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Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1101

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					Introduction to Psychology
       PSYC 1101
         Spring, 2011
 Instructor: Dr. Wendy Wolfe
              Psychology
• Psychology: the study of behavior and
  mental processes and how they are
  affected by an organism‟s physical state,
  mental state, and environment.
   Have you ever wondered….?
• Why people (yourself included) tend to act differently in
  groups
• How habits develop and how to break them
• Why we forget some things and remember others
• Why drugs make us feel the way they do
• How to build a better                    so that it‟s more
  user-friendly
• What dreams really mean
• The ways that human behavior differs from animal
  behavior, and how it is similar
• Why your partner/child/roommate/parents act the way
  they do (and how to get them to quit it)
      What‟s the difference?
• Psychology vs. Pop-psychology

• Psychology vs. Pseudoscience

• Psychology vs. Common Sense
Is This Psychology?
Is This Psychology?
      What‟s the difference?
• Psychology vs. Pop-psychology

• Psychology vs. Pseudoscience

• Psychology vs. Common Sense
Is This Psychology?
      What‟s the difference?
• Psychology vs. Pop-psychology

• Psychology vs. Pseudoscience

• Psychology vs. Common Sense
       The Science of Psychology
• Empiricism
• The history of psychology
  before and after use of
  the scientific method
   – Trephination
   – Hippocrates
   – Descartes (dualism)
   – Joseph Gall (phrenology)
   – Wilhelm Wundt
     (structuralism)
   – William James
     (functionalism)
              Psychology‟s Present
• Biological Perspective – emphasizes the role of biology
  (physiology, genetics) on behavior and mental processes
   – How damage to different parts of the brain affects personality,
     behavior, learning ability, language
   – How genetics predispose us to develop certain personality traits,
     mental illness
• Learning Perspective – emphasizes the role of the
  environment and our experiences on behavior and mental
  processes
   – How children adopt certain behaviors by imitating their parents
     (social-learning) or by parents directly rewarding those behaviors
     (behavioral)
• Cognitive Perspective – emphasizes the role of cognitive
  processes on behavior and mental processes
   – If we believe we will fail, we may not even try
   – It is easier for us to remember/recall information that is consistent
     with our beliefs than information that is inconsistent with our beliefs
   Psychology‟s Present (cont.)
• Sociocultural Perspective – emphasizes the role of
  society/culture on behavior and mental processes
   – Technological advances in our culture (internet, gaming, cell
     phones) have affected our attention processes
   – Societal pressure for thinness has contributed to increased
     incidence rates of eating disorders
• Psychodynamic Perspective: emphasizes the role of
  unconscious conflicts on behavior and mental processes
• Humanistic: emphasizes free will, personal growth, and
  resilience
      Psychological Perspectives:
         Depression Example
• Biological: abnormalities in neurotransmitters in the brain
• Learning: depressive symptoms have been reinforced
  (rewarded) by the environment (e.g., getting to stay
  home from school because of feeling depressed)
• Cognitive: negative, pessimistic thinking style
• Socio-cultural: societal stress and role demands; modern
  culture has made us increasingly isolated
• Psychodynamic: depression is due to unconsciously
  displacing anger towards your parent onto yourself
• Humanistic: depression is due to being inauthentic or by
  being otherwise blocked in fulfilling your potential
The profession of psychology: Two
              areas

• Basic Psychology

• Applied Psychology
    Differences Among Applied
  Psychologists in Field of Mental
              Health
• Psychologists
  – Clinical
  – Counseling
  – School
• Psychotherapists
• Psychoanalysts
• Psychiatrists
Critical Thinking
     How to be a critical thinker:
1.   Ask Questions – be curious
2.   Define Your Terms – frame your question in concrete, measurable
     terms (operationalize)
3.   Examine the Evidence – ask what evidence supports and refutes your
     hypothesis, conduct research or read about others who have tested your
     hypothesis, take into account the quality of the research
4.   Analyze Assumptions and Biases – what assumptions might you be
     making or what biases do you have that narrows your view: acknowledge
     these and force yourself to expand your view
5.   Avoid Emotional Reasoning – try to take your emotions out of your
     thinking (i.e., if you feel passionately that your view is correct it may cloud
     your judgment)
6.   Don’t Oversimplify – don‟t generalize from a single (or a few) cases or
     events
7.   Consider Other Interpretations – force yourself to consider and test
     other explanations/hypotheses that are contrary to your own, but would
     also explain your observations
8.   Tolerate Uncertainty – avoid drawing firm conclusions unless others
     have replicated your findings
              Name that Violation
• Amelia has moved to a new city and, after a few weeks of settling in,
  has started to date. Her first three dates, with Mort, Mike, and Merv,
  are all disappointing. “This place has no interesting men,” she tells
  herself glumly. “I‟ll never meet anyone I like.”

• Bonnie believes creatures from outer space have been visiting Earth
  for thousands of years. “Look at those ancient structures and
  designs that scientists can‟t explain,” she says. A friend calls her
  belief nonsense. “You can‟t prove that extraterrestrials don’t exist,”
  replies Bonnie indignantly.

• Susan is opposed to a proposed law that would forbid discrimination
  against homosexuals in housing and employment. “Every gay
  person I‟ve met is unhappy and disturbed,” she says, “and I wouldn‟t
  want to have to live near one.”
Research
            Scientific Method
• Careful Observation
  – Define variables in operational terms
  – Variable: anything that varies (weight, temperature,
    ratings on a stress survey)
• Measurement
  – Variables have to be measured so that statistical tests
    can be used
• Hypothesis Formation
  – Hypotheses are stated in such a way that they can be
    disproven (principal of falsifiability)
• Experimentation
• Evaluation
Non-Experimental Versus
 Experimental Research
       What‟s the Difference?
• Experimental and non-experimental research
  are distinguished by the degree of control that
  the researcher has over the subjects and
  conditions in the study.
• In non-experimental research, there is often
  careful observation and measurement, but in
  experimental research there is also random
  assignment and manipulation of a variable.
• The increased control in experimental research
  allows you to infer causal relationships between
  variables.
  Non-Experimental Research:
Methods for Gathering Information
• Case Studies
• Observational Studies*
  – Naturalistic
  – Laboratory
• Psychological tests*
• Surveys*

* Can also be used in experiments
  Non-Experimental Research:
Methods for Examining Information
• Descriptive Statistics
• Correlation = strength of a relationship
  between two variables
  – Positive vs. Negative Correlations = nature of
    relationship
  – Coefficient of Correlation = strength of
    relationship
   CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL
            CAUSATION
Correlation Scatterplots
      Experimental Research
• In experimental research, you manipulate
  one or more (independent) variables and
  observe the effect of this manipulation on
  one or more other (dependent) variables,
  while controlling for the influence of other
  (extraneous) variables. In this way, you
  can conclude that it was the effect of your
  independent variable that CAUSED the
  observed change in your dependent
  variable.
      Experimental Research
• Independent and dependent variables
• Experimental and control conditions
  – Random assignment
  – Placebo conditions (single-blind)
  – Control for experimenter effects (double-blind)
• “Quasi-Experimental” Research
  Evaluating the findings: Statistics
• Descriptive Statistics
  – Measures of central tendency (mean, median,
    mode)
  – Measures of variability (standard deviation,
    variance)
• Inferential Statistics
• Meta-analysis
Personality
How do we become who we are?

                              Genetics




                                                 Unconscious
     Drive for Self-
                                                 Conflicts &
     Actualization
                                                  Defenses

                            PERSONALITY




                                           Learning
                  Culture
                                          Experiences
               Personality
• Personality: the distinctive pattern of
  behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, and
  emotions that characterizes an individual
  over time
• Someone‟s personality is comprised of
  various traits
• Traits: habitual ways of behaving, thinking,
  and feeling (e.g., confident, pessimistic)
     Psychodynamic Theories
• Emphasis on unconscious intrapsychic
  dynamics
• Belief in the importance of early childhood
• Belief that development occurs in fixed stages
• Focus on fantasies and symbolic meanings of
  events
• Reliance on subjective rather than objective
  methods of assessment
Psychoanalytic Theory
  (Sigmund Freud)
   The Structure of Personality
• Id: Operates according to
  the pleasure principle
  – Primitive and unconscious
    part of personality
• Ego: Operates according
  to the reality principle
  – Mediates between id and
    superego
• Superego: Moral ideals
  and conscience
         Defense Mechanisms
• Repression: Threatening idea is blocked from
  consciousness
• Projection: Unacceptable feelings are attributed to
  someone else
• Displacement: Directing emotions toward objects or
  people that aren‟t the real target
• Reaction Formation: A feeling that produces anxiety is
  transformed into its opposite.
• Sublimation: Channeling unacceptable feelings or
  impulses in a socially acceptable way.
• Regression: A person reverts to a previous phase of
  psychological development.
• Denial: A person refuses to admit that something is
  unpleasant.
       Which defense mechanism?
•   1.     George feels that his younger son, Gary, is unattractive and not very
    smart. He accuses his wife of picking on Gary and favoring their other son.
    ________________
•   2.     Many people who were interred in concentration camps were unable to
    recall events that happened in the camp during their internment.
    ______________________
•   3.     Mark behaves like a stereotypical “he-man,” but he is actually anxious and
    insecure about his gender identity. __________________
•
    4.    Trixie was homesick and anxious when she moved into the dormitory and
    started her first year in college. She began to sleep with her old teddy bear
    again because it made her feel better. __________________
•   5.    Patricia has a lot of anger at the way her verbally and physically abusive
    father treated her during her childhood. She has never confronted him about
    this. However, she has written a best-selling novel in which parent-child conflict
    is a major theme. ___________________
•   6.    Most people who know Jonathan know that he is gay. However, his
    mother stopped speaking to her best friend because the friend told her that
    “parents should recognize and accept homosexuality in their children.”
    _______________
•   7.    Michael is probably the biggest gossip in the office, but he frequently
    accuses others of talking too much and spreading rumors. _______________
         Psychosexual Stages of
              Development
•   Oral: birth – 1 yr
•   Anal: 2-3
•   Phallic (oedipal): 3-5/6
•   Latency: 5/6-puberty
•   Genital: puberty-adulthood
Other Psychodynamic Theories
• Jungian: collective unconscious
• Object Relations: attachment
• Other Neo-Freudians:
  – Emphasis on ego development
  – Development throughout the lifespan
  – Role of other relationships
             Humanistic View
• Abraham Maslow: personality gradually
  develops towards self-actualization
• Carl Rogers: our inner experience of ourselves
  may differ from what we show others
• Rollo May (existentialist): in confronting issues
  such as death and searching for the meaning of
  life, we may discover inner resources of strength
  or be overcome by fear/anxiety, which is
  reflected in our personality as it evolves over our
  lifetime
Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs
             Trait Theory
• Extroversion vs. Introversion (53%)
• Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability (41%)
• Agreeableness vs. Antagonism (41%)
• Conscientiousness vs. Impulsiveness
  (44%)
• Openness to experience vs. resistance to
  new experience (61%)
    Nature vs. Nurture

 The role of genetics versus learning
experiences and cultural influences on
       personality development
  Nature vs. Nurture: Nature
• Infant Temperament
• Heritability Research
  – Adoption studies
  – Twin studies
  – Personality = 50% heritability
    Nature vs. Nurture: Nurture
• Learning Perspective (Behaviorism)
  – Personality consists of habits that have been shaped
    by the environment through classical and operant
    conditioning
• Social Learning
  – Unlike behaviorism, social learning allows for
    observational learning
  – Social learning also involves the notion of reciprocal
    determinism
• Parent and Peer Influences
• Cultural Influences
  – Individualist cultures
  – Collectivist cultures
  John B. Watson - Behaviorist
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and
  my own specified world to bring them up in and
  I'll guarantee to take any one at random and
  train him to become any type of specialist I might
  select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief
  and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless
  of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities,
  vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going
  beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the
  advocates of the contrary and they have been
  doing it for many thousands of years.(1930)
    Culturally Informed Personality
                  Traits
Individualistic Cultures:     Collectivistic Cultures:
• “I” identity                • “We” identity
• Uniqueness valued           • Conformity valued
• Dependency is negative      • Co-dependency positive
• Promotion of individual     • Promotion of group needs
   needs/goals                  valued (promotion of
• Valued traits:                individual needs is
   assertiveness, strength,     shameful)
   competitiveness            • Valued traits: honesty,
                                generosity, sensitivity
How do we become who we are?

                              Genetics




                                                 Unconscious
     Drive for Self-
                                                 Conflicts &
     Actualization
                                                  Defenses

                            PERSONALITY




                                           Learning
                  Culture
                                          Experiences
Developmental Psychology
       Human Development

Developmental psychology focuses on:
• physiological and cognitive changes
  across the life span
• socialization (the process by which
  children learn the attitudes and behaviors
  expected of them by society)
         Infant Development
• Reflexes
  – Rooting
  – Sucking
  – Swallowing
  – Moro “startle”
  – Babinski
  – Grasp
  – Stepping
         Infant Development
• Attachment (Harlow research)
  – Contact comfort
• Attachment (Ainsworth research)
  – Securely attached
  – Insecurely attached/avoidant
  – Insecurely attached/anxious or ambivalent
Childhood: Cognitive
    Development
                     Language
• Language Development
  –   “Baby Talk”: 6-12 mos.
  –   Object Naming: 1 yr.
  –   Telegraphic Speech: 18-24 mos.
  –   Rapid Acquisition of Words: 1-6 yrs.
• Language Acquisition Device: an innate mental
  module that allows young children to develop
  language if they are exposed to an adequate
  sampling of conversation during a critical
  period in their development.
      Cognitive Development:
         Piaget‟s Theory
• Cognitive development consists of mental
  adaptations to new observations & experiences.
• Adaptation takes two forms:
  – Assimilation: Absorbing new information into existing
    cognitive structures.

                             “Bird”
  – Accommodation: Modifying existing cognitive
    structures in response to experience and new
    information.

                              “Bat”
Piaget‟s Stages of Development
• Sensorimotor (birth-2 years)
  – Object permanence
• Preoperational (ages 2-7)
  – Symbolic thought
  – Egocentric
• Concrete Operational (ages 7-12)
  – Conservation
  – Reversible operations
• Formal Operational (age 12-adulthood)
  – Abstract reasoning
Adolescence
       Developmental Influences
• Physiological changes
   – Puberty & Timing of Puberty
   – Brain Development
• Identity formation and individuation
   –   Acquiring temporal perspective
   –   Acquiring self-certainty
   –   Role experimentation
   –   Apprenticeship
   –   Sexual polarization
   –   Questions of authority
   –   Ideological commitment
Adulthood
      Erikson‟s 8 Stages of Lifespan
               Development
• Trust vs. Mistrust
    – Infancy (0-1 year)
• Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
    – Toddler (1-2 years)
• Initiative vs. Guilt
    – Preschool (3-5 years)
• Industry vs. Inferiority
    – Elementary School (6-12 years)
• Identity vs. Role confusion
    – Adolescence (13-19 years)
• Intimacy vs. Isolation
    – Young adulthood (20-40 years)
• Generativity vs. Stagnation
    – Middle adulthood (40-65 years)
• Integrity vs. Despair
    – Late adulthood (65 and older)
Cognitive Functioning Throughout
           Adulthood
Physiological Psychology
Nervous System Organization
Autonomic NS: Sympathetic &
 Parasympathetic Divisions
What part of the nervous system is
      responsible when….?
1. You see someone with a mask come up to you
   from behind, you feel a sharp object against
   your side, and you hear “give me your money”.
2. You think about your options.
3. You try some of your karate moves and strike
   with an elbow to the neck and a kick to the
   groin.
4. You notice that your heart is racing and you‟re
   sweating profusely.
5. Later, once you‟re safe at home, you notice
   that you are salivating quite a bit and you are
   starting to get hungry.
    Communication in the NS
• Neurons




• Glia
 The Structure of the Neuron

• Dendrite: Branches that
  receive signals and
  transmit to cell body
• Cell Body: Controls cell
  metabolism and
  determines firing
• Axon: Carries impulses
  away from cell body
• Myelin Sheath: Fatty
  insulation
  How Neurons Communicate
• Synapse: Site where a nerve impulse is
  transmitted from one neuron to another;
  includes the axon terminal, synaptic cleft,
  and receptor sites on receiving cell.
• Neurotransmitter: Chemical substance that
  is released by transmitting neuron at the
  synapse and alters the activity of the
  receiving neuron.
                  Electro-Chemical
                   Communication
• If action potential in the cell
  body is reached, electrical
  impulse is sent down axon
• When signal reaches axon
  terminal, vesicles release
  neurotransmitters into
  synaptic cleft
• NT‟s bind to receptor site on
  receiving neuron
• Electrical state of receiving
  neuron changes, becoming
  more (or less) likely to fire,
  depending on whether the
  NT is excitatory or inhibitory
The Discovery of Neurotransmitters
       Major Neurotransmitters
•   Acetylcholine (ACh)
•   Dopamine
•   Norepinephrine
•   Serotonin
•   Gamma amino butryic acid (GABA)
•   Glutamate
   Other Chemical Messengers
• Hormones: Chemical substances, primarily produced in
  the endocrine glands, which are released in the
  bloodstream and carried to various organs and cells.
         Important Hormones
• Endorphins: Chemical substances in the
  nervous system that are similar in structure and
  action to opiates; they are involved in pain
  reduction, pleasure, and memory, and are
  known technically as endogenous opioid
  peptides.
         Important Hormones
• Melatonin > Sleep
• Adrenal Hormones
  – Cortisol > Boosts energy, reduces inflammation
  – Adrenaline (Epinephrine) & Noradrenaline
    (Norepinephrine) > Increase arousal and improve
    memory
• Sex Hormones
  – Androgens (e.g., testosterone) > Masculinizing
  – Estrogens > Feminizing
 Thalamus and Hypothalamus

• Thalamus: Relays sensory messages
  to the cerebral cortex.
• Hypothalamus: Involved in emotions
  and drives vital to survival (e.g., fear,
  hunger, thirst, and reproduction); it
  regulates the autonomic nervous
  system.
• Pituitary Gland: Small endocrine gland
  at the base of the brain, which
  releases many hormones and
  regulates other endocrine glands.
         The Limbic System

• Limbic System: A group of
  brain areas involved in
  emotional reactions and
  motivated behavior.
   – Amygdala: Involved in the
     arousal and regulation of
     emotion and the initial
     emotional response to
     sensory information.
   – Hippocampus: Involved in
     the storage of new
     information in memory.
           The Case of H.M.
• Suffered from
  epilepsy, had most of
  his hippocampus and
  amygdala surgically
  removed.
• Subsequently
  suffered severe
  anterograde amnesia.
• Died in 2008 at age
  82.
             The Frontal Lobe
• Involved in motor function,
  problem solving,
  spontaneity, memory,
  language, initiation,
  judgment, impulse control,
  and social and sexual
  behavior
• The Case of Phineas Gage
• Pre-motor cortex &
  Prefrontal cortex
Consciousness
           Consciousness
• Consciousness – awareness of oneself
  and one‟s environment
• Changes in consciousness
  – sleeping & dreaming
  – daydreaming & mindlessness
  – hypnosis & relaxation
  – drug-induced
        Biological Rhythms
• Regular physiological fluctuations
• Circadian rhythms: biological rhythms
  occurring approximately every 24 hours
  – Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  – Melatonin
  – Internal desynchronization
Typical circadian rhythms
     The Importance of Sleep
• Most people need 7-8 hours of sleep per
  24 hour period to function optimally
• Effects of short-term sleep deprivation:
  difficulty maintaining attention, loss of
  creativity/mental sharpness, irritability
• Effects of longer-term sleep deprivation:
  serious impairment in cognitive and
  physical functioning, hallucinations and
  delusions
           Improving Your Sleep
•   Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and other stimulants before bed
•   Don‟t go to bed when you are full or hungry
•   Develop a nightly ritual, particularly one that is relaxing
•   Engage in regular aerobic exercise, but not late at night
•   Take a warm bath 90 minutes before bed
•   Avoid emotional stressors (e.g., balancing check book)
    right before bed
•   Limit activities in your sleeping area
•   Avoid alcohol
•   Designate a regular bedtime and waking time
•   Minimize light and noises
       Sleep Stages: nREM sleep
• Stage 1: drifting off to sleep
   – Hypnic myoclonia
   – Hypnagogic hallucinations
• Stage 2: heart rate slows,
  body temp drops, muscles
  tighten and relax
• Stage 3 & 4: slow (delta)
  wave sleep
   – Person is deeply asleep and
     will be groggy if awoken
   – Associated with restoring
     energy, muscle/bone growth
     and repair, and strengthening
     of the immune system
     Sleep Stages: REM sleep
• After moving through stages 1-4 (45 min), you
  move back up from stages 4-2 (45 min) and
  enter REM sleep
• REM = Rapid Eye Movement
  – “paradoxical” sleep
  – Brain waves similar to waking state (vivid dreaming)
  – Body is “paralyzed”
• Function is unknown
  – REM rebound
• Over the course of a period of sleep, REM sleep
  time increases and slow wave sleep decreases
           Sleep Disorders
• Dyssomnias: associated with sleep
  deprivation or problematic sleep onset
  – Insomnia
  – Sleep apnea
  – Narcolepsy
           Sleep Disorders
• Parasomnias: behavioral or physiological
  abnormalities during sleep
  – Sleepwalking Disorder (Stage 4)
  – Night terror Disorder (Stage 4)
  – Nightmare Disorder (REM)
  – REM Behavior Disorder (REM)
         Why Do We Dream?
•   Psychoanalytic View
•   Problem-Focused Approach
•   Reverse Learning (“Mental Housekeeping”)
•   Activation-Synthesis Theory
•   Cognitive View
    Freud on Dream Symbolism
“Rooms in dreams are usually women; if the various ways
  in and out of them are represented, this interpretation is
  scarcely open to doubt….We find an interesting link with
  the sexual researches of childhood when a dreamer
  dreams of two rooms which were originally one, or when
  he sees a familiar room divided into two in the dream, or
  vice versa. In childhood the female genitals and the anus
  are regarded as a single area – the „bottom‟….Steps,
  ladders, or staircases, or, as the case may be, walking
  up or down them, are representations of the sexual act.”
                     From The Interpretation of Dreams,
                                          Sigmund Freud
Hypnosis
     Hypnosis: What We Know
• Responsiveness to hypnosis depends more on the
  person being hypnotized than the skill of the hypnotist
• Hypnotized people cannot be forced to do things against
  their will
• Tasks performed under hypnosis can also be performed
  by properly motivated people not under hypnosis
• Hypnosis does not improve accuracy of memory or
  produce re-experiences of past events
• Hypnosis can be used to improve pain tolerance, induce
  relaxation, and help people change habitual behaviors
         Theories of Hypnosis
• Dissociation Theories
  – A split in consciousness in which one part of the mind
    operates independently from the rest of the
    consciousness.
  – One part of the mind responds to the suggestions
    while the other functions as a hidden observer,
    watching but not participating
• Socio-Cognitive Theories
  – Effect results from an interaction between the social
    influence of the hypnotist and the abilities, beliefs,
    and expectations of the subject.
  – The person is basically playing a role in response of
    the social demands of the hypnotist.
          Psychoactive Drugs
• Substances that alter perception, mood,
  thinking, memory, or behavior by changing the
  body‟s biochemistry (typically by acting on
  neurotransmitters)
• Use of psychoactive substances has occurred
  throughout time and across species
• Drugs are classified according to their effects on
  the CNS and how they impact behavior and
  mood
          Drug Classifications
• Stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine,
  nicotine, caffeine): speed up CNS activity
• Depressants (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates,
  benzodiazepines): slow down CNS activity
• Opiates (e.g., opium, heroin, morphine): mimic
  endogenous opioids
• Psychedelics (e.g., LSD, mescaline, psilocybin):
  disrupt normal thought processes
• Other drugs (e.g., marijuana, Ecstasy): affect the
  CNS in a variety of ways
   Psychology of Drug Effects
• Physical factors: body weight, metabolism,
  physical tolerance
• “Mental set” or expectations about the
  drug‟s effects
• Past experience with the drug
• Mood and Environmental setting
• Culture
Sensation and Perception
    Sensation and Perception
• Sensation: The detection of physical
  energy emitted or reflected by physical
  objects; it occurs when energy in the
  external environment or the body
  stimulates receptors in the sense organs.
• Perception: The process by which the
  brain organizes and interprets sensory
  information.
           The Riddle of Separate
                Sensations
• Sense Receptors: Specialized neurons
that convert physical energy from the
environment or the body into electrical
energy that can be transmitted as nerve
impulses to the brain.
• Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies:
Different sensory modalities exist
because signals received by the sense
organs stimulate different nerve
pathways leading to different areas of
the brain.
• "Colour is the
  keyboard, the eyes
  are the harmonies, the
  soul is the piano with
  many strings. The
  artist is the hand that
  plays, touching one
  key or another, to
  cause vibrations in the
  soul."-W. Kandinsky
       Measuring the Senses
• Absolute Threshold
  – The smallest quantity of physical energy that can be
    reliably detected by an observer
• Difference Threshold
  – The smallest difference in stimulation that can be
    reliably detected by an observer when two stimuli are
    compared; also called Just Noticeable Difference
    (JND).
• Signal-Detection Theory
  – Holds that responses in a detection task depend on a
    sensory process and a decision process. Responses
    may vary with a person‟s motivation, alertness, and
    expectations
           Absolute Thresholds
Vision
A single candle flame from 30 miles on a clear night
Hearing
The tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet
Smell
One drop of perfume in a 6-room apartment
Touch
The wing of a bee on the cheek, dropped from 1 cm
Taste
One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
        Sensory Adaptation
• The reduction or disappearance of
  sensory responsiveness that occurs when
  stimulation is unchanging or repetitious.
Vision
               What We See
• Hue: The dimension of visual experience specified
  by color names and related to the wavelength of
  light.




• Brightness: Lightness and luminance; the dimension
  of visual experience related to the amount of light
  emitted from or reflected by an object.
• Saturation: Vividness or purity of color; the
  dimension of visual experience related to the
  complexity of light waves.
Structures of the Human
          Eye
Structures of the Retina
                Did You Know?
• Diurnal animals (those active during the day), like birds
  and fish, have mostly cones on their retinas. This lets
  them see colors very well during daylight, but gives them
  very poor vision at night.
• Nocturnal animals, like rats and bats, have mostly rods
  on their retinas. They cannot see color, but can see well
  at night.
• Herbivores and prey animals have their eyes set on the
  side of their head for a fuller range of vision. Carnivores
  have eyes closer together for better depth perception.
• Cats have a reflective surface on the back of their eye,
  which gives them “eye shine” at night and also allows
  them to see very well at night since light has two
  chances to be picked up by their visual receptors (once
  going into they eye, and once as it is reflected back out)
         Trichromatic Theory
• T. Young (1802) & H. von Helmholtz (1852)
  both proposed that the eye detects 3 primary
  colors (red, blue, & green)
• All other colors can be derived by combining the
  activity of these three types of cones
    Opponent-Process Theory
• At the level of the ganglion cells in the
  retina and in visual centers of the brain,
  opponent process cells selectively fire to
  either short or long wavelengths (and are
  inhibited by the opposing wavelength).
• This inhibition is temporarily reversed with
  a brief firing when the color is removed
  (explaining negative afterimages)
Visual Perception
      How we Perceive Form
• Gestalt principles describe the brain‟s
  organization of sensory building blocks
  into meaningful units and patterns.
Which is more memorable?
Proximity
Closure
Similarity
Continuity
Figure-Ground
Depth and Distance Perception
• Binocular Cues: Visual cues to depth or distance
  that require the use of both eyes.
  – Convergence: Turning inward of the eyes, which
    occurs when they focus on a nearby object
  – Retinal Disparity: The slight difference in lateral
    separation between two objects as seen by the left
    eye and the right eye.
• Monocular Cues: Visual cues to depth or
  distance that can be used by one eye alone.
Hearing
            What We Hear
• Loudness: The dimension of auditory
  experience related to the intensity of a
  pressure wave.
• Pitch: The dimension of auditory
  experience related to the frequency of a
  pressure wave.
• Timbre: The distinguishing quality of
  sound; the dimension of auditory
  experience related to the complexity of the
  pressure wave.
How we Hear
         Auditory Perception
• Gestalt Principles Apply
• Distance Perception
• Location Perception
Other Senses
                      Taste
• Papillae: Knoblike elevations on the tongue,
  containing the taste buds (Singular: papilla).
• Taste buds: Nests of taste-receptor cells.
     Smell & Taste Perception
• Red bars = subjects
  could smell
• Blue bars = subjects
  could not smell
   Smell: The Sense of Scents
• Airborne chemical molecules enter the nose and
  circulate through the nasal cavity.
• Receptors on the roof of the nasal cavity detect
  these molecules.
          Senses of the Skin
• The skin senses include:
  – Touch
  – Warmth
  – Cold
  – Pain
  – Various others (itch and tickle)
   Gate-Control Theory of Pain
• Experience of pain
  depends (in part) on
  whether the pain
  impulse gets past
  neurological “gate” in
  the spinal cord and
  thus reaches the
  brain.
   Neuromatrix Theory of Pain
• Theory that the matrix
  of neurons in the
  brain is capable of
  generating pain (and
  other sensations) in
  the absence of
  signals from sensory
  nerves.
           Internal Senses
• Kinesthesis: The sense of body position
  and movement of body parts; also called
  kinesthesia.
• Equilibrium: The sense of balance.
Thought Processes & Biases
     The Elements of Cognition
• Concept: Mental category
  that groups objects,
  relations, activities,
  abstractions, or qualities
  having common properties.
   – Formal concepts
   – Natural concepts
   – Prototypes                 • Cognitive Schema: An
• Proposition: A unit of          integrated mental
  meaning that is made up of
  concepts and expresses a
                                  network of knowledge,
  single idea.                    beliefs, and expectations
• Mental Image:                   concerning a particular
  Representation that mirrors     topic or aspect of the
  or resembles the thing it       world.
  represents.
Prototype
–   1 chair
                 Prototype: Furniture
–   1 sofa
–   3 couch
–   3 table
–   5 easy chair
–   6 dresser
–   6 rocking chair
–   8 coffee table
–   9 rocker
–   10 love seat
–   11 chest of drawers
–   12 desk
–   13 bed
–   ...
–   22 bookcase
–   27 cabinet
–   29 bench
–   31 lamp
–   32 stool
–   35 piano
–   41 mirror
–   42 tv
–   44 shelf
–   45 rug
–   46 pillow
–   47 wastebasket
–   49 sewing machine
–   50 stove
–   54 refrigerator
–   60 telephone
                                        Example
                                                                          MENTAL IMAGE
                                                SCHEMA
                                              “BREAKFAST”




                                          OTHER PROPOSITIONS
           PROPOSITIONS
  I usually eat cereal for breakfast.   Is derived from the notion of   OTHER PROPOSITIONS
On Sundays, I like to make pancakes,            “breaking fast”.         I usually make breakfast
     waffles, or eggs and biscuits.      Means first meal of the day.     for myself and my kids.
 Other people eat donuts, bagels, or                                    Breakfast is not my favorite
       leftovers for breakfast.
                                         Is the most important meal
                                                                                   meal.
                                                  of the day.



           CONCEPT
         Cereal   Fruit
        Pancakes   Eggs
         Bacon   Grits
            Donuts
        Cognitive Schemas
• Framework that helps us organize and
  interpret information
• Help us take shortcuts
• Also cause us to overlook relevant
  information
    How Conscious is Thought?
• Subconscious Processes: Mental
  processes occurring outside of conscious
  awareness but accessible to
  consciousness when necessary.
• Nonconscious Processes: Mental
  processes occurring outside of and not
  available to conscious awareness.
Can you make a sentence from each?
•   01 him was worried she always
•   02 from are Florida oranges temperature
•   03 ball the throw toss silently
•   04 shoes give replace old the
•   05 he observes occasionally people watches
•   06 be will sweat lonely they
•   07 sky the seamless gray is
•   08 should now withdraw forgetful we
•   09 us bingo sing play let
•   10 sunlight makes temperature wrinkle raisins

From Malcolm Gladwell's Blink: The Power of Thinking
  Without Thinking, pp 52 - 55
Now, Answer This Question:

 How quickly would you walk down
  the hall, if I excused you from
         class right now?
      Reasoning Rationally

• Formal Reasoning: Algorithms and Logic
• Informal Reasoning: Heuristics and
  Dialectical Thinking (Reflective Judgment)
               Formal Logic
• Algorithm
• Deductive Reasoning:
  A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion
  necessarily follows from a set of observations or
  propositions (premises).
 Deductive Reasoning Exercise
• If a person gets athlete’s foot, then the
  person’s toes will fall off.
• What if the next statement is:
  a.   Bill has athlete‟s foot.
  b.   Bill does not have athlete‟s foot.
  c.   Bill‟s toes fell off.
  d.   Bill‟s toes did not fall off.
               Formal Logic
• Inductive Reasoning:
  A tool of formal logic in which a conclusion
  probably follows from a set of observations or
  propositions or premises, but could be false.
 Inductive Reasoning Example
• Can you supply the missing number and
  the rule for the examples below?
  – 5 9 13 ? 21

  – 1 3 4 7 11 ?
Deductive Reasoning: A top-down
           approach
Inductive Reasoning: A bottom-up
            approach
Inductive or Deductive Reasoning?
• Jack: I've noticed previously that every
  time I kick a ball up, it comes back down,
  so I guess this next time when I kick it up,
  it will come back down, too.
• Jill: That's Newton's Law. Everything that
  goes up must come down. And so, if you
  kick the ball up, it must come down.
          Informal Reasoning
• Heuristic:
  – A rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or
    guides problem solving but does not guarantee an
    optimal solution.
• Dialectical Reasoning:
  – A process in which opposing
  facts or ideas are weighed and
  compared, with a view to
  determining the best solution
  or resolving differences.
 3 Stages of Dialectical Reasoning
• Thesis: statement of an idea, view, or
  position
• Antithesis: statement of an alternative
  (often contradictory) view
• Synthesis: integration of the best aspects
  of previous ideas/views
 Question: Why are human beings
            violent?
• Thesis Statement and Arguments: Violent
  behavior develops in people as they experience
  and learn from the world around them.
• Antithesis Statement and Arguments:
  Aggression and violence are not learned, they
  are basic human instincts.
• Synthesis: People are born with the capacity for
  violence (this tendency towards violence may
  vary across individuals), but learning
  experiences serve to either elicit or suppress this
  innate drive
        Reflective Judgment
• Pre-reflective Judgment
  – “I was brought up to believe….”
  – “I know what I‟ve seen….”
• Quasi-reflective Judgment
  – “Knowledge is purely subjective.”
  – “You have your opinion and I have mine.”
• Reflective Judgment
  – “Based on the evidence, I believe…”
  – “Here are the reasons for my conclusions…”
Barriers to Reasoning
      Rationally
     The Nine-Dot Problem: The
    Difficulty in Using a Mental Set
• Connect all 9 dots
• Use only 4 lines
• Do not lift your pencil
  from the page after
  you begin drawing
  Barriers to Reasoning Rationally
• Biases due to Mental Sets
• Exaggerating the Improbable (The Availability
  Heuristic)
• Representativeness Heuristic
• Anchoring Effect
• Avoiding Loss (Risk Aversion)
• The Confirmation Bias
• The Hindsight Bias
                                                          chapter 7




    The confirmation bias
The tendency to pay attention only to information that
confirms one’s own beliefs

                             Test this rule: If a card has a
                             vowel on one side, it has an
                             even number on the other
                             side.
                             Which 2 cards to turn over?
                             1. Cards 6 and 7
                             2. Cards J and 6
                             3. Cards E and 7
                             4. Cards E and 6
Cognitive Dissonance
 When are we most motivated to
     reduce dissonance?
• When justifying a choice or decision we
  made freely
• When justifying the effort put into a
  choice or decision
• When justifying a behavior that conflicts
  with our self-view
Intelligence
     Psychometric Approach
• g factor
• Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
  – Mental age/chronological age x 100 = IQ
• Stanford-Binet
  – Standardized scores
• Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WAIS,
  WISC)
• Problems/limitations
IQ: Standardized Scores
             WAIS Verbal Subtests
•   Information: Similar to "Trivial Pursuit," this subtest measures fund of factual
    information. It is strongly influenced by culture. An American education and
    intact long-term memory will contribute to a higher score. Sample question
    (not really on the tests): "What is the capital of France?"
•   Comprehension: This subtest measures understanding of social conventions
    and common sense. It is also culturally loaded. Sample question: "What is the
    thing to do if you find an injured person laying on the sidewalk?"
•   Digit Span: Requires the repetition of number strings forward and backwards.
    Measures concentration, attention, and immediate memory. Lower scores are
    obtained by persons with an attention deficit or anxiety.
•   Similarities: This subtest measures verbal abstract reasoning and
    conceptualization abilities. The individual is asked how two things are alike.
    Sample question: "How are a snake and an alligator alike?"
•   Vocabulary: This test measures receptive and expressive vocabulary. It is
    the best overall measure of general intelligence (assuming the test-taker's
    native language is English). Sample question: "What is the meaning of the
    word 'articulate'?"
•   Arithmetic: Consists of mathematical word problems which are performed
    mentally. Measures attention, concentration, and numeric reasoning. Sample
    question: "John bought three books for five dollars each, and paid ten percent
    sales tax. How much did he pay all together?"
           Block Design Task
 For legal/ethical reasons the actual
 WAIS Block Design Task cannot
 be shown, so this is a similar
 Block Design task




All sides are unique of all the cubes
Story Completion Example
Story Completion Example Solved
     Predictors of Intelligence
• Genes
• Environment
  – Prenatal care
  – Nutrition
  – Exposure to toxins
  – Stress
  – Environmental enrichment
Memory
                          The War of the Ghosts.
• One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt
  seals, and while they were it became foggy and calm. Then they heard
  war cries and they thought; 'Maybe this is a war-party.' They escaped
  to the shore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they
  heard the noise of paddles and saw one canoe coming up to them.
  There were five men in the canoe and they said; 'What do you think?
  We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on
  the people.„ One of the young men said; 'I have no arrows.„ 'Arrows
  are in the canoe,' they said. 'I will not go along. I might be killed. My
  relatives do not know where I have gone. But you,' he said, turning to
  the other, 'May go with them.„ So one of the young men went, but the
  other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town
  on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and
  began to fight, and many were killed. But presently, one of the young
  men heard one of the warriors say; 'Quick let us go home. That Indian
  has been hit.„ Now he thought; 'Oh, they are ghosts.' He did not feel
  sick, but he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and
  the young man went back to his house and made a fire. And he told
  everybody and said; 'Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went
  to fight. Many of our fellows were killed and many of those that
  attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, but I did not feel sick.„ He
  told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose, he fell down.
  Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted.
  The people jumped up and cried. He was dead.
Two Indians were out fishing for seals in the Bay of
  Manapan, when along came five other Indians in a war
  canoe. They were going fighting. “Come with us” said the
  five to the two. “I cannot come” was the answer of the
  one, “for I have an old mother at home who is dependent
  on me.” The other said he could not come because he
  had no arms. “That is no difficulty” the others replied, “for
  we have plenty in the canoe with us”; so he got into the
  canoe and went with them. In a fight soon afterwards this
  Indian received a mortal wound. Finding that his hour
  was coming, he cried out that he was about to die.
  “Nonsense” said one of the others “you will not die.” But
  he did.
The Conditions of Confabulation
• Source amnesia: We recall information, but not the
  source of the information. This can lead to source
  misattribution and confabulation.
• Confabulation: Confusion of an event that happened to
  someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief
  that you remember something when it never actually
  happened.
• Confabulation is most likely when:
   –   you have thought about the event many times;
   –   the image of the event contains many details;
   –   the event is easy to imagine;
   –   you focus on emotional reactions to the event rather than what
       actually happened.
        Flashbulb Memories
• Even flashbulb memories, emotionally
  powerful memories that seem particularly
  vivid, are often embellished or distorted
  and tend to become less accurate over
  time.
Memory and the Power of
     Suggestion
            Eyewitness Recall
• The reconstructive nature of memory makes
  memory vulnerable to suggestion.
• Eyewitness testimony is especially vulnerable to
  error when:
  – the suspects ethnicity differs from that of the witness;
  – when leading questions are put to witnesses;
  – when the witnesses are given misleading information.
Children‟s Testimony
        Measuring Memory
• Explicit Memory: Conscious, intentional
  recollection of an event or of an item of
  information.
• Implicit Memory: Unconscious retention in
  memory, as evidenced by the effect of a
  previous experience or previously
  encountered information on current
  thoughts or actions.
Three-Box Model of Memory
  Limits of Short-term Memory

• 7 + or – 2

• Chunking
         Serial-Position Effect
• The tendency for
  recall of first and last
  items on a list to
  surpass recall of
  items in the middle of
  the list.
              Long-term Memory
• Procedural memories:
   – Memories for performance of
     actions or skills.
   – “Knowing how”
• Declarative memories:
   – Memories of facts, rules,
     concepts, and events; includes
     semantic and episodic memory.
   – “Knowing that”
• Semantic memories:
   – General knowledge, including
     facts, rules, concepts, and
     propositions.
• Episodic memories:
   – Personally experienced events
     and the contexts in which they
     occurred.
Connectionist Model
        How We Remember
• Effective Encoding
• Rehearsal
• Mnemonics
Ebbinghaus‟ Forgetting Curve
                 Encoding
• In order to remember
  material well, we must
  encode it accurately
  in the first place.
• Some kinds of
  information, such as
  material in a college
  course, require
  effortful, as opposed
  to automatic,
  encoding.
                Rehearsal
• Maintenance Rehearsal: Rote repetition of
  material in order to maintain its availability
  in memory.
• Elaborative Rehearsal: Association of new
  information with already stored knowledge
  and analysis of the new information to
  make it memorable.
             Mnemonics
• Mnemonics: memory aids or tricks (are
  usually verbal, but can take other forms
  too)
• Enhance retention by promoting
  elaborative encoding and making material
  meaningful.
• However, for ordinary memory tasks,
  complex memory tricks are often
  ineffective or even counterproductive.
            Why We Forget
•   Decay
•   Interference
•   Cue-dependent Forgetting
•   Psychogenic Amnesia
                  Decay
• Decay Theory: The theory that information
  in memory eventually disappears if it is not
  accessed; it applies more to short-term
  than to long-term memory.
                  Interference
• Retroactive Interference:
  Forgetting that occurs
  when recently learned
  material interferes with
  the ability to remember
  similar material stored
  previously.
• Proactive Interference:
  Forgetting that occurs
  when previously stored
  material interferes with
  the ability to remember
  similar, more recently
  learned material.
    Cue-dependent Forgetting
• Cue-Dependent Forgetting: The inability to
  retrieve information stored in memory
  because of insufficient cues for recall.
• State-Dependent Memory: The tendency
  to remember something when the
  rememberer is in the same physical or
  mental state as during the original learning
  or experience.
Learning
               Learning
• Learning: A relatively durable change in
  behavior due to experience.
• Behaviorism: An approach to psychology
  that emphasizes the study of observable
  behavior and the role of the environment
  as a determinant of behavior.
Classical Conditioning
 Classical conditioning involves Reflexes

• A reflex is an observed high correlation between a
  stimulus and a response that exists without benefit
  of experience.
• A reflex is neither the stimulus nor the response
  alone. It is the relation between the two.
    US = Unconditioned stimulus
    UR = Unconditioned response
    US (air puff)  UR (eye blink)
    US (tap on knee)  UR (knee jerk)
    US (meat)  UR (salivation)
Pavlov‟s Apparatus
      New Reflexes From Old




• Classical Conditioning: The process by which a
  previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity
  to elicit a response through association with a
  stimulus that already elicits a similar or related
  response.
         Conditioning Terms
• Unconditioned Stimulus:
  – A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in
    the absence of learning.
• Conditioned Stimulus:
  – An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit
    a conditioned response after being associated
    with an unconditioned stimulus.
         Conditioning Terms
• Unconditioned Response:
  – A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in
    the absence of learning.
• Conditioned Response:
  – A response that is elicited by a conditioned
    stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned
    stimulus is associated with an unconditioned
    stimulus.
                Examples
• John has always disciplined his cat Smokey by
  hitting a newspaper near her to make a loud
  noise. Now, Smokey has begun to run and hide
  when John opens the morning paper.
• At age 12, Ben began masturbating while
  wearing his mother‟s silk slip. Eventually, he
  found himself becoming aroused whenever he
  saw women‟s undergarments or clothes made of
  similar material.
                Acquisition
• A neutral stimulus
  that is consistently
  followed by an
  unconditioned
  stimulus will become
  a conditioned
  stimulus.
                  Extinction
• The weakening and
  eventual
  disappearance of a
  learned response; in
  classical conditioning,
  it occurs when the
  conditioned stimulus
  is no longer paired
  with the
  unconditioned
  stimulus.
    Higher Order Conditioning




• A procedure in which a neutral stimulus
  becomes a conditioned stimulus through
  association with an already established
  conditioned stimulus.
 Generalization and Discrimination
• Stimulus Generalization:
  – After conditioning, the tendency to respond to
    a stimulus that resembles one involved in the
    original conditioning.
• Stimulus Discrimination:
  – The tendency to respond differently to two or
    more similar stimuli.
                Learning to Fear
• An 11-month old boy – named “Albert” – was conditioned
  to fear a white laboratory rat
   – Each time he reached for the rat, Watson made a loud clanging
     noise right behind Albert
• Albert‟s fear generalized to anything white and furry
   – Including rabbits and Santa Claus
        Counterconditioning
• In classical conditioning, the process of
  pairing a conditioned stimulus with a
  stimulus that elicits a response that is
  incompatible with an unwanted
  conditioned response.
Operant Conditioning
              Definitions
• Operant behavior is behavior that is
  modifiable by its consequences
• Operant conditioning is the process by
  which operant behavior is acquired or
  eliminated
• Operant behavior concerns complex, non-
  reflexive behavior
     Thorndike‟s Law of Effect
• Responses that are closely followed by
  satisfaction will become firmly attached to the
  situation and therefore more likely to reoccur
  when the situation is repeated.
• Conversely, if the situation is followed by
  discomfort, the connections to the situation will
  become weaker and the response will be less
  likely to occur when the situation is repeated.
                      So…….
• A = Talking to someone you are attracted to at a party
• B = You use a clever pick-up line
• C = You get a date




• …….You are more likely to use that line again in the
  same (or similar) situations
                 However…….
• A = Talking to someone you are attracted to at a party
• B = You use a clever pick-up line
• C = You get slapped




• …….You are less likely to use that line again in the
  same (or similar) situations
Skinner‟s “Radical Behaviorism”
  Reinforcement & Punishment
• Reinforcement: a type of consequence of
  behavior that increases the probability of
  behavior that produces it
• Punishment: a type of consequence of
  behavior that decreases the probability of
  behavior that produces it
       Positive vs. Negative
• Positive (+): an operation (consequence)
  where a stimulus, condition or event is
  presented (added)

• Negative (-): an operation (consequence)
  where a stimulus, condition or event is
  removed (subtracted)
            Reinforcement    Punishment

           Increase in      Decrease in
           Behavior         Behavior
Positive
           Stimulus         Stimulus
           Presented        Presented

           Increase in      Decrease in
           Behavior         Behavior
Negative
           Stimulus         Stimulus
           Removed          Removed
To “de-code” operant conditioning,
          ask yourself:
1. What is the operant behavior?
2. Is it increasing (reinforcement) or
   decreasing (punishment)?
3. Was something added to the
   environment/organism after the behavior
   (positive) or was something taken away
   (negative)?
       Operant Conditioning: Other
               Examples
• You start seeing a tutor regularly for help with a class and ace the
  next exam, so you decide to utilize tutoring for all your classes.
• Every time Billy whines at the store, his parents buy him a toy, so
  Billy keeps making a fuss at the store.
• Every time Billy‟s parents give in to his toy request, Billy stops
  complaining, so they continue giving in to his demands.
• Whenever you “borrow” your roommate‟s clothes, she yells at you
  (which you hate), so you stop borrowing her clothes.
• You get caught speeding and have to pay $250 you were saving to
  go on Spring Break. Now you really try to watch your speed
  (especially on Abercorn).
• When Susan is caught talking in class, she is sent to the principal‟s
  office. Her teacher can‟t understand why Susan keeps getting more
  and more chatty despite the “punishment”
• When Andrew is caught talking in class, he is sent to the principal‟s
  office. His teacher is pleased that Andrew has been an angel ever
  since.
                  Shaping
• Reinforcing successive approximations to
  a target behavior
  – Complex behaviors
  – Behaviors not already in the person‟s
    behavioral repertoire
                 Extinction
• The discontinuation of reinforcement
  results in a decrease and eventual
  elimination of the response
• Side effects of extinction:
  – Extinction burst
  – Increased variability of behavior
  – Aggression
  – Spontaneous recovery
  Schedules of Reinforcement
• Rules that determine which responses will be
  reinforced and which won‟t be reinforced
• Ratio Schedules: Reinforcement determined by
  the number of responses emitted
  – Fixed Ratio (FR): The number of responses per
    reinforcement is fixed. For example, every 10th
    response produces a reinforcer (FR 10)
  – Variable Ratio (VR): The number of responses per
    reinforcement varies. For example, on average every
    10th response (range: 5-15) produces a reinforcer
    (VR 10).
   Schedules of Reinforcement
• Interval Schedules: Reinforcement is determined
  by the amount of time since the last reinforcer.
  – Fixed Interval (FI): The time between reinforcers is
    fixed. For example, the first response after a one
    minute time period has elapsed is reinforced (FI 1‟)
  – Variable Interval (VI): The time between reinforcers
    varies. For example, the first response after an
    average interval of one minute (range: 30s-90s) is
    reinforced (VI 1‟).
 Why are Schedules Important?
• When a response is reinforced intermittently
  (variably), it is much more resistant to extinction.
   – If you want a behavior to persist, use a variable
     schedule of reinforcement
   – But, be careful of accidentally reinforcing an
     undesired behavior on a variable schedule (because
     it will also persist)!
• Common examples of intermittent (variable)
  reinforcement
   – Temper Tantrums
   – Superstitious Behaviors
   – Gambling
    Applied Behavior Analysis
• Applied practice of operant conditioning
• Most frequently used with autism and
  other developmental disabilities
• However, operant principles can be used
  with any behavior change efforts
  – Performance management
  – Programmed System of Instruction (PSI)
Social-Cognitive Theory
               Latent Learning
•   Rats: one maze trial/day
•   One group found food every time (green line)
•   Second group never found food (blue line)
•   Third group found food on Day 11 (red line)
    – Sudden change, day 12
• Learning isn‟t the same as performance
      Social-Cognitive Concepts
• Social-learning theory
    – Observational learning
•   Attitudes
•   Attributions
•   Expectancies
•   Self-Efficacy
Bandura‟s Aggression Research
Social & Cultural Influences
        on Behavior
  What social forces shape our
          behavior?
• Roles and Rules
• Social Influences on Beliefs
• Group Dynamics
  – Behavior in groups
  – Group identity
  – Group conflicts and prejudice
Social Rules & Roles
        The Obedience Study
• Stanley Milgram and coworkers investigated
  whether people would follow orders, even when
  the order violated their ethical standards.
• Experiment consisted of participants being
  asked by an authority figure (an experimenter) to
  shock another “participant” for learning errors
• Most people were far more obedient than
  anyone expected.
  – Every single participant complied with at least some
    orders to shock another person
• Results are controversial and have generated
  much research on violence and obedience.
 Obedience Study Conclusions
• Behavior (obedience) was more strongly
  controlled by situational factors, than individual
  factors
• Situational factors associated with less
  obedience
   – When the experimenter left the room
   – When the experimenter was not perceived to be an
     authority figure
   – When 2 experimenters gave conflicting orders
   – When the victim was in the same room
   – When another participant was in the same room and
     refused to shock
        Stanford Prison Study
• Zimbardo conducted research with college
  students to determine the effect of role
  assignment on participants‟ behavior.
• Students were assigned to be prisoners or
  guards.
• Participants readily adopted their assigned roles
• Study was ended after 6 days due to severe
  stress reactions experienced by some of the
  participants
    Factors related to obedience
•   Allocating responsibility to the authority
•   Routinizing the task
•   Wanting to be polite
•   Becoming entrapped
    – Entrapment: A gradual process in which
      individuals escalate their commitment to a
      course of action to justify their investment of
      time, money, or effort.
Social Influences on Beliefs
                         Attributions
• Attribution Theory:
   – The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and
     other peoples‟ behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to
     a situation or a disposition.
• Fundamental Attribution Error:
   – The tendency, in explaining other people‟s behavior,
     to overestimate dispositional (e.g., personality) factors and
     underestimate the influence of the situation.
   – Just-world Hypothesis + FAE = Blaming the Victim
• Self-serving Bias:
   – The tendency to use
  dispositional attributions to
  explain our successes and
  situational attributions to
  explain our failures
                  Attitudes
• Attitude:
  – A relatively stable opinion containing beliefs
    and emotional feelings about a topic.
• Familiarity Effect:
  – The tendency of people to feel more positive
    toward something because they‟ve seen it
    often
• Validity Effect:
  – The tendency of people to believe that a
    statement is true or valid simply because it
    has been repeated many times.
Influencing Attitudes
Does advertising attempt to
   influence attitudes?
Product Placement
Individuals in Groups
                  Conformity
• Research study by Ashe: Subjects in a group were
  asked to match line lengths.
• Confederates in the group picked the wrong line.
• Subjects went along with the wrong answer on 37% of
  trials.



     No, it‟s
     not hard!

                  Sample           A B C
              Groupthink

• In close-knit groups, the tendency for all
  members to think alike and suppress
  disagreement for the sake of harmony.
• Historical examples
  – Bay of Pigs
  – Challenger & Columbia space shuttle
    tragedies
  – War in Iraq?
    Diffusion & Deindividuation
• Diffusion of Responsibility:
   – In organized or anonymous groups, the tendency of
     members to avoid taking responsibility for actions or
     decisions because they assume that others will do so.
   – Bystander apathy
      • Kitty Genovese case
   – Social loafing
• Deindividuation:
   – In groups or crowds, the loss of
   awareness of one‟s own individuality.
Us Versus Them: Group
       Identity
                 Group Identity
• Social Identity:
   – The part of a person‟s self-concept that is based on
     identification with a nation, culture, or group or with
     gender or other roles in society.
• Ethnic Identity:
   – A person‟s identification with a racial, religious, or
     ethnic group.
• Ethnocentrism:
   – The belief that one‟s own ethnic group, nation, or
     religion is superior to all others.
                Stereotypes
• Stereotype:
  – A cognitive schema or a summary impression
    of a group, in which a person believes that all
    members of the group share a common trait
    or traits (positive, negative, or neutral).
• Prejudice:
  – A negative stereotype about a group,
    combined with a strong dislike or hatred for
    members of that group.
Group Conflicts and Prejudice
    Robbers‟ Cave
     Experiment
• Boys were randomly
  separated into two
  groups
   – “Rattlers” and “Eagles”
• Competitions fostered
  hostility between the
  groups.
• Experimenters contrived
  situations requiring
  cooperation for success.
• Cross-group friendships
  increased.
Reducing Prejudice and Conflict
• Groups must have equal legal status, economic
  opportunities, and power.
• Authorities and community institutions must
  endorse egalitarian norms and provide moral
  support and legitimacy for both sides.
• Both sides must have opportunities to work and
  socialize together, formally and informally.
• Both sides must cooperate, working together for
  a common goal.
Psychological Disorders
    What is Abnormal Behavior?

•   Statistical infrequency
•   Violation of social norms
•   Subjective distress
•   Disability or dysfunction
What is Mental Illness/Psychological
            Disorder?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
  Disorders, 4th Edition, Revised (DSM-IV-TR):
– A syndrome or pattern
– Associated with distress or disability for the
  individual
– That is not an expectable (culturally
  sanctioned) response to a particular event
– And that is not merely a conflict between the
  individual and society
       Evolution of the DSM
• Original DSM published in 1952, was
  relatively brief, focused on psychoses and
  neuroses, and was psychodynamically-
  driven
• Over time, the DSM (now in 4th revision)
  has become lengthier, more descriptive
  and atheoretical, and empirically-driven
                Assessment
• Reliability
• Validity
        Assessment: Sources of
             Information
• Diagnostic/Clinical Interview
  – Structured
  – Unstructured
• Behavioral Observations
• Information from Other Sources
  – Records
  – Reports from others
• Test Results
  – Objective tests
  – Projective tests
        Objective vs. Projective
         Sample Test Items
• MMPI-2:
  – It would be better if almost all laws were
    thrown away (T-F)
  – I frequently find myself worrying about
    something (T-F)
• Rorschach Inkblot:
                      Clinical
                     Interview




Testing                                 Observations

                    Assessment
                     Of Person




                                 Information
     Professional
                                    From
      Knowledge
                                    Others
Anxiety Disorders
            Anxiety Disorders
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
  – A continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of
    worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in
    concentration, and signs of motor tension.
• Panic Disorder:
  – An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences
    recurring panic attacks (feelings of impending doom
    or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms
    such as rapid breathing and dizziness).
  – Agoraphobia: “fear of the marketplace”, can result
    from (and exacerbate) panic disorder.
            Anxiety Disorders
• Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):
  – An anxiety disorder in which a person who has
    experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has
    symptoms such as re-experiencing the trauma,
    increased physiological arousal, and emotional
    numbing.
• Specific Phobia
  – An irrational fear of a particular object, activity, or
    situation that provokes an immediate anxiety
    response, results in avoidance behavior, and causes
    significant disruption in functioning.
      Some Common (and not so
         common) Phobias
•   Heights- Acrophobia
•   Flying- Aviophobia or Aviatophobia
•   Spaces, confined- Claustrophobia
•   Spiders- Arachnophobia
•   Needles- Aichmophobia or Belonephobia
•   Politicians- Politicophobia
•   Tests, taking- Testophobia
           Anxiety Disorders
• Social Phobia:
  – Characterized by an irrational and intense
    fear that one‟s behavior in a public situation
    will be mocked or criticized by others, along
    with avoidance of feared social situations
  – Common triggers: public speaking, eating in
    public, performing in public, informal social
    situations
              Anxiety Disorders
• Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD):
  – Obsessions: persistent and intrusive ideas, thoughts,
    impulses, or images.
  – Compulsions: repetitive and seemingly purposeful
    behavior performed in response to uncontrollable
    urges or according to a ritualistic or stereotyped set of
    rules.
                     Examples
• Obsession: Student has urge to shout obscenities in a
  quiet classroom.
• Compulsion: She feels compelled to screw and unscrew
  the cap of a ballpoint pen five times each time she thinks
  of an obscene word.

• Obsession: A man believes he might inadvertently
  contaminate food as he cooks dinner for his family.
• Compulsion: On a daily basis, he sterilizes all cooking
  utensils, scours every pot and pan, and wears rubber
  gloves when handling any food.
   Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
• Biological perspective
   –   Genetic predisposition
   –   Hyperactive amygdala
   –   Highly sensitive respiratory alarm system (panic disorder)
   –   Abnormality in the orbital cortex of the basal ganglia and the
       “worry circuit” in the brain (OCD)
• Learning perspective
   – Classical conditioning
   – Operant conditioning
   – Social learning
• Cognitive perspective
   – Catastrophic thinking
   – Mind reading (social phobia)
   – Perfectionistic thinking (OCD)
Mood Disorders
Symptoms of Major Depression
                                       DSM IV Requires 5 of these
•   Depressed mood                       within the past 2 weeks

•   Reduced interest in almost all activities
•   Significant weight gain or loss, without dieting
•   Sleep disturbance (insomnia or too much sleep)
•   Change in motor activity (increase or decrease)
•   Fatigue or loss of energy
•   Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
•   Reduced ability to think or concentrate
•   Recurrent thoughts of death
      Theories of Depression
• Biological explanations emphasize genetics and
  brain chemistry.
• Social explanations emphasize the stressful
  circumstances of people‟s lives.
• Attachment/interpersonal explanations
  emphasize problems with close relationships.
• Cognitive explanations emphasize particular
  habits of thinking and ways of interpreting
  events.
• “Vulnerability-Stress” explanations draw on all
  four explanations described above.
                    Mania
• Persistently elevated, expansive, or
  irritable mood
  – Inflated self-esteem (grandiosity)
  – Decreased need for sleep
  – Talkativeness
  – Racing thoughts
  – Distractibility
  – Increased activity or psychomotor agitation
  – Behavioral impulsivity
            Bipolar Disorder
• Bipolar Disorder:
  – A mood disorder in
    which episodes of
    depression and mania
    (excessive euphoria)
    occur.
  – Bipolar subtypes
    (I and II)
Schizophrenia
           Positive and Negative
                 Symptoms
• Positive Symptoms: Cognitive, emotional, and
  behavioral excesses
   –   Hallucinations
   –   Bizarre Delusions
   –   Incoherent Speech
   –   Inappropriate/Disorganized Behaviors
• Negative Symptoms: Cognitive, emotional, and
  behavioral deficits
   –   Loss of Motivation
   –   Emotional Flatness
   –   Social Withdrawal
   –   Slowed speech or no speech
    Theories of Schizophrenia
• Genetic predispositions
• Neurotransmitter abnormalities
• Structural brain abnormalities
       Genetic Vulnerability to
          Schizophrenia
• The risk of developing schizophrenia (i.e.,
  prevalence) in one‟s lifetime increases as the
  genetic relatedness with a diagnosed
  schizophrenic increases.
Structural Abnormalities in Sz



                       MRI scans show that a
                       person with
                       Schizophrenia (left) is
                       more likely than a
                       healthy person (right)
                       to have enlarged
                       ventricles.
                     Case Examples
•   1. Barry has been feeling overwhelmed with feelings of sadness and
    hopelessness for the past couple of months. He cannot think of any reason
    for feeling this way, which also leaves him feeling frustrated and more
    despondent. He has little appetite and has been having problems sleeping
    and concentrating. He has stopped hanging out with his friends and spends
    much of his time alone in his apartment. Although he is against suicide for
    religious reasons, Barry is even beginning to understand why someone
    might make that choice, as he is finding it increasingly hard to get through
    each day.
•   2. Six months ago, Candace was sitting at her desk at work when, all of a
    sudden, she started feeling really strange. Her ears seemed to be stuffed
    with cotton and her vision was very dim. She was cold, had broken out in a
    sweat, and felt extremely afraid for no good reason. Her heart was racing
    and she immediately became convinced that she was dying. Candace went
    for almost a month before she experienced another similar episode. Then,
    they began occurring more frequently, particularly when she traveled or
    found herself in an unfamiliar place. In the past few months, she has started
    to avoid places in which she fears she may have an episode and won‟t be
    able to escape or get help. She rarely leaves her house except to go to
    work and may end up losing her job due to her unwillingness to travel on
    business. She has consulted her family physician and a cardiologist, but
    neither has found a medical cause for her episodes.
                     Case Examples
•   3. Matthew‟s family has been getting concerned about his odd behavior. He
    has stopped going to his classes, often is found mumbling to himself or
    avoiding others altogether, and has expressed fear that his landlord and his
    neighbor are out to get him. He has started wearing many layers of clothes,
    despite the warm weather. When asked about this, he vaguely explained
    that “they told me I need to be prepared.”
•   4. Mary was always coming up with grand plans for making money, pouring
    her time and vast amounts of energy into each idea (often spending 18-20
    hour days on the project of the moment, with little time for sleep), none of
    which lasted very long before she abandoned them. The latest scheme is to
    buy a huge tract of land and build an expensive “dude” ranch where people
    can come to learn how to train their horses, eat at a four-star restaurant, and
    stay in luxury accommodations – all this in spite of the fact that Mary doesn‟t
    have the money to buy the land, knowledge of how to run a hotel, or have a
    four-star chef handy. Indeed, she has already filed for bankruptcy and has
    alienated her family due to outstanding debts, in relation to previous, similar
    grand ideas.
•   5. Joe‟s relatives are concerned that he worries too much. He worries about
    little things going wrong, he worries about big things going wrong, and
    sometimes it seems he worries because there‟s nothing to worry about. He
    worries until his neck is stiff and has a hard time winding down to go to sleep
    at night.
Treatment and Psychotherapy
 Pharmacotherapy: Mechanism of
            Action
• Anti-depressants: increase serotonin,
  norepinephrine, and dopamine
• Anti-anxiety medications: either act on the
  above neurotransmitters or increase
  GABA
• Anti-psychotics: decrease dopamine
Psychotherapy
       Psychodynamic Therapy
• Origins in Freud‟s psychodynamic theory of personality
• Assumptions
   – Our behavior is influenced by unconscious motives, drives, and
     conflicts
   – Our ego employs defense mechanisms to help us cope with
     these unconscious conflicts
   – Early childhood experiences are central to our personality
     development and later adult functioning
• Treatment
   – Techniques used to examine unconscious material (free
     association, dream analysis, examination of slips of the tongue)
   – Psychoanalysis vs. time-limited psychodynamic therapy
• Treatment goal
   – Increased insight into unconscious dynamics
           Behavioral Therapy
• Origins in principles of learning
• Assumptions
   – Problematic behaviors and symptoms have
     developed as a result of classical conditioning,
     operant conditioning, or social learning
• Treatment
   – Classical conditioning interventions: systematic
     desensitization (counter-conditioning and graduated
     exposure), aversion therapy
   – Operant conditioning interventions: self-management,
     token economy
   – Social learning interventions: skills training
Fear Hierarchy
           Cognitive Therapy
• Grew out of socio-cognitive theory
• Assumptions
  – Our cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, appraisals) play an
    important role in determining how the environment
    impacts us
  – Maladaptive schemas can lead to cognitive
    distortions, which affect emotions and behaviors
• Treatment
  – Thought monitoring
  – Cognitive restructuring
  – Often combined with Behavior Therapy interventions
    (CBT)
 How cognitions might be changed:
• Patient: “I‟ve had an awful day! My car wouldn‟t start this
  morning, and everything has gone wrong since. I don‟t
  think my luck will ever change.”
• Clinician: “Is it the case that everything has gone wrong,
  or more like a few pretty bad things? Is it making things
  better or worse, this belief that things are awful and won‟t
  change?” (RET – change via logical examination)
• Clinician: “What‟s the evidence that your luck won‟t
  change? Is there any evidence your luck will change?
  For example, have you had bad days in the past, and
  then things have gotten a bit better later? How could we
  put this belief to the test?” (CT – change via empirical
  examination)
             Humanistic Therapy
• Originated as alternative view to psychodynamic and
  CBT models (positive psychology)
• Assumptions
   – People (clients) are experts on their own experiences
   – People are intrinsically motivated towards growth
   – Increased self-awareness and self-acceptance can promote
     growth
   – Self-discovery and self-acceptance can be facilitated via the
     client-therapist relationship
• Therapy
   – Person-Centered (Carl Rogers): Emphasis on therapeutic
     relationship
   – Gestalt/Experiential (Fritz Perls): Emphasis on increasing
     awareness in the here-and-now
   – Existential (Victor Frankl): Emphasis on helping the client
     explore the “ultimate concerns” of life (e.g., death, isolation,
     meaninglessness)
     Family Systems Therapy
• Key Assumption
  – Problems and solutions reside within the family
    system as a whole, not with individual members of the
    family
• Therapy
  – Therapy sessions usually involve multiple family
    members
  – Many different types of family systems therapy exist,
    but focus is generally on improving communications
    among family members and realigning relationships
    (e.g., getting parents to work together as a team)
      Psychotherapy Overview
• Review of 475 psychotherapy outcome studies showed
  70-80% improvement for those receiving therapy (M.
  Smith et al., 1980)
• Cognitive-behavioral treatment has the most empirical
  support
• However, treatment comparison research has not found
  overwhelming support for the efficacy of one therapy
  approach over others (except for specific disorders)
• Common factors seem to account for much of the
  treatment gains in therapy (being listened to by a
  supportive helping professional, being provided with
  feedback, being seen in a professional setting, paying for
  services)
• Most therapists in the US identify themselves as
  integrative/eclectic or cognitive-behavioral