BPR Diagnostics on a Completed Project

Document Sample
BPR Diagnostics on a Completed Project Powered By Docstoc
					Assignment 1 - Summer 2008

BPR Diagnostics on a Completed Project
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Software SEN 649

S.M. Saiful Islam ID # 0712004 Program – M.Sc. in SE

June 18, 2008

1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 ASSIGNMENT DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................... 3 1.2 DEVELOPER COMPANY INFORMATION.......................................................................................... 3 1.3 CLIENT COMPANY INFORMATION ................................................................................................. 4 1.4 PROJECT INFORMATION................................................................................................................. 4 2. DESCRIPTION................................................................................................................................. 4 2.1 BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT .................................. 4 2.2 GAP ANALYSIS BETWEEN PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PURPOSE AND KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 QUANTIFICATION GAP ANALYSIS OF PIS USED IN THE PROJECT .................................................. 10 2.4 IMPLICATIONS OF THE DETECTED GAPS OF PIS ON REQUIREMENTS STABILITY AND DISAGREEMENT DURING ACCEPTANCE TEST ..................................................................................... 16 2.5 EFFECT OF REQUIREMENTS INSTABILITY AND DISAGREEMENT DURING ACCEPTANCE TEST ON COST, TIME AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF DELIVERY ....................................................................... 19 2.6 ESTIMATED COST OF IDENTIFYING, DEFINING AND MEASURING RELEVANT PIS AND USING THEM IN THE PROJECT TO QUANTIFY, VERIFY, AND VALIDATE PURPOSE .................................................... 23 2.7 EXPECTED TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF QUANTIFICATION EXERCISE OF PIS IN
DELIVERING BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT SOLUTIONS DURING REQUIREMENTS COLLECTION AND BASE-LING, CHANGE MANAGEMENT, AND IMPLEMENTATION/ DEPLOYMENT/ACCEPTANCE TEST

.......................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.8 ROOT CAUSES OF PRESENCE OF DETECTED GAPS AND HOW THEY COULD BE ADDRESSED ......... 30

1. Introduction
1.1 Assignment Description
Take a completed in the category of business process or government work process improvement with the help of software and other IT devices/services. Investigate this project and answer the following questions related to BPR: 1. Describe business process improvement purpose and scope of the project. 2. Perform a gap analysis between process improvement purpose, whether implied or explicitly stated, and key performance indicators according to following template: Purposes Relevant performance indicators (PIs) Performance Indicators used in the project Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project Causes for detected gaps

3. Perform quantification gap analysis of PIs used in the project. Purposes PIs used in the projects Scope of quantification (H, M, L) Level of quantification used in the project Gap between scope and used level of quantification of PIs Causes to detected gaps

4. What are implications of the detected gaps of PIs on requirements stability and disagreement during acceptance test? 5. What is the effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on cost, time and quality assurance of delivery? 6. What is the estimated cost of identifying, defining, and measuring relevant PIs and using them in the project to quantify, verify, and validate purpose? 7. What are expected tangible and intangible benefits of such quantification exercise of PIs in delivering business process improvement solutions during requirements collection and base-ling, change management, and implementation/deployment/acceptance test? 8. What are root causes of presence of detected gaps and how could they be addressed?

1.2 Developer Company Information
The ITNet Limited (www.ITNet.com ) is a leading software outsourcing company in Bangladesh which is providing primarily software services to the Nordic countries. This company is a sister concern and is an Offshore Software Development Centre (ODC) of the Danish IT company ITcare

A/S (www.ITcare.dk). The ITNet has started its journey in December, 2005 and during this period it has completed a number of medium and large-scale projects successfully.

1.3 Client Company Information
ITcare A/S (www.ITcare.dk) is the leading supplier of web-based collaborative tools in Denmark. Today, more than 450,000 users and 90 companies communicate and collaborate via ITcare's software. ITcare offers professional solutions (ITcare Business Solutions) for extranet, intranet, project management and web-based collaboration. ITcare’s software has been developed in order to create optimal conditions for effective communication, co-operation and knowledge sharing.

1.4 Project Information
The concern project is a web portal which is the ITcare’s flagship product. This product enables to communicate fast and easy within organization, community, group or family- create new groups and manage events, share files, photos, polls, e-mail lists and many other things within ones’ groups.

2. Description
2.1 Business process improvement purpose and scope of the project
The main purpose of this project was to dramatically improve collaboration ability among the group of people. The purpose is to provide the facility to communicate within the group in all means and all purposes in secure way based on the web technology. There could have many levels of groups in parent child relations. Following are the currently available collaboration modules of this project: Address Book The address book gives the detail view of the members and contact of a user. This module enables a user to invite others to join his/her group and add contacts. Message Board The message board gives the detail view of all the messages created in his/her group. This module enables user to create new message, reply message, show message thread, message history, etc. File Archive The file archive gives the detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group. This module enables user to create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files. This module also handles all the files from other modules message board, calendar, project etc. Calendar The calendar provides the different views – day, week and month. The calendar shows list of events in these views. This module enables to create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc. This module enables to create both one time event and recurrent event. The reminder can also be sent for the event. There is also a special kind of event which is birth day event. This event is auto generated. Project Management The project management provides detail view of active and closed projects. This module enables to create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc. This module shows the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring.

Polls The Polls module shows the detail view of the polls. This module enables user to create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. This module determines and shows the result of the poll. Chat This module enables the user to chat with other members. This module allows creating chat room and keeps the history of chats. Video Meeting This module enables the users to conduct video meeting among the members and keeps the meeting history. Note This module shows the detail view of all the notices. This module allows the user to create new note, new link and new folder. Solution Administration This module allows the solution administrator to configure the portal. This module enables to define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. This module allows the solution administrator to customize the portal for client. Group Administration This module allows the group administrator to set the group characteristics and permissions. This module also allows the user to configure the modules for the group.

2.2 Gap analysis between process improvement purpose and key performance indicators
Following table shows the gap analysis between process improvement purpose, whether implied or explicitly stated, and key performance indicators:

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs) Ease of use Intelligent display – most used member/contact on the top Configure the view – the columns for the address, paging

Performance Indicators used in the project Ease of use Configure the view – the columns for the address

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project The gap is medium. The intelligent display is missing.

Causes for detected gaps

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user

Lack of innovative thinking

Invite others to join the group and add

Ease of use Tracking status

Ease of use Tracking status of

There is a gap about the medium

Didn’t consider SMS as the

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs) of invitation – accepted, declined Different medium of invitation – Email, SMS Add unlimited number of contacts

Performance Indicators used in the project

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project

Causes for detected gaps

contacts

invitation – of invitation. This accepted, declined only supports Email. The gap is Add unlimited medium. number of contacts

medium of invitation.

Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group.

Ease of use Intelligent display – most recent on the top, sorting, filtering Configure the view – the columns for the message, paging

Ease of use Intelligent display – most recent on the top, sorting, filtering Configure the view – the columns for the message, paging

No Gap detected

No Gap detected

Create new message, reply message

Ease of use Secure Message Very fast delivery - <10 secs Accessible form Message Board, Email Client and Mobile SMS

Ease of use Secure Message Very fast delivery - < 20 secs Accessible form Message Board, Email Client

Gap is Low. Gap is about medium of accessing messages and replying. Mobile Client – SMS is missing.

Didn’t consider SMS as the medium of message communication.

Show message thread, message history

Ease of use Complete Message Thread History of messages

Ease of use Complete Message Thread History of messages Tree like views of files and folders Fast view - <5

No Gap detected

No Gap detected

Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her

Windows like views of files and folders

Gap is low. Not all windows like views available

Lack of knowledge on users choice

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs) Configure view – tree, windows like Fast view - <5 Ease of use

Performance Indicators used in the project secs Configure view Ease of use

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project

Causes for detected gaps

group.

Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files.

Ease of use Very Fast operation – create folder <3 secs, network drive <10 secs, accelerated upload and download Secure file sharing

Ease of use Very Fast operation – create folder -<5 secs, network drive <10 secs, normal upload and download Secure file sharing

Gap is low. Upload and download of file is not accelerated.

Didn’t consider bandwidth and internet speed

Handles all the files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project

Ease of use Secure archiving of file attachments from message board, email, calendar and project Ease of use Fast showing of views - <5 secs Configure the views – event list Ease of use Very fast event creation - <10 secs Drag and Drop of events Different medium of invitation – Email, SMS

Ease of use Secure archiving of file attachments from message board, email, calendar and project Ease of use Fast showing of views - <10 secs Configure the views Ease of use Very fast event creation - <10 secs Drag and Drop of events Different medium of invitation – Email, SMS

No Gaps detected

No Gaps detected

Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views. Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc.

Gap is low. Event list display is not flexible

Lack of knowledge on the customers choice

Gap is Low. Gap is about sending invitation through SMS.

SMS client is not considered.

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs)

Performance Indicators used in the project

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project

Causes for detected gaps

Create both one time event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event.

Highly Configurable recurrent event Very Fast creation of recurrent event - < 10 secs Preset reminder for the events Configurable reminder through SMS, email

Highly Configurable recurrent event Fast creation of recurrent event < 20 secs Preset reminder for the events

Low gap is detected. Medium performance. Reminder through SMS is missing

Lack of technological solution for performance improvement. SMS reminder is not considered.

Generate automatically special kind of event for birth days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects.

Auto generated birthday event for the members Ease of use Configure the views – the columns, statistics Ease of use Very fast operation - <5 seconds for each action Configure project elements and hierarchy Gant chart, Bar chart, Pie chart etc to indicate progress Configurable charts and graphs

Auto generated birthday event for the members

No Gap detected

No Gap detected

Ease of use Configure the views – the columns, statistics Ease of use Very fast operation - <5 seconds for each action

No Gap detected

No Gap detected

Create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc.

The gap is medium. The project elements and their hierarchy is not configurable.

For the sake of simplification of project management.

Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring.

Gant chart, Bar chart, Pie chart etc to indicate progress

The gap is medium. The graphs and charts are not configurable.

For the sake of simplification of project management didn’t pay much attention

Show the detail

Ease of use

Ease of use

No gaps detected

No gaps detected

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs) Configurable view of lists – the columns Ease of use Very fast operation - < 5 secs for creation of poll Diverse medium – Email, SMS for invitation Secure Poll

Performance Indicators used in the project Configurable view of lists – the columns Ease of use Very fast operation - < 10 secs for creation of poll Secure Poll

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project

Causes for detected gaps

view of the polls.

Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll.

Low gap detected. The medium of invitation is only Email.

The SMS is not considered as a medium of collaboration.

Show the result of the poll.

Accurate Result Very Fast Result Graphical Result

Accurate Result Very Fast Result

Medium gap detected. The graphical representation of poll result is missing. Low gaps detected. Emoticons are missing.

Didn’t take users choice in consideration.

Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats.

Secure chat session Very Fast exchange of messages Use of Emoticons History of chat

Secure chat session Very Fast exchange of messages History of chat

Didn’t considered latest chat trends.

Conduct video meeting among the members and keep the meeting history

Seamless video transfer – realtime True integration of voice and videos High quality as if round table meeting Secure meeting

Seamless video transfer – realtime True integration of voice and videos Secure meeting

Low gaps detected. Quality is not ensured.

Didn’t considered high quality of video meeting.

Show the detail view of all the notices.

Ease of use Configurable view – selected

Ease of use Configurable view – selected

No gaps detected

No gaps detected

Purposes

Relevant performance indicators (PIs) columns

Performance Indicators used in the project columns Ease of use Secure notes Highly customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility Easy deployment Audit Trail

Gap between related PIs and PIs used in the project

Causes for detected gaps

Create new note, new link and new folder. Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client.

Ease of use Secure notes Highly customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility Easy deployment Audit Trail Highly Portable

No gaps detected

No gaps detected

Low gaps detected. Not highly portable.

Didn’t consider all the users platforms.

Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the modules for the group.

Highly Customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility

Highly Customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility

No gaps detected

No gaps detected

2.3 Quantification gap analysis of PIs used in the project
Following table shows the quantification gap analysis of PIs used in the project:

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L) M

Level of quantificati on used in the project L

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs M Did not establish suitable mechanism Low level quantification was not used Did not establish suitable mechanism

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user

Ease of use

Configure the view – the columns for the address Ease of use

H

M

L

Invite others to join the group and add contacts

M

L

M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L) H

Level of quantificati on used in the project H

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs L No significant gaps detected

Tracking status of invitation – accepted, declined Add unlimited number of contacts Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group. Ease of use

M

M

L

No significant gaps detected Did not establish suitable mechanism Detail quantification was not described No significant gaps detected

M

L

M

Intelligent display H – most recent on the top, sorting, filtering Configure the view – the columns for the message, paging M

M

L

M

L

Create new message, reply message

Ease of use

M

L

M

Did not establish suitable mechanism No significant gaps detected Not described well how to quantify in the client end No significant gaps detected Did not establish suitable mechanism Not described in low level how to quantify the thread Not described well how to quantify at low level

Secure Message Very fast delivery - < 20 secs

M M

M M

L L

Accessible form Message Board, Email Client Show message thread, message history Ease of use

H

H

L

M

L

M

Complete Message Thread

M

M

L

History of messages

M

L

M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L)

Level of quantificati on used in the project H L L L

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs L L L M No significant gaps detected No significant gaps detected No significant gaps detected Did not establish suitable mechanism Did not establish suitable mechanism Not described how to quantify in client end

Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group.

Tree like views of H files and folders Fast view - <5 secs Configure view Ease of use M M M

Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files.

Ease of use

M

L

M

Very Fast operation – create folder -<5 secs, network drive <10 secs, normal upload and download Secure file sharing

M

M

L

M

L

M

Not specified how to ensure secure file sharing Did not establish suitable mechanism Not specified how to ensure secure archiving of files

Handles all the files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project

Ease of use

M

L

M

Secure archiving of file attachments from message board, email, calendar and project Ease of use

M

L

M

Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views.

M

L

M

Did not establish suitable mechanism No significant gaps detected Not well described how to quantify view configuration

Fast showing of views - <10 secs Configure the views

M M

M M

L L

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L) M

Level of quantificati on used in the project L

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs M Did not establish suitable mechanism Not well described quantification of event creation Not described how to quantify drag and drop of events No significant gaps detected Detail description is missing about configuration No significant gaps detected Not mentioned how to quantify reminder No significant gaps detected

Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc.

Ease of use

Very fast event creation - <10 secs Drag and Drop of events

M

L

M

M

L

M

Different medium of invitation – Email, SMS Create both one time event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event. Highly Configurable recurrent event Fast creation of recurrent event < 20 secs Preset reminder for the events Generate automatically special kind of event for birth days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects. Auto generated birthday event for the members

H

H

L

M

M

L

M

M

L

M

L

M

H

H

L

Ease of use

M

L

M

Did not establish suitable mechanism No significant gaps detected

Configure the views – the columns, statistics Ease of use

M

M

L

Create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to

M

L

M

Did not establish suitable mechanism Not mentioned how to quantify

Very fast operation - <5

M

L

M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L)

Level of quantificati on used in the project

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs the performance

the activity, register time for the project element, etc. Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring. Show the detail view of the polls.

seconds for each action

Gant chart, Bar chart, Pie chart etc to indicate progress Ease of use

M

M

L

No significant gaps detected

M

L

M

Did not establish suitable mechanism No significant gaps detected Did not establish suitable mechanism Not described how to quantify the performance Not described how to ensure secure poll No significant gaps detected Not described the required level and how to measure Not mentioned how ensure secure chat No significant gaps detected Did not establish suitable mechanism

Configurable view of lists – the columns Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. Ease of use

M

M

L

M

L

M

Very fast operation - < 10 secs for creation of poll Secure Poll

H

M

L

M

L

M

Show the result of the poll.

Accurate Result Very Fast Result

H M

H L

L M

Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats.

Secure chat session Very Fast exchange of messages History of chat

M

L

M

M

M

L

M

L

M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L) M

Level of quantificati on used in the project L

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs M Not specified how to measure seamless video transfer Not described how to quantify voice and video integration Not defined how to ensure secure meeting Did not establish suitable mechanism Not defined how to configure at low level No significant gaps detected Not mentioned how to ensure secure note Not mentioned in low level how to quantify customization No significant gaps detected Not described in detail how to ensure data flexibility Not well specified the easy deployment No significant gaps detected Not mentioned in low level how to quantify

Conduct video meeting among the members and keep the meeting history

Seamless video transfer – realtime True integration of voice and videos Secure meeting

H

M

M

M

L

M

Show the detail view of all the notices.

Ease of use

M

L

M

Configurable view – selected columns Create new note, new link and new folder. Ease of use Secure notes

M

L

M

L M

L L

L M

Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client.

Highly customizable

H

M

M

Secure access control Data Flexibility

H M

H M

L L

Easy deployment

M

L

M

Audit Trail Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the Highly Customizable

H H

M M

L M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Scope of quantifica tion (H,M,L)

Level of quantificati on used in the project

Gap between Causes to scope and detected gaps used level of quantification of PIs customization

modules for the group.

Secure access control Data Flexibility

H M

H M

L L

No significant gaps detected Not described in detail how to ensure data flexibility

2.4 Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on requirements stability and disagreement during acceptance test
The implications of the detected gaps of PIs on requirements stability and disagreement during acceptance test were significantly high. Though, for this project, the detected gaps for the performance indicator were Medium, still the implications of these gaps are pretty high. Several times the requirements were restated and still there were confusions and vagueness in the requirements. In turn the acceptance test had been affected significantly and needed huge rework.

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Gap between scope and used level of quantification of PIs M L

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Requirement Stability M M Acceptance Test H M

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user

Ease of use Configure the view – the columns for the address Ease of use

Invite others to join the group and add contacts Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group.

M

M

M

Ease of use

M

H M

H L

Intelligent display – L most recent on the top, sorting, filtering Ease of use Very fast delivery < 20 secs Ease of use M L M

Create new message, reply message

M M H

M H H

Show message

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Gap between scope and used level of quantification of PIs L M L L M M L

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Requirement Stability M M M L M M M Acceptance Test M M H L H M H

thread, message history

Complete Message Thread History of messages

Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group. Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files.

Fast view - <5 secs Configure view Ease of use Ease of use Very Fast operation – create folder -<5 secs, network drive -<10 secs, normal upload and download Secure file sharing

M M M

M M M

H H L

Handles all the files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project

Ease of use Secure archiving of file attachments from message board, email, calendar and project Ease of use

Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views.

M

M

H

Fast showing of views - <10 secs Configure the views Ease of use Very fast event creation - <10 secs Drag and Drop of events Highly Configurable recurrent event Fast creation of recurrent event - <

L L M M M L

H M M L H H

H H H H M H

Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc. Create both one time event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event.

L

M

M

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Gap between scope and used level of quantification of PIs

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Requirement Stability Acceptance Test

20 secs Preset reminder for the events Generate Auto generated automatically special birthday event for kind of event for birth the members days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects. Ease of use Configure the views – the columns, statistics Ease of use Very fast operation - <5 seconds for each action M L M L L M

M L

M M

M L

Create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc. Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring. Show the detail view of the polls.

M M

M M

M H

Gant chart, Bar chart, Pie chart etc to indicate progress Ease of use Configurable view of lists – the columns Ease of use Very fast operation - < 10 secs for creation of poll Secure Poll

L

M

H

M L

M L

H M

Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. Show the result of the poll. Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats. Conduct video

M L

L L

M M

M L M M L M M

M H M M L M M

M H H M M M H

Accurate Result Very Fast Result Secure chat session Very Fast exchange of messages History of chat Seamless video

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Gap between scope and used level of quantification of PIs

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Requirement Stability Acceptance Test

meeting among the members and keep the meeting history

transfer – real-time True integration of voice and videos Secure meeting M M M M L M M L L M L M L L L M M L L M M H H M M M M M M H H M M M H H H H L H M H

Show the detail view of all the notices.

Ease of use Configurable view – selected columns Ease of use Secure notes Highly customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility Easy deployment Audit Trail

Create new note, new link and new folder. Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client.

Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the modules for the group.

Highly Customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility

2.5 Effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on cost, time and quality assurance of delivery
The effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on cost, time and quality assurance of delivery is remarkably high. Due to the requirements instability and disagreement on the different test criteria the acceptance test has been badly affected. There were always chances of debate and clashes among the developers and quality assurance guys which in turn affected the quality and delivery of the project. Many requirements and performance didn’t meet the client’s expected level and that’s why didn’t pass the acceptance test. These failures and clients dissatisfaction forced to make many changes in design and coding. These required significant amounts of rework. These forced to work many extra hours and shift the deadline. Due to the time pressure, it was very difficult to ensure the quality of the delivery.

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Require ment Stability Acceptance Test

Effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on Extra Cost (US$) 1125 750 Extra Time (Person days) 15 10 Fall of Quality (%) 5 0

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user Invite others to join the group and add contacts Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group. Create new message, reply message Show message thread, message history

Ease of use Configure the view – the columns for the address Ease of use

M M

H M

M

M

1500

20

10

Ease of use

H

H L

900 750

12 10

5 10

Intelligent display M – most recent on the top, sorting, filtering Ease of use Very fast delivery - < 20 secs Ease of use Complete Message Thread History of messages M M H M M M L M M M

M H H M M H L H M H

375 1125 375 1500 750 1500 375 900 1125 1500

5 15 5 20 10 20 5 12 15 20

10 15 5 10 5 10 5 10 15 10

Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group. Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files.

Fast view - <5 secs Configure view Ease of use Ease of use Very Fast operation – create folder -<5 secs, network drive <10 secs, normal upload and download Secure file sharing

M M

H H

975 750

13 10

10 5

Handles all the

Ease of use

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Require ment Stability Acceptance Test

Effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on Extra Cost (US$) 750 Extra Time (Person days) 10 Fall of Quality (%) 10

files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project

Secure archiving of file attachments from message board, email, calendar and project Ease of use

M

L

Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views. Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc. Create both one time event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event.

M

H

2250

30

5

Fast showing of views - <10 secs Configure the views Ease of use Very fast event creation - <10 secs Drag and Drop of events Highly Configurable recurrent event Fast creation of recurrent event < 20 secs Preset reminder for the events

H M M L

H H H H

1875 1500 900 750

25 20 12 10

10 5 10 10

H H

M H

1500 1875

20 25

5 10

M

M

750

10

10

M L

L M

900 750

12 10

0 5

Generate automatically special kind of event for birth days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects.

Auto generated birthday event for the members

Ease of use Configure the views – the columns, statistics Ease of use

M M

M L

600 900

8 12

5 5

Create new

M

M

750

10

5

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Require ment Stability Acceptance Test

Effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on Extra Cost (US$) 375 Extra Time (Person days) 5 Fall of Quality (%) 5

project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc. Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring. Show the detail view of the polls.

Very fast operation - <5 seconds for each action

M

H

Gant chart, Bar chart, Pie chart etc to indicate progress Ease of use Configurable view of lists – the columns Ease of use Very fast operation - < 10 secs for creation of poll Secure Poll

M

H

2625

35

15

M L

H M

750 750

10 10

10 5

Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. Show the result of the poll. Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats.

L L

M M

375 900

5 12

5 10

M H M M L

M H H M M

750 1350 1500 1125 750

10 18 20 15 10

0 5 10 5 10

Accurate Result Very Fast Result Secure chat session Very Fast exchange of messages History of chat

M M

M H

375 2250

5 30

0 10

Conduct video meeting among the members and keep the meeting history

Seamless video transfer – realtime True integration of voice and

L

M

750

10

5

Purposes

PIs used in the Project

Implications of the detected gaps of PIs on Require ment Stability Acceptance Test

Effect of requirements instability and disagreement during acceptance test on Extra Cost (US$) Extra Time (Person days) Fall of Quality (%)

videos Secure meeting Show the detail view of all the notices. Ease of use Configurable view – selected columns Ease of use Secure notes Highly customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility Easy deployment Audit Trail Highly Customizable Secure access control Data Flexibility M M L H H M 900 750 750 12 10 10 0 5 5

Create new note, new link and new folder. Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client. Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the modules for the group.

L M M H H M M M M M

M M H H H H L H M H

900 750 2250 2250 3000 750 1200 900 1125 1500
US$ 63,975 extra Cost

12 10 30 30 40 10 16 12 15 20
853 person days extra

0 5 10 10 20 10 0 10 5 10
7.24 %

Total Effect of Requirement instability and disagreement during acceptance test

2.6 Estimated cost of identifying, defining and measuring relevant PIs and using them in the project to quantify, verify, and validate purpose
The estimated cost of identifying, defining and measuring relevant PIs and using them in the project to quantify, verify and validate would be significantly high. But if it is considered in respect to the scope, size and complexity of the project and ultimate benefits likely to be derived from this practice would highly justify these cost and efforts.

Purposes

Estimated Cost of identifying, defining and measuring relevant PIs Effort (Person days) Cost (US$) 375

Cost of using identified PIs in the project to quantify, verify and validate purpose Effort (Person days) 15 Cost (US$) 1125

Estimated cost (US$)
1500

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user Invite others to join the group and add contacts Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group. Create new message, reply message Show message thread, message history Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group. Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files. Handles all the files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views. Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc. Create both one time

5

5

375

20

1500

1875

3

225

12

900

1125

2 5

150 375

10 16

750 1200

900 1575

7

525

20

1500

2025

5

375

15

1125

1500

5

375

16

1200

1575

10

750

30

2250

3000

5

375

15

1125

1500

5

375

20

1500

1875

Purposes

Estimated Cost of identifying, defining and measuring relevant PIs Effort (Person days) Cost (US$)

Cost of using identified PIs in the project to quantify, verify and validate purpose Effort (Person days) Cost (US$)

Estimated cost (US$)

event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event. Generate automatically special kind of event for birth days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects. Create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc. Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring. Show the detail view of the polls. Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. Show the result of the poll. Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats. Conduct video meeting among the members and keep the meeting history Show the detail view of all the notices. 2 300 10 750
1050

3

225

10

750

975

5

375

15

1125

1500

7

525

25

1875

2400

3 2

225 150

10 8

750 600

975 750

5 3

375 225

16 15

1200 1125

1575 1350

5

375

20

1500

1875

1

75

5

375

450

Purposes

Estimated Cost of identifying, defining and measuring relevant PIs Effort (Person days) Cost (US$) 75 750

Cost of using identified PIs in the project to quantify, verify and validate purpose Effort (Person days) 5 40 Cost (US$) 375 3000

Estimated cost (US$)
450 3750

Create new note, new link and new folder. Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client. Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the modules for the group. Total

1 10

7

525

30

2250

2775

111 person days

US$ 8,475

398 person days

US$ 29,850

US$ 38,325

2.7 Expected tangible and intangible benefits of quantification exercise of PIs in delivering business process improvement solutions during requirements collection and base-ling, change management, and implementation/ deployment/acceptance test
The project was initially estimated around 240 man months but it took around 300 man months to deliver the first version of it. It took around 60 man months of rework to deliver the projects at the customer’s acceptance. But, there were still some issues which should have been taken care of. The quality requirement didn’t meet the client’s expectation. The client is still unhappy in many areas and maintenance has become tough job. However, the exercise of PIs in delivering the solutions during requirements collection and base-lining, change management, and implementation, deployment and acceptance test will bring significant tangible and intangible benefits to the company. The first tangible benefits of this exercise would be significant amount of cost savings through reducing significant amount of rework and additional work. The second tangible benefits of the project would be significant improvement of quality of the delivery. Another most important tangible benefit would be meeting the deadline in estimated time and budget. Following table describes the most tangible benefits likely to derive from the quantification practice.

Purposes

Addition of cost & effort in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days) Cost (US$)
1500

Reduction of rework in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days)
36

Net cost savings

Cost (US$) (US$)
2700 1200

Show detail view of the members and contacts of a user Invite others to join the group and add contacts Shows detail view of all the messages created in his/her group. Create new message, reply message Show message thread, message history Shows detail view of all the files and folders in his/her group. Create new folder, upload files, share files and folders, create network drives, zip and download files. Handles all the files from other modules viz. message board, calendar, project Provides the different views – day, week and month of the calendar. Shows list of events in different views. Create new events, sending invitations to the members, limit participation, close event etc.

20

25

1875

45

3375

1500

15

1125

27

2025

900

12 21

900 1575

22 38

1650 2850

750 1275

27

2025

49

3675

1650

20

1500

36

2700

1200

21

1575

38

2850

1275

40

3000

72

5400

2400

20

1500

36

2700

1200

Purposes

Addition of cost & effort in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days) Cost (US$)
1875

Reduction of rework in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days)
45

Net cost savings

Cost (US$) (US$)
3375 1500

Create both one time event and recurrent event. Send reminder for the event. Generate automatically special kind of event for birth days. Provide detail view of active and closed projects. Create new project, add resources to the project, create new activity, create actions to the activity, register time for the project element, etc. Show the different charts and graphs for the progress monitoring. Show the detail view of the polls. Create new poll, invite members to participate in poll, vote to the poll, closes the poll. Show the result of the poll. Chat with other members, create chat room, and keep the history of chats. Conduct video meeting among the members and keep the meeting history

25

12

1050

22

1650

750

13

975

23

1725

750

20

1500

36

2700

1200

32

2400

58

4350

1950

13 10

975 750

23 18

1725 1350

750 600

21 18

1575 1350

38 32

2850 2400

1275 1050

25

1875

45

3375

1500

Purposes

Addition of cost & effort in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days) Cost (US$)
450 450 3750

Reduction of rework in the project due to the adoption of PIs quantification exercise Effort (Person days)
11 11 90

Net cost savings

Cost (US$) (US$)
825 825 6750 375 375 3000

Show the detail view of all the notices. Create new note, new link and new folder. Configure the portal. Define the modules, different level permissions, and other characteristic. Customize the portal for client. Set the group characteristics and permissions. Configure the modules for the group. Total

6 6 50

37

2775

67

5025

2250

509 person days

US$ 38,325

916 person days

US$ 68,700

US$ 30,525

In addition to the direct cost benefits, following could be the other tangible benefits of quantification exercise of PIs in delivering business process improvement solutions during requirements collection and base-ling, change management and implementation/deployment/acceptance test • • • • • • • • • • • Completely testable Requirements Stable testable base line requirements Accurate and realistic test cases Solid implementation Smooth and efficient change management Easy adjustment of test cases Easy and controlled adjustments in implementation Optimum level quality assurance Smooth deployment Minimum surprise in acceptance test Expected acceptance in time – meets the deadline

Following could be the intangible benefits of quantification exercise of PIs in delivering business

process improvement solutions during requirements collection and base lining, change management and implementation/deployment/acceptance test • • • • • • • Customers Satisfaction Extra bonus from the client for the company Employees get the profit bonus and get directly benefited Smooth Maintenance of the project New business from the customer or from customers reference Company makes profit and more revenue and continue growth Increase job security

2.8 Root causes of presence of detected gaps and how they could be addressed
The root causes of the detected gaps are in general for the all PIs in all areas of the Project. The following could be the general root causes of presence of detected gaps • • • • Inadequate or incomplete knowledge of the requirement engineer/solution engineer about the envisioned system Not taking actual users choice and psychology in consideration Not thinking and specifying the requirements from testers perspective Requirements changes or evolves drastically

In the following ways these root causes could be addressed • Inadequate or incomplete knowledge Before specifying the requirement, the requirement engineer/solution engineer should acquire thorough knowledge on the envisioned system. S/he should study the existing system very carefully, study the available similar systems in place, interview the stake holders and target user, study the available technological challenges. Doing so, s/he can acquire comprehensive knowledge on the system and can specify the requirements well. • Not taking actual users choice and psychology in consideration The psychology and choice of the target user must be considered. If the target users don’t like the system then the project will must fail. Therefore, the opinion of the target users must be taken into consideration. • Not thinking and specifying the requirements from testers perspective The requirement engineer/solution engineer should have minimum skill on requirement engineering. S/he should have comprehensive knowledge on requirement specifying. Knowing the attributes and qualities of good requirements, s/he can specify requirements well that would be testable. • Requirements changes or evolves drastically The requirements changes or evolves drastically if the initial requirements specification and base-lining are not done properly. Therefore, the requirements base-lining should be done very carefully and should be verified by all the stake holders. Then strong change management should be in place. Each change request should be studied well and its impact

should be analyzed well. This should be communicated with stakeholders. If the impacts are accepted by the stake holders, then the change should be implemented and corresponding update/adjustments should be made on all affected work products.


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:107
posted:7/3/2009
language:Malay
pages:31
Description: Take a completed project in the category of business process or government work process improvement with the help of software and other IT devices and services. Investigate this project and answer the questions related to BPR.