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CONCEPTUALLY MODELING THE DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL

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CONCEPTUALLY MODELING THE DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL Powered By Docstoc
					          An Extented Structural Model for
          Intelligent Instructional Systems




Emilia Pecheanu, Diana Stefanescu, Adrian Istrate

University “Dunarea de Jos” of GALATI - Romania
OUTLINE
 Architecture of an instructional system
 Methodological Knowl and Curricular Knowledge
 Knowledge objects within an extented model
 Areas of the assisted-instruction activity
 Principles in knowledge representation
 Conclusions




                                                 2
ARCHITECTURE OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL
SYSTEM

The architectural model of any instructional
  system encloses at least one of the following
  components:
  The Domain Model (the Expert Model), i.e. the
  component specifying WHAT is to be learned;
  The Instructional Model, i.e. the component
  describing HOW learning should take place;
  The Student Model, i.e. the component which
  shows WHO is learning.
                                                  3
Domain
Domain            Instructional
                   Instructional          Student
                                          Student
 Model
 Model                Model
                      Model                Model
                                           Model
 Teaching
 Teaching         Strategies and
                  Strategies and         Knowledge
                                         Knowledge
  Domain
  Domain             tactics for
                      tactics for         about the
                                          about the
knowledge
knowledge         accomplishing             users
                                            users
                  accomplishing
                   instructional
                    instructional
                        goals
                        goals




The classical architectural model of an instructional
                      system.
                                                        4
ARCHITECTURE OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL
SYSTEM

 Instructional systems adopting a component-
 specific approach for knowledge-representation
 fall within the category of “systems with multiple
 knowledge-representation models”, or “mk-rm
 systems“.

 The mk-rm instructional systems are especially
 recommended for assisted learning in clearly
 conceptualised areas, such as science and
 technology domains.
                                                5
THE CONTEXTUAL MODEL

The Contextual Knowledge is considered as the
supplementary knowledge about the
environment in which the instructional activity
takes place.

The Contextual Model can be seen as a
declarative part of the Instructional Model
“migrated” to the Domain Model.

The Contextual Model is defined as a distinct
component of an instructional system.

                                                6
 METHODOLOGICAL AND CURRICULAR
 KNOWLEDGE

The Contextual Model includes two components
  Methodological and Curricular Knowledge.
    The Methodological Knowledge describes the
    pedagogical-operational framework: methods of
    instruction and instructional events

    The Curricular Knowledge describes objectives and
    circumstances of the educational activity in an
    institutional framework (school, college or
    university).


                                                    7
Expert Model
Expert Model             Instructional
                          Instructional              Student
                                                     Student
                             Model
                             Model                    Model
                                                      Model


                                    The Classical Structural Model




Domain Contextual Knowledge Instructional
Domain                        Instructional           Student
                                                      Student
Model
Model                               Model
                                     Model             Model
                                                       Model
       Methodologic Knowledge
        Curricular Knowledge


                               The Extended Structural Model

   Extending the architectural model of an instructional system.
                                                                   8
KNOWLEDGE OBJECTS WITHIN THE
EXTENDED STRUCTURAL MODEL
 Domain Knowledge Objects (DKO)
   Links between Domain Knowledge Objects (LDKO)
 Methodological Knowledge Objects (MKO)
   Links between Methodological Knowledge Objects
   (LMKO)
 Curricular Knowledge Objects (CKO)
   Links between Curricular Knowledge Objects (LCKO)
 Content Presentation Objects (CPO)
 Computerized Lessons (CL)
 Inter-Model Links (IML)
                                                9
THE EXTENDED STRUCTURAL MODEL (ESM)



  The Extended Structural Model (ESM) of an
  instructional system is an architectural model
  including distinct and explicit components for
  representing Methodological Knowledge and
  Curricular Knowledge, in the shape of the
  Contextual Model.



                                               10
Domain Model                                   Contextual Model
                      DKO
                                                             CKO
          DKO
                                                   CKO
                                    DKO                                 CKO
                     DKO
                                                            CKO
                                   DKO           CKO                  CKO
                    DKO
                                                  Curricular Knowledge
        Domain Knowledge

                                                              MKO
                                                   MKO
                                                                        MKO

                                                             MKO
                                                 MKO                  MKO
                                                  Methodological Knowledge
                Content Presentation Objects
                Content Presentation Objects



                                                   Instructional tasks and
                                                          strategies


                     Computerized lessons                 Instructional Model

                              Student Model                                   11
Domain Model                          Contextual Model
                                       Instructional structure
                                        Instructional structure
      Educational content
      Educational content              (Curricular knowledge)
                                        (Curricular knowledge)


                                      Instructional sequencing
                                       Instructional sequencing
  Content Presentation Objects
  Content Presentation Objects             (Methodological
                                            (Methodological
                                              knowledge)
                                              knowledge)



                                        Instructional tasks and
   Human-computer Interaction                  strategies
     (Computerized lessons)
                                           Instructional Model

                      Student Model

                                                                  12
MAIN PRINCIPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE-
REPRESENTATION IN AN ESM
 Modeling the Domain-knowledge should be an
 activity based on the didactic experience of
 educators.

 Knowledge modeling is a way of organizing the
 resources that are necessary in the computer-
 aided instructional activity.

 Knowledge-modeling is done in preparation for
 the act of instruction.

                                           13
MAIN PRINCIPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE-
REPRESENTATION IN AN ESM
Domain Knowledge, Methodological Knowledge
and Curricular Knowledge should be integrated a
coherent structure without any assumption about
user’s behaviour during the act of instruction.

The knowledge-representation model will be
developed in such a way as to be able to indicate:
  the active components (at the task and strategic levels)
  of the system
  all the necessary resources that might correlate the
  instruction flow with learning styles of users.

                                                      14
 MAIN PRINCIPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE-
 REPRESENTATION IN AN ESM

Besides these principles, it is necessary to clarify
 three important problems that pertain to the
 instructional process, whether computer-
 assisted or not:
1. Coding the knowledge between lessons,
2. Coding the interdependencies between lessons,
3. Transition between the units (themes) of
  instruction

                                                 15
 MAIN PRINCIPLES FOR KNOWLEDGE-
 REPRESENTATION IN AN ESM
Some solutions:

Problem 1: Ausubel Advance Organizers,
  Synthesizers schematising the main ideas that
  bind groups of instruction themes.

Problem 2: more than one precedence links
 included into the Curricular knowledge model

Problem 3: fluency of the instructional discourse
  is tightly related to Domain Kowledge
  representation model?
                                               16
CONCLUSIONS
The architectural model -ESM -proposed in this
paper is appropriate for pedagogy-oriented
instructional systems
The ESM model correlates system’s
components with the roles they have in the
instructional activity.
The ESM model highlights the importance of
modeling the knowledge in the Instructional
Domain, which is the core of this conceptual
edifice.
                                               17

				
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posted:6/2/2011
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