adjustments to planned
           application rates?
    5. Was the check of nitrogen made in time to adjust any commercial nitrogen fertilizer application?
    6. A manure nitrogen application rate significantly different from the planned application rate may require an adjustment in the estimated manure nitrogen
       availability for next year’s crop. Review your calculations of organic-N availability for next year completed in Form 1a for changes from the original plan.

      Form 11
      1. Update record of crops grown and actual yields for individual fields using Form 31 or comparable records.




                                                                                67       November 2003
                                                    Form 10. Post Cropping Season Summary:
                                                        Actual Nutrient Application Rate
           Year:
                          a.                              b.                          c.                           d.
Field ID or
                   Manure Application       Manure     Organic-N    Organic N     Ammonium-N Ammonium–N P205 Content of P205 Application
Manageme
                         Rate               Moisture            Application Rate1
                                                       Content of                  Content of   Application      Manure           Rate
  nt Area                                                                                               1
                                            Content     Manure       (a x b)        Manure         Rate                          (a x d)
                                                                                                  (a x c)
              Planned Actual                 (%) Planned Actual Planned Actual Planned Actual Planned Actual Planned Actual Planned Actual
                                  Ton/ac
                                                                                       29 x 17 x 0.25
  Sample           25     29      1000
                                              75%      12     17    25 x 12 x 0.25 =
                                                                                             =          2         4   25 x 2 x 0= 29 x 2 x 0=
                                                                                                                                                18   21   25 x 18 =   29 x 21=
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                                                          75                123                           0           0                     450        609
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac
                                  Ton/ac
                                  1000
                               gal/ac ac-
                               in/ac


1. To improve the accuracy of the ammonium and organic nitrogen comparison of planned and actual application rates, you may want to include the appropriate crop
   availability factors. Those factors can be located in Figure 1, page 48.

                                                                                       68         November 2003
                              Form 11. Post Cropping Season Summary of Crop Yields
Field or Management Area:

Crop                Cropping Information                   Soils Analysis Information
Year         Crop          Yield        Source1   % OM   Soil P      Soil Nitrate and Sample Depth
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20


Field or Management Area:

Crop                Cropping Information                   Soils Analysis Information
Year         Crop          Yield        Source1   % OM   Soil P      Soil Nitrate and Sample Depth
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20




                                                               69
                                                                               November 2003
Field or Management Area:

Crop                    Cropping Information                                                Soils Analysis Information
Year            Crop           Yield        Source1                     % OM              Soil P      Soil Nitrate and Sample Depth
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
1. The source for crop yields. Certified or independently validated crop yields such as FSA records may be required.




                                                                                                   70
                                                                                                                       November 2003
                                 Example of Manure Agreement



Manure Utilization Agreement for Leased Land

I, ______________________________, hereby give ____________________ permission to apply waste
from his poultry production facility on ________ acres of my land for the duration of the time shown
below.

I understand that this manure contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements, and when
properly applied should not harm my land or crops. I also understand that the use of animal manure will
reduce my need for commercial fertilizer.


Adjacent Landowner: _________________________________ Date: _________

Manure Producer: ____________________________________ Date: _________

Technical Representatives: _____________________________ Date: _________

Term of Agreement: ________________, 20___ to ________________, 20___.



Example of Third Party Form:

Manure UtilizationThird Party Applicator Agreement

I, ______________________________ hereby acknowledge that I have received a copy, have read, and
understand the Nutrient Management Plan dated ________________ that was developed for/by
___________________________________ for their facility located at ____
______________________________________________________________________________in
___________________ County.

I hereby agree to manage and land apply the manure that I received from this facility in a manner
consistent with all federal, state, and local laws.


Third Party Receiver: _________________________________ Date: 20___

Manure Producer: ____________________________________ Date: 20___

Technical Representatives: _____________________________

Term of Agreement: ___________________, 20___ to _________________, 20___




                                                   71                                   November 2003
                                             Questions

1. Which of the following sites would be best suited as a dedicated liquid manure application site
   supplied via irrigation?
   a. A 25-acre pasture on sandy clay loam soil, 3% slopes, 2,000 ft from nearest well or stream,
       quarter of a mile to nearest neighbor, and 50 ft to groundwater table with numerous rock outcrops
   b. A 20-acre hayfield on sandy clay loam soil, 2% slopes, 1,000 ft from nearest well or stream, half
       a mile to nearest neighbor, and 45 ft to groundwater table with no rock outcrops or other geologic
       features.
   c. A 10-acre cornfield on very sandy soils, 2.5% slopes, one irrigation well on north edge of field,
       and a swampy area on the south side, with neighbors located 500 ft downwind.
   d. A 150-acre cotton on clay soil, 8%-15% slopes, surrounded by forest, one stream running across
       the center of the field, and no other important features.
Answer: b

2. Reducing soil erosion in land application areas is critical because:
   a. Sediment is a pollutant.
   b. It often carries nutrients and other pollutants with it.
   c. Loss of topsoil impacts crop productivity.
   d. All of the above
Answer: d

3. Which of the following is not a factor that would influence the amount of runoff and erosion that
   comes from and land application site?
   a. The slope
   b. The nutrient content of the manure applied
   c. The crop being grown
   d. The amount of rainfall that the site gets
Answer: b

4. Which of the following practices would not reduce the amount of nonpoint source pollution reaching
   a stream down-gradient from a land application site?
   a. Installing a 50-ft grass filter on the edge of the field
   b. Converting it from a pasture to a hayfield
   c. Installing terraces to break the slope
   d. Changing it from conservation tillage to conventional tillage
Answer: d

5. Which of the following would not reduce nutrient losses to runoff and erosion?
   a. Applying manure based on plant needs and manure analysis
   b. Applying manure when plants are actively growing
   c. Applying manure in the fall for spring planted crops
   d. Incorporating manure into the soil within 24 hours of application
Answer: c

6. In general, manure with the highest nutrient content should be applied on the:
   a. Fields farthest away to reduce transport costs.
   b. Fields farthest away since it smells the worst.
   c. Closest fields since they will probably have the lowest soil nutrients.



                                                    72                                 November 2003
   d. Soils with the highest soil test P levels.
Answer: a

7. Which is the least important consideration in choosing an application method?
   a. Nutrient losses during application
   b. Equipment horsepower
   c. Operating cost
   d. Application uniformity
Answer: b

8. Calibration cannot be used to determine:
   a. Nutrient content of manure.
   b. Uniformity of manure application.
   c. Actual application rates.
   d. Overlap and lane spacings for spreaders.
Answer: a

9. Which equation below could be used to determine the average application rate for a field?
   a. Total amount in a load divided by the area that the load was applied on
   b. Total area of the field divided by the density of the manure
   c. Total amount in a load divided by the amount the spreader holds
   d. Total area of the field multiplied by the time it takes to get to the field
Answer: a

10. Which application method would result in the greatest amount of nitrogen loss?
    a. Subsurface injection of slurry manure
    b. Low-pressure irrigation of liquid manure
    c. Surface application of solid manure without incorporation
    d. Irrigation of liquid manure followed by immediate incorporation
Answer: c

11. Which of the following does not need to be routinely recorded in your manure application records?
    a. Nutrient content of manure
    b. Temperature of manure
    c. Amount applied
    d. Time of application
Answer: b

12. Record keeping and monitoring can:
    a. Prevent emergencies and problems from occurring.
    b. Document compliance and stewardship.
    c. Improve the efficiency of your operation.
    d. All of the above
Answer: d

13. Which of the following is NOT suggested when selling manure from your farm to someone?
    a. Recording the buyer’s name and amount purchased
    b. Only transporting off site if you control delivery
    c. Supplying the buyer with the nutrient content of the manure
    d. Supplying the buyer with some information on proper utilization
Answer: b


                                                   73                                 November 2003
                               References

Livestock and Poultry Environmental Stewardship (LPES) Curriculum. 2001. MidWest Plan Service,
Iowa State University, Ames, Lessons 30-35.

EPA National Agricultural Compliance Assistance Center, http://www.epa.gov/agriculture/index.html

For information on environmental assessments, see
    National Farm*A*Syst website at http://www.wisc.edu/farmasyst/
    National Livestock Environmental Management Systems at http://www.uwex.edu/AgEMS/
    America’s Clean Water Foundation at http://www.emsllc.org/OFAERPFAQ.asp




                                                 74                                November 2003

								
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