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Tomato Grafting Vegetable Grafting Worldwide Benefits of Grafting

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					                                                                             NC STATE UNIVERSITY




                                             `



 Grafting for Organic Heirloom Tomato Production

Cary L. Rivard, Ph.D.
January 7, 2011                           
Great Plains Growers Conf.                                                               Top Row: Frank Louws, Chris Harlow, Cary Rivard, Steve Moore
www4.ncsu.edu/~clrivard                                                                    Bottom Row: Mary Peet, Suzanne O’Connell, Josh Moore




                             Tomato Grafting                                  Vegetable Grafting Worldwide

                                             • First reports of vegetable
                                               grafting occurred in Asia
                                               in the 1920’s.
                                     Scion
                                                 – Fusarium wilt of melon


                                             • Popularized in Japan
       Rootstock                               and Korea
                                                 – Tunnel and Greenhouse
                                                   production
                                                                            81% of Korean and 54% of Japanese
                                                                            vegetable production uses grafted plants
                                                                                                                  (Lee, 2003)        Photos courtesy of M. Peet (NCSU)




                                                                            • Major soilborne
                      Benefits of Grafting                                    diseases in NC.                          – Root-knot Nematodes
                                                                                – Verticillium Wilt                    – Southern Blight
• Root function
                                                                                – Fusarium Wilt                        – Bacterial Wilt
      – Disease resistance
        against soilborne
        pathogens

      – Water and nutrient uptake

      – Nutrient assimilation and
        transport
                                                                                = On-farm trials
                                                                                = NCDA Research Stations
      – Interface with soil
                                                                                = 2005             = 2008
        ecosystem                                                               = 2006             = 2009
                                                                                = 2007




                                                                                                                                                                         1
                                                                                                                   On-farm trials
                                                                                                                                                               Fusarium Wilt
                                                                                                                                              • Fusarium wilt is caused
                                                                                                                                                by Fusarium oxysporum.
                                                                                                                                                   – Unilateral wilting
                                                                                                                                                   – Yellowing of leaves
                                                                                                                                                             g       y
                                                                                                                                                   – Browning of xylem
                                 Alex Hitt                                                    Ken Dawson                Stefan Hartmann
                              Peregrine Farm                                              Maple Spring Gardens         Black River Organic
                                                                                                                              Farm

   On-farm participation                                                                                University participation
   –                          Scion selection                                                           –   Rootstock selection
   –                          Cultural methods                                                          –   Transplants
   –                          Harvest / data collection                                                 –   Disease monitoring
   –                          Feedback                                                                  –   Nutrient and soil sampling
                                                                                                        –   Experimental design / analysis
(Photos by Suzanne O’Connell, NCSU)




                                                                                Fusarium Wilt                                                          Root-knot Nematodes
                                                                                                                                             • Root-knot Nematodes
                                                                                 Fusarium Wilt Incidence:
                                                                                                                                               –   Meloidogyne spp.
                                                           60                         Alamance Co. 2006
                                                                           Non-grafted
                                                                                                                                               –   Root galls
                                                           50              Self-grafted
                                                                           Robusta
                                                                                                                                               –   Stunting and poor vigor
                              Fusarium Wilt Incidenc (%)




                                                           40              Maxifort                                                            –   Prefer light soil
                                                   ce




                                                           30


                                                           20


                                                           10


                                                               0

                                                               30     40         50         60     70       80    90     100    110
                                                                                   Days After Transplanting




                                                                    Root Knot Nematode                                                                  Root Knot Nematode
                                                                                   Clinton HCRS - 2007
                                             12
                                                                    Non                                                                              Root-knot nematode soil populations / 500 cc soil
                                                                    Self
                                             10                                                                                                                    First Harvest       Terminal Harvest
                                                                    Big Power
                                                                    Beaufort                                                                  Non-grafted            8357 D                1964 Y
   RKN Galling Index (1-12)




                                                           8        Maxifort                                                                  Self-grafted           8751 D                1228 Y
                                                                    T-II
                                                                                                                                              Telone II               379 B                1260 Y
                   x




                                                           6
                                                                                                                                              Big Power                77 A                  40 Z
                                                                                                                                              Beaufort               2680 C                2542 Y
                                                           4
                                                                                                                                              Maxifort               3091 C                1251 Y
                                                           2


                                                           0



                                                                                                                                                                                         LSD based on P = 0.01




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2
                Disease Management                                                                                      Disease Management
                            Corky    Fusarium Wilt    Verticillium   Root-knot   Bacterial   Southern                              Corky     Fusarium Wilt   Verticillium   Root-knot   Bacterial   Southern
Rootstocks            TMV
                            Root                       Wilt (r1)     Nematode      Wilt       Blight
                                                                                                        Rootstocks           TMV
                                                                                                                                   Root                       Wilt (r1)     Nematode      Wilt       Blight
                                    Race 1   Race 2                                                                                        Race 1   Race 2

Beaufort        *      R     R        R        R          R            MR           S          HR       Beaufort        *    R      R         R       R          R            MR           S          HR

Maxifort        *      R     R        R        R          R            MR           S          HR       Maxifort        *    R      R         R       R          R            MR           S          HR
(Unreleased)    *      R     S        R        R          R             R          HR          MR       (Unreleased)    *    R      S         R       R          R             R          HR          MR
TMZQ702        **      R     S        R        R          R             R          MR          MR       TMZQ702        **    R      S         R       R          R             R          MR          MR
Dai Honmei ***         R     R        R        S          R             R          HR          MR       Dai Honmei ***       R      R         R       S          R             R          HR          MR
RST-04-105 ****        R     R        R        R          R             R          HR          MR       RST-04-105 ****      R      R         R       R          R             R          HR          MR
Big Power *****        R     R        R        R          R             R           S          HR       Big Power *****      R      R         R       R          R             R           S          HR
Robusta     ******     R     R        S        R          R             S           S           ?       Robusta     ******   R      R         S       R          R             S           S           ?

     R=Resistant , HR=Highly Resistant, MR=Moderately Resistant, S=Susceptible                               R=Resistant , HR=Highly Resistant, MR=Moderately Resistant, S=Susceptible

           * = De ‘Ruiter Seed Co.     ** = Sakata Seed Co.      *** = Asahi Seed Co.                              * = De ‘Ruiter Seed Co.     ** = Sakata Seed Co.     *** = Asahi Seed Co.
       **** = D Palmer Seed Co.      ***** =Rijk Zwaan        ****** = Bruinsma Seed Co.                        **** = D Palmer Seed Co.     ***** =Rijk Zwaan       ****** = Bruinsma Seed Co.




                Disease Management                                                                                      Disease Management
                            Corky    Fusarium Wilt    Verticillium   Root-knot   Bacterial   Southern                              Corky     Fusarium Wilt   Verticillium   Root-knot   Bacterial   Southern
Rootstocks            TMV
                            Root                       Wilt (r1)     Nematode      Wilt       Blight
                                                                                                        Rootstocks           TMV
                                                                                                                                   Root                       Wilt (r1)     Nematode      Wilt       Blight
                                    Race 1   Race 2                                                                                        Race 1   Race 2

Beaufort        *      R     R        R        R          R            MR           S          HR       Beaufort        *    R      R         R       R          R            MR           S          HR

Maxifort        *      R     R        R        R          R            MR           S          HR       Maxifort        *    R      R         R       R          R            MR           S          HR
(Unreleased)    *      R     S        R        R          R             R          HR          MR       (Unreleased)    *    R      S         R       R          R             R          HR          MR
TMZQ702        **      R     S        R        R          R             R          MR          MR       TMZQ702        **    R      S         R       R          R             R          MR          MR
Dai Honmei ***         R     R        R        S          R             R          HR          MR       Dai Honmei ***       R      R         R       S          R             R          HR          MR
RST-04-105 ****        R     R        R        R          R             R          HR          MR       RST-04-105 ****      R      R         R       R          R             R          HR          MR
Big Power *****        R     R        R        R          R             R           S          HR       Big Power *****      R      R         R       R          R             R           S          HR
Robusta     ******     R     R        S        R          R             S           S           ?       Robusta     ******   R      R         S       R          R             S           S           ?

     R=Resistant , HR=Highly Resistant, MR=Moderately Resistant, S=Susceptible                               R=Resistant , HR=Highly Resistant, MR=Moderately Resistant, S=Susceptible

           * = De ‘Ruiter Seed Co.     ** = Sakata Seed Co.      *** = Asahi Seed Co.                              * = De ‘Ruiter Seed Co.     ** = Sakata Seed Co.     *** = Asahi Seed Co.
       **** = D Palmer Seed Co.      ***** =Rijk Zwaan        ****** = Bruinsma Seed Co.                        **** = D Palmer Seed Co.     ***** =Rijk Zwaan       ****** = Bruinsma Seed Co.




               Cedar Meadow Farm                                                                                              Verticillium Wilt
                                                                                                        • Verticillium dahliae
                                                                                                            –   Loss of vigor
                                                                                                            –   Wilting and leaf necrosis
                                                                                                            –   Favored by cool wet weather
                                                                                     Steve Groff            –   Race 2 prevalent in WNC 
                                                                                                                (Bender & Shoemaker, 1984)
                                                                                                                (Bender & Shoemaker 1984)
                                                                                                            – Reliance on fumigation




                     Cedar Meadow Farm – Lancaster County, PA




                                                                                                                                                                                                               3
                                      Cedar Meadow Farm                                                                                                   Cedar Meadow Farm
                                                                                                                                                                        Lancaster County - 2009
Research Objectives                                                                                                                                80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          C
                                                                                                                                                                                                       C
• Can vigorous rootstock be used                                                                                                                   70




                                                                                                              Marketable fruit yield (tons/acre)
  to manage verticillium wilt?                                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                                                                                                   B
• How does grafting fit in with                                                                                                                    50

  fumigation?                                                                                                                                      40
                                                                                                                                                              A
   – Additive or alternative                                                                                                                       30


• Can we reduce economic                                                                                                                           20

  constraints through cultural                                                                                                                     10
  methods?
                                                                                                                                                   0
   – Plant spacing (2008)                                               Kaitlin Dye (Summer 2008)                                                       Non-Fumigated         Fumigated        Non-Fumigated        Fumigated
   – Transplant costs (2009)                                            Photo Courtesy: Steve Groff
                                                                                                                                                                  Non-grafted                                Maxifort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LSD P = 0.05




                                      Cedar Meadow Farm                                                                                                                  Economics
                                                 Lancaster County - 2008                                                                            Net returns of grafting ($/acre) : 2008
                                70
                                                                                                                                                                         Non-grafted*            Maxifort*        (Max-Std)
                                                                  C
                                60                                              C
                                                                                                                                                   18" Spacing                $44,525            $47,366            $2,841
 Marketable yield (tons/acre)




                                      B                                                     BC
                                                B
                                50                                                                                                                 24" Spacing                                   $47,827            $3,302
                                                          A
                                40
                                                                                                                                                   36" Spacing                                   $45,533                $1008
                d




                                30
                                                                                                                                                    Net returns of grafting ($/acre) : 2009
                                20
                                                                                                                                                                             Non-grafted* Maxifort*               (Max-Std)
                                10                                                                                          Fumigated                                           $47,739            $60,699         $12,960
                                                                                                                            Non-fumigated                                                          $57,677          $9,938
                                0

                                     18"       24"        36"     18"          24"          36"                                                             * Values = Gross revenue – harvest costs – transplant costs

                                            Non-grafted                      Maxifort                                                                                        Selling price = $0.66 per lbs
                                                                                        LSD based on P=0.05




                                           Benefits of Grafting                                                                                                    CEFS Research
                                                                                                              2006 SR­SARE R&E Grant
• Root function
                                                                                                              • Compare production dynamics of 
                                                                                                                tunnel vs field production.
                                – Disease resistance                                                                                                –   Environment
                                  against soilborne                                                                                                 –   Disease
                                                                                                                                                    –   Productivity
                                  pathogens
                                                                                                                                                    –   Economics

                                – Water and nutrient uptake                                                   • Optimize cultural practices for high 
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ‘Cherokee Purple’
                                                                                                                tunnels.
                                                                                                                                                    – Nutrient / Fertility
                                – Nutrient assimilation and                                                                                         – Planting Date
                                  transport                                                                   • Investigate the role of grafting for open‐field                                                              
                                                                                                                and tunnel production.
                                – Interface with soil                                                                                               – Beaufort
                                                                                                                                                    – Maxifort
                                  ecosystem                                                                                                         – Nutrient uptake efficiency




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             4
                                                                                                                              Beneficial habitat during 2008 growing season




                          Cultural Management                                                                            Grafting Effects - Nutrients
                                              • European string trellis in tunnels
                                                                                                                               Macro-Nutrient Conc.: CEFS, 2008.
                                              • Stake-and-weave in field
                                              • 4.5 ft row spacing                                                      5.0
                                                                                                                               aa
                                                                                                                                                                           Grafted on 'Maxifort'
                                                                                                                        4.5
                                                                                                                        4.0         bb                                     Grafted on 'Beaufort'
                                                                                                                                                                           Self-grafted
                                                                                                    Concentration %




                                                                                                                        3.5
                                                                                                                n




                                                                                                                        3.0                                                Non-grafted
                                                                                                                                                             a ab b b
                                                                                                                        2.5                        aa
                                                                                                                        2.0                             bb
                                                                                                                        1.5
                                                                                                                        1.0                                              cbaa   acbb
                                                                                                                        0.5              abcc
                                                                                                                                                                                           bbaa
                                                                                                                        0.0
                                                                                                                                 N         P         K         Ca        Mg        S          Na


             Twin leader in tunnel                        Stake-and-weave in field           (O’Connell, 2008; MS Thesis)                                                              * Tukey’s LSD (P≤0.05)




                                 Grafting Effects                                                                             Grafting Effects ‐ 2007
               Total Yield vs. %N – CEFS 2008
                                                                                                                                 BEAUFORT                               MAXIFORT
                                                                                                                        180
             35.0                                                                                                       160               42 %                             53 %
                                                                                                       t yield (t/ha)




             30.0                                                                                                       140
                                                                 Grafted on ‘Maxifort’
                                                                                                                        120
             25.0                                                                                                       100
        nt




                                                                 Grafted on ‘Beaufort’
 lbs/plan




                                                                             Beaufort                                    80
                                                                                             Total fruit




             20.0
                                                                                                                         60
             15.0                                                                                                        40
                                                                 Self-grafted
             10.0                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                          0
              5.0                                                Non-grafted                                                  Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort
              0.0
                                                                                                                                     Open ­field                        High tunnel
                    2.7    3.0    3.3   3.6   3.9   4.2    4.5
                                   Mean %N                          % N leaf conc. & yield                              The main effect of grafting was significant in both years, across systems, 
                                                                      are 70% correlated
(O’Connell, 2008; MS Thesis)                                                                                            and with both data sets (100 DAP vs “systems”).     System*grafting = NS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                5
                                   Grafting Effects ‐ 2008                                                                                                Grafting Effects ‐ Yield
                                     BEAUFORT                          MAXIFORT                                                                                  Open­field                                                                               High tunnel




                                                                                                           Total fruit yield (t/ha)
                                                                                                                                      80




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Total fruit yield (t/ha)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80
                                                                                                                                      70
                                                                                                                                               Nongraft                                       2007                                    70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Nongraft                             2007
                           180                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                               Beaufort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Beaufort


                                                                37 %
                                                                                                                                               Maxifort                                                                                        Maxifort
                                                                                                                                      50                                                                                              50
                           160
          t yield (t/ha)




                                                                                                                                      40                                                                                              40


                           140    35 %                                                                                                30

                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20

                           120                                                                                                        10

                                                                                                                                      0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0                  *
                                                                                                                                           0        1        2           3           4    5          6
                           100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0        1     2      3       4      5          6
                                                                                                                                                                  Harvest interval
                                                                                                                                      80                                                                                              80
                           80                                                                                                                                                                 2008                                                                                  2008
Total fruit




                                                                                                                                      70
                                                                                                                                               Nongraft                                                                               70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Nongraft




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Total fruit yield (t/ha)
                                                                                                           Total fruit yield (t/ha)
                                                                                                                                               Beaufort                                                                                        Beaufort
                                                                                                                                      60                                                                                              60
                           60                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                                               Maxifort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Maxifort


                           40
                                                                                                                                      40                                                                                              40

                                                                                                                                      30                                                                                              30

                           20                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                                      10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10

                            0                                                                                                         0                      *                                                                         0                  *
                                                                                                                                           0        1        2           3           4    5          6                                     0        1     2      3      4       5          6


                                 Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort Nongraft Beaufort Maxifort

                                       Open ­field                      High tunnel                                                        • Bi‐weekly harvest data was collected into five bins.
                                                                                                                                                 – Last bin was the final (terminal) harvest
                           The main effect of grafting was significant in both years, across systems,                                            – Previous four were equivalent divisions of the harvest season
                           and with both data sets (100 DAP vs “systems”).     System*grafting = NS                                                       • Each interval = 3 weeks in the tunnel or 2 weeks in the open‐field




                                                 Economics                                                                                                                           Conclusions
                                     Gross Revenue ($/plant) : 2008                                                                                                                            • Grafting provides a site‐specific 
                                                                                                                                                                                                 management tool for soilborne 
                                                 Non-grafted         Beaufort           Maxifort
                                                                                                                                                                                                 disease.
                             Open-field              $28.51            $38.52            $36.00                                                                                                          – Disease diagnosis and rootstock 
                            High tunnel              $42.35            $58.21            $57.04                                                                                                            selection are critical.
                                                                                              *at $2/lb
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Use of rootstocks may increase 
                                                                                                                                                                                               • Use of rootstocks may increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                 yield through added vigor and 
                                     Gross Revenue ($/plant) : 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                 nutrient uptake.
                                                 Non-grafted          Beaufort           Maxifort
                                 Open-field          $42.77             $57.78            $54.00                                                                                               • Cultural management may 
                                                                                                                                                                                                 reduce economic constraints.
                             High tunnel             $63.53             $87.32            $85.56
                                                                                                                                                                                                         – Planting density
                                                                                               *at $3/lb
                                                                                                                                                                                                         – Pruning/training
                                                                                                                                                                                                         – Fertility




                                      Grafting at NC State                                                                                                                               Novelties




                                                                                                                                                                                               Graft
                                                                                                                                                                                              Unions




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Photo Courtesy: M. Peet (USDA-NIFA)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               6
                         Tube Grafting                                                                                    Disclaimer

                                                                                                   • No Recipe for Success

                                                                                                   • Principles
                                                                                                      – Production

                                                                                                      – Uniformity

                                                                                                      – Water Stress

                                                                                                      – Sanitation

                                                                                                      – Re-acclimation




                Propagation Costs                                                                                     Tube Grafting
• Proportion of added costs
  – e.g. seed costs (%) = (SEEDgraft - SEEDnon) / (TOTALgraft - TOTALnon)
                                                                                                   • The advent of “tube-grafting” or
                                                                                                     “Japanese top-grafting” has
                                                                                                     become the most popular for
                                                                                                     tomato.

                                                                                                      – Seedlings are grafted
                                                                                                        t 2 4 leaf t
                                                                                                       at 2-4 l f stage.

                                                                                                      – High Throughput

                                                                                                         • A person can make
                                                                                                           ~ 1000 grafts/day

                                                                                                         • Grafting robots can
                                                                                                           make 700 grafts/hr.
      $0.46 / plant                                          $0.74 / plant     =     Added cost 
                                                                           (Rivard et al., 2010)




                                  Timeline                                                         Seeding / Transplant Production

                                                                                                    • Uniformity is key
                                                                                                       – Germination period
                                                                                                       – Substrate
                                                                                                       – Transplanting / Sowing

                                                                                                    • Rootstock and scion

                                                                                                    • Numbers

                                                                                                    • Healthy Transplants

                                                                                                    • Healing Chamber




                                                                                                                                        7
       Tube Grafting Technique                                       Tube Grafting Technique

• Size:                                                       • Preparing for surgery…
   – 2-4 leaves
                                                                 – Make sure plants are not water or
   – 1.5-2.0 mm stem diameter
                                                                   nutrient stressed.
   – Sorting
                                                                 – Have a clean working area.
• Temperature can be                                                 • Disinfect hands, tools, and grafting clips.
  manipulated to
  compensate for size                                            – Carry out grafting indoors
  differences.
                                                                 – Be in close proximity to healing chamber.
• Timing is critical.




       Tube Grafting Technique                                             Life in the Chamber

                                • Angle of cut

                                • Clip attachment                                                        – During the healing
                                                                                                           process, the plant has
                                                                                                           to form callus tissue
                                • Scion insertion                                                          and reconnect
                                                                                                           vascular bundles
                                • Provide good contact                                                     within the stem.
                                  between the rootstock
                                  and the scion.




               Life in the Chamber                                         Life in the Chamber
                                                              • Objectives of the healing
                                                                chamber

                                                                 – Reducing water stress by
                                  – By altering the plant’s        slowing the transpirational
                                    physical environment,          stream.
                                              ff t th
                                    we can offset the                • Humidity
                                    functional effects that
                                    this trauma has                  • Light
                                    incurred, and give the           • Temperature
                                    plant time to heal
                                    itself…                      – Keep temperature fairly
                                                                   constant and between 75
                                                                   and 80 degrees F.




                                                                                                                                    8
Life in the Chamber

          • Regulate humidity
            – Cool-water vaporizers
             Passive h idifi
            –P   i humidifiers
            – No warm-water
              vaporizers
            – No misters PLEASE
            – Overhead watering

                                      • Regulate light & humidity in the chamber




                                                 Healing Chamber




                                                                                   9
Life in the Greenhouse                            Life on the Farm

                  • 7-10 days in the
                    Greenhouse
                     – Hardening off

                     – Overhead Watering

                     – The Clip

                     – Transportation



                                           Planting Depth       Suckering




                                                  Life on the Farm




    Early Tomato Production                    NON-GRAFTED      MAXIFORT




                                                                            10
           Life on the Farm                                                                                           Review

                                                                  • Uniformity of seedlings
                                                                  • Timing
                                                                  • Patience
                                                                  • Sanitation
                                                                  • Careful observation
                                                                  • Water management
   Twin leader for        Twin leader for stake-
European string trellis         and-weave
                                                                  • Cultural Management




                                                                                                    Propagation Costs
                                                                                 $2.00
                                                                                                     Production stage                                             $1.88
                                                                                 $1.80                Mark‐up
                                                                                                      Cold frame                                Grafted
                                                                                 $1.60
                                                                                                      18‐cell tray
                                                                                                      Grafting / healing
                                                                                 $1.40                                                                            $1.25
                                                               costs ($/plant)




                                                                                                      50‐cell tray                                        $1.21
                                                                                 $1.20                Germination
                                                                                                                                       $0.98
                                                                                 $1.00
                                                   Accumulated 




                                                                                 $0.80                                         $0.67                               $0.76
                                                                                                                                                          $0.51
                                                                                 $0.60           $0.44                                          $0.47

                                                                                 $0.40
                                                                                                                              $0.24
                                                                                 $0.20           $0.13
                                                                                                                                                             Non­grafted
                                                                                 $0.00
                                                                                                            1          2          3       4        5         6       7
                                                                                                n
                                                                                           aft
                                                                                             no
                                                                                         gr




                                                                                                                           Time after sowing (weeks)
                                                                                    Seed costs

                                                                                                                                                          (Rivard et al., 2010)




                                                                                                                                                                                  11

				
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