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					DRAFT REPORT TO YORKSHIRE FORWARD




Developing Skills for the Low Carbon Economy



April 2009




URSUS CONSULTING LTD
www.ursusconsulting.co.uk
      Contents

1     INTRODUCTION                                                               1
1.1   AIMS                                                                       1
1.2   REPORT STRUCTURE                                                           1

2     THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY                                                     2
2.1   DEFINITION                                                                 2
2.2   ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY                           4
2.3   PRIORITY LCE OPPORTUNITIES FOR YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER                        6

3     LOW CARBON ECONOMY SKILLS – NATIONAL CONTEXT                              12
3.1   NATIONAL CONTEXT                                                          12
3.2   KEY ISSUES HIGHLIGHTED IN NATIONAL DOCUMENTS                              16
3.3   SUMMARY                                                                   18

4     LOW CARBON SKILLS NEEDS FOR YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER                          19
4.1   LOW CARBON POWER GENERATION                                               19
4.2   MICRO-GENERATION                                                          24
4.3   BIOFUELS                                                                  26
4.4   LOW CARBON BUILDINGS                                                      26
4.5   LOW CARBON TRANSPORTATION                                                 27
4.6   BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRY PRACTICES                                         28
4.7   CARBON REDUCTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR                                     29
4.8   SUMMARY OF LCE SKILLS NEEDS IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER                       30
4.9   EMPLOYER OPINION AND UNDERSTANDING OF LCE OPPORTUNITIES AND SKILL NEEDS   33

5     SKILLS PROVISION FOR THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY                               37
5.1   INTRODUCTION                                                              37
5.2   SECTOR SKILLS COUNCILS                                                    37
5.3   EXISTING LCE SKILLS PROVISION IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER                     39
5.4   SUMMARY                                                                   39

6     MOVING FORWARD – DEVELOPING LCE SKILLS IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER            40



      REFERENCES

      ANNEX A – LCE SKILLS RELEVANT TO SECTOR SKILLS COUNCILS

      ANNEX B – COVERAGE OF LCE SKILLS IN SECTOR SKILLS AGREEMENTS

      ANNEX C – EXISTING LCE SKILLS PROVISION IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER
1     INTRODUCTION



1.1   AIMS

      This project has been commissioned by Yorkshire Forward and undertaken by URSUS Consulting
      Ltd in collaboration with Pro Enviro Ltd.

      Yorkshire Forward is committed to building a low carbon economy (LCE) and placing the region at
      the forefront of gaining benefits in terms of jobs and economic opportunities, while contributing
      to regional environmental improvements and the global challenge of climate change. Over the
      next few decades, this will require the transformation of the region’s economy, workforce and
      skills.

      To ensure that the region is equipped with the skills to capitalise on the economic and
      employment opportunities associated with the low carbon economy, Yorkshire Forward has
      commissioned this study to:

      •   Identify key future opportunities for the region in the low carbon economy.
      •   Prioritise the skills that the region needs to capitalise on these LCE opportunities.
      •   Provide insights into employer opinions and understanding of LCE opportunities and the
          associated skills requirements; and
      •   Scope out how partners in the region can develop a coordinated approach to developing LCE
          skills in the region, including how to facilitate a dialogue between businesses and skills
          providers.



1.2   REPORT STRUCTURE

      The draft report is structured into the following sections:

         Section 2: The Low Carbon Economy – provides a description of the Low Carbon Economy
          and prioritises areas of opportunity for Yorkshire and Humber.

         Section 3: Low Carbon Economy Skills - National Context – outlines the national context for
          the identification and development of LCE skills.

         Section 4: Regional Low Carbon Economy Skills Needs – identifies the skills needed to enable
          the region to capitalise on the prioritised LCE opportunities identified in Section 2 and also
          provides insights into employer opinions and understanding of LCE opportunities and skills
          requirements.

         Section 5: Skills Provision for Low Carbon Economy – outlines the landscape and
          organisations involved in LCE skills provision relevant to Yorkshire and Humber, including
          relevant Sector Skills Councils and existing provision.

         Section 6: Moving Forward – Developing LCE Skills in Yorkshire and Humber – provides
          recommendations for next steps in the future development of LCE skills in the region.




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2     THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY



2.1   DEFINITION

      To avoid the most serious consequences of global climate change, UK Government has set a
      target to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 on the 1990 baseline. To achieve this target
      and meet the global challenges of climate change, a transition to a low-carbon economy is
      needed. Development of the low carbon economy will generate significant economic and
      employment opportunities and also bring benefits in terms of improved energy security, reduced
      exposure to ‘peak oil’ issues and reduction of fuel poverty.

      A low carbon economy is one in which the linkage between increasing carbon emissions and
      economic growth is broken. The Low Carbon Economy will permeate all parts of the economy,
      including manufacturing, transportation, power-generation, construction, agriculture, planning
      and individual consumer and household behaviour. Features of a low carbon economy in the UK
      will need to include:


          Maximisation of energy and fuel efficiency in businesses, households and infrastructure.
          Decarbonisation of power generation, through:
           – increases in renewable energy generation - wind, biomass, hydro, wave and tidal
           – Increased nuclear power generation
           – Clean coal technologies and carbon capture and storage (CCS) fitted to remaining coal- and gas-
                fired power stations
           – biomass co-firing with fossil fuels in CCS plants
           – energy from waste (landfill gas, anaerobic digestion and sewage sludge)
          Increased use of microgeneration renewable technologies such as ground source heat pumps,
           biomass, solar, photovoltaics, small scale hydro, storage heating.
          Reduced emissions from new and existing buildings, through sustainable construction and design,
           improved energy efficiency, insulation, energy management systems and use of microgeneration.
          Reduced emissions from businesses and industry through energy efficiency improvements, energy
           and resource efficient product design and CCS in energy intensive industries such as cement and steel.
          Transport emission cuts, through:
           – improved fuel efficiency in new vehicles;
           – electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid cars, using decarbonised electricity generation and with
               investments in recharging infrastructure;
           – hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (in the longer term), with investments required in hydrogen
               infrastructure and storage;
           – biofuels such as bioethanol.
          Increased levels of carbon trading and finance schemes, as well as integration of energy and carbon
           issues in financial management decisions.
          Materials / resource use efficiency, with waste minimised, re-used and recycled in line with the waste
           management hierarchy.
          Behavioural change amongst consumers to reduce demand for products and services which generate
           high carbon emissions.
          Development of local supply chains and adoption of more sustainable procurement practices.
          Increased integration of carbon and energy issues into public sector planning processes and strategy
           development.




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             A considerable amount of work has been undertaken at the national level on the type and scale
             of changes required to achieve UK carbon emission reduction targets. The recent report by the
             Committee on Climate Change Report Building a low-carbon economy – The UK’s contribution
             to tackling climate change (December 2008) identified where the emission reductions will need
             to be achieved and prioritised a range of technologies in power generation, buildings, industry
             and transport – see Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.1   UK sectoral CO2 emissions to 2050 on an 80% emissions reduction path




             Source: Committee on Climate Change (December 2008)



Figure 2.2   The scale of the challenge – by emission source




             Source: Committee on Climate Change (December 2008)


             Other recent reports have also highlighted the scale of change in energy generation and use
             required. For example, to achieve the UK target of generating 20% of its energy from renewable



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             sources by 2020, a report by Pöyry for BERR (March 2008) quantifies the dramatic increases
             needed in renewable energy generation in the UK – see Figure 2.3. It showed in particular that
             very significant increases are required in:

                 onshore and offshore wind                              solar heat
                 biomass – grid and non-grid                            ground source heat
                 tidal stream                                           biofuels - biodiesel and bioethanol


Figure 2.3   Required increases in Renewable Energy Generation to meet the UK 2020 target




             Source: Pöyry for BERR (March 2008)


2.2          ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES IN THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY

             As highlighted in the Stern Review (2006), there is a strong economic case for action to address
             climate change – the costs of investing in solutions and changes in behaviour to reduce emissions
             are far lower than the global costs of responding to future climate change impacts if we fail to
             achieve the necessary emission reductions. The economic case also relates to significant
             opportunities for businesses in supplying technologies and services in a low carbon economy.

             In March 2009, Government launched its Low Carbon Industrial Strategy Vision document,
             publishing research which estimated that the global market for low carbon goods and services is
             worth around $3 trillion, and that this is expected to double over the next decade. The research
             undertaken by Innovas estimated that the UK market for Low Carbon and Environmental Goods
             and Services totalled £107 billion in 2007/08 – with the ‘renewable energy sector’ accounting for
             £31 billion and the ‘Emerging Low Carbon sector’ accounting for £53 billion.


              In the Innovas report, the Renewable Energy Sector includes: hydro, wave & tidal, biomass, wind,
              geothermal, renewable consulting, photovoltaic. The Emerging Low Carbon Sector includes:
              alternative fuel for vehicles, alternative fuels, additional energy sources, carbon capture & storage,
              carbon finance, energy management and building technologies.




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             Innovas estimated that the total number of people employed in the for Low Carbon and
             Environmental Goods and Services sector in the UK is 881,000. Of these, 432,000 are in the
             Emerging Low Carbon sector; 257,000 in the Renewable Energy sector; and 192,000 in the
             Environmental sector. Around 272,000 of these jobs are in manufacturing. The report forecasts
             that Britain has the potential to create a further 400,000 new jobs in the sector over the next 8
             years – bringing the total to 1.3 million employees by 2017.

             The Innovas Report provides a regional breakdown of data and forecasts that the market and
             employment in the Low Carbon and Environmental Goods and Services sector in Yorkshire and
             Humber will grow as shown in Figure 2.4 and Figure 2.5. In particular it identifies that significant
             growth will occur in areas such as:

                alternative fuels, including fuels for vehicles such as biodiesel and bioethanol
                low carbon building technologies
                wind
                geothermal
                biomass
                photovoltaics
                energy management
                waste recovery and recycling

Figure 2.4   Employment, market value and current growth rates in the Low Carbon sector




             Source: Adapted from data prepared by Innovas for BERR, (March 2009). Note: Current market value is represented by
             the size of the bubble.




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Figure 2.5   Forecast Y&H regional market value to 2014/15




             Source: Estimates based on Innovas data (2009). Note: The forecasts are based on Innovas forecasts for UK market
             growth - regional level forecasts by sub-sector are unavailable.



2.3          PRIORITY LCE OPPORTUNITIES FOR YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER

             Taking into account priorities and analysis from work at the national level, and to provide a focus
             for this study, the following identifies key opportunities in the Low Carbon Economy for the
             Yorkshire and Humber region. As well as drawing on strategic documents at the UK level, this
             prioritisation has also drawn on:

                regional level market forecasts contained in the Innovas report for BERR (March 2009);
                discussions with a range of stakeholders held during this research;
                priorities identified by Yorkshire Forward, Future Energy Yorkshire et al and contained in
                 regional strategies / action plans, such as the Regional Economic Strategy (RES), the Regional
                 Spatial Strategy (RSS), the Regional Energy Infrastructure Strategy, the Y&H Low Carbon
                 Energy Capacity Review, the Y&H Vision for Coal, the Regional Climate Change Action Plan,
                 the regional Vision for Biomass, Achieving Low Carbon Sustainable Transport Systems in Y&H,
                 the Status of Biofuels in Y&H and Yorkshire Futures’ recent work on “the top 10 things to do
                 on climate change”;
                existing industrial strengths in the region and transferable skills, eg. in sectors such as power
                 generation, chemicals, engineering and fuel refinery:
                analysis of sources of regional carbon emissions and regional resources / capacity for low
                 carbon energy generation;
                sub-regional work, such as recent studies commissioned by the Humber Economic Partnership
                 on renewable energy in the sub-region.

             Further information on these sources of information is provided in Annex A.




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The following LCE priorities for Yorkshire and Humber have been identified. Table 2.1 summarises
the assessment undertaken to identify priorities for Yorkshire and Humber - areas rated ‘high’ or
‘medium’ in Table 2.1 are included as a priority.



 Low Carbon Economy LCE Priorities and Opportunities for Yorkshire and Humber

 i)    Low carbon power generation:
     Decarbonisation of power generation, through:
      – Large scale renewable energy generation – wind (onshore and offshore), biomass, wave
           and tidal (longer term) – and development of the grid infrastructure.
      – Clean coal technologies (using advanced combustion technologies such as ‘supercritical’
           and ‘Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle’) and carbon capture and storage (CCS)
           fitted to remaining coal- and gas-fired power stations
      – Combined heat and power
      – Co-firing with biomass with fossil fuels in CCS plants using advanced gasification and
           supercritical boiler systems
      – Nuclear power
      – Residual waste to energy, such as landfill gas, anaerobic digestion and sewage sludge
           incineration.
     ‘Smart’ grid technology –optimises the use of decentralised renewable energy, improves
      efficiency of transmission and distribution, includes SMART metering.-

 ii) Microgeneration:
 Development of decentralised / more distributed energy generation through use of smaller scale
 renewable energy, such as ground source heat pumps, small scale wind, biomass, solar,
 photovoltaics, small scale hydro and hydrogen fuel cells.

 iii) Biofuels:
  such as bioethanol and biodiesel, from crops such as oil seed, sugar beet and waste oils.

 iv) Low Carbon Buildings:
     Low carbon new and existing buildings – design, construction, insulation, retrofit, operation
     Energy efficiency and energy management systems
     Use of microgeneration (as above).

 v)    Low carbon transportation:
     Biofuels for vehicles – such as bio-ethanol and biodiesel;
     Improved fuel efficiency in new vehicles;
     Electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid cars, using decarbonised electricity generation and with
      investments in recharging infrastructure;
     Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (in the longer term), with investments required in hydrogen
      infrastructure and storage
     Technologies and infrastructure investment to promote modal shift from car to rail and for
      encouraging ‘smarter’ choices for reducing road traffic




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 vi) Businesses and industry:
  Carbon and energy management and efficiency in business.
    Carbon capture and storage in energy intensive industries such as chemicals and steel
     manufacture.
    Product design for energy and resource efficiency.
    Materials / resource use efficiency in businesses, with waste minimised, re-used and
     recycled in line with the waste management hierarchy.


 vii) Household carbon reduction:
    Energy efficiency in existing and new housing.

 viii) Public Sector:
    Energy efficiency and low carbon energy use and procurement in service delivery, sites and
     premises.
    Carbon and energy issues into planning processes and strategy development, eg, planning
     for renewable and development of local supply chains.




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Table 2.1         Summary of the assessment of LCE opportunities for Yorkshire and Humber
Key: = high priority/opportunity; = medium; = low.

 Elements of the Low Carbon                               Y&H priority /    Comments:
 Economy:                                                  opportunity
                                                          rating for this
                                                              study:
 LOW CARBON POWER GENERATION:                             
 Renewable energy generation:                                            Current installed capacity is around 169 MW, against the RSS
                                                                            target of 708 MW in Y&H for 2010 and 1,862 for 2021.
  Onshore wind                                                          Significant growth potential in the region - potential for 725
                                                                                                1
                                                                            MW in Y&H by 2021 (XX today)
  Offshore wind                                                         Significant growth potential in the region - potential for 600
                                                                                                1
                                                                            MW in Y&H by 2021 (XX today)
  Biomass                                                               Significant potential for increase in biomass power generation
                                                                            and biomass fuel supply from within the region. The Drax
                                                                            Group has its existing plant at Drax and plans to build two new
                                                                            large scale plants at Hull and Immingham, giving total capacity
                                                                            of 900 MW of electricity - enough to supply 3% of the country's
                                                                            total needs. A priority identified by FEY.
  Tidal / wave energy                                                    Some potential for tidal energy (eg. in the Humber estuary -
                                                                            shallow tidal stream power solutions being developed by Hull
                                                                            University and Pulse Tidal.) but a relatively small part of the
                                                                            region’s potential renewable energy generation.
  Hydro                                                                  Some potential for hydro (eg. in West Yorkshire) but only 4MW
                                                                                                               1
                                                                            in the region is forecast by 2021.
 Combined heat and power                                                 Already well established technologies and significant capacity
                                                                            in Y&H. Potential for more widespread adoption, as
                                                                            highlighted by FEY.
 Nuclear energy                                                           Government is committed to increased nuclear power as part
                                                                            of its plans for low carbon energy generation. The region
                                                                            currently contains the Hartlepool nuclear power station, but it
                                                                            is not yet known how capacity in the region will develop.
 Clean coal technologies (advanced                                       With its coal power expertise, Y&H is well placed to take
 combustion technologies such as                                            advantage of the opportunities to capture emissions from its
 ‘supercritical’ and ‘Integrated                                            current sources of carbon emissions, and make use of its
 Gasification Combined Cycle’) and                                          location next to areas of potential storage (eg. depleted gas
 carbon capture and storage (CCS)                                           and oil reserves in the North Sea). But technologies are still
 fitted to remaining coal- and gas-fired                                    being developed (gasification, oxyfuel combustion and flue gas
 power stations                                                             scrubbing). A priority identified by FEY.
 Biomass co-firing with fossil fuels in                                  Existing co-firing at Ferrybridge, Drax and Eggborough. Limited
                                                                                                                           1
 CCS plants                                                                 long-term growth forecast from 2010 to 2021 . But potential
                                                                            for more biomass to be supplied from within the region. A
                                                                            priority identified by FEY.
 Energy from residual waste (landfill                                    Potential to further integrate energy from waste technologies
 gas and sewage sludge)                                                     in the region’s waste management infrastructure - including
                                                                                                                               1
                                                                            landfill gas, anaerobic digestion and sewage sludge . A priority
                                                                            identified by FEY.



(1) Y&H Low Carbon Energy Capacity Review – Arup, 2007.




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 Elements of the Low Carbon               Y&H priority /    Comments:
 Economy:                                  opportunity
                                          rating for this
                                              study:
 ‘Smart’ grid technology –optimises the                  The development of the UK’s ageing energy grid infrastructure
 use of decentralised renewable                             is essential for efficient energy transmission, optimising the use
 energy, improves efficiency of                             of decentralised renewable energy sources and for effective
 transmission and distribution and                          monitoring and management of energy use through SMART
 includes SMART metering-                                   metering.
 MICROGENERATION
 Use of microgeneration such as ground                   Significant potential for growth in micro-generation and
 source heat pumps, small scale wind,                       decentralised / more distributed energy generation, of all
 biomass, solar, photovoltaics, small                       types, including in relation to low carbon buildings. A priority
 scale hydro and innovative hydrogen                        identified by FEY.
 fuel cells.
 BIOFUELS:                                

 such as bioethanol and biodiesel, eg.                   Significant potential to increase output and biomass feedstock
 from oilseeds, sugar beet                                  sourcing from within the region, building on expertise and
                                                            existing capacity especially on the South Humber bank. A
                                                            priority identified by FEY.
 LOW CARBON BUILDINGS:                    

 Low carbon new and existing buildings                   Buildings account for over 30% of UK CO2 emissions. Strong
 – design, construction, retrofit,                          Government policy drivers for sustainable construction (zero
 insulation.                                                carbon new homes by 2016) echoed in regional strategies. New
                                                            builds are currently low due to property slump, but high
                                                            numbers in RSS and local funding for retrofitting improvements
                                                            to existing stock.
 Building energy efficiency and energy                   Significant potential for application in new and existing
 management systems, smart metering                         domestic and commercial buildings.
 Use of microgeneration (see above)                      Significant potential for growth in micro-generation of all
                                                            types, including in relation to low carbon buildings. A priority
                                                            identified by FEY.
 LOW CARBON TRANSPORTATION:               

 Biofuels for vehicles – such as                         Road vehicles account for over 70% of energy consumption in
 bioethanol and biodiesel                                   the transport sector. Strong drivers for growth such as
                                                            Government targets for increasing the use of biofuels in UK
                                                            vehicles (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation) and plans for
                                                            increased investment from oil companies in biofuels from non-
                                                            food crops. Building on the region’s existing capabilities in fuel
                                                            refining and chemicals.
 Improved fuel efficiency in new                          Low carbon vehicle technology has the potential to reduce the
 vehicles                                                   average CO2 emission of new cars to 100g/km by 2020 (from
                                                            around 164g/km now). Y&H currently has the smallest car
                                                            manufacturing sector out of all English regions, and as such has
                                                            not been identified as a ‘high’ LCE opportunity for the region.
 Electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid                     As above.
 cars, using decarbonised electricity
 generation and with investments in
 recharging infrastructure
 Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (in the                      As above, although innovative non-vehicle applications of
 longer term), with investments                             hydrogen fuel cells do exist in the region, eg. the
 required in hydrogen infrastructure                        Environmental Energy Technology Centre (EETC) at the
 and storage                                                Advanced Manufacturing Park in Rotherham.



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 Elements of the Low Carbon                Y&H priority /    Comments:
 Economy:                                   opportunity
                                           rating for this
                                               study:
 BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRY:
 Carbon and energy management,                            Businesses account for one third of carbon emissions by end
 including energy efficiency in                              users. Business activities to reduce carbon emissions therefore
 production processes, service delivery                      need to make a major contribution to achievement of carbon
 and premises.                                               reduction targets – including through advice via the IDB model.
 CCS in energy intensive industries such                   This could generate significant emission reductions, but the
 as chemicals and steel manufacture                          large emitters are already using or examining these
                                                             applications have been motivated to do so by initiatives such as
                                                             the carbon trading scheme.
 Product design for energy and                            Design and development of ‘greener’ products and services
 resource efficiency                                         which are more energy and resource efficient over their life
                                                             cycle will enhance the competitiveness of businesses as well as
                                                             having carbon reduction benefits.
 Resource / waste efficiency in                           A high priority for regional bodies such as Yorkshire Forward,
 businesses.                                                 with advice brokered via the IDB model.


 HOUSEHOLDS:
 Energy efficiency in existing and new                    A high priority for UK Government, regional bodies and local
 housing                                                     authorities in Y&H. [Covered in Low Carbon Buildings – above]
 Behavioural change amongst                                 Behaviour change amongst consumers is recognised as being
 consumers to reduce demand for                              key to reducing carbon emissions. However, bodies such as
 products and services which generate                        Yorkshire Forward have a limited role in shaping consumer
 high carbon emissions                                       behaviour.
 Materials / resource use efficiency,                       Improved resource efficiency amongst consumers is recognised
 with waste minimised, re-used and                           as being key to reducing carbon emissions. However, bodies
 recycled in line with the waste                             such as Yorkshire Forward have a limited role in shaping
 management hierarchy.                                       consumer behaviour.


 PUBLIC SECTOR:
 Energy efficiency and low carbon                         The public sector has a major role to play in contributing to
 energy use and procurement in service                       carbon emission reduction through delivery of its services and
 delivery, sites and premises.                               its operations, building management and procurement.
 Carbon and energy issues into                            Planning decisions and processes have a significant effect on
 planning processes and strategy                             the way in which renewables, sustainable construction etc is
 development.                                                progressed in the region.


 CARBON FINANCE:                           
 Increased levels of carbon trading and                     This has not been identified as a priority in regional documents.
 finance schemes                                             It is primarily an opportunity for the City of London, though
                                                             there may be some potential in relation to finance services
                                                             centres in the region such as in Leeds.



Key: = high priority/opportunity; = medium; = low.




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3         LOW CARBON ECONOMY SKILLS – NATIONAL CONTEXT



          Before examining in Section 4 the skills needed in relation to the prioritised Low Carbon Economy
          opportunities for Yorkshire and Humber, this section outlines the national context relating to skills
          for the Low Carbon Economy.

3.1       NATIONAL CONTEXT

          The Energy White Paper Our Energy Future - creating a low carbon economy (February 2008)
          highlights the importance of developing the skills base, training and education to enable
          businesses and the economy to respond to the need for change.

          The importance of skills to the development of the Low Carbon Economy is also highlighted in a
          range of other national documents – see Box 3.1.

Box 3.1   Examples of recent work relating to low carbon economy opportunities and skills needs



              Low Carbon Industrial Strategy – A Vision, BERR and DECC, March 2009
              Our Energy Future - creating a low carbon economy - Energy White Paper (February 2008)
              Building a low Carbon economy – Unlocking Innovation and Skills (Nov 2008) – Government
               response to CEMEP.
              Skills for a low carbon and resource efficient economy – Pro Enviro for Defra (2008)
              The Report of the Commission on Environmental Markets and Economic Performance (2007).
              Delivering the Low-Carbon Economy – Business Opportunities for UK Manufacturers (2008) - EEF
               and Deloitte.
              Mind the Skills Gap – The Skills We Need for Sustainable Communities (2007) Academy for
               Sustainable Communities.
              Green Jobs: Towards Sustainable Work in a Low Carbon World (2007) – UNEP.
              Skills for a Low Carbon London; and Skills Gaps in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
               Sector – (2006) London Energy Partnership.
              Climate Safety (2008) - Public Interest Research Centre (PIRC) - asserted the necessity of
               addressing skills shortages if we are going to address climate change and create a low
               carbon economy.
              Green talent – creating a low carbon economy – Business in the Community, 2009
              Manufacturing: New Challenges, New Opportunities – BERR and DIUS, September 2008
              Comparative Advantage and Green Business - Ernst & Young, June 2008
              Climate change – everyone's business, CBI Climate Change Task Force, 2007



          Most recently, in March 2009, the Government published Low Carbon Industrial Strategy – A
          Vision which is the forerunner to the publication of the Low Carbon Industrial Strategy, expected
          later in 2009. The Vision sets out the Government’s high level objectives and priorities and also
          highlights the importance of skills - see Box 3.2




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Box 3.2   UK Government’s ‘Low Carbon Industrial Strategy – A Vision’ (March 2009) - extracts


           The Low Carbon Economy “is not just an environmental and economic imperative; it is also
           potentially a huge economic opportunity for Britain, both in moving out of the current
           downturn, and in mapping out our industrial future.

           “At the heart of the Low Carbon Industrial Strategy are drivers of fundamental change in four
           key areas:
                Energy efficiency to save businesses, consumers and the public services money
                Putting in place the energy infrastructure for the UK’s low carbon future – in renewables,
                 nuclear, Carbon Capture and Storage and a ‘smart’ grid
                Making the UK a global leader in the development and production of low carbon vehicles
                Ensuring our skills, infrastructure, procurement, research and development, demonstration
                 and deployment policies make the UK the best place to locate and develop a low carbon
                 business and make sure international business recognises that”.

           The Vision highlights the importance of skills for the low carbon economy:
           “UK workers across all sectors will need to gain the skills to work with new low carbon
           technologies and processes, or provide new services that will come with a low carbon economy.
           Often, these are not new skills, but new ways of applying a foundation of training in technical
           subjects.
           “The skills to use low carbon goods and services will be embedded into training across every
           profession, equipping businesses across the UK economy to move rapidly to meet demand for
           new services
           “The Low Carbon Industrial Strategy will set out how the Government will work with leading
           employers and key strategic partners, such as the Sector Skills Councils, to stimulate demand,
           support business innovation and create the framework for developing low carbon skills in the UK
           workforce and securing jobs for the future. It will be particularly important to address the
           leadership and management issues that will deliver the culture change required in all sectors of
           the economy”.



3.1.1     Pro Enviro Study for DEFRA: Skills for a Low Carbon Resource Efficient Economy

          The Low Carbon Industrial Strategy – A Vision has been informed by a study undertaken by Pro
          Enviro for Defra (2008). Skills for a Low Carbon Resource Efficient Economy identified a range of
          generic (cross-sector) and sector specific skills for building the Low Carbon Economy. Pro Enviro
          categorised these under the following headings:

                Design                                          Transport
                Energy                                          Materials
                Water                                           Financial
                Buildings                                       Management
                Waste                                           Policy and Planning


          A more detailed breakdown of LCE skills in these different categories is shown in Table 3.1.



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Table 3.1: Skills for the Low Carbon Resource Efficient Economy – from Pro Enviro’s work for Defra, 2008
 TIER 1                TIER 2                        TIER 3
 Design Skills         Eco-Design                    Design for dis-assembly, Design For Recyclability, Design for the Environment,
                                                     Design for Effective Energy Use, Legislation and Regulatory Compliance
                       Green manufacturing /         Legislation and Regulatory Compliance, Integration of Process Waste, design for
                       ‘green products’              recyclability
                       Materials specification
                       Life Cycle
                       Assessment/Costing
 Waste Skills          Waste Quantification and      Waste Production Calculations, Mass Balance, Waste Audit
                       Monitoring
                       Waste Process Studies         Material/Substance Flow Analysis, Resource Utilisation Mapping, Life Cycle
                                                     Assessment
                       Waste Management              Objective Setting, Legislative and Regulatory Compliance, Collection Systems,
                       Systems                       Segregation, Waste Cycle Management, 3R Implementation (Reduce, Reuse,
                                                     Recycle), Hazardous Waste Management, Landfill Requirements,
                                                     Communications/Implementation Campaigns
                       Waste Minimisation            Industrial Symbiosis, Integration of Process Waste
                       Waste Technologies            Recycling, Waste to Energy
 Energy Skills –       Energy efficiency and         Energy Reduction Programmes, Heat Recovery and Re-Use, Energy Efficient
 including renewable   minimisation                  Technologies, Energy Efficient Practices, Communications/Implementation
 energy.                                             Campaigns, Enhanced Capital Allowance Technologies and Scheme, process control
                                                     systems. Skills for preparing the business case – financial justification.
                       Energy Management             Objective Setting, Legislative and Regulatory Compliance, Energy Base Loads and
                       Systems                       Variable Loads, Energy Audit, Energy Review, Communications / Implementation
                                                     Campaigns
                       Energy Quantification and     Monitoring Targeting and Reporting, Use of Half Hourly Data, Use of Sub Meters,
                       Monitoring                    Computer Based Data Logging and Energy Management Systems, Energy Data
                                                     Manipulation Software Systems

                       Energy Costs and Trading      Energy Markets and Pricing, Carbon Trading Schemes, Climate Change Levy
                                                     Agreements, Energy Price Trends, Enhanced Capital Allowances, Peak Oil and
                                                     Impact on Energy Supplies and Prices
                       Renewable Energy              Solar, Wind, Biomass, CHP, Photovoltaic, Ground Source Heat Pump, Air Source
                       Technologies                  Heat Pump, Hydro, Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, Integration into Energy Supply, Wave and
                                                     tidal, Biofuels, grid connection, turbines, engineering (electrical, mechanical, civil),
                                                     offshore marine engineering
                       Non-Renewable                 Nuclear, Incineration with Energy Recovery, Incineration (No Energy Recovery),
                       Technologies                  Clean Fossil Fuel Technologies, Carbon Sequestration, Waste to Energy
 Buildings Skills      Building Energy               Monitoring Targeting and Reporting, Use of Half Hourly Data, Use of Sub Meters,
                       Management                    Computer Based Data Logging and Energy Management Systems, Energy Data
                                                     Manipulation Software Systems, Building Energy Assessment
                       Integration of Renewable      Photovoltaic, Solar, Wind Turbines, Combined Heat and Power, Fuel Cell
                       Energy
                       Energy Efficient              Insulation (Cavity Wall, Loft, Paperwork), Regulatory Compliance (Part L), Passive
                       Construction                  Heating, Building Regulations
                       Facilities Management         Building Energy Management Systems, Management and Maintenance of Water,
                                                     Waste Management
                       Calculating Building Energy   U Value Calculations, Building Energy Assessment, Carbon Rating. Energy reports on
                       Efficiency and Carbon         all properties sold or leased - energy surveyors,
                       Ratings
 Water Skills          Water Minimisation and        Grey Water, Water Harvesting, Waste Water Recovery, Recycling, Cascading, Waste
                       Re-Use                        Water Recovery, Effluent Treatment, Sludge/Slurry Dewatering, Leak Detection
                       Water Management              Objective Setting, Legislative and Regulatory Compliance, Water Audit, Water
                       Systems                       Consumption Review, Communications/Implementation Campaigns
                       Water Quantification and      Sub-Metering, Data Collection, Water Use Calculations
                       Monitoring




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 TIER 1                TIER 2                      TIER 3
 Transport Skills      Transport Impact            Hybrid Vehicles, Biodiesel, Electric Vehicles, Fuel Efficient Vehicles, engine
                       Minimisation Technologies   downsizing, transmission technology

                       Transport Impact            Alternative Transport Strategies, Communication/Implementation Campaigns, Car
                       Minimisation Processes      Sharing Schemes, Public Transport Planning, Public Transport Implementation, Cycle
                                                   Network Planning, Cycle Network Implementation, Transport Modelling
                       Transport Management in     Transport Modelling, Route Planning and Management, Distribution and Collection
                       Business                    Systems, traffic management, demand management.
 Materials Skills      Sourcing                    Sources of Low Energy Materials, Sources of Low Mileage Materials, Recyclates
                                                   (Secondary Materials), Energy Efficient Raw Material Extraction, Industrial
                                                   Symbiosis, Transport Mileage
                       Procurement and Selection   Use and Properties of Low Energy Materials. Use and Properties of Recyclates,
                                                   Industrial Symbiosis, Low Carbon and Resource Efficient Procurement, Cost Impact
                                                   of Climate Change on Material Procurement
                       Material Use and Impact     Material Usage Calculations, Life Cycle Assessment and Costing
                       Quantification
                       Management Systems          Material Use Planning, Material Flow Process Design and Implementation, Energy
                                                   Efficient Process Design and Implementation
                       Impact and Use              Life Cycle Assessment and Costing, Energy Efficient Process Implementation,
                       Minimisation                Material Flows Analysis
 Financial Skills      Investment Models           Energy Technologies Investment Models, Carbon Derivative Investment Models,
                                                   Calculation of Payback/Return on Investment, Whole Life Costing.
                       New/Alternative Financial   Carbon Trading, EU Emissions Trading Scheme, UK Emissions Trading Scheme,
                       Models                      Enhanced Capital Allowances,
                       Quantification of Climate   Impact Assessment of Climate Change of Business Finances, Impact of Climate
                       Change Impacts              Change on Materials Availability and Cost, Carbon Neutrality and Associated
                                                   Cost/Opportunities (Costs of Doing Nothing), Risk/Opportunity Assessment Models
                                                   for Adaptation and Mitigation, Insurance Risks/Opportunities of a Low Carbon
                                                   Economy
                       Principles of Low Carbon    Polluter Pays Principle, Externalities,
                       and Resource Efficient
                       Economies
                       Tools of Low Carbon and     Climate Change Levy Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowance, Cost Benefit
                       Resource Efficient          Analysis, Low Carbon and Resource Efficient Procurement, Whole Life Costing
                       Economies

 Management Skills     Impact Assessment           Energy Use Calculations, Water Use Calculations, Waste Production Calculations,
                                                   Carbon Footprinting Calculations, Emissions Measurement
                       Business Planning           RE Planning, Low Carbon Planning, Integration of RE and Low Carbon into Business
                                                   Planning Cycles, Climate Change Risks, Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation
                                                   Responses (As Part of Business Risk Management), Understanding Low Carbon and
                                                   Resource Efficiency Skills Requirements and Long Term Planning
                       Awareness Raising           Communication/Implementation Campaigns
                       Opportunities Management    Identification of Low Carbon and Resource Efficiency Opportunities, Cost Benefit
                                                   Analysis
                       Risk Management             Identification of Low Carbon and Resource Scarcity Risks, Cost Benefit Analysis

                       Day to Day Management       Low Carbon and Resource Efficient Procurement, Integration of Low Carbon and
                                                   Resource Efficiency Skills, Due Diligence, Management Systems, Low Carbon and
                                                   Resource Efficiency Skills Requirements for Recruitment
 Policy and Planning   Built Environment Master    Low Carbon Spatial Planning, Zero Waste Planning, Resource Efficient Planning, Low
 Skills                Planning and                Carbon and Resource Efficient Urban Design, Building Regulations, Public Transport
                       Implementation              Planning and Implementation, Cycle Network Planning and Implementation
                       Strategy Development        Impact Assessment and Modelling, Principles of Low Carbon and Resource
                                                   Efficiency
                       Strategy Implementation     Understanding of Skills Needs for HR Managers, Low Carbon and Resource Efficient
                                                   Material Sourcing and Procurement, Awareness Raising / Communications Skills




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3.2   KEY ISSUES HIGHLIGHTED IN NATIONAL DOCUMENTS

      The work by Pro Enviro, as well as other national documents relating to Low Carbon Economy
      skills, highlight important issues which are relevant to the current regional analysis of LCE skills
      needs. Examples of these issues are provided in the boxes below.


       The Need for LCE Skills Development
          Moving to a Low Carbon Economy will require a fundamental transition in behaviour and
           application of skills and knowledge.
          Creating a low carbon economy demands all organisations to nurture the talent and develop
           new skills and behaviours in their people.
          Opportunities for new goods and services in the LCE are present in all industries and sectors
           - all of which will need to develop the appropriate skills.


       Skills Needed for the Low Carbon Economy
          Many of the identified LCE skills are not new, they are simply skills that already exist whose
           availability needs to be increased or which need to be applied in new situations or adapted
           with further training to a LCE context specifically in mind.
          For example, skills in the power, chemical process and offshore engineering sectors are
           directly transferable to areas such as clean coal technologies, offshore wind and biofuel
           production.
          The same skills required by the LCE is already high in high demand in other existing sectors.
           The LCE therefore faces strong competition for skilled employees.
          The most important generic skills for the LCE are management skills (such as communicating
           the LCE message and strategic business planning with LCE in mind), sustainable procurement
           and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) skills.
          Urgent action is needed to improve the supply of employees with high levels of skills in
           science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects.
          Particular shortages of skilled staff exist in installation of new low carbon technologies.
          Skills in offshore oil, energy infrastructure and grid connection are concentrated in the over
           50s. Action is needed now to avert future shortages of these skills.


       Business attitudes to LCE skills
          Employer awareness of LCE opportunities varies - some businesses are highly informed and
           already involved in providing LCE products and services, others are unaware of LCE
           opportunities for diversification. This has lead to a ‘Catch 22’ situation whereby the lack of
           recognition of LCE opportunities means that businesses do not see the need for LCE skills
           development, and therefore do not demand LCE skills provision from skills providers.
          There is evidence of a latent demand for LCREE skills – demand is not currently being
           articulated by employers and as a result the current skills delivery framework is ill equipped
           to anticipate and respond.
          Alongside the government, industry must also make the commitment to invest in the R&D
           and skills required to deliver the low-carbon economy – this commitment is sometimes
           lacking.
          Even where businesses recognise opportunities in the LCE and skills needs, the current
           economic downturn is making it harder for companies to invest in skills development and
           training.




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 LCE Skills Provision:
    Government has emphasised the need for a demand-led approach, implying close co-
     ordination across the industry, in particular between employers and education and training
     providers.
    LCE skills need to be considered by, and integrated into, the whole of the skills delivery
     system.
    There is increasing interest and recognition amongst the skills providers of the need to
     support the development of LCE skills.
    It is considered unlikely that current levels of skills training capacity will be sufficient to meet
     demands in the event of increased conversion of latent potential demand to actual demand
     for low carbon economy skills.
    Existing provision for LCE skills is ‘patchy’. LCE skills are not being comprehensively
     promoted by professional bodies that influence the perception of their members’ skills
     requirements.
    At the national level, Government has called for a coordinated approach to LCE skills
     provision to be developed – involving businesses, SSCs, skills providers, Government
     departments et al.
    Government has tasked the Sector Skills Councils with the job of mapping out the skills
     needs in different parts of the LCE. However, a clear set of LCE skills needs in different
     sectors has not emerged.
    A high proportion of the 2020 workforce are already in work. These people will need to be
     upskilled whilst within their existing jobs at all levels. There must be an effective way of
     reaching this group with appropriate qualifications and policies that support re-skilling and
     upskilling in a modular way.
    Practical methods of delivery are important to successful upskilling – with the private sector
     more flexible and able to respond to employers requirements better (e.g. on-site training).
    Funding mechanisms need to support shorter courses and modules, as well as being geared
     to delivery of longer term qualifications.
    There is a need to develop apprenticeships to help meet the UK’s long-term needs for a
     skilled workforce for the LCE.
    Business has an important role to play by developing stronger links with schools and
     inspiring teachers and students with what they are doing to deliver the low-carbon
     economy. Wider appreciation of the central role science and engineering skills play in
     addressing climate change, one of the most pressing issues of our time, could prove a
     powerful tool for encouraging more young people to study technical subjects and pursue
     technical careers.


 The need for Integration of LCE skills provision
    Integration of LCE skills into all training undertaken by companies is the key to
     mainstreaming LCE understanding, knowledge, skills and thinking.
    Integration of some LCE skills into qualifications and National Occupational Standards has
     started to take place in a limited capacity, but there is still a long way to go.
    There is a need for enlightened leaders in business who will push for the integration of LCE
     skills into business’s mainstream skills development.
    Skills brokerage (and subsequent delivery) is reliant on well informed business advisors
     under the Business Support Simplification Programme. Not all business advisors are
     sufficiently knowledgeable about LCE to identify issues and broker relevant support and
     training. Business advisors should receive specific LCE training.
    There is a lack of effective LCE training provision for brokers to signpost businesses towards.



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3.3   SUMMARY

      The national context provides important background to the analysis of LCE skills at the regional level.
      The mix of LCE skills needs within the Yorkshire and Humber region differs somewhat from the
      national picture due to features such as the potential for different LCE technologies in the region, the
      region’s existing industrial strengths and the degree to which various sources of emissions (such as
      power generation, agriculture and industry) contribute to carbon emissions and therefore represent
      priorities within the low carbon economy.




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4       LOW CARBON SKILLS NEEDS FOR YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER



        This section identifies skills requirements associated with Low Carbon Economy priorities and
        opportunities for Yorkshire and Humber identified in Section 2.3, grouped under the following
        headings:

           Low carbon power generation
           Micro-generation
           Biofuels
           Low Carbon Buildings
           Low Carbon Transportation
           Business and Industry Practices
           Carbon Reduction in the Public Sector

        Skills needs have been identified from discussions and desk review of sources such as Sector Skills
        Councils (regional and national contacts), businesses involved in the LCE, staff from Yorkshire
        Forward, FEY, Integreat Yorkshire, universities in the region, the National Non Food Crop Centre,
        skills providers (HE, FE and private) and from work in other English regions, Scotland and Wales.



4.1     LOW CARBON POWER GENERATION

4.1.1   Onshore and Offshore Wind

        Skills Needs:
        The development of large scale wind energy requires a broad range of skills in engineering,
        construction, site investigation, foundations, control systems, design, cabling, rotor hub / gear
        boxes/ gears / bearings, planning and development, installation, onsite assembly, steel tower
        erection, grid infrastructure and connection, operations and project management. It involves
        people in occupations such as:

           Electrical and electronic engineers                   Energy and project finance
           Civil engineers                                       Health and safety specialists
           Offshore / marine engineering                         Construction project managers
           Mechanical engineers                                  Fabrication engineers
           Structural engineers                                  Service engineers
           Installation engineers                                Wind turbine operators
           Environmental impact specialists                      Offshore operation specialists
           Planning processes and applications




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         Wind Energy:                  Skill needs:
         Site identification, design    Meteorological, acoustics, ecology, specialist skills in visual
         and planning                       impact, power generation and connection skills, ornithological,
                                            geological, engineering surveys, offshore/marine surveying,
                                            CAD, financial modelling and business planning, stakeholder
                                            consultation, project planning and management skills.
                                          Skills amongst public sector planning professionals to increase
                                           their understanding of the feasibility of wind energy in different
                                           circumstances.

         Manufacturing                    Mechanical, electrical engineering, aeronautical engineering,
                                           control & instrumentation, general engineering, fabrication,
                                           welding, plating, moulding, manufacturing process control.
         Installation                     Construction project management, civil engineering, cable
                                           laying (on land and sub-sea), electrical / power installation and
                                           connections, telemetry, control systems, riggers, electrical and
                                           mechanical engineering, grid connection engineers, transport.

         Operation and                    Engineering skills for turbine maintenance, monitoring, revenue
         maintenance                       control.

        Many of the skills required across the onshore and offshore wind development process involve
        the application of existing knowledge and skills in a specialist different environment.

        Skills Shortages:
        Throughout the UK, a major risk has been identified that the grid infrastructure needed to meet
        the UK’s 2020 renewable energy target will not be built due to a shortage of suitably skilled power
        grid engineers (source: the Government’s Electricity Networks Strategy Group, March 2009). A
        new generation of engineers is needed if the UK is to have the grid infrastructure to meet its
        renewables targets, eg. for connecting onshore and offshore wind, including upgrading existing
        lines. “Many of the people with the necessary skills are approaching retirement...Moreover the
        lead time through training to competence is long - five years or more. On top of this there is
        limited capacity to train people." “By 2014 we need to attract and train 9,000 new workers in the
        electricity distribution industry alone”. Supply of new engineering graduates is forecast to
        increase but the sector still needs a substantial increase in the number of graduates in disciplines
        such as electrical engineering.

4.1.2   Biomass

        Skills needs:
        Biomass crop production - Skill needs in biomass reflect different parts of the supply chain. If the
        fuel comprises short-cycle crops and coppicing, skills are largely linked to agriculture – new crop
        cultivation and harvesting techniques will be employed, with these skills transferable from
        existing agricultural and forestry practices. Where biomass fuel comes from woodlands, forest
        residues and co-products, woodland management skills and forestry skills are involved. Skills are
        required in drying and pelleting processes, quality control and storage. Some similar techniques
        are used in grain drying and malting operations.



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Biomass plants - Engineers and construction workers are needed in design and construction of
bioenergy plants, while electrical / electronic and mechanical technicians, engineers (mechanical,
electrical, and chemical), mechanics, and equipment operators needed to run and maintain the
plants. For plants which produce power as well as heat, maintenance of the turbines and grid
connection skills are also required. The installation of smaller biomass boilers involves the
knowledge and skills of heating and ventilation engineers, as will be the integration of an external
heating source into existing domestic heating systems.

 Biomass:                     Skill needs:
 Biomass crop production       Cultivation – planting, growing, establishment, harvesting,
                                   forestry management, arboriculture, chainsaw operation,
                                   financial assessment and planning.
 Production of biomass           Compaction, maceration, chipping, pelleting, baling, drying,
 fuels from crops                 handling, quality control, combustion, transport, loading,
                                  handling and storage
 Biomass plant planning          Engineering, environmental and building assessments, fuel
 and installation                 supply chain assessment, financial feasibility, consultation with
                                  stakeholders, transport logistics,
 Biomass plant installation      Mechanical, heating and power engineering for boiler
                                  installation, pipe works, assembly of boiler and fuel feed
                                  systems, connection of biomass systems to existing systems.
                                  Grid connection engineers, cable laying, electrical / power
                                  installation and connections / telecoms.
 Operation and                   Power and heating engineering skills for boiler and fuel feed
 maintenance                      systems maintenance, turbine maintenance (for CPH),
                                  environmental monitoring, financial accounting.


Skills Shortages:
A steady stream of biomass plants is being developed in the region – the Drax Group has its
existing plant at Drax and also plans to build two new large scale plants at Hull and Immingham,
with the capacity to together produce 900 megawatts of electricity - enough to supply 3% of the
country's total needs. This clearly opens up huge potential demand for biomass fuel supply. At
present a large proportion of biomass feed stocks in the UK are imported because of limited UK
supply – “there is concern about the UK’s ability to supply fuel in the quantities that will be
needed to produce the electricity output forecast for 2020. Energy crop production, such as short
rotation coppice will have to be stimulated further if demand is to met form UK sources” (Report
to the Electricity Networks Strategy Group by the Chairman of the Transmission Studies Working
Group – February 2009).

To fully capitalise on the economic opportunities associated with biomass crop production, the
region needs to increase regional production of biomass feed stocks. Farmers have the skills to
grow biomass, but they need to become more familiar with the planting, growing and harvesting
process and also learn more about the financial case for biomass crop production. Most farmers
are used to generating annual income from crops, whereas biomass involves income every 3 years
or more. Support provided by the likes of Lantra and the National Non Food Crop Centre in York
helps to address these awareness and financial planning issues.

As with other parts of the energy and renewable energy sector, there are shortages of
experienced electrical engineers, grid connection engineers and chemical engineers.



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4.1.3   Tidal and Wave Energy

        Skills Needs:
        Wave and tidal are still emerging technologies, with no clear preferred technologies. Skills needs
        currently relate to research and development, manufacture and testing of demonstration units
        and require skills in marine engineering, naval architecture, mechanical, hydraulic and electrical
        design, welders and fitters, marine and offshore operations for installation and maintenance.

            Wave and tidal:                Skill needs:
            Site identification,            Coastal and marine surveying, measuring wave / tide conditions.
            feasibility and installation        Marine engineering, naval architecture, materials science, off
                                                shore engineering. Electrical engineering for power generation
                                                assessment. Civil / mechanical engineering and marine
                                                construction skills. Health & Safety specialists. Financial
                                                feasibility and planning skills. Ecological / environmental impact
                                                assessment. Project management skills. Specialist knowledge of
                                                the marine power sector. Under-sea cable laying. Electrical /
                                                power installation and connections.
            Device design and                 Structural, electrical and mechanical engineering, hydraulics,
            manufacture                        control and telemetry. Fabrication –steel / concrete, plastics,
                                               moulding, mooring and anchor design, casting.
            Operation                         Electrical and hydraulic power generation and engineering skills.
                                               Marine / offshore maintenance and recovery.


        Skills shortages:
        There is a general shortage of offshore engineering skills, undersea cabling and grid connection
        skills.

4.1.4   Clean Coal Technologies

        Clean Coal Technology (CCT) refers to a range of technologies which reduce the environmental
        impact of using coal to generate electricity. Two in particular have the potential to significantly
        reduce the carbon footprint of coal fired plants: advanced combustion technologies; and carbon
        capture and storage.

        Advanced combustion technologies increase the efficiency of coal plant, raising the electricity
        generated per unit of coal. There are two main categories of technology: ‘supercritical’ plant and
        ‘Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle’ (IGCC) plant.

              Supercritical technology raises the efficiency of a plant by generating steam at a higher
               temperature and pressure. The efficiency of traditional plants ranges from 36% to 39%.
               Supercritical plants have efficiencies up to 47%. ‘Ultrasupercritical’ technology holds the
               potential to raise plant efficiency to 50% and beyond.

              IGCC technology works by converting coal into gas, purifying that gas to remove pollutants,
               burning the purified gas to drive a gas turbine and recycling the heated exhaust to drive a
               steam turbine. IGCC offers efficiencies between 37-43%, although the potential exists to
               increase efficiencies to 60%and beyond. However, the technology is less mature and less
               widely deployed than supercritical technology in the power industry.



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        Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the removal, transport and storage of the carbon dioxide
        emissions from a coal plant. Carbon dioxide is ‘captured’ either before or after combustion,
        compressed for transportation (e.g. by pipeline) and injected into a storage site in a suitable
        geological formation (e.g. a depleted oil or gas field or a saline aquifer). There are three main
        approaches to capture:

        •   Pre-combustion capture is the removal of the carbon contained in coal prior to its
            combustion. Coal is ‘gasified’ to produce a ‘synthesis gas’ comprising carbon monoxide and
            hydrogen. The synthesis gas is treated with steam to convert the carbon monoxide into
            carbon dioxide which in turn is separated-out using a solvent or membrane.
        •   Post-combustion capture is the removal of carbon dioxide from the flue gas emitted after the
            combustion of coal in a power plant, using a chemical solvent.
        •   Oxyfuel is a variant of post-combustion capture in which coal is first burnt in an oxygen-rich
            environment to facilitate the subsequent removal of carbon dioxide from the flue gas.

        Skills Needs:
        The skills needed for advanced combustion technologies and carbon capture and storage involve
        skills in the power generation, chemical engineering, process engineering, mining and offshore
        engineering industries. Infrastructure development such as terminals and pipelines also require
        chemical engineering and offshore engineering skills.

4.1.5   Co-Firing with Biomass and Combined Heat and Power

        Co-firing of biomass with fossil fuels (ie. coal) in existing power generation plants (with CCS)
        represents a significantly lower cost option compared to building new biomass plants. It involves
        adding biomass as a partial substitute to coal in coal boilers, and only requires small modifications
        of the entire system. It has been demonstrated in all boiler types commonly used by electricity
        generating utilities. Since 2006 co-firing coal with biomass has been eligible under the
        Renewables Obligation if 75 % or more of the energy content of the biomass derives from energy
        crops. The co-firing of coal and biomass will only be eligible under the Renewables Obligation
        until 31st March 2011.

        Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of usable heat and power
        (usually electricity) in a single process. CHP can use both fossil and renewable fuels. In its
        simplest form, it employs a gas turbine, an engine or a steam turbine to drive an alternator, and
        the resulting electricity can be used either wholly or partially on-site. The heat produced during
        power generation is recovered, usually in a heat recovery boiler and can be used to raise steam
        for a number of industrial processes, to provide hot water for space heating in nearby premises.
        Because CHP systems make extensive use of the heat produced during the electricity generation
        process, they can achieve overall efficiencies in excess of 70% at the point of use – compared to
        conventional coal-fired and gas-fired power stations which discard this heat, is typically achieve
        around 38% and 48% respectively.

        Skill Needs:
        Skills needs for co-firing and CHP are similar to those required for conventional coal- or gas-fired
        generation – power generation, chemical engineering, process engineering - with additional skills
        required for biomass feedstocks (see Section 4.1.2 above).



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4.1.6   Residual Waste to Energy

        Energy from waste technologies include anaerobic digestion; direct combustion of waste
        (incineration); use of secondary recovered fuel (eg. sewage sludge incineration); pyrolysis; and
        gasification. UK Government does not generally have a preference for one technology over
        another, with the exception of anaerobic digestion for treating food waste. Any given technology
        is more beneficial if both heat and electricity can be recovered.

        Skills Needs:
         Energy from Waste:           Skill needs:
         Incineration system           Process and chemical engineering skills, civil engineering for
         design and plant                  design; mechanical, heating and power engineering for
         installation                      installation, pipe works, assembly of incinerator, boiler and fuel
                                           feed systems; grid connection engineers, electrical / power
                                           installation and mechanical and electrical control systems; air
                                           pollution emission control skills; environmental monitoring.

         Anaerobic Digestion              Process and civil engineering skills; chemical and biochemical
                                           skills and experience of fermentation processes; specialist
                                           knowledge of waste streams; tank installation and pipework;
                                           waste handling skills; wastewater treatment; odour control and
                                           environmental monitoring; pipework and boiler installation;
                                           heating engineer skills for the gas fired boilers; and mechanical
                                           and electrical control system skills.


4.1.7   Nuclear

        Government has identified the nuclear power industry as a key component of the UK’s future low
        carbon energy generation capacity. However, the lack of growth in the sector over the past 20
        years will lead to significant shortfalls in skilled personnel with general engineering and specialist
        skills in constructing, operating and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as specialist
        nuclear waste management skills. Cogent, the Sector Skills Council for the chemicals, nuclear, oil and
        gas, petroleum and polymer industries, estimates that the UK will need an additional 8,500 workers
        with skills in nuclear decommissioning and waste management by 2015.

4.2     MICRO-GENERATION

        Micro-generation involves energy generation from smaller scale renewable energy technologies
        such as ground source heat pumps, small scale wind, biomass, solar, photovoltaics, small scale
        hydro, micro Combined Heat and Power and innovative hydrogen fuel cells.




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 Micro-generation:     Skill needs:
 Geothermal / ground    Understanding of ground source water heating systems for site
 source heat pumps          assessment. Excavation and laying of ground loop, Installation
                            of heat pump and compressor, internal heating and plumbing
                            connections require mechanical and heating engineering skills
                            and electrical installation skills.
 Solar thermal          Experience in solar thermal systems and heating engineering
                            skills for design and site assessment.
                        For installation and internal connections: roofing skills,
                            scaffolding skills, heating engineers, electrical and plumbing
                            skills.
 Photovoltaic           Architectural skills, experience in PV and electrical / power
                            generation engineering skills for design and site assessment,
                            including grid connection skills.
                        For installation and internal connections: roofing skills,
                            scaffolding skills, electrical engineers and installers. Power
                            engineering and electrical installation skills for grid connection.
 Small scale wind       Mechanical and electrical engineering skills with experience of
                            wind power for site assessment and system design. Planning
                            regulation / application skills.
                        For installation – engineering and construction skills; cable
                            laying electrical installation skills.
                        Maintenance of turbine, batteries and connections – electrical
                            installation skills.
 Small scale hydro      Specialised engineering skills relating to resource assessment
                            and system design. Hydraulics and compressor design skills
                        Basic mechanical and electrical engineering for assembly, and
                            civil construction skills for the buildings and water conduit work.
 Hydrogen fuel cells      Fuel cells convert hydrogen (or a hydrogen-rich gas stream) into
                           electricity and heat by an electrochemical process which results
                           in water being the only emission. The technology has
                           applications for stationary power generation and (CHP),
                           portable power and transport.
                          The use of hydrogen fuel is still at the demonstration stage and
                           will need to overcome significant techno-economic barriers to
                           achieve widespread usage. Therefore, at this stage, the skills
                           involved relate to degree and post graduate level engineers,
                           research physicists and chemists.
 Micro CHP                Micro CHP involves the simultaneous generation of electricity
                           and useful heat, on a small scale for domestic or small business
                           premises. Specialised engineering, electrical installation and
                           plumbing skills are required.
                          Micro CHP is still in its ‘early days’ and will remain more
                           expensive to buy than condensing boilers for the foreseeable
                           future. The UK boiler industry is well placed to benefit from this
                           potentially very large market should it take off. The
                           manufacturing base currently focused on condensing boilers
                           could be, and in some cases already is being, adapted to
                           produce micro CHP units.



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4.3   BIOFUELS

      Skills Needs:
       Biofuels:                     Skill needs:
       Growing of biofuel crops      • Skills in site identification, genetic engineering, cultivation,
       – eg. rapeseed                  agricultural economics, crop transport, handling, storage
       Extraction of oil from        • Chemical, mechanical and heat processing skills
       vegetable matter
       Collection of waste oils      • Oil collection, transport, handing and storage skills.
       Refining of biofuel oils      • Chemistry, chemical engineering, petro chemical engineering skills
                                       – analysis, filtration, cleansing, refining, heat treatment, additives
                                       and blending.
       Biofuel distribution          • Distribution logistics management, supply chain control, financial
                                       control


4.4   LOW CARBON BUILDINGS

      Skills Needs:
      Skills needed for low carbon buildings range from relatively low level technical skills for some
      installation jobs, through to more specialist installation skills for technologies such as micro-
      generation systems, and to university level skills required for the development of new
      technologies and project management.

      The timescales of skill needs relating to low carbon building technologies vary, with not all skills
      being needed immediately. For example, there is a current need for increased skills in the
      installation energy efficiency boiler and heating systems; whereas the demand for photovoltaics
      installation skills is unlikely to develop for another 10 years.

       Low Carbon Buildings       Skill needs:
       Design                     Need for architect, civil engineer, financing, quantity surveyor skills in
                                  low carbon design and construction – including skills in:
                                  • building regulations (eg. Code for Sustainable Homes)
                                  • thermal characteristics of materials and design
                                  • use of recycled materials in buildings
                                  • renewable energy systems
                                  • energy performance simulation techniques
                                  • low carbon lighting, heating and ventilation design and systems
                                  • water efficiency
                                  • environmental and energy assessments, eg. BREEAM and Energy
                                       Performance Certificates
                                  • building energy management, metering and monitoring
                                  • integrating low carbon design into the commissioning and
                                       specification processes, eg. performance clauses.
                                  • financial skills in areas such as ‘whole life costing’ and the
                                       economics of low carbon design.

                                  Skills are also needed amongst public sector planning professionals to
                                  understand low carbon construction and the technical and economic
                                  feasibility of options in different circumstances.



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       Low Carbon Buildings      Skill needs:
       Energy efficient          Skills of builders, construction project managers, plumbers, electricians
       construction and          in installing low carbon designs and specifications in new homes and
       installation              retrofitting existing buildings. Including installing:
                                    insulation (cavity wall, solid wall, loft, paperwork, glazing)
                                    passive heating systems.
                                    building energy management systems and SMART metering
                                    energy efficient lighting, heating and ventilation systems.
                                 Where architects are not used, (eg. for many retrofit / renovation
                                 projects) the skills and awareness of low carbon heating systems
                                 amongst heating engineers is critical to energy efficiency
                                 improvements in existing housing.
                                 Retro-fit to improve energy conservation in existing buildings will
                                 require skills in understanding the impact of new materials/systems on
                                 older buildings, and combining traditional skills with the installation
                                 instructions on the new materials.
       Use of renewable          • Electrical, plumbing, heating and other technical skills for micro-
       energy                      renewable energy generation – as identified in Section 4.2 (above).

       Facilities Management     • Skills in building energy management systems, energy assessments,
                                   building management and maintenance.


      Skills shortages:
      The number of skilled personnel in the low carbon buildings sector is still low compared to those
      with skills in conventional construction techniques. At present, the slump in activity in the
      construction sector means that the skills shortages are not acute. However, when new-build
      rates pick up and given the requirement to meet standards set out in the Code for Sustainable
      Homes, the demand for skills in all aspects of low carbon buildings will increase significantly.
      Unless a substantial number of designers, engineers, construction workers, plumbers and
      electricians are trained up in low carbon building techniques over the next 3 to 5 years, a
      significant skills gap will soon become apparent.

4.5   LOW CARBON TRANSPORTATION

      Skills Needs:
       Low Carbon Transport       Skill needs:
       Low carbon transport       • Automotive engineering, process engineering and
       technologies - fuel             manufacturing skills for the development of hybrid vehicles,
       efficiency vehicles,            biodiesel, electric and fuel efficient vehicles, as well as engine
       electric vehicles, plug-in      downsizing and new transmission technologies.
       hybrid cars, hydrogen fuel • Civil engineering, pipeline, electrical engineering and
       cells                           constructions skills for the development of the charging and fuel
                                       supply infrastructure for low carbon vehicles.
                                  • Chemical engineering skills for fuel cells.
       Biofuels for vehicles–        •   Skills in site identification, genetic engineering, cultivation,
       such as bio-ethanol and           agricultural economics, crop transport, handling, storage



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       Low Carbon Transport        Skill needs:
       biodiesel                   • Chemical, mechanical, heat processing, refining skills
       Transport Impact            •   Transport engineering, IT and mathematical skills for transport
       Minimisation Processes          modelling.
                                   •   Transport engineers, transport and supply chain logistics skills
                                       and transport experience relating to:
                                       – sustainable transport plans and strategies
                                       – communication campaigns to raise awareness of low carbon
                                          transport good practice
                                       – corporate sustainable transport plans
                                       – public transport planning and implementation

       Transport Management        •   Skills in transport modelling, route planning and management,
                                       distribution and collection systems, traffic management and
                                       demand management; electrical engineering; control systems
                                       and telemetry skills.



4.6   BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRY PRACTICES

      Skills Needs:
       Businesses and Industry:    Skill needs:
       Energy efficiency and        Awareness and strong leadership from senior level management
       carbon management                on the importance and business case for carbon reduction in
                                        businesses.
                                    Technical awareness amongst senior management of potential
                                        energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies.
                                    Skills and knowledge of energy efficiency techniques and
                                        technologies, renewable energy installations and building
                                        energy management systems.
                                    Energy auditing and monitoring skills.
                                    Skills in managing operations (eg. supply chains, production
                                        processes, logistics, premises) to minimise carbon emissions.
                                    Financial skills amongst operational staff for assessing and
                                        presenting the economic case for improvements in energy
                                        efficiency and investments in renewable energy.
       Carbon capture and             Process engineering and chemical engineering skills for Carbon
       storage (CCS) in energy         Capture and Storage in energy intensive industries such as steel
       intensive industries            and cement manufacture.
       Product design for energy   •   Skills in product design, chemistry and biochemistry for
       and resource efficiency         ‘greener’ products, electrical engineering, use of low carbon
                                       materials / recycled materials in products.
                                   •   Skills in life cycle assessment and design for disassembly/re-use
                                       and recycling.
       Resource efficiency /       •   Skills in waste management audits, environmental management
       waste minimisation              systems, monitoring and reporting on low carbon and resource
                                       efficiency performance.




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      Skills shortages:
      Although many companies have made significant progress in energy and resource efficiency over
      the last decade, recent increases in demand from businesses for energy efficiency advice
      following energy price rises highlights the shortage of skills in energy efficiency and small scale
      renewable energy installations. High demand from businesses (eg. in the East Midlands) for
      courses in energy efficiency skills, carbon reduction techniques and the economics of carbon
      reduction also point to skills shortages in businesses in these areas. There is also a shortage of
      STEM skills relating to product design to improve energy and resource efficiency, as well as
      techniques such as life cycle assessment. As energy prices continue on a long-term upward trend
      and given the requirements facing businesses with climate change levy agreements, the demand
      for energy engineering skills will increase significantly over the short and medium term.
      Furthermore, requirements placed on businesses relating to the recent Carbon Reduction
      Commitment will also underpin this skills need.

4.7   CARBON REDUCTION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

      The public sector has a major role to play in contributing to carbon emission reduction through
      delivery of its services and its operations, infrastructure investments, building management and
      procurement. For example, local authority planning decisions and processes also have a
      significant effect on the rate at which renewable energy and sustainable construction is
      progressed. From 2010, planning applications for major grid projects will be dealt with by the
      new Infrastructure Planning Commission rather than councils, but local authority planning
      departments will still have responsibility for assessing planning applications for smaller scale
      projects and for the extent to new building developments are required to meet sustainable
      construction standards.

      Skills Needs:
       Public sector planning       Skill needs:
       and strategies
       Energy efficiency and low    •    Skills in the public sector in building energy management,
       carbon energy use and             sustainable construction, low carbon transport to reduce carbon
       procurement in service            emissions through delivery of services.
       delivery, sites and          •    Skills in sustainable procurement to promote energy efficiency
       premises.                         and carbon reduction via public sector procurement
                                         expenditure. .
       Carbon and energy issues     •    Increased skills amongst public sector planning professionals to
       into planning processes           raise their awareness of low carbon construction, use of
       and strategy                      renewable, low carbon transport options etc, to inform
       development.                      decisions on planning / development standards and appropriate
                                         application of low carbon technologies.


      Skill Shortages:
      As highlighted by reports such as the House of Commons, Communities and Local Government
      Committee report, “Planning Matters – labour shortages and skills gaps” (July 2008), there is a
      need for increased skills within public sector bodies, such as local authorities, in carbon reduction
      and energy management, particularly in relation to buildings, transport and planning processes.




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4.8   SUMMARY OF LCE SKILLS NEEDS IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER

      The analysis of skills needs across different sectors of the Low Carbon Economy highlights a
      number of general shortages of skills, as well as some sector specific skills needs and shortages.
      Key messages from the analysis include the following:

         STEM and Engineering Skills – In Yorkshire and Humber, as well as elsewhere in the UK, there
          is a general need for STEM and engineering skills across many of the LCE opportunities –
          particularly structural engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, transmission
          engineers, grid connection engineers and chemical engineers. Combined with these skills is
          the need for experience in specific LCE applications. Skills shortages in these areas have been
          highlighted by a number of reports – see Box 4.1.

         An ageing workforce - Many people with the required LCE skills (especially in the energy
          industry) are 50 years old plus. It is expected that skills shortage affecting sectors such as
          energy and renewables will worsen in coming years. Effective approaches for attracting new
          recruits, transferring skills from other sectors and apprenticeship schemes will be important
          in addressing skills shortages in the energy, process industry and engineering sectors.

         Many of the skills needs are potentially transferable from other sectors. But high level of
          demand from existing sectors such as energy and power industries (which are able to offer
          high salaries) means that businesses in the newer LCE / renewable energy sectors face
          difficulties in recruiting the required skills.

         Large scale renewable energy - Serious potential skills shortages affecting the LCE and
          renewable energy sector have been identified (see Box 4.1). There is a growing shortage of
          project managers, electrical engineers, grid infrastructure development and grid connection
          engineers (onshore and offshore), wind turbine technicians and maintenance engineers.

         Biomass crops –With enormous growth potential in the region for large scale biomass energy
          generation, there are growing opportunities for biomass fuel supply – so long as UK suppliers
          are able to compete on cost with imported biomass. Farmers in the region have the skills for
          planting, cultivating and harvesting these crops, but lack experience in the biomass
          production process, identification of appropriate land for biomass production and familiarity
          with the economics of growing biomass crops, which typically take at least 3 years to mature
          compared to annual returns from conventional food stocks. Farmers are often reluctant to
          commit land to biomass crops over a number of seasons in the face of high and fluctuating
          prices for conventional food crops. Training to help make farmers become more familiar with
          biomass crop production processes and the economics of biomass crops is needed.

         Higher level skills - Some very high level skills sets such as research physicists, chemical and
          process engineers are required in LCE technologies at the research or demonstration stage –
          eg. hydrogen fuel cells and carbon capture and storage.

         Sustainable construction – Skills needed range from relatively low level technical skills for
          some installation jobs through to university level for the development of new technologies
          and project management. Many of the energy efficiency measures (eg. insulation, solar
          thermal, ground source heat pumps and biomass boilers) require training to allow employees




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                 to become familiar with the applications and to diversify their existing skills in fields such as
                 heating, plumbing and electrical installation.

                Energy and Resource Efficiency in Businesses – Many of the skills required for improving the
                 energy and resource efficiency of businesses already exist within larger companies – eg.
                 manufacturing and process control skills, energy management and supply chain management.
                 However, there are gaps in energy management and resource efficiency skills in small
                 businesses and lower energy users. Other critical issues are the need for strong management
                 leadership and commitment to carbon reduction which requires new knowledge and
                 awareness raising, as well as skills in financial assessment of low carbon options and knowing
                 where to access additional specialist skills.

Box 4.1   Skills Shortages in the Low Carbon Economy – extracts from reports

              The Report of the Commission on Environmental Markets and Economic Performance (Nov 2007)
              states that “Surveys of environmental firms have shown that almost one in three have skills gaps.
              This represents a barrier to UK success in environmental markets, particularly in renewable and low-
              carbon energy generation”

              “A recent research report by the Energy & Utility Sector Skills Council highlighted a significant
              shortfall in the number of overhead lines workers to deliver the up-coming phase of infrastructure
              renewal and repair. Senior authorised engineers and project supervisors have to undertake five to
              seven years of training to become competent”.

              “In the energy and utility sectors 28 per cent of firms reported a skills gap, as opposed to 20 per cent
              in England as a whole. The electricity industry is experiencing the most difficulty [ in recruiting skilled
              staff ], with approximately one in two organisations reporting a skills gap of some sort”.

              “Work by the London Energy Partnership showed there was a shortage of trainers skilled in
              renewable energy. Moreover, as there is a large gap between the skills and training available and the
              needs of the sector, the skills gap is forecast to get worse as the sector expands”.

              “Cogent, the Sector Skills Council for the chemicals, nuclear, oil and gas, petroleum and polymer
              industries, estimates that the UK will need an additional 8,500 workers with skills in nuclear
              decommissioning and waste management by 2015”.

              The Energy Savings Trust has reported that a key barrier to increasing the uptake of new micro-
              generation devices is the shortage of appropriate skills and training courses for the emerging micro-
              generation technologies.

              According to a report for the BWEA 1, “there are only about 5,000 people employed in the wind
              industry in the UK. Measures proposed in the government’s renewable energy strategy (if
              implemented) would see up to 57,000 people could be employed in the sector in the UK by 2020.
              Scotland, the North East and East of England in particular.

              “The ‘baby boomers’ that entered the energy industry in the late 1970s and the early ‘80s are now
              retiring and there appears to be a lack of experienced staff across the entire energy industry to fulfil
              current demand. The energy companies themselves are able to offer good salaries and excellent
              training programmes, so the real problem is amongst the huge number of companies that constitute
              the supply chain and in particular those in the developing energy sector of renewables.


          1   Employment opportunities and challenges in the context of rapid industry growth



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    “By 2016 it is likely that some 15 to 20 GW (about a quarter of the UK’s existing generating capacity)
    will need to be replaced, and further substantial investment on a similar scale may be required in the
    following decade. Conventional and nuclear power generation and the oil & gas industry are all,
    together with other engineering sectors, competing for the same people as the renewable energy
    sector. (Douglas Westwood, June 2008 for BERR).

    “Although there seem to be plenty of graduates and post-graduates willing to enter the renewables
    sector, the general opinion from companies within the renewables supply chain is that there is a lack
    of experienced staff, especially engineers and project managers in the UK, willing to enter the sector.

    “With all energy sectors struggling with the same issue, developing renewable sectors are trying to
    compete with the more traditional sectors of Oil & Gas and Marine who have plenty of work and
    much bigger cheque books. The end result is that the developing renewables sectors in the UK such
    as wave & tidal will experience bottlenecks in the project development process as they struggle to
    attract and/or retain experienced staff.

    “Offshore renewable energy sectors in particular are suffering from skills shortages, as the smaller
    companies in the sector cannot compete with the wage levels in the oil and gas sector. The viability
    for cross-industry knowledge transfer partnership (KTP) type schemes between existing offshore oil &
    gas players and offshore renewable companies could be considered for engineers with 10+ year’s
    experience. Trade bodies and Engineering Institutions should be encouraged to bring forward
    initiatives for funding skills transfer and education and training – establish working groups. Specific
    industries from where experienced engineers and project managers may be encouraged to
    participate include aerospace, automotive, defence and offshore oil & gas”.

    The Bain & Co report1 for the BWEA A closer look at the development of wind, wave & tidal energy in
    the UK (2008) also stresses the major existing imbalance in the sector’s labour market. More than
    half of firms have vacancy levels of above 5%. Half of firms face difficulty hiring project managers,
    40% have trouble recruiting electrical engineers and 25% struggle to find turbine technicians.
    This is set to worsen as the market expands. The number of engineers graduating each year in the
    UK is likely to remain flat over the next 12 years, the report states. It recommends developing
    specialised education programmes tailored for the wind industry.

    Shortages in wind turbine maintenance skills (Douglas Westwood, 2008) 2 and project management
    skills and experience.

    A House of Commons select committee report3 (2008) highlighted that “The deployment of
    renewable electricity-generation technologies relies on a supply chain of suitably qualified personnel.
    However, a survey conducted by the Energy Research Partnership in 2007 identified a long-term
    decline in the numbers of “next generation” scientists and engineers available to support UK
    industry”.

    “There appear to be at least three underlying reasons for the current skills shortages. First, the
    engineering workforce has a rising age profile. Second, and related to the first reason, the sector is
    seen to have a relatively unattractive image amongst young people and the pool of graduates is
    shrinking, and finally, although energy sector pay compares favourably in engineering, it is recognised
    that it does not have a competitive advantage over sectors recruiting from the same student supply
    chain, such as financial services”.


1 A closer look at the development of wind, wave & tidal energy in the UK – Bain and Co for the BWEA, 2008
2 Supply Chain Constraints on the Deployment of Renewable Electricity Technologies – Douglas Westwood, for BERR
(June 2008)
3 Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies - House of Commons Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills

Committee – (June 2008)



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4.9   EMPLOYER OPINION AND UNDERSTANDING OF LCE OPPORTUNITIES AND SKILL NEEDS

      Table 4.1 summarises our preliminary assessment of employer awareness of LCE opportunities
      and skills requirements. This is based on our existing knowledge of the market opportunities,
      business attitudes and discussions with stakeholders held during the study. It has not been
      possible within the scope of this study to undertake extensive survey work or to provide a more
      detailed segmentation of attitudes in the broader LCE categories or amongst different sized
      companies. It should also be noted that more detailed survey work would be required to identify
      attitudes of businesses in the region with potential to diversify into LCE markets (eg. steel
      fabrication companies). Further survey work is therefore included in the recommended actions
      for moving forward identified in Section 6.

      Employer opinions and understanding of LCE opportunities and skills requirements:

             Employer awareness of LCE opportunities varies greatly – Clearly many businesses are highly
              informed and already actively involved in supplying LCE products and services and meeting
              their skills needs. However, many more businesses remain unaware of and unengaged with
              LCE opportunities and the required skills.
             High level of awareness amongst large companies in the sector - Amongst the large energy
              companies and specialist companies in the energy and renewable energy sectors, there is a
              high level of business awareness of LCE opportunities and skills needs. These large businesses
              are actively involved in skills development and training (in-house and external), and are
              investing considerable sums of money into recruiting and training staff to fill the skills gap and
              sustainable the sector over the next 30 years.
             Latent Demand – As identified in the Pro Enviro report for Defra (2008), there is evidence of
              latent demand for LCE skills. Demand is frequently not being articulated by employers and as
              a result the current skills delivery framework is ill equipped to anticipate and respond. Pro
              Enviro referred to this as a ‘Catch 22’ whereby the lack of recognition of LCE opportunities,
              means that businesses do not see the need for LCE skills development, and therefore do not
              demand LCE skills provision from skills providers.
             Strength of the Business Case – The rate at which latent demand for LCE skills transfers into
              actual demand reflects the strength of the business case for individual companies to examine
              and diversify into LCE market opportunities and to lower carbon emissions. This business case
              is influenced by factors such as:
          –     Strength of existing markets: Where businesses have been busy in their existing markets,
                they often have little incentive to identify new markets to diversify into or new skills to
                acquire. For example, recent high wheat and food prices mean that many farmers have
                been less interested in diversifying into biomass crops.
          –     Energy prices: High energy prices have provided a strong business case for companies to
                reduce costs through improvements in their energy efficiency, providing an incentive to
                acquire or invest in the necessary skills.
          –     Strength of consumer demand: High oil prices have also increased consumer demand for
                more fuel efficient vehicles and alternative fuels such as biodiesel, providing a stronger
                business case for businesses to develop biofuel production capacity and the required skills.
          –     Government Policies and Regulations – In the absence of market forces, Government
                policy and regulations are designed to increase demand for LCE technologies and practices.


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      For example, the Renewables Obligation (RO) has increased the take up of biomass co-firing
      in energy generation – but this driver will reduce when co-firing is no longer eligible under
      the RO from 1st April 2011. Similarly, the Code for Sustainable Homes is expected to
      increase demand for low carbon building techniques, but there is considerable uncertainly
      within the construction industry about how strongly and when these regulations will be
      implemented. Hence, businesses are less inclined to invest in manufacturing new low
      carbon technologies or to invest in acquiring low carbon construction skills.
   Rate of technology and market development – In LCE markets where the technologies are
    still in the research and development phase (eg. hydrogen fuel cells and wave / tidal power)
    the current level of interest amongst businesses is understandably limited. Similarly, in the
    areas such as photovoltaics in low carbon buildings, in which the market is expected to
    develop over the next 10 years (source: Energy Savings Trust), the current level of interest and
    awareness of skills is limited to a small number of niche suppliers and installers.
   Scale of investment and technical sophistication: In some LCE priority areas, such as clean
    coal technology and carbon capture and storage, the scale of investment required, the high
    levels of technical sophistication and the limited number of ‘customers’ (ie. the major power
    generators) in the market, mean that the barriers to market entry are high. As a result, only a
    relatively small number of large businesses are active in these markets and the skills
    requirements for these applications affect only a small number of businesses.
   Effects of the economic downturn: The economic slowdown appears to be affecting the
    level of business interest in LCE opportunities and skills in a number of different ways:
    – Investment in skills and training – It has become much harder for many companies to
      invest in skills development and training – as reported by a number of training providers in
      the region contacted during the study. For example, MET-UK based in Rotherham which
      provides training for gas engineers, plumbers, electrician and renewable energy installer,
      has identified a reduction in the number of applicants for training courses.
    – Difficulties in accessing credit has made it difficult for many companies to invest in
      diversifying into new LCE technologies or markets.
    – Incentive to diversify into long-term growth markets – However, for some companies, the
      economic slowdown has generated increased interest in investing to diversify into long-
      term growth markets associated with carbon reduction and the LCE. Similarly, there is
      evidence of growing interest in engineering skills and employment in the face difficulties
      faced by financial service industries.




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Table 4.1     Preliminary assessment of the level of employer awareness of LCE opportunities and skills needs
 Priority areas of the LCE for      Level of employer awareness in LCE opportunities and skill requirements:
 Yorkshire and Humber:

 LOW CARBON POWER GENERATION:
 Onshore and offshore wind          High level of business awareness of opportunities in onshore and offshore wind and of
                                    the skills needs. The large businesses in wind energy and renewables are actively
                                    involved in skills development and training, seeking to fill the skills gaps and increase
                                    the number of skilled members of the workforce needed to sustain the sector over the
                                    next 20 years.

                                    However, it should also be noted that the level of awareness of wind energy
                                    opportunities amongst businesses with potential to diversify into wind energy supply
                                    chains (eg. engineering businesses which could supply components), is highly variable.
 Biomass crop producers             Only a relatively small number of farmers in the region are involved in biomass crop
                                    production or are aware of skills needs.
 Biomass energy generators          High level of awareness of opportunities in biomass energy plants amongst the energy
                                    generators - eg. the Drax Group’s recent investment at Drax and plans for 2 further
                                    biomass plants in the Humber area. These large companies are very aware of the need
                                    to address skills issues and are actively involved in recruitment and training
                                    programmes.
 Tidal / wave energy                Only a small number of niche suppliers are currently involved in tidal and wave energy
                                    (eg. Neptune Renewable Energy and Pulse Tidal), largely because the technologies are
                                    still in the development / demonstration phase.
 Hydro                              The large scale hydro market is relatively mature, with limited potential for growth in
                                    the UK; and the small scale hydro market is also small. Therefore interest in the hydro
                                    market opportunities is limited to only a small number of niche suppliers and installers.
 Combined heat and power            CHP is a relatively mature market with well established suppliers. The extent to which
                                    other businesses become interested in the CHP technology supply, installation and
                                    servicing market will depend on the rate at which the CHP market develops.
 Nuclear energy                     Existing businesses in the nuclear industry place a strong emphasis on skills
                                    development and training. If Government policy leads to the long term expansion of
                                    the nuclear energy sector, market opportunities and demand for skilled staff will
                                    increase significantly. The industry is well aware of the need to increase its pool of
                                    skilled personnel.
 Clean coal technologies and CCS    Advanced combustion technologies and carbon capture and storage techniques are
                                    being developed mainly by large businesses in the energy and power generation and
                                    process engineering sectors. These businesses are aware of the skills needs and
                                    already have the skills in house or via research partners.
 Biomass co-firing with fossil      Awareness of this opportunity tends to be limited to existing businesses in the power
 fuels in CCS plants                generation sector and biomass fuel supply. Only a relatively small number of farmers in
                                    the region are involved in biomass crop production or are aware of skills needs.
 Energy from residual waste         A number of companies are
 MICROGENERATION :
 Ground source heat pumps,          Awareness of opportunities and skills needs relating to these micro-generation
 small scale wind, solar thermal,   technologies are currently limited to a small number of technology suppliers and
 biomass boilers                    installers. However, the number of businesses developing familiarity with the
                                    technologies, installation and serving requirements is increasing as market demand
                                    gradually increases.
 Photovoltaics, Micro CHP           PV and micro CHP are still not widely used or in demand. The markets are expected to
                                    develop over the next 10 years. Therefore, awareness of the opportunities and skills
                                    needs is currently limited to a small number of manufacturers and specialist installers.



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 Priority areas of the LCE for      Level of employer awareness in LCE opportunities and skill requirements:
 Yorkshire and Humber:

 BIOFUELS: eg. bioethanol and
 biodiesel
 Farmers / growers of fuel crops    Only a minority of farmers have been actively involved in growing biofuel crops and the
                                    level of detailed understanding of opportunities in biofuel production is still relatively
                                    low.
 Fuel companies                     The energy and oil refining industries are very much aware of opportunities and skills
                                    needs in biofuels.
 LOW CARBON BUILDING techniques
 Architects and engineering co’s    A growing number of architects and engineering companies are becoming interested in
                                    low carbon building techniques, reflecting Government policies on sustainable
                                    construction and increasing consumer interest.
 Construction, electrical,          Some businesses in the construction sector have developed significant skills in low
 plumbing, heating installation     carbon building – but generally low level of awareness of opportunities and skills needs
 businesses                         – largely because market demand for low carbon buildings and technologies is still low /
                                    not yet mainstreamed.
 LOW CARBON TRANSPORTATION:
 Biofuels for vehicles              Only a minority of farmers have been actively involved in growing biofuel crops and the
                                    level of detailed understanding of opportunities in biofuel production is still relatively
                                    low.
 Fuel efficiency in new vehicles    Awareness of technologies for fuel efficient vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrids etc is
                                    largely limited to the large car manufacturers and automotive R&D
 Electric vehicles and plug-in
                                    consultancies/bodies; with little interest from other businesses in entering the market
 hybrid cars, hydrogen fuel cells   or acquiring the necessary and highly technical skills.

 BUSINESSES AND INDUSTRY:
 Energy efficiency, low carbon      Awareness of opportunities for energy efficiency, low carbon product design and
 product design and                 resource/waste efficiency improvements caries greatly, but is still low in many business.
 resource/waste efficiency




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5     SKILLS PROVISION FOR THE LOW CARBON ECONOMY



5.1   INTRODUCTION

      To address the skills needs associated with the region’s LCE priorities identified in previous
      sections, a combination of measures is required, including:

         A substantial short, medium and long-term increase in the number of science, mathematics
          and engineering (electrical, mechanical, chemical and civil) students coming from Higher
          Education. This will include those with specialist skills in carbon reduction and nuclear
          technologies.
         Higher levels of achievement in STEM subjects in schools.
         Increased awareness and attractiveness of career and employment opportunities in LCE
          sectors, particularly in energy related jobs.
         An increase in the number of apprenticeships for young people in LCE sectors and activities.
         Specific Higher Education courses and course modules in specialist areas such as large scale
          renewable energy engineering, energy management and low carbon product design.
         Integration of LCE skills and training into existing training programmes (in-house and external)
          and occupational standards – for example, in training courses for operatives in the chemicals
          and process industries; the building, plumbing, heating and electrical trades; and agriculture.
         Training courses for existing business employees (in management and operational posts) in
          areas such as energy efficiency, waste/resource efficiency and use of renewable energy
          technologies.
         Effective mechanisms for raising business awareness of LCE opportunities.
         Effective mechanisms for raising awareness of, identifying and responding to LCE skills needs
          of businesses – including within the Business Link brokerage and Train to Gain delivery
          models.


      The landscape of skills provision for the low carbon economy is a complicated one, with many
      different organisations and initiatives, including the UK Commission for Employment and Skills
      (UKCES), Sector Skills Councils, National Skills Academies, Higher Education and Further Education
      institutes, private sector skills providers, National Occupational Standards, NVQs, Diplomas,
      Foundation Degrees, Apprenticeships and Train to Gain initiatives.

      In line with the high level of Government interest over the last year in developing the low carbon
      economy, a considerable amount of interest at the national level has also focused on developing
      an effective approach to skills provision for the LCE. Within this landscape, the work of the Sector
      Skills Councils is recognised as having a central role.

5.2   SECTOR SKILLS COUNCILS

      The Sector Skills Councils are key organisations responsible for addressing skills and productivity
      needs in their UK-wide sectors. Activities undertaken by SSCs include identifying skills needs at all
      levels, mapping training and education supply to ensure that it meets sector demand, influencing



      URSUS AND PRO ENVIRO                          DRAFT REPORT                         YORKSHIRE FORWARD
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the UK’s education and learning infrastructure and raising skills demand amongst employers in
their sectors.

The SSCs of most relevance to activities within the low carbon economy are:

     Asset Skills - which represents the facilities management sector, including housing and
      property management.
     Cogent - the SSC for the chemicals, pharmaceuticals, oil and gas, nuclear, petroleum and
      polymer industries.
     Construction Skills - the SSC for the construction industry
     ECITB - the Engineering Construction Industry Training Board (not strictly speaking an SSC).
     E&U Skills – the SSC for energy and utility sectors, comprising of the electricity, gas, waste
      management and water industries.
     Lantra - the SSC for the land based industries, including agricultural production and woodland
      management.
     SEMTA – the SSC covering science, engineering and manufacturing technologies, including
      marine engineering.
     Skills for Logistics – the SSC for the Logistics sector, including transport logistics.
     Summit Skills – the SSC for the building services engineering sector.

The matrix in Annex A summarises the types of LCE skills relevant to these different Sector Skills
Councils. It shows that many skills for the low carbon economy are relevant to the sectors in
which they work, and also that skills in the same LCE technologies and services are often relevant
to more than one SSC – highlighting the need for coordinated working between the SSCs.

The SSCs have identified in Sector Skills Agreements (SSAs) the skills required for their different
sectors, ranging from basic skills - literacy and numeracy – and the need for more science,
technology, maths and engineering (STEM) graduates, to more specialist, sector specific skills such
as in the nuclear industry.

As part of the research for this study, we have reviewed the Sector Skills Agreements to identify
the extent to which low carbon skills are covered - findings for the SSCs listed above are provided
in Annex B. The review shows that although a number of the SSCs have specifically identified
LCE skills issues and already undertaken work in areas such as renewable energy skills, (notably
E&U Skills, Construction Skills and Summit Skills), many LCE skills issues have not been
identified as priorities by the SSCs in the Sector Skills Agreements. Furthermore, the SSCs have
not yet engaged extensively with employers to raise demand for LCE skills. The extent to which
the SSCS have worked with training providers to develop skills provision and training relating to
the LCE is also generally underdeveloped.

In some regions, such as the North West and South West, the SSCs have been working together to
identify priorities and SSC lead responsibilities in low carbon technologies. In the North West, for
example, SSCs have identified energy and environmental technology priorities for North West
Higher Level Skills Pathfinder funding (see www.nwua.ac.uk/HLSP) 1 - funded by the NWDA and

1   http://www.nwua.ac.uk/HLSP/docs/events/HLSP_conference_23102008/Workshop_EET_Pre-Call_Information.pdf



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      HEFCE to support employer engagement activity. Potential clearly exists for similar types of
      employer engagement activities across LCE priorities in Yorkshire and Humber.

      In Yorkshire and Humber SSCs such as Summit Skills and E&U Skills are already starting to work
      with HE and FE skills providers in the region on LCE skills (including via the sub-regional lifelong
      learning networks). In discussions held with SSCs during the course of this study, the SSCs have
      confirmed that they are keen to become more actively involved in LCE skills development in
      Yorkshire and Humber in the future.

5.3   EXISTING LCE SKILLS PROVISION IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER

      As part of the research undertaken for the current study, existing skills provision for a low carbon
      economy in the Yorkshire and Humber region has been reviewed – covering all Higher Education
      and Further Education Institutions, as well as private sector skills providers. The work of these
      skills providers is clearly important for developing a workforce with the necessary skills in the low
      carbon economy. Engagement of these institutions at the regional level is essential to ensure that
      the employer identified needs and demands are fulfilled.

      Relevant courses that are already available in the region are shown in Annex C, including
      postgraduate study, undergraduate study, NVQs, City and Guilds, BPEC Certificates and CPD
      courses.

      The review of existing provision has shown that there are many higher education institutions and
      colleges in the Yorkshire and Humber region offering courses which are relevant to a low carbon
      and resource efficient economy (see Annex C), as well as several private providers in the region
      offering both certificated courses and CPD courses – including in areas such as: renewable
      energy, micro-generation technologies and sustainable construction.

      However, within the scope of this study it has not been possible to review in detail the level of
      take up by businesses and individuals, the quality of existing provision, gaps in provision or
      whether existing provision is meeting employer needs. It is therefore recommended that more
      detailed mapping should be undertaken to identify where LCE skills provision in the region is
      sufficient to meet current and emerging needs and where the key gaps lie relative to the LCE skill
      needs of business.

5.4   SUMMARY

      This section has identified key partners involved in skills provision for the LCE and reviewed the
      extent to which organisations such as the Sector Skills Councils have identified priorities for skills
      development in the low carbon economy. Although existing SSC activity in the region relating to
      LCE skills is limited, SSCs consulted during the study have confirmed that they are keen to become
      more actively involved in LCE skills development in Yorkshire and Humber in the future. This
      involvement would include working with partners such as Yorkshire Forward and skills providers
      in developing a coordinated regional approach to the development of LCE skills in the region.

      Initial mapping work undertaken on existing LCE skills provision in the region has identified a large
      number of courses relevant to LCE skills (Annex C), but also a need to undertake more detailed
      mapping of LCE skills provision to identify where key gaps lie relative to current and emerging
      employer needs, and therefore, where LCE skills provision needs to be developed.


      URSUS AND PRO ENVIRO                          DRAFT REPORT                         YORKSHIRE FORWARD
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6   MOVING FORWARD – DEVELOPING LCE SKILLS IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER



    The following draft recommendations are made for next steps in the development of LCE skills in
    Yorkshire and Humber.

       URSUS and Pro Enviro to meet with Yorkshire Forward to discuss the draft report, make
        required changes and provide the Final Report.

       Arrange a meeting of key partners involved in LCE skills to present the report findings and
        recommendations and agree the next steps. A range of organisations in Yorkshire and
        Humber are involved in LCE skills development. These include Sector Skills Councils (such as
        E&U Skills, Construction Skills, Cogent, SEMTA and ECITB), skills providers from the public and
        private sectors (including the sub-regional Life Long Learning Networks) and teams within
        Yorkshire Forward and the Sustainable Futures Company (including FEY, Integreat Yorkshire
        and RAY).

        Partners recognise that LCE skills provision in the region is still at an early stage of
        development and requires a co-ordinated regional approach for taking it forward. Consulted
        organisations would very much welcome Yorkshire Forward’s leadership in working with
        partners to develop this coordinated regional approach to LCE skills support.

        It is recommended that Yorkshire Forward and partners consider the option of establishing a
        Regional LCE Skills group, with the role of coordinating future delivery of LCE skills provision in
        the region and ensuring that business needs are met. One potential model for this group
        could be the approach adopted by Skills for Energy - East of England (see Box 6.1 below).

       Engagement with businesses to identify employer awareness and needs in terms of LCE
        skills. It is recommended that discussions with businesses should focus on the key LCE
        priorities and opportunities for the region and confirm the analysis of where the key skills
        needs exist. It should obtain business views on what support they require and how they
        would like this support to be provided. This will then provide a robust basis for the future
        development of LCE skills provision in the region.

        It is recommended that this engagement with business should at least cover the following
        priority areas:
           Large scale renewable energy generation – particularly wind and biomass
           Grid infrastructure and grid connection
           Microgeneration - such as ground source heat, small scale wind, biomass, solar,
            photovoltaics, small scale hydro.
           Biofuels – crop production and processing
           Energy from residual waste
           Low carbon building design and construction - new build and retrofit

        As well as identifying business LCE skills needs, these discussions should also be used as an
        opportunity to raise awareness amongst businesses of existing LCE skills provision and funding
        opportunities such as Train to Gain and the Enhancement Fund.




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                The approach for engaging with businesses should be agreed with appropriate Sector Skills
                Councils such as E&U Skills, Construction Skills, Cogent, SEMTA and ECITB.

               Mapping of Existing LCE Skills Provision in the Region – The current scoping work has
                provided an initial mapping of LCE skills provision, but a more detailed mapping and
                assessment should be undertaken in the light of the discussions with businesses. This
                mapping should identify where LCE skills provision exists and where the key gaps lie relative
                to the LCE skill needs of business. The mapping of existing provision should provide details
                such as the number of training places available, the level of take up from businesses and
                individuals in the region, identify where existing provision could be developed to meet
                business needs and where new provision is required.

               Agreeing Future LCE Skills Provision – It is recommended that the findings from the
                discussions with businesses and the mapping of existing provision should be discussed with
                the key partners (potentially working together via the Regional LCE Skills group discussed
                above) to agree what LCE skills support should be provided and how it should be delivered.
                Potential issues for partners to agree include:

                 – Specific sub-sectors and businesses to be targeted for support.
                 – Specific training courses to be developed or established.
                 – How to integrate LCE skills into existing skills and training.
                 – How to raise awareness about available support and assist businesses in accessing this
                   support, eg. Train to Gain and the Train to Gain Enhancement Fund.
                 – Mechanisms for ensuring that LCE skills are effectively covered in diagnostic tools and
                   brokerage provided by regional support programmes such as the Business Link brokerage
                   model and Train to Gain providers.
                 – Development of further funding for LCE skills initiatives.


Box 6.1   Skills for Energy - East of England. A potential model for coordinating regional LCE skills support

              Skills for Energy – East of England is partnership established by business (through the East of
              England Energy Group) and with the support of EEDA, ESF funding and Sector Skills Councils. It is
              an unincorporated joint venture partnership which aims to bridge the gap in skills shortages in
              the energy industry in the East of England over the next 10 years. Its principal areas of focus are
              on sector attraction and recruitment; developing competence and existing skills; and developing
              appropriate apprenticeship and vocational training opportunities. Partners include EEDA,
              Cogent, E&U Skills, ECITB, SEMTA and Summit Skills. It is led by a Board with strong business
              representation.
              Skills for Energy has recently managed a regional project funded by EEDA and ESF, the Towards
              2010 training fund, which supported over 450 companies, benefiting over 1,100 individuals, with
              over £1m (£600K+ grant funding matched by over £500K from business) being invested in
              training activities ranging from offshore drilling to solar thermal installers over the 18 months
              that the programme was running.
              Skills for Energy is also running a programme to bolster existing apprenticeship schemes by the
              development of an all inclusive pre‐apprenticeship programme for the energy sector.
              It also works with SSCs such as Cogent and the ECITB in running training and awareness raising
              events for energy businesses in skills development.                 www.skillsforenergy.co.uk



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[ please see separate file for ]



REFERENCES

ANNEX A – LCE SKILLS RELEVANT TO SECTOR SKILLS COUNCILS

ANNEX B – COVERAGE OF LCE SKILLS IN SECTOR SKILLS AGREEMENTS

ANNEX C – EXISTING LCE SKILLS PROVISION IN YORKSHIRE AND HUMBER




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