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Tavi VI qarTuli eklesia VII saukuneSi

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					432                                    mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e




                T a v i VI


 qarTuli eklesia VII saukuneSi




                         ... m a m u l i d a e r o v n e b a m i aS v e l a
         samRvdeloebam rjuls, rjuli _ mamulsa
             d a e r o v n e b a s a d a e gr e T m o Z R v r e b u l m a
                         e r m a e s s a m e b a wa i m ZR v a r a wi n . ..
                                                    ilia marTali
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               433




                   qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba
                          VII saukuneSi

  VI saukunis II naxevarSi gardaicvala qarTlis mefe bakuri. `mokuda
bakur da darCes Svilni misni wurilni, romelni ver i pyrobdes mefobasa~.1
qarTlSi gauqmda mefoba. saukunis bolos sparseTis mefem hormizdma Tavi-
si Ze, qasre (xosro) ambarvezi gamogzavna saqarTvelos mosazRvre terito-
riebis mmarTvelad. bardavSi mjdomma qasrem qarTlis erisTavebi gadaibi-
ra, aRuTqva maT didi sikeTe, ris gamoc isini ganudgnen qarTvel mefeTa
taxts da saTiTaod uxdidnen xarks qasres, rac saxelmwifos daSlas
niSnavda. amis Semdeg male sparseTSi SeiWrnen Turqebi da berZnebi. qasre
iZulebuli gaxda mietovebina bardavi da sparseTSi wasuliyo. Seqmnili
mdomareoba qarTvelebma Tavisi saxelmwifos aRdgenisaTvis gamoiyenes.
  `esreT ra ucalo iqmnes sparsni, maSin SeiTqunes yovelni erisTavni
qarTlisani, zemoni da quemoni, da wagzavnes mociquli winaSe berZenTa
mefisa da iTxoves, raTa uCinos mefe naTesavTagan mefeTa qarTlisaTa da
raTa iyvnen erisTavni igi TYsTYssa saerisTaosa Seucvalebelad~.2.
  keisars aRusrulebia qarTveli erisTavebis Txovna _ `maSin keisarman
aRasrula Txovna maTi, da mosca mefed diswuli mirdatisi, vaxtangis Zisa,
berZnis colisagan, romelsa erqva guaram, romeli mTavrobda klarjeTs da
javaxeTs~.3
  guaram kurapalati dedis mxridan farnavazian-xosroiani yofila, xolo
mamis mxridan bagratovani. keisarma guaram kurapalats daaqiravebina Crdil-
okavkasielebi da Seagzavnina sparseTSi. sparseTSi SeWrili mebrZolebi
daamarcxa mxedarTmTavarma bahram Cubinma. berZenTa jarma da misma mokav-
Sireebma sparseTi datoves. amis Semdeg gamarjvebuli bahram Cubini aujany-
da sparseTis mefes, daamarcxa is da Camoagdo taxtidan. mefis Ze bizantiaSi
gaiqca. keisarma mas Tavisi asuli miaTxova, misca jari da Segzavna sparseT-
Si. qasrem, anu xosro II-m (591-628) daamarcxa ajanyebulebi da gamefda.
  `am daxmarebis samadloblad xosro II-m, somexi istorikosis sebeosis
sityviT, iberiis mometebuli nawili q. Tbilisamde mavrike keisars gadasca.
es unda momxdariyo 591 wels. am daTmobis Sedegad iberia kvlav orad
gaiyo. amasTanave iberiis dasavleTi nawili q. Tbilisamde bizantiis xelSi
434                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gadasula, xolo aRmosavleTi nawili isev sparsTa batonebs SerCenia. mefe
xosrom amas garda Tavis samefoSi qristianobis Tavisufleba gamoacxada~.4
    `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, siZesa da simamrs, anu xosrosa da mavrike
keisars Soris sazavo SeTanxmebisas, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miqcevia
qarTuli eklesiis saqmes. kerZod, bizantia amtkicebda, rom sparsTa batono-
bis dros saqarTveloSi qristianoba Seiryvna _ `mZlavrebisagan... iqmnis
garyunil qarTli~. amitomac berZenTa mxarem xosros moTxovna wauyena:
`...vinaATgan srulsa siyuarulsa zeda varT me da Sen da qarTli Cuen
Soris iyavn Tavisufal mSYdobiT: me var mwe da mouravi yovelTa qarTvel-
Ta da yovelTa qristianeTa~.5 amis Semdeg, 591 wlidan daaxloebiT 604
wlamde, saqarTvelo ganTavisuflebula sparsTa batonobisagan _ `ganTavisu-
fldes qarTvelni da ese guaram kurapalati dadga morCilebasa zeda
berZenTasa~.6
    `qarTlis cxovrebis~ am cnobas exmianeba uxtanesi, romelic amtkicebs,
rom kirionma Tavisi cnobili moZraoba daiwyo mavrike keisris uSualo
mxardaWeriT, e.i. qarTlis sparsTagan Tavisuflebis dros. marTlac, kirio-
ni somexTagan `ganyofisaTvis~ moZraobis dawyebas ver gabedavda sparsTa
saqarTveloze batonobis dros. man isargebla im momentiT, roca bizan-
tielebma saqarTvelo TiTqmis Tbilisamde gaaTavisufles. marTalia, 604
wlidan 607-609 wlebis CaTvliT saqarTvelo kvlav sparseTis zegavlenas
ganicdis, magram am wlebSi _ ierusalimis dapyrobamde _ xosro II-s gamocx-
adebuli hqonda qristianTa Tavisufleba. uxtanesis Tanaxmad, `sumbatma...
keisris nebac Seityo, rom Tanaxmaa kirionis da misi brZanebiT ariso es
ambavi~. z. aleqsiZe daaskvnis: `sparseTis mefes axlad dapyrobil qveynebSi
religiis Tavisufleba ucvnia... kirionis religiur politikaSi CarTulia
bizantiis keisari da yvelaferi misi brZanebiT xdeba~.7
    guaram kurapalatis Zem, stefanozma, `mefobisa saxeli ver ikadra spars-
Ta da berZenTa SiSisagan, aramed erisTavTa mTavrad xadodes~.8 igi `atarebda
patrikiozis bizantiur tituls, Semdeg ganudga bizantias da sparseTis
orientaciis gzas daadga~.9 stefanozis orientaciis Secvla gamoiwvia poli-
tikurma viTarebam _ mavrike keisari da misi memkvidreebi daxoca ajanye-
bulma mxedarTmTavarma fokam. sparsTa mefe xosro II aRaSfoTa simamrisa
da colisZmebis daxocvam, SeiWra saberZneTSi da foka daamarcxa. am dros
`stefanoz, mTavari qarTlisa, SeuSinda mefesa sparsTasa, ganudga berZenTa
da mieqca sparsTa~.10
    604 wlidan xosrom gadamwyveti upiratesoba moi pova bizantiasTan brZo-
laSi amierkavkasiis teritoriaze. sparseTis es upiratesoba 620-ian wle-
bamde grZeldeba.11
    607 wlisaTvis `qarTlidan bizantielebi ukve gandevnes sparselebma,
magram aq maT Tavisi xelisufleba jer kidev mtkiced ar daumyarebiaT~.12
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                     435
swored am mizeziT unda aixsnas am wlebSi sparseTis mier religiuri
Tavisuflebis gamocxadebis faqtic.
   z. aleqsiZis azriT `VII saukunis pirvel aTeulSi qarTli Zlieri sax-
elmwifoa...~13 marTlac, qarTlis Zlierebis safuZvels qmnida aRmosavleT-
dasavleT saqarTvelos faqtiuri gaerTianeba, ris Sedegadac dasavleT
saqarTvelosac `qarTli~ ewodeboda. qarTlis Zliereba imaSic gamovlinda,
rom man Tamamad miiRo is sarwmunoebrivi orientacia, romelic Tavisi
erovnuli arsebobis safuZvlad miaCnda. kirionis gabeduli moqmedeba, cxa-
dia, qarTlis siZlieres emyareba. `juanSeris monaTxrobidan aseTi viTare-
ba warmogvidgeba: bizantiis politikuri uflebis qveS guaram kurapalatis
mTavrobiT (Tu mefobiT) erTiandeba qarTli da aRdgeba leonti mrovelis-
agan aRwerili `yoveli qarTlis~ farglebSi (daaxloebiT im rva saerisTa-
vos farglebSi, romelic farnavazma `ganaCina~)~.14
   sruliad icvleba qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareoba 613-614 wlebidan _
xosro II-is mier ierusalimis aRebis Semdgom. am dromde is yvela qris-
tianul adgilobriv eklesias met-nakleb sarwmunoebriv Tavisuflebas ani-
Webda, ierusalimis aRebis Semdgom man gasca mkacri brZaneba: `yvela Cemma
qveSevrdomma qristianma unda miiRos somxuri sarwmunoeba~. es brZaneba
sruliadac ar iyo lmobieri. ZalaSi Sedioda qarTlisaTvisac...~15
   ierusalimis aRebis Semdeg, daaxloebiT 614 wels xosro II-m moiwvia
saeklesio, e.w. `sparsuli kreba~, romelsac Zalze didi mniSvneloba eniWe-
boda. misi gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba savaldebulo iyo sparseTis imperi-
aSi moqceuli yvela eklesiisaTvis, maT Soris qarTuli eklesiisTvisac.
   `bizantiaze gamarjvebis pirvel etapze, sebeosis mixedviT, xosros dapy-
robili qveynebisaTvis marTlac miucia religiis Tavisufleba da `xorcie-
li samsaxuriT~ dakmayofilebula, magram ierusalimis `wartyvevis~ Semdeg
xosrom radikalurad Seicvala pozicia da e.w. `sparsuli krebac~ swored
amitom moiwvia~.16
   es kreba mouwveviaT sparseTis samefo karze. Zveli wyaroebi aRniSnaven,
rom VI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi kavad mefisa da misi Zis, xosro I-is dros
yvela qristians ufleba eZleoda somexTa, anu somxuri sarwmunoebis Sevi-
wroebis gareSe hqonoda Tavisi aRmsarebloba. VII saukunis I naxevarSi ki,
xosro II-s gaucia brZaneba, rom mis yvela qveSevrdom qristians mieRo
somxuri sarwmunoeba. adre `kavad mefem da misma Zem xosrom gasces brZane-
ba: `TiToeulma Tavis sarwmunoeba ipyras da nuravis eqneba somexTa Sevi-
wroebis ufleba...~.17 614 wlis krebis dadgenilebis safuZvelze ki xosrom
daadgina: `yvela Cemma qveSevrdomma qristianma unda miiRos somxuri sarw-
munoeba~.18 xosro II-is es brZaneba mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba misi winamorbedis,
xosro I-is gankargulebisagan. Tu xosro I aravis aZlevda Tavis imperiaSi
somxuri sarwmunoebis Seviwroebis uflebas, xosro II imperiaSi mcxovreb
yvela qristians avaldebulebda mieRo somxuri sarwmunoeba.
436                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   uTuod xosro II-is brZanebis Sedegs unda warmoadgendes, rom qarTlis
kaTalikosic da erismTavari stefanozic monofizitebi gamxdaran: `spar-
sul-somxuri orientaciis mqone monofizit stefanozsa da kaTalikos bar-
Tlomes upirispirdebian bizantiur-qalkedonuri (ukeT, Semrigebluri) partiis
warmomadgenlebi _ kirioni, adarnase da sxvebi~.19
   `616_622 wlebi sparselTa ganuyofeli warmatebis xanaa~,20 amitomac `her-
akles laSqrobamde qarTlis saxelmwifo religia monofizituria~.21
   mematianis cnobiT, stefanoz erismTavari `iyo urwmuno da uSiSi RmerTi-
sa, ara hmsaxura RmerTsa, arca hmata sjulsa da eklesiaTa~.22 stefanozi
mcxeTis jvris didebuli taZris erT-erTi maSenebelia. mematianis gan-
sazRvra, TiTqosda stefanozma `ara hmata eklesiaTa~, imiTaa gamowveuli,
rom erismTavari ar aris qalkedoniti.
   `stefanoz mTavrobda yovelsa qarTlsa zeda, da dajda igi tfiliss, da
hmorCilebda igi sparsTa~.23 `yoveli qarTli~ maSin ewodeboda erTian saqarTve-
los _ Savi zRvidan da egriswylidan, vidre albaneTamde.
   monofizitTa batonoba qarTlSi didxans ar gagrZelebula. maT aRzeve-
bas bolo mouRo herakle keisris laSqrobam sparseTSi, romelic
saqarTvelodan daiwyo. heraklem `...Sekribna spani uricxuni da warmoemar-
Ta sparseTad Zebnad Zelisa cxovrebisasa da movida pirvelad qarTls~.24
zogierTi wyaros Tanaxmad, herakle pirvelad trapezundis sanaxebSi mivi-
da, romelsac `sofeli megrelTa~ ewodeboda.
   `aman stefanoz ara ineba gandgoma sparsTagan, da ganamagrna cixe-qalaq-
ni, da dadga tfilissa Sina. mivida herakle mefe da moadga tfilissa...
Camoagdes stefanoz da mokles. da dai pyra keisarman tfilisi~.25 xolo
Tbilisis cixe ver aiRo, romlis mecixovneebmac mas mwared dascines.
   sparsTa winaaRmdeg laSqrobisas, sruliad gasagebi mizezebis gamo, her-
akles miemxro qarTlis erTi nawili da gansakuTrebiT ki, dasavleTi
saqarTvelo. orive es mxare qalkedonituri iyo. herakles laSqrobas ki
qalkedonitTa gamarjveba da monofizitTa damxoba unda gamoewvia.
   saqarTvelos samxreT-aRmosavleTi mxaris qarTveloba garkveuli xnis
manZilze somxuri eklesiis gavlenis qveS moeqca. aq monofizituri, anu
sparsuli orientacia sWarbobda, ris gamoc gugarq-qvemo qarTli TbilisiTurT
sparseTis erTguli darCa. saqarTvelos qalkedonurma nawilma ki herak-
les qveSevrdomoba manamde SeinarCuna, vidre am ukanasknelma Tavisi damp-
yrobluri buneba ar gamoamJRavna. `herakles erTi wlis Semdeg undoda...
xosros Sehbmoda, magram jarma, metadre ki lazebma, afxazebma da iberebma
mokavSireoba ar moindomes, xolo rodesac herakles sparsTa laSqari
moewia, lazebma da afxazebma mokavSireobaze keisars uari uTxres da
Sinisaken gaemgzavrnen~.26
   heraklem sparseTze orjer gailaSqra 623-624 da 626 wlebSi, rodesac
igi lazikaSi Cavida.27
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               437
  `somex istorikos mose kalankatuels q. Tbilisis aReba dawvrilebiT
aqvs aRwerili da misi cnobebi bevrad gansxvavdeba qarTveli mematianis
moTxrobisagan. somexi mematianis sityviT, herakle mefes 626 wels meSve-
lad imier-kavkasiidan gadmouyvania jibRu xakani... 627 w. gadmovida Turme
imier-kavkasiaSi, imave wels herakle keisari da jibRu xakani SeerTebuli
mxedrobiT... Tbiliss miadga~.28 herakle keisarma sastikad daamarcxa xos-
ro II da sparseTis saxelmwifo ganadgurebamde miiyvana, manamde ki man
saqarTvelos mmarTveli erismTavrebis dinastia dasaja, CamoarTva qveynis
meTauroba bagrationebs da misca xosroianebs, kerZod, mokluli stefanozis
magier man daniSna adarnase: `maSin keisarman mouwoda Zesa bakurissa,
qarTvelTa mefisasa, naTesavsa daCisasa, vaxtangis Zisasa, romeli erisTaob-
da kaxeTs, romelsa erqua adarnase, da misca mas tfilisi da mTavroba
qarTlisa~..29
  mematiane stefanozis dasjisa da misi STamomavlobis erismTavrobidan
CamoSorebis mizezsac asaxelebs: `amisTYs uyo ese RmerTman mTavarsa mas
stefanozs, rameTu ara mindobiTa RmerTisaTa cxovndeboda da morwmuneTa
emtereboda da urwmunoTa moyurobda~.30 qalkedoniti mematiane, urwmunoeba-
Si gulisxmobs ara cecxlTayvanismcemlebs, aramed monofizitebs, xolo
morwmuneebs uwodebs qalkedonitebs. stefanozi, mcxeTis jvris maSenebeli,
cxadia, qristiani iyo, rogorc Cans, monofiziti.
  mefis ojaxis garda, herakles sastikad dausjia rigiTi qarTveli qris-
tianebi (SesaZloa monofizitebi). mas qveynis mTavari qalaqebis, Tbilisisa
da ujarmis eklesiebSi Seurekia qarTveli qristianebi da iq amouxocavs.
Turme eklesiebidan sisxlis mdinareebi dioda. herakles axsovda, rom
sparseTze laSqrobis dros qarTvelma monofizitebma, `stefanozma da
msaxurTa misTa~, didi winaaRmdegoba gauwies. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ mixed-
viT, `herakle ganwmida Sjuli qristeAsi da wavida~.31 qristes Sjulis
ganwmendaSi, albaT, igulisxmeba, sparseTis momxre monofizitebis dasja da
qalkedonitebis gamarjveba.
  heraklem es sasjeli ar ikmara. qarTul eklesias waarTva udidesi siwmide-
ni _ `ferxTa ficarni da samsWualni uflisa Cuenisa iesos qristesni... Sewux-
na adarnase, qarTlisa mTavari, da evedreboda keisarsa, raTa ara warixunes
niWni igi RmrTisamierni. ara ismina keisarman vedreba misi da warixuna~.32
  herakle keisarma mkacrad dasaja qarTuli saxelmwifoc: `maSin kualad
wariRes berZenTa sazRvari qarTlisa: speri da bolo klarjeTisa, zRYs
piri~.33 es, albaT, lazebis Ralatisa da sparseTTan omis dros urCobi-
saTvis sasjeli iyo.
  SavizRvispireTi klarjeTis bolodan dawyebuli, kvlav berZenTa xelSi
gadavida iseve, rogorc vaxtang gorgaslis siWabukis dros. amis Semdgom
qarTlis am mitacebul teritoriebze, anu fazissa da lazikaze, daaxloe-
438                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
biT 630-iani wlebidan IX saukunemde da Semdgomac, saeklesio iurisdiqcias
axorcielebs konstantinopolis sapatriarqo. qalkedonis krebis Tanaxmad,
eklesiis sazRvari unda emTxveodes saxelmwifos sazRvars. berZenTa poli-
tikuri Zalaufleba dasavleT saqarTvelos Suagulamde gavrcelda, amitom
am sazRvrebSi moqceuli qarTuli eklesia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos
iurisdiqciaSi Sevidoda. daaxloebiT am dros (631 wels) fazisis mitro-
politi kirosi, romelic, z. aleqsiZis azriT, mcxeTidan gaZevebuli kironi
iyo, gadaiyvanes aleqsandriis patriarqad, romelsac berZnebi ar hyvarebia
da arabTa Semosevis dros gauZevebia isini egvi ptis qalaqebidan. aseT
mopyrobas imsaxurebda herakle keisari qarTuli eklesiis gansakuTrebuli
sisastikiT dasjisaTvis.
   gansxvavebulia herakles damokidebuleba somxuri eklesiisadmi. `wyaroebi
mas somxuri warmoSobisad Tvlian...~34 herakle keisars imperiis siZlieris
safuZvlad sarwmunoebrivi erToba miaCnda, amitomac am miznis ganxor-
cielebisTvis igi yvela Rones xmarobda. imperiis centraluri nawili
qalkedonituri iyo, xolo aRmosavleTis sxvadasxva xalxebiT dasaxlebuli
provinciebi, ZiriTadad, monofizituri. aRmosavleTis am monofizitebis av-
toritetuli lideri im droisaTvis iyo somxuri eklesia, romelic, faqto-
brivad, monofizituri arabizantiuri mimdinareobis centrad aqcia sparse-
Tis imperiam. heraklem gadawyvita mieRwia monofizitTa da qalkedonitTa
erTianobisaTvis. man daiwyo molaparakeba somxuri eklesiis meTaurebTan.
`herakle keisari friad dainteresebulia somxebTan religiuri uniis SekvriT~.35
`monofizitebTan unia misi sasicocxlo programa gaxda~.36 marTlac, herak-
lem warmatebas miaRwia somxebTan molaparkebis dros da `...630 wels miaRwia
unias somexTa kaTalikos ezrasTan~.37 somxeTi daemorCila unias~.38
   amis Semdeg, mTeli VII saukunis manZilze, somxur eklesias ufro qalke-
donituri eTqmis, vidre 726 wlis manaskertis krebamde.
   somxuri eklesia VII saukuneSi kvlav lideria amierkavkasiis masStabiT
ise, rogorc VI saukuneSi. Tu VI saukuneSi is sparseTisaTvis misaRebi da
aRiarebuli eklesia iyo, axla ukve VII saukuneSi, Tavisi moqnili poli-
tikis wyalobiT, bizantiisaTvis misaRebi da nebadarTuli eklesia gaxda.
TviT sparseTze gamarjvebuli bizantiis imperatori herakle masTan mola-
parakebas awarmoebs da erTobis xelSekrulebas debs, amave dros ki, herak-
lem sastikad dasaja qarTuli eklesia. somxuri eklesiis siZlierem da
avtoritetma aRmosavleTis qristianebSi iZulebuli gaxada herakle keisa-
ri masTan molaparakeba ewarmoebina.
   herakles laSqrobis Semdeg, somxuri eklesia iseve aris qalkedonituri,
rogorc qarTuli eklesia. isini kvlav erTmorwmuneni arian, erTmorwmuneo-
bis gamo ki, somxur eklesias saSualeba mieca kvlav ganecxadebina Tavisi
pretenziebi qarTul eklesiaze uflebamosilebis Sesaxeb. SeiZleba es iyo
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 439
erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom qarTuli eklesiis mesveurebi iZulebulni gamx-
daran, antioqiis sapatriarqosaTvis eTxovaT qarTuli eklesiis avtokefali-
is dasturi, raTa arc erT mezobel eklesias masze ufleba ar hqonoda.39
   antioqiis am krebis gadawyvetileba odnav mainc Seanelebda somxuri
eklesiis pretenziebs qarTul eklesiaze.
   634-644 wlebisaTvis arabebs ukve damorCilebuli hqondaT siria, pales-
tina da iranis didi nawili.
   `bizantiis keisris, herakles, simkacriTa da sarwmunoebrivi mZulvarebiT
mobezrebuli da ukmayofilo aRmosavleTis erebi arabebs Tavdapirvelad
sixaruliT egebebodnen da berZenTa monobisagan ganmaTavisufleblad sTv-
lidnen. amgvari Sexedulebis damyarebas xels uwyobda da amtkicebda,
rasakvirvelia, is utyuari garemoeba, rom Tavdapirvelad, arabebi sxva sar-
wmunoebas (kerpTayvanismcemlobis garda), metadre ki qristianobas, Tavisu-
flebas aniWebdnen da lmobierad epyrobodnen, oRond ki dawesebuli gada-
saxadi sindisierad gadaexadaT~.40
   `aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi arabebi batonobdnen 657 wlamde, rodesac arab-
Ta Soris daiwyo Sinauri areuloba da brZola, romelic gaTavda 661 wels~.41
   arabTa mbrZanebeli iZulebuli gamxdara dazaveboda keisar konstantine
III-s da misTvis xarkic ki eZlia. 678 wels daido xelSekruleba bizantiasa
da arabebs Soris. es xelSekruleba Seicavda pirobas, rom saberZneTsa da
arabebs saqarTvelo Tanabrad eqnebodaT gayofili, an Tanasworad iba-
tonebdnen masze: ...kvi pri, somxiTi da iberia maT saerTod Tanasworad
eqmnebodaT. es xelSekruleba cxadad gviCvenebs, rom arabebis batonoba
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi am dros Seryeuli yofila da bizantia maT isev
Sescilebia~.42
   680 wels konstantinopolSi mowveuli iqna msoflio saeklesio kreba.
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTis Tanaxmad, VI msoflio kreba moiwvia imper-
atorma konstantine IV poRonatma (668-685). am krebas ganuxilavs qarTuli
eklesiis sruli damoukideblobis sakiTxi. miucia am damoukideblobisaTvis
msoflio aRiareba. krebas qarTuli eklesiis meTaurisaTvis miuniWebia
ufleba etarebina patriarqis tituli.
   aqamde am sasuliero pirs qarTlis kaTalikosi erqva. krebas ganuxilavs
qarTuli eklesiis teritoriuli avtokefaliis sazRvrebi.
   Zalze mniSvnelovania, rom am dros imave CanarTis mixedviT, antioqiis
sapatriarqomac qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs daudgina patriarqis, mociqul-
Ta taxtze mjdomisa da mociqulTa magieris wodeba. antioqiis sapatri-
arqos es dadgenileba Semdgom maleve daumtkicebia VI msoflio krebas.43
antioqiam qarTuli eklesiis sazRvrad dasavleTiT daadgina Savi zRva _
`pontos zRvidam darubandis zRvamde~.44 VI msoflio krebas iurisdiqciis
sazRvrad daudgenia: _ kaxeTi, Saqi, Sirvani, kavkasiis mTianeTi, svaneTisa da
440                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
CerqezeTis sazRvramde, oseTi.45 konstantinopolis sapatriarqo im dros
SavizRvispireTs epatroneboda, rac aisaxa kidec krebis dadgenilebaSi,
vinaidan VI msoflio krebas (680-681 wlebSi) kanonebi ar gamoucia, am
sakiTxze msjelobisas unda daveyrdnoT `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTs.
  `amis krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesiisa saqarTvelosaTYs,
romel ars wmida mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa, viTarca wmidani samo-
ciqulo kaTolike eklesiani, sapatriaqoni, da iyos kaTalikosi qarTlisa
swori patriaqTa Tana~.47 am msoflio krebam daadastura qarTuli eklesi-
is mier mironis adgilze kurTxevis ufleba.
  692 wels konstantinopolSi kvlav Sedga saeklesio kreba, romelsac
`gumbadis~, anu trulis kreba ewodeba. es iyo ara VI msoflio saeklesio
kreba, aramed man, kanonikuri TvalsazrisiT, Seavso V-VI msoflio krebebis
naRvawi da gamosca kanonebi. trulis krebis kanonebSi asaxva ver upovia
680-81 wlebis msoflio krebis gansazRvrebebs qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb,
rac, SesaZloa, Secvlili politikuri viTarebis Sedegi iyo.
  qarTuli eklesia V saukunidanve avtokefaluri iyo, magram VII saukune-
Si am sakiTxis kvlav wamoWra da dadastureba ganapiroba somxuri eklesi-
isagan ganyofis faqtma. qarTul eklesias aRar surs somxurTan `erTobis~
aRdgena. esaa SesaZlo Semotevisagan Tavdacva.
  688-689 wlebSi iustiniane II-s sardals mouwyvia laSqroba amierkavka-
siaSi, `...dauxocinebia iq myofi arabebi, xolo somxeTi, iberia da albania,
agreTve sxva qveynebic, keisrisaTvis daumorCilebia~.48
  nerse qarTlis erisTavs arabTa sardalic daumarcxebia da qarTlidan
ganudevnia, xolo dasavleT saqarTvelo, piriqiT, aujanydeba bizantielebs
da arabebis Zalis imedi aqvs.49
  saqarTvelo VII saukunis bolosaTvis ibrZvis ara marto saeklesio,
aramed politikuri damoukdeblobisaTvisac.

                iurisdiqciis sazRvrebis cvlileba
                          VII saukuneSi

  qalkedonis krebis dadgenilebis Tanaxmad, eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi
unda emTxveodes saxelmwifo sazRvrebs, anu samoqalaqo-administraciuls.
amitomac, saqarTveloSi qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebis
dros qarTuli eklesia Tavis uflebamosilebas dasavleT saqarTveloze-
dac avrcelebda, radganac es teritoria mirianis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda
iseve, rogorc wina saukuneebSi, farnavazis Semdgom. `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~,
VII saukunis Zegli, miiCnevs, rom qarTvelTa gansaxlebisa da qarTuli
saxelmwifos dasavleTi sazRvari jer kidev qristeSobamde ramdenime sauku-
niT adre gadioda Sav zRvasa da mdinare egriswyalze. vaxtang gorgaslis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               441
mier daarsebuli saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos dasavleTi sazRvari, wesis
Tanaxmad, unda damTxveoda saxelmwifos sazRvars, romelic gadioda Sav
zRvasa da egriswyalze gorgaslis siWabukis dros, xolo Semdeg sazRvarma
ukve Sav zRvas da mdinare klisuraze gadainacvla.
  VI saukune umZimesi saukune iyo qarTuli eklesiisa da saxelmwifos-
aTvis, magram sagangebod aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli sazogadoebrivi insti-
tutebi ar cnobdnen qarTuli saxelmwifos gauqmebas VI saukuneSi. am
saukunis katastrofa droebiT movlenad miaCndaT, romelic male gamos-
wordeboda. am ideidan gamomdinare, qarTuli eklesia VI saukuneSi dasav-
leT saqarTvelos Tavis kanonier iurisdiqciaSi Semaval teritoriad miiC-
nevda, cdilobda masze Tavisi iurisdiqciis gavrcelebas da axorcielebda
kidec VII saukunis 30-ian wlebamde, herakle keisris mier dasavleT saqarTve-
los zRvispira teritoriebis mitacebamde.
  VI saukunis bolosa da VII saukunis dasawyisSi dasavleT saqarTveloze
qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqcias adasturebs is faqtic, rom somexi istori-
kosebi kirions ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mamamTavrad, aramed
dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosadac miiCneven.
  mecnierTa umravlesobis mier aRiarebulia, rom `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~
aris VII saukunis Zegli, yovel SemTxvevaSi, is saqarTvelos gaerTianebaze
adrea Sedgenili. misi avtori eyrdnoba `pirveli qarTveli istorikosis~
_ grigol diakonisa da Cven dromde mouRwevel werilobiT wyaroebs.50
  grigol diakons, k. kakabaZis azriT, 380-400 wlebSi dauweria `mcire
moqcevaA qarTlisaA~. m. TarxniSvili ki miiCnevs, rom `grigolis Sroma
Sedgenili unda iyos araugvianes VII saukunis meore naxevrisa, SeiZleba V
saukuneSic~.51
  amas yuradReba miaqcia n. berZeniSvilma. is wers _ `moqcevaA~ ueWvelia,
Zvel gadmocemebs emyareba, iberiis erTianobis xanas da `yoveli qarTli~...
aq niSnavs iberias, romelSiac kaxeTic Sedis, kuxeTic, erwo-TianeTic da
sakuTriv qarTlic~.52
  mecnieri ar iziarebs miRebul Tvalsazriss Zeglis IX saukuniT daTar-
iRebis Sesaxeb da wers, rom SeuZlebelia am Txzulebis avtors IX saukune-
Si ecxovra. es wyaro mas `iberiis erTianobis xanaSi~ dawerilad miaCnia.
iberia erTiani iyo VI saukunemde, sparsTa mier mefobis gauqmebamde da
SeiZleba guaram kurapalatis drosac. n. berZeniSvils sjera am wyarosi
da qarTlis aRmosavleTi sazRvrebis aRniSvnisas, romelSic Sedis kaxeTi
da kuxeTi, mis monacemebs eyrdnoba. magram ratom ar unda daveTanxmoT am
wyaros qarTlis dasavleTis sazRvrebis gadmocemisas? wyaros Tanaxmad,
qarTlSi Sedioda ara marto kaxeTi da kuxeTi, aramed egrisic. `moqcevaA
qarTlisaAs~ mimarTeba egrisTan dakavSirebiT sagangebod Seiswavla s.
janaSiam. mkvlevari aanalizebs `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ cnobas _ `Tana
442                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
hyvanda aleqsandres mefesa azoA ZH arian qarTlisa mefeisaA da mas
miuboZa mcxeTaA sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egriswyali
da somxiTi da mTaA crolisa~ _ da ambobs: `amrigad, yovel eWvs gareSea,
rom avtorisaTvis `qarTlis~ politikur cnebaSi Sedis ara marto kaxeTi,
aramed egrisic. rac ar unda gvian gadmoitanon matianis saboloo re-
daqciis dro, IX saukunes igi mainc ver gadmoscildeba, e.i. es literatu-
ruli Zegli bevrad adrindelia saqarTvelos gaerTianebis xanaze~.53
  `matiane qarTlisaAs~ cnoba, rom egrisi qarTlSi uZvelesi droidan
Sedis, rogorc erT-erTi provincia, srul TanxmobaSia `qarTlis cxovre-
basa~, sxva qarTul da ucxour wyaroebTan, romelTa Tanaxmadac, samxreTidan
gadmosaxlebuli qarTveli xalxi daesaxla vrcel teritoriaze egriswyl-
idan, vidre hereTis CaTvliT.
  d. musxeliSvilis azriT, V saukuneSi dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo
gaerTianebulia. qarTlSi Sedis egrisi _ `vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis peri-
odi (V s-is meore naxevari) saqarTvelos istoriuli geografiis Tval-
sazrisiT uaRresad mniSvnelovani movlenebiT aRiniSna: gaerTianda aRmosav-
leTi (iveria) da dasavleTi (egrisi, afxazeTis garda); am erTiani samefos
farglebSi Semovida albaneTis momijnave mxareebic (hereTi, kambeCani)~.54
  Tu V saukuneSi qarTuli saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi Sedioda dasavleT
saqarTvelo Sav zRvasa da afxazeTamde, saeklesio kanonebis Tanaxmad, qarTul
eklesias Tavisi iurisdiqcia kidevac unda ganexorcielebina dasavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriazec, sadac am dros (V s-Si) wirva-locva qarTul
enaze aResruleboda.
  zemoT moyvanil wyaroebsa da mecnierTa daskvnebs efuZneba Cveni azri
imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTuli eklesia gaerTianda ara VII da, miT umetes, ara
IX-X, aramed IV-V saukuneebSi. am dros aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelo-
Si arsebobda erTi eklesia mcxeTis meTaurobiT.
  mosazreba, rom V saukuneSi egrisis dasavleT nawilSi RvTismsaxureba
aResruleboda ara qarTul, aramed berZnul enaze, dausabuTebelia, radga-
nac ar arsebobs romelime wyaro, romelic am Sexedulebas daadasturebda.
  didi mecnieruli mniSvneloba aqvs d. musxeliSvilis mosazrebas, rom
egrisis dasavleT nawilSi V-VI saukuneebSi wirva-locva qarTul enaze
aResruleboda (da ara IX-X ss-dan, rogorc aqamde iyo miRebuli): `amgvar-
ad, gamodis, rom uZvelesi droidanve (V s-dan?) egrisis aRmosavleT nawil-
Si oficialuri qristianuli kulti qarTul enaze sruldeboda, gansxvave-
biT misi dasavleTi nawilisagan, sadac RvTismsaxureba berZnulad iyo.
saamisod arc is aris umniSvnelo, rom VII-IX ss. bizantiur noticiebSi,
sadac CamoTvlilia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebuli
lazikis eparqiis fasidis samitropolitos oTxi saepiskoposo kaTedra,
mxolod erTi _ rodopolisis (varcixis) kaTedraa, romelic qveynis Signi-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  443
Taa, danarCeni sami ki samitropolitosTan erTad an zRvispirasaa _ fasidi
(foTi), petra (cixisZiri), ziganevi (gudayva), anda arcTu ise moSorebiT
zRvisagan _ saisini, saisi (caiSi)~.55
   arsebobda Tu ara dasavleT saqarTveloSi V-VI saukuneebSi berZnuli
saepiskoposoebi? am faqtis damamtkicebeli araviTari sabuTi ar arsebobs.
wyaroebSi mxolod VII saukunidan moixsenieba berZnuli saepiskoposoebis
arseboba. amitomac unda davaskvnaT, rom V-VI saukuneebSi dasavleT
saqarTveloSi ar Cans berZnuli saepiskoposoebi. maTi arsebobis mtkiceba
usafuZvloa.
   cnobilia, rom VI saukuneSi berZnebi TavianT garnizonebs ayenebdnen dasavleT
saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi (zogjer skanda-Sorapnamde), aages cixe-qalaqi
petra. berZnebi TavianTi jariskacebisaTvis daaarsebdnen ara saepiskopo-
soebs, aramed eklesiebs aaSenebdnen. safiqrebelia, rom bizantielTa jars
moZravi eklesiebi emsaxureboda. es mdgomareoba, garkveulwilad, SezRudav-
da qarTul eklesias dasavleT saqarTveloSi, magram VI saukuneSic qarTu-
li eklesia kvlav axorcielebs Tavis uflebamosilebas am qveyanaze. amis
damadasturebelia rogorc werilobiTi wyaroebi, aseve arqeologiuri mo-
napovari. werilobiTi wyaroebidan _ somexi istorikosebisa da vaxuStis
cnobebi, arqeologiuri monapovridan gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa foTSi aR-
moCenili masalebi, kerZod, foTis gareuban yulevSi arqeologebma aRmoaCines
Tixis sabeWdavi, romelzedac amoWrilia qarTuli aso, agreTve samSeneblo
masala, romelzedac amotvifrulia qarTuli asoebi.56
   Tu dasavleT saqarTveloSi V saukuneSi qristianoba arcTu ise farTod
iyo gavrcelebuli, VI saukuneSi aq misi gavrcelebisaTvis stimuli miucia
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qristianuli centrebidan mosaxleobis ltol-
vas. 523 wels qarTvelTa mefe ojaxiTa da didi amaliT, agreTve dide-
bulebiT, gadavida dasavleT saqarTveloSi, mefes qristianobisa da, gan-
sakuTrebiT, qalkedonitobis mimdevari mosaxleobac Tan gahyveboda, radga-
nac aRmosavleTSi qalkedonitobas devnidnen. qalkedoniti qarTveli saek-
lesio moRvawenic gadavidodnen dasavleT saqarTveloSi. aseTi ltolva
ara marto VI saukuneSi, aramed VII saukunis dasawyisSic yofila. magali-
Tad, z. aleqsiZe wers kirion qarTlis kaTalikosze: `es kirioni unda iyos
kiros fazisis mitropoliti, romelic 623 wlidan Cndeba berZnul wyaroeb-
Si~.57 mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom kirionic gadasula dasavleT saqarTveloSi.
ltolvili qarTveli qalkedoniti saeklesio pirebis gadasvla dasavleT
saqarTveloSi VI saukuneSi gamoiwvevda axali qarTuli saeklesio centre-
bis, eklesia-monastrebis daarsebasa da adgilobrivi qarTvelebis ufro
aqtiur Cabmas saeklesio cxovrebaSi. qarTuli qalkedonuri monasteri
unda yofiliyo vaSnaris nageboba das. saqarTveloSi (guriis wina qedebSi):
`vaSnaris naSenoba sakmaod mogvagonebs ujarmisas, romelsac kidevac utolde-
ba vaSnari, raRac SualedebSi mainc~.58
444                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  vaSnari SeiZleba swored V saukunis gorgaslisdroindeli Senobaa, an
VI saukuneSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan ltolvil qalkedonitebs egris-
Si gadautaniaT mSeneblobis wesi _ wyoba.
  vaSnaris `zRudisa da SenobaTa perangis Tanabarkvadratovani, horizon-
talurad wesieri wyoba imeorebs qarTlis aRmosavleT ganapiras mdgari
ujarmis cixe-darbazisa da ramdenime Soriaxlo Zeglis wyobas, romelsac
Cven pirobiTad `ujarmuls~, an `gorgaslurs~ vuwodebT da romelTac ar
moepovebaT analogi arc sakuTriv bizantiursa da arc egrisSi, iqauri
gavleniT naSen ZeglebSi. es ki egrisisa da qarTlis mWidro kulturuli
urTierTobis erT niSnad unda miviCnioT~.59
  qarTuli eklesiis arseboba dasturdeba ara marto foTsa da vaSnarSi,
aramed TviT bizantielTa mier aSenebul qalaq petraSic (cixisZiri). petra-
Si eklesiaTa Senobebic qarTuli stiliT uSenebiaT. amaze miuTiTebs cix-
isZirSi samnaviani bazilikis Txrisas aRmoCenili `bolnur-jvriani~ qva.60
  dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli eklesiis gavlena sruliad bunebrivad
aRiqmeba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom araTu dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed TviT
siria-palestinasa da egvi pteSic ki (TebeSi) qarTvelebs VI saukunesa da
VII s-is dasawyisSi monastrebi uSenebiaT. aq qarTvelebSi megrelebic
(lazebi) igulisxmeba. amis damadasturebeli isaa, rom petre ibers Tavisi
cnobili monasteri palestinaSi martos ki ar auSenebia, aramed mTavari
qtitori petres Semdeg yofila ioane lazi. palestinis am monastris
warwerebi, wirva-locvis ena aq qarTulia; misi maSenebeli da erT-erTi
xelmZRvaneli _ winamZRvari egriselia. aqedanac Cans, rom egriselTaTvis
wirva-locvis ena qarTuli yofila.
  VI saukuneSi, vaxuStis Tanaxmad, egrisis vakeze, quTaisidan foTis mima-
rTulebiT, mcxeTis mTavarepiskoposis iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda, xolo egri-
sis mTianeTze (raWa-leCxumze) _ niqozis saepiskopososi.
  somxuri wyaroebis mixedviT, VI saukunis bolos kirioni, `winandeli
wesis Tanaxmad~, egrisis, gugarqisa da qarTlis arqiepiskoposad, anu kaTa-
likosad iqna nakurTxi. ras gulisxmoben `winandel wesSi~ somxuri wyaroe-
bi? cxadia imas, rom V saukuneSi da VI saukunis dasawyisSic, kirionamdec,
qarTlis kaTalikosis iurisdiqciaSi egrisic Sedioda.
  vaxuStis Tanaxmad, V-VII saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesia erTiani iyo, aRmo-
savleT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi arsebobda saeklesio erToba. amdroindel
saeklesio erTobas ewodeba `erToba qarTlis mTavarepiskoposis dros~. VII
saukunis Semdgom, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, 720 wels, dasavleT saqarTvelo-
Si daarsda adgilobrivi sakaTalikoso, e.i. gaiyo erTiani eklesia. am pro-
cess vaxuSti `ganyofas~ uwdebs. is wers: `ars xons eklesia didi, gumbaTiani,
mSvenier-nagebi, zis episkopozi mwyemsi vakisa, es iyo erTobasa Sina qarTlis
mTavarepiskopozisa: Semdgomad ganyofisa dasves aqa episkopozi~.61
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 445
   qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi saeklesio er-
Toba arsebobda orjer: pirvelad VIII saukunis dasawyisamde, xolo meored
_ X-XIV saukuneebSi. amitomac, vaxuSti ganmartavs, rom xonis `vake~ qarTlis
samwysoSi Sedioda `mTavarepiskopozobis~, anu kaTalikoz-mTavarepiskoposo-
bis dros da ara kaTalikos-patriarqobis dros _ XI saukunis Semdeg.
   `vaxuStis am cnobidan, romelic, eWvi ar aris, mas romeliRac Zveli wyarodan
unda hqondes, gamodis, rom erTiani samefos arsebobis pirobebSi vake imereTi,
anu `samoqalaqo~, qarTlis mTavarepiskoposis iurisdiqcias emorCileboda.
erTiani saqarTvelos monarqiis arsebobis dros aseTi movlenis warmoqmna
gaugebaria. safiqrebelia, rom igi gacilebiT ufro Zveli drois nayofia da
maincdamainc im droisa, rodesac egrisi Zlieri qarTlis kulturul eqspan-
sias ganicdida. SesaZlebelia, es friad saintereso faqti dakavSirebuli
iyos im movlenasTan, romelic fiqsirebulia somxur wyaroSi da romlis
mixedviT, `winandel wesTa magaliTisamebr~, VII s-is dasawyisSi qarTlis
kaTalikosis iurisdiqcia egrisis garkveul nawilze vrceldeboda~.62
   `winandel wesTa magaliTisamebr~, qarTlis kaTalikosis iurisdiqcia unda
gavrcelebuliyo ara egrisis erT nawilze, aramed mTel dasavleT
saqarTveloze, radganac kanonikurad eklesiis sazRvari saxelmwifo sazR-
vars unda damTxveoda, saxelmwifo sazRvari ki Sav zRvasa da egriswyalze
(imJamad ukve klisuraze) gadioda. asea V saukuneSi mainc. amitomac wirva-
locvis ena _ qarTuli _ jer kidev VII saukunemde mTel dasavleT
saqarTveloSi iyo gavrcelebuli. swored VII saukuneSi icvleba es mdgomar-
eoba. 630-iani wlebidan herakle keisari SavizRvispireTs uerTebs bizantias,
ris Semdgomac, dasavleT egrisSi aRikveTa qarTuli ena. qarTulis magier aq
dawesda berZnuli RvTismsaxureba, daarsda berZnuli saepiskoposoebi.
   VII saukunis dasawyisSi, erekles laSqrobamde, dasavleT saqarTveloSi
kvlav grZeldeba qarTuli ti pis saeklesio nagebobebis Seneba, rac am
mxareSi qarTuli eklesiis uflebamosilebaze miuTiTebs. amis magaliTia,
WyondidSi jvris ti pis taZris ageba. g. CubinaSvilis daskvniT, is 630-ian
wlebamde aSenda. Wyondidis qarTuli eklesia martod ar gamoiyureba, man-
amde dasavleT saqarTveloSi msgavsi nagebobebi iyo, rasac adasturebs
petras qarTuli eklesia, vaSnaris naSenoba, foTis adrefeodaluri xanis
SenobaTa naSTebi, romelzedac qarTuli asoebia gamoyvanili.
   VI saukunis meore naxevarSi qveynis saerTo ekonomikuri aRmavlobisa da
sparsTagan gaTavisuflebis Sedegad, `neladrH Sekrba qarTli~, `faqtiurad,
es iyo qveynis konsolidaciis, `qarTlis Sekrebis~ da `yoveli qarTlis~
Seqmnis im mniSvnelovani procesis xelaxali wamowyeba, romelsac V s-is
meore naxevarSi safuZveli Cauyara vaxtang gorgasalma, magram sagareo
Zalis, sasanuri iranis Zalmomreobis gamo, daaxloebiT naxevari saukuniT
Seferxda. VI s-is meore naxevridan axalgazrda feodaluri qarTli axa-
446                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
li energiiT kvlav iwyebs am didi erovnuli saqmis ganxorcielebas. iseve
rogorc vaxtang gorgasali, axlac qveynis mesveurebi Tavisi miznebisaTvis
iyeneben qristianul eklesias. erovnul-ideologiuri konsolidaciis pro-
cesi axali ZaliT iSleba qarTlis da egrisis teritoriazec. amis Sesani-
Snavi mowmobaa jvris ti pis qristianuli taZrebis mSenebloba qarTlsa,
kaxeTsa da egrisSi; kirionis xeldasxma gugarqis, qarTlis da egrisis
kaTalikosad~.63
   qarTuli eklesia ara marto V-VI saukuneebSi iyo erTiani, aramed VII
saukuneSic, kerZod, VII saukunis 30-ian wlebamde, herakle keisris mier
zRvispira teritoriebis mitacebamde. VII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis
erTobis sakiTxs exeba z. aleqsiZis kirionisadmi miZRvnili naSromi, erT-
erT qveTavSi _ `qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebi VII saukunis damdegs
qarTlisa da egrisis saeklesio erTianobis Sesaxeb~.64
   mkvlevari saintereso azrs aviTarebs VI saukunis movlenebis Sesaxeb:
`aSkaraa, sparselTa SexedulebiT lazika, svaneTi da iberia erTmaneTs
Camocilebulia garkveuli politikuri viTarebis gamo da saTanado pirobebi
Tu Seiqmna, maTi erTianobis dasabuTeba SeiZleba. sparselebma, Cans, ician is,
rac dRes Cven ukve gviWirs warmovidginoT: aRmosavluri da dasavluri
gaerTianebebis politikuri mTlianoba...~65 amasve miuTiTebs balazoris cno-
ba, rom qarTli, anu jurzani moicavs ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos,
aramed dasavleT saqarTvelosac da gadis Sav zRvaze. `...balazoris cno-
biT... eranis Sahma xosro anuSirvanma (VIs.) jurzanSi aago Semdegi cixe-
simagreebi: firuzkobadi, lazikis kari, barikas kari _ trapezuntis zRvas-
Tan, darialani, samcxis kari, jardamani (qarT. _ gardabani) da samSvilde~.66
   aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos politikur mTlianobaze mudmivad
da dabejiTebiT weren: `qarTlis cxovreba~, `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ da VIII
saukunemdeli sxva wyaroebi. qveynis politikuri erTianoba misi xalxis
eTnikur erTobas emyareboda. aRniSnuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, mTel saqarTvelo-
Si, anu `qarTlSi~, rogorc isini uwodebdnen, egriswylidan da SavizRvi-
spireTidan, hereTis CaTvliT, erTi, qarTveli xalxi cxovrobda.
   VII saukunis dasawyisis Sesaxeb s. janaSia aRniSnavs: `Zalian mniSvnelo-
vani iyo is garemoeba, rom sakmaod grZeli periodis ganmavlobaSi (daax-
loebiT VI s-is 70-iani wlebidan VII s-is 60-ian wlebamdis) TiTqmis mimde-
mad (an mcire wyvetilebiT) egrisi da qarTli erT saerTo saeklesio-
religiuri farvatersa da bizantiis erTiani politikuri egidis qveS
eqcevian. ise, rogorc adre irani, axla bizantiis mTavrobac ecdeboda
garkveuli organizaciuli Tanxmoba daemyarebina adgilobriv eklesiebs
Soris. ra konkretuli saxiT xorcieldeboda igi, amJamad gadaWriT Zneli
saTqmelia, magram swored am dros raRac saeklesio-kulturuli gavlena
ki unda gavrcelebuliyo qarTlidan egrisSi... am mxriv, Zalian sainteresoa
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                    447
erTi Zveli somexi istorikosis cnoba, rom kirioni... qarTvelTa, gugarelTa
(gugareTi _ qarTvelTa sapitiaxSo) da megrelTa arqiespikoposad yofila
xeldasxmuli `pirvandel wesTa~ Tanaxmad...~67 s. janaSia `...jer aRniSnuli
erTianobis TariRad daaxloebiT 610-650 wlebs Tvlida, Semdeg 630-650
wlebze SeCerda...~.68 `qarTlisa da egrisis eklesiebi VII saukunis damdegs
erT organizmad Tu ara, mWidrod erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulad mainc war-
moudgenia somex istorikos CamCians~68. `...analogiuria qarTul matianeebSi
warmodgenili suraTic... juanSeriT VIII s-is damdegs egrisSi adgilobrivi
dinastia sul ar Cans da mTeli qveyana afxazeTis samTavros sazRvramdis
qarTlis erismTavrebs ekuTvnis~.69 `aSkaraa, juanSers VII s-is meore naxeva-
rSi egrisi qarTlis Semadgenel nawilad miaCnia. imis Tqma, rom juanSers
meqanikurad gadaaqvs gviandeli viTareba adre xanaSi, ar iqneboda gama-
rTlebuli... amrigad, juanSeris monaTxrobidan aseTi viTareba warmogvidgeba:
bizantiis politikuri uflebis qveS guaram kurapalatis mTavrobiT (Tu
mefobiT) erTiandeba qarTli da aRdgeba leonti mrovelisagan aRwerili
`yoveli qarTlis~ farglebSi (daaxloebiT im rva saerisTavos farglebSi),
romelic farnavazma `ganaCina~.70
  aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTianobis periodi, z. aleqsiZis gamokv-
leviT, modis ara 630-650 wlebze, rogorc fiqrobda s. janaSia, aramed
daaxloebiT 570-630/40 wlebze.
  aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTianoba daarRvia herakle keisris
laSqrobam. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, heraklem saqarTvelos (qarT-
lis) saxelmwifos mniSvnelovani SavizRvispira teritoriebi CamoaWra.
  z. aleqsiZe wers: `qarTul-sasanuri dramebi daaxloebiT VI saukunis
ukanasknel 30 welze da VII saukunis pirvel 30-40 welze modis, e.i.
swored im xanaze, romelSic Tavsdeba qarTul-somxuri tradiciiT aRmosav-
leT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTianobis periodi...~71
  z. aleqsiZem gaarkvia, rom gaerTianebul aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTve-
los VI-VII saukuneebSi ewodeboda `yoveli qarTli~. ase rom, `qarTli~
dasavleT saqarTvelos pirvelad uwodes ara giorgi merCulis epoqaSi,
aramed gacilebiT adre, wina saukuneebSi. qarTuli matianeebis Tanaxmad,
dasavleTi saqarTvelo qarTlis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda farnavaz mefidan,
vidre vaxtang gorgaslis CaTvliT da Semdgom.72
  `iv. javaxiSvilis dakvirvebiT, `amisTana SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sityvas `qarTli~
farTo da sazogado mniSvneloba hqonda, umatebdnen xolme `yoveli~, an
`erTobili~ da ambobdnen xolme `yoveli qarTli~, `erTobili qarTli~.73
  qarTuli ti pis saeklesio nagebobebis mSenebloba dasavleT saqarTve-
los zRvispira provinciebSi grZeldeba herakle keisris Semosevebamde,
ufro zustad, am miwebis aneqsiamde bizantiis mier, 630-ian wlebamde.
  martvilis jvris ti pis taZari swored 630 wlamde, herakles mier
qarTuli zRvispireTis mitacebamde aSenda. amis Semdeg martvili da Wyondi-
448                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
dis sanaxebi (ise, rogorc dasavleT saqarTvelos sxva miwebi) konstantinop-
olis sapatriarqos iurisdiqcias gadaeca da daaxloebiT 200 wlis Semdeg
daibruna qarTulma eklesiam. cxadia, berZnuli saepiskoposoebi maT daqvem-
debarebaSi myof miwaze qarTuli ti pis saeklesio Senobis agebis nebas
aravis darTavdnen. amitomac, martvilis taZari berZnebis iurisdiqciamde,
630 wlamde, unda aSenebuliyo. es TariRi zustad daadgina g. CubinaSvilma:
                                                `marto jvris ti pis nagebo-
                                             bebis gaTvaliswineba kmara,
                                             rom Tvalwin dagvidges saek-
                                             lesio-ideologiuri erTiano-
                                             ba `yoveli qarTlisa~, Tanac
                                             imave farglebSi, rogorc far-
                                             navazis dros, gvamcnobs le-
                                             onti mroveli. mcxeTis jvari
                                             Sendeba kaxeTisa da qarTlis
                                             sazRvarze; aSenebdnen kaxeTis,
                                             Sida qarTlisa da klarjeT-
                                             javaxeTis patronebi. Sida qa-
                                             rTlSi _ ateni, kaxeTSi _ Su-
amTa, egrisSi _ martvili. yvela es Zegli sul ocdaaTiode wlis produq-
tia da daaxloebiT 600-630-ian wlebSi eteva. aRniSnuli wlebi ki stefanoz
I da adarnase qarTlis erismTavrebis zeobaze modis... aRniSnuli 30 weli-
wadi zustad kirion kaTalikosis moRvaweobis xanaa, swored im kirionis,
romelic ioane drasxanakertelis cnobiT, iyo qarTlis, gugarqisa da egri-
sis arqiepiskoposi~.74
  VI saukunis bolo da VII saukunis dasawyisi iyo epoqa gorgaslisdroin-
deli qarTuli saxelmwifos aRorZinebisa. es iyo aRdgena, ayvaveba-restavracia
qarTuli sazogadoebrivi institutebisa da am axladaRorZinebul `yovel
qarTls~ fexze dadgomis saSualeba ar misca ara arabobam, aramed herakle
keisris laSqrobam.
  arabebis Semosevis dros qarTuli saxelmwifo, faqtobrivad, ganadgure-
buli iyo herakle keisris mier, ramac arabebs gauadvila daSlili qarT-
lis damorCileba. faqtobrivad, arabebs `qarTli~, rogorc erTiani poli-
tikuri erTeuli, arc daxvedriaT. heraklem daamxo ara marto sparsTa
saxelmwifo, aramed misi nawilobriv mokavSire qarTlis saxelmwifoc, Zalze
daasusta da dasaja igi.
  herakles mier qarTuli saxelmwifosa da eklesiis dasjas TiTqmis ar
moepoveba analogiebi qarTveli eris xangrZlivi istoriis manZilze. swored
am dros moxda qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebis damcroba.
  saerTod Zneli gasagebia, Tu ra mizezis gamo dasaja heraklem qarTuli
saxelmwifo da eklesia. Tu es ganapiroba mefe-erismTavar stefanozisa da
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              449
qarTlis erTi kuTxis (Tbilis-gugarqis) sparselebTan TanamSromlobam, ma-
Sin keisris risxva ar unda dastexoda qarTlis udides qalkedonitur
nawils. magram heraklem qarTli, misi mrwamsis miuxedavad, mTlianad, er-
Tianad dasaja. saerTod, herakle Zalze sastiki kaci iyo, aRmosavleTis
qristianebs ise sZuldaT is, rom sixaruliTa da aRtacebiTac ki Sexvdnen
arabebs da, faqtobrivad, maT, musliman dampyroblebs gadasces aRmosavleTi.
   WeSmaritebasTan, albaT, axlos viqnebiT, Tu vityviT, rom heraklem qarTli
dasaja ara sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobisaTvis, aramed keisars afrTxobda
qarTlis saxelmwifos aRorZineba zRvidan albaneTamde. I-IV saukuneebSi da
adrec qarTlis saxelmwifo, faqtobrivad, erTaderTi tradiciuli metoqe
iyo kavkasiaSi jer romis, Semdeg ki rom-berZenTa imperiisa. herakles
afrTxobda iberiis Zveli saxelmwifos aRorZineba da misi mezobloba.
iberia CrdiloeTis karebis gasaRebis mflobeli iyo da am gasaRebs Tavis
saxelmwifo interesebisaTvis xSirad gadascemda xolme xan romaelebs, xan
sparselebs. sparseTis saxelmwifos damxobis Semdeg heraklem misi poten-
ciuri momxre qarTli Zalze daasusta. man, `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da sumb-
atis qronikis Tanaxmad, qarTlis samefo dinastiis _ bagrationebis xos-
roianebiT Secvlis Semdeg, qarTul saxelmwifos CamoaWra mniSvnelovani
teritoriebi zRvispireTSi. es iyo Zalze mniSvnelovani faqti qarTuli
eklesiis istoriaSi _ Seicvala eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvari. matiane
wers: _ `maSin kualad wariRes berZenTa sazRvari qarTlisa: speri da
bolo klarjeTisa, zRYs piri~.75 heraklem mTeli SavizRvispireTi miuerTa
Tavis imperias. bunebrivia, es teritoriebi saeklesio (qalkedonis) kanonTa
Tanaxmad, gamovida qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciidan da Sevida bizantiis
(konstantinopolis sapatriarqos) iurisdiqciaSi, radganac eklesiis sazRvrebi
saxelmwifo sazRvrebs unda damTxveoda.
   berZnuli saepiskoposoebis teritoriuli ganlagebidan kargad Cans, qarTuli
eklesiis romeli teritoriebi Sevida konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi.
cnobilia, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi ganlagebuli berZnuli saepiskopo-
soebi bizantiur noticiebSi Cndeba herakles laSqrobis Semdeg, VII sauku-
nis pirveli mesamedidan. VII saukunemde arc erTi berZnuli saepiskoposo
ar moixseneba binaztiur noticiebSi, aq igulisxmeba mdinare egriswylidan
petras CaTvliT moqceuli teritoria.
   dasavleT saqarTvelos aneqsirebuli teritoriebi konstantinopolis sa-
patriarqom Seiyvana lazikis eparqiaSi. am eparqiis foTis (fazisis) samit-
ropolitoSi Sedioda oTxi saepiskoposo, adre qarTuli eklesiis iuris-
diqciaSi myof teritoriaze ki Semdegi berZnuli saepiskoposoebi daarsda:
   1. TviT foTis (fasoi) samitropolito kaTedra;
   2. petras (petronis, cixisZiris) saepiskoposo kaTedra;
   3. ziginevis (gudayva) saepiskoposo kaTedra;
450                                         mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  4. saisinis (caiSi) saepiskoposo kaTedra;
  5. rodopolisis (vardcixis) saepiskoposo kaTedra.
  unda vivaraudoT, rom yvela es berZnuli saepiskoposo VII saukuneSi
erTdroulad ki ar daarsebula, aramed TandaTan. Tu rodopolisi namd-
vilad baRdaTis raionis varcixea, maSin berZnuli saepiskoposoebis teri-
toriuli ganlagebidan gamomdinareobs, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ terminSi
`zRvispiri~, igulisxmeboda mTeli istoriuli egrisi, anu teritoria Savi
zRvidan da egriswylidan skanda-Sorapnis xazamde, romelic istoriulad
iberia-egrisis sazRvrad iTvleboda. viwro mniSvnelobiT iberiis (qarT-
lis) sazRvari egrisTan gadioda skanda-Sorapnis xazze, xolo farTo gage-
biT _ egrisi iberiaSi Sedioda.
  dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani provinciis _ argveTis didi naw-
ili kvlav qarTlis samefoSi darCa. igi ar Sesula bizantiis imperiaSi,
amitomac masze iurisdiqcias kvlavindeburad axorcielebda qarTuli da
ara berZnuli eklesia. aq wirva-locvis ena berZnuli arasdros yofila.
  Tu aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi herakle keisarma eklesiebSi qarTveli
qristianebi daaxocina (`eklesiaTa Sina mdinareni sisxlTani diodes~ _
sumbatis qronikidan), dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani nawili Camo-
acila qarTul eklesias.
  VII saukunis 30-ian wlebSi qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis dasavleTi
sazRvari Seicvala da amis Semdeg egriswyalsa da Savi zRvis nacvlad
gadioda skanda-Sorapnis xazze _ argveTSi. istoriul egrisze konstantinop-
olma ganaxorciela Tavisi iurisdiqcia, rac kargad Cans trulis 692 wlis
saeklesio krebis xelismomwerTa siidanac, romelSic bizantiel episkoposTa
Soris moxsenebulni arian foTisa da petronis (cixisZiris) episkoposebi.

                  `ganyofa~ qarTul da somxur
                        eklesiaTa Soris

  k. kekeliZe wers: `somxebisagan eklesiurad CamoSoreba, romelsac adg-
ili hqonda VII saukunis dasawyiss, moxda, rogorc cnobilia, sxvaTa Soris,
erovnul-kulturuli ideologiis safuZvelzedac. qarTvelebi amieridan
miznad isaxaven TandaTanobiT ganTavisuflebas aRmosavluri saeklesio
tradiciebisagan. am niadagze warmoiSva gamwvavebuli polemika somxebTan,
romelic iqamde mivida, rom qarTvelebma warsulSic ki uaryves yovelgvari
kulturul-eklesiuri urTierToba somxebTan...~76
  ganxeTqileba, romelsac qarTveli da somexi istorikosebis Tanaxmad,
Sedegad mohyolia `ganyofa~ am eklesiaTa Soris, Sedegi yofila imdroin-
deli politikuri situaciisa.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               451
   p. ingoroyva kargad gadmoscems qveynis mdgomareobas: `iberiaSi me-6
saukunis 70-ian wlebSi moxda ajanyeba iranelTa batonobis winaaRmdeg, rac
dasrulda erovnuli xelisuflebis aRdgeniT iberiaSi, magram mdgomareoba
iberiis am axali xelisuflebisa ar iyo mtkice; amis gamoxatulebaa, kerZod,
is faqtic, rom iberiis xelisuflebis meTauri atarebs ara `mefis~, aramed
`erismTavris~, anda `didi erisTavis~ tituls. im dros arsebul saerTa-
Soriso viTarebaSi iberiis Zveli `samefos~ aRdgena ver moxerxda.
   iberiis am axal xelisuflebas uxdeba meryeoba or gareSe Zalas _ iransa
da bizantias Soris. 590-604 wlebSi iberia bizantiis gavlenis sferoSi
moeqceva; Semdeg 605 wlidan, vidre 620-ian wlebamde, iberiaSi isev iranis
batonoba damyarda; xolo 620-iani wlebidan irakli keisris aRmosavleTSi
laSqrobis droidan, iberia kvlav bizantiis gavlenis sferoSia moqceuli~.77
   570-iani wlebidan 604 wlamde, roca saqarTvelo moqceuli iyo bizantiis
gavlenis sferoSi, qarTuli eklesia sruliad qalkedonituria da aRar
imyofeba somxuri eklesiis zegavlenis qveS. miuxedavad amisa, am or moZme
eklesias mainc aqvs urTierTkavSiri, albaT, kulturul-sulieri. magaliTad,
momavali qarTlis kaTalikosi kirioni daaxloebiT am periodSi jer somx-
eTSi moRvaweobs, sadac is episkoposia, Semdgom ki gadmodis qarTlSi.
mdgomareoba sruliad icvleba 604 wlidan, bizantiaze sparseTis warmate-
biT gamarjvebebisa da amierkavkasiis sparseTisadmi daqvemdebarebis Semdgom.
Tuki 570-iani wlebidan, vidre 604-605 wlebamde qarTuli eklesia somxuri
eklesiisagan sruliad damoukidebeli iyo, 604/5 wlebidan somxeTs ucdia
qarTuli eklesia kvlav moeqcia Tavisi zegavlenis qveS iseve, rogorc iyo
VI saukunis 50-70-ian wlebamde. 604/5 wlebidan somxuri eklesiis cdas _
daemorCilebina qarTuli eklesia, saqarTveloSi gamouwvevia sapirispiro
reaqcia, rasac 607-609 wlebSi Sedegad mohyva `ganyofa~ qarTul da somxur
eklesiaTa Soris. somexTa kaTalikosma abraamma aukrZala somxebs raime
kavSiri hqonodaT qarTvelebTan. TviT somxuri wyaroebis Tanaxmad, somxuri
eklesiisagan sruli damoukidebloba qarTveli eris yvela fenis survili
yofila. maT saerTo miswrafebas axorcielebda qarTlis didi kaTalikosi
kirioni. rogorc smbat marzpanis epistoledan Cans, somxuri mxare qarTvelebs
afrTxilebda, rom Tu qarTuli eklesia kvlav gaagrZelebda somxeTisagan
damoukideblobis kurss, igi amas Seatyobinebda sparseTis mefes da dasji-
da ara marto eklesias, aramed saerTod qveyanas. marTlac, 614 wels
sparseTis saxelmwifom gamosca brZaneba, romlis ZaliTac yvela qristiani
ara marto amierkavkasiaSi, aramed mis mTel imperiaSi, unda damorCileboda
somxur eklesias, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, maT gaasaxlebdnen. Cans, 614 wlis
e.w. `sparsuli krebis~ Semdeg, saqarTveloSi mravali monofiziti gaCenila.
amas xels isic Seuwyobda, rom TviT erismTavari stefanozi sparsuli
orientaciisa iyo da mtrulad daxvda berZnebs.
452                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  bunebrivia, antibizantiuri politikis gatarebisas, saqarTvelos mefe-
mTavrebi antiqalkedonitebi iqnebodnen. antiqalkedonitoba ZiriTadi piroba
iyo antibizantiurobisa. sparseTis TvalsazrisiT, antibizantiurobis gamox-
atva dapyrobil qristianebs mxolod da mxolod antiqalkedonuri mrwam-
sis aRiarebiT SeeZloT. sparseTis mier dapyrobil saqarTveloSi anti-
qalkedonitoba aucilebeli iyo, magram es imave dros somxuri eklesiisad-
mi daqvemdebarebas niSnavda _ esec sparseTis mier moTxovnili antibizan-
tiurobis gamoxatvis aucilebeli piroba iyo. Tu mosaxleobis, an qveynis
romelime Temi im dros somxuri eklesiis mimarT loialur politikas
daiWerda, Tavis Tavs somxuri sarwmunoebis matareblad, an somxuri eklesi-
isadmi daqvemdebarebulad gamoacxadebda, mas garantirebuli hqonda sparseTis
imperiisagan garkveuli SeRavaTebi da uSiSroeba. aseTi mdgomareoba mo-
saxleobaSi popularuls xdida `somxur sarwmunoebas~ _ `somxobas~.
  somexi istorikosis, ioane mamikonianis matianidan irkveva, rom antibizan-
tiur politikas, ara marto saqarTvelos erismTavari atarebda, aramed
antibizantiuri orientaciisa yofila VII saukunis pirveli naxevris peri-
odebSi mesxeTi (qvemo qarTlis, anu gugarqis antibizantiuroba cnobilia).
ioane mamikonianis matianidan irkveva, rom `vaSden qarTvelTa (iverTa)
mTavari, mflobeli mesxeTis mxareTa, iranis politikuri orientaciisa yofila,
xolo misi diswuli hamami (mflobeli zRvispira mxarisa _ lazeTisa)
bizantiis orientaciis moRvawed Cans. rac Seexeba, vaSdenis uSualo sam-
flobelos, e.i. mesxeTis mxareebs (Woroxidan _ vanandamde, e.i. sakuTriv
klarjeTis CaTvliT), aq vaSdenis sikvdilis Semdeg, mTavrad damjdara
vaSdenis Ze jojiki. iranis Sahs xosro-farvizs qarTvelTa (iverielTa)
mTavris jojikisaTvis uboZebia tituli marzpanisa... jojiki mesxeTis mx-
areTa mTavari yofila VII saukunis pirveli naxevaris manZilze. mematianis
sityviT, `vaSdenis-Ze jojik, qarTvelTa (iverielTa) mTavari~ cocxali yofila
VII saukunis Sua wlebSiac, rodesac kavkasiaSi pirvelad Semovidnen arab-
Ta razmebi~.78
  arabebma, iseve rogorc sparselebma, dapyrobil amierkavkasiaSi Seqmnes
erTiani administraciuli erTeuli, romelsac uwodes `arminia~. dapyro-
bili qarTli `arminiaSi~ Sedioda, ise rogorc albaneTi da TviT somxeTi.
ase rom, administraciuli centri kvlav somxeTSi iyo, rogorc sparsTa
batonobisas. gansxvaveba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom sparselebma amierkavka-
siaSi qarTuli, albanuri da somxuri eklesiebisagan erTi sarwmunoebriv-
saeklesio erTeuli Seqmnes, xolo arabebma _ erTi administraciul-samo-
qalaqo erTeuli. mogvianebiT (IX saukuneSi) arabebma am administraciuli
erTeulis meTaurad, anu vostikanad (amirad) erovnebiT somxebi daniSnes,
romelTac somexTa, qarTvelTa da arabTa xelisufali _ ufalTufalic
ewodeboda. safiqrebelia, rom qarTvelTa qveynis somexi xelisufali qarTlSi
somxuri eklesiis poziciebs ganamtkicebda da ar Seasustebda.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              453
   rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, `ganyofa~ asureli mamebis mier dawye-
buli qarTul da somxur eklesiaTa Soris daagvirgvina kirion kaTaliko-
sma 607-609 wlebSi, magram 613-614 wlidan somxur sarwmunoebas kvlav
aqtiuri zemoqmedeba aqvs qarTlze, ase grZeldeba VII saukunis manZilze
da Semdgom, TiTqmis X-XI saukuneebamde. amis erTi magaliTi mocemulia
wyaroSi, romelsac mokled `sityvisgeba efTvime grZelisa sosTenis mima-
rT~ hqvia. aq gadmocemulia, rom TviT mefe bagratis iseTi upirvelesi
saxelmwifo moxele, rogoricaa mwignobarTuxucesi, sarwmunoebiT iyo ara
qalkedoniti, rogorc mosalodnelia, aramed monofiziti. es monofiziti
mwignobarTuxucesi erovnebiT qarTvelia da ara somexi. es iqidan Cans, rom
avtors qalkedonitoba qarTvelTa erovnul sarwmunoebad miaCnia, amitomac
am monofozits, romelic ar misdevs Tavisi eris sarwmunoebas, `Sinagam-
cems~ uwodebs. is erovnebiT somexi rom yofiliyo, srulebiT ar eTqmoda
`Sinagamcemi~. Sesabamisi teqsti aseTia: `maSin ukue iyo mwignobarTuxucesi
mefisa saxelad efTvime. igica Tana-ziari iyo borotisa mis wvalebisa
maTisa da Sinagamcemi sarwmunoebisa Cuenisa. aman azraxa sosTensa esreT,
viTarmed...~79 Tu am saukuneSic ki mwignobarTuxucesi monofiziti iyo, maSin
xalxSic mravlad iqnebodnen monofiziti qarTvelebi. k. kekeliZis daskvne-
bi, am mxriv, samarTliania.
   `qarTul da somxur eklesiebs Soris `ganxeTqileba mzaddeboda VI
saukuneSi da damTavrda VII saukunis damdegs _ 608 wels~.80 im dros, roca
qarTulma eklesiam Tavi daixsna mezobeli eklesiis zegavlenisagan, mas
sWirdeboda avtoritetuli eklesiebisa da saeklesio moRvaweebis dadas-
tureba sarwmunoebriv-kanonikuri TvalsazrisiT misi moqmedebis sisworis
Sesaxeb. Tavisi moqmedebis sisworis dasadastureblad kirionma sarwmunoe-
briv sakiTxebze miwer-mowera gamarTa romis pap grigol didTan (590-604),
ierusalimis patriarqTanac. `qronografis~ cnobiT, qarTlis kaTalikoss
urTierToba hqonda antioqiis patriarq anastasi mRvdelmowamesTan, romel-
ic kirionis Tanamedrove iyo.81 kirions mWidro urTierToba daumyarebia
bizantiis imperiis sapatriarqoebTan. amis gamo mas brali dasdes saxelm-
wifo RalatSi. pirvelsave epistoleSi abraam somexTa kaTalikosi kirions
bralad sdebs bunebiT Tanaziarisagan, anu somxuri eklesiisagan ganSore-
bas da ucxo samefosTan (albaT, bizantiis sapatriarqoebTan) `siyvarulis
erTobas~: `aris raRac, romelic daujereblad gveCvena: ucxo samefosTan
rom Seqmna mefeTa-mefis monaTaganma siyvarulis erToba da bunebiT Tanamo-
ziares gaSorde~.82
   mefeTa-mefis monebaSi igulisxmebian TviT somexTa da qarTvelTa kaTali-
kosebi, da saerTod sparseTis imperiaSi moqceuli qveynebis mosaxleoba.
kirioni sparseTis mier dapyrobili qveynis kaTalikosia, amitomac is mefe-
Ta-mefis monaa. am `monis~ siyvarulis erToba `ucxo samefosTan~ imaSi
454                                               mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gamoixateboda, rom qarTveli saeklesio moRvawe kavSirs daamyarebda `ucxo
samefoSi~ Semaval saeklesio moRvaweebTan, antioqiisa da ierusalimis sapa-
triarqoebTan. marTlac, Tavis pasuxSi kirioni daufaravad wers, rom mas
sarwmunoebrivi erToba aqvs ierusalimTan: `...TumcaRa mefeTa-mefis monebi
varT, sarwmunoeba ierusalimisa gvaqvs da gveqneba~.83 `ierusalimis~ qveS,
SesaZloa, ara marto ierusalimis, antioqiis sapatriarqoc igulisxmeba, rad-
ganac ierusalimi qristianobis samSobloa. marTlac, berZnuli `qronografi~,
romelic Tavis naSromSi gamoiyena efrem mcirem (`uwyebaA mizezsa qarTvel-
Ta moqcevisasa~) wers, rom qarTlis sakaTalikosos kavSiri aqvs antioqiis
patriarq anastasi mRvdelmowamesTan. es cnoba kargad Seefardeba VI-VII
saukuneTa mijnaze qarTlis sakaTalikosoSi Seqmnil viTarebas.


                       arseni safareli
           `erTobisdroindeli~ somexi kaTalikosebis
                           Sesaxeb

  VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTul da somxur eklesiaTa Soris `erTobis~ xasia-
Tis gamorkvevisaTvis moviyvanT arseni safarelis mier moxseniebul somex
kaTalikosTa rigs, romelTac, ase Tu ise, gavlena hqoniaT qarTul eklesiaze.
  qarTul da somxur eklesiaTa `ganyofa~ ar unda gavigoT ise, TiTqosda
kavkasiur adgilobriv eklesiaTa Soris moxda lokaluri saxis ganxeT-
qileba: sinamdvileSi aq globalur saeklesio movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme.
arseni safarelica da qarTveli mematianeebic aRniSnaven, rom erTian msof-
lio, anu kaTolike-sayovelTao eklesiaSi moxda ganxeTqileba, ramac Tavisi
gavlena iqonia qarTul eklesiaze. berZnuli (anu rom-berZenTa imperiis),
somxuri, qarTuli da sxva eklesiebi erTian msoflio kaTolike, anu say-
ovelTao eklesias warmoadgenda. am erTian msoflio eklesias garkveuli
mizezis gamo Camoscilda somxuri eklesia. roca qarTuli eklesiisaTvis
cnobili gaxda, rom erTian msoflio eklesias Camoscilda somxuri ekle-
sia, qarTulma eklesiam maSinve gawyvita saeklesio-kanonikuri urTierToba
somxur eklesiasTan.
  sayovelTao msoflio eklesias qarTveli mematianeebi xSirad `berZnul~
eklesias uwodebdnen, radganac msoflio saeklesio centri, marTlac, berZenTa
imperias moicavda.
  arseni safareli wers: `sparsTa mefeni aiZulebdes somexTa, raATa gane-
Sornen berZenTa sarwmunoebasa~.84 ufro adre sparsTa mefe avaldebulebs
somxebs `ganyofisaTYs berZenTagan~85. jer xdeba `berZenTagan~ somxebis `ganyofa~,
xolo Semdeg `qarTlisagan~ somxebis daSoreba. `xolo qarTli yoveli da
meoTxedi somxiTisa ganeyennes KelT-dasxmasa mRdelobisasa somexTagan~.86
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 455
  ganyofisdroindeli somexi kaTalikosebi arian:
  1. nerse mijini _ nerse II, kaTalikosi somexTa (548-557). moiwvia ori
saeklesio kreba dvinSi, eklesia mimarTa monofizitobisaken. Tanamedrovea
xosro I, anuSirvanisa (531-579), sparseTis Sahisa, romlis mmarTveloba sasani-
debis saxelmwifos didi siZlieris periodi iyo. arsenis mixedviT, dvinis
krebis Semdeg iqmna `cilobaA didi Soris somxiTisa da qarTlisa~.87 es
ciloba naxevari saukune mainc gagrZelebula, vidre kirionamde. cilobis
mizezi Semdegi yofila: `...krebaA yves somexTa qalaqsa dvinsa da SeCuenebiT
gandges aRsarebisagan wmidisa kaTolike eklesiisa da ganeyennes oTxTa
sapatriarqoTagan da gardaaqcies aRTqumai, igi, romeli daudva wmidaman
grigoli kesaria eklesiisa, ukunisamde ara ganSorebad misgan KelT-dasx-
maA episkoposebisa somxiTisaA da rameTu somxiTman brZanebaA moiRo spars-
Ta mefisagan KelT-dasxmaA episkoposebisa TaviT TYsiT... iqmna ciloba didi
Soris somxiTisa da qarTlisa~. ese cilobaA iyo Soris somexTa da qarTvelTa
dReTa nerse kaTalikozisa somexTasa...~88
  wmida grigolis mier daarsebuli somxuri eklesia kesariis eklesias
eqvemdebareboda. arsenis Tanaxmad, wmida grigols aRTqma hqonia dadebuli,
rom somxuri eklesia ukunisamde ar ganSordeboda msoflio erTian kaTo-
like, anu sayovelTao eklesias, kerZod, ar ganSordeboda oTx sapatriarqos,
romelTa erTobac msoflio eklesias warmoadgenda. somxuri eklesia msof-
lio eklesiasTan dakavSirebuli yofila kesariis eklesiis saSualebiT,
romelic, Tavis mxriv, erT-erT sapatriarqoSi Sedioda. somxuri eklesia
iseTi xarisxiTaa dakavSirebuli kesariis eklesiasTan, rom mas ufleba ara
aqvs `TaviT TYsiT~ akurTxos episkoposebi. es kesariaSi unda moxdes, anda
kesariis nebiT unda aRsruldes.
  nerses dros mowveul krebas somxuri eklesia, faqtobrivad, ganuSorebia
msoflio eklesiisgan, radganac sparsTa mefis nebiT am krebas miuRia
gadawyvetileba kesariis nebarTvis gareSe TviT somxur eklesiasve ekurTx-
ebina episkoposebi _ moexdina `...KelT-dasxma episkoposebisa TaviT TYsiT~.
  im epoqaSi, msoflio eklesiis erTianobis ideidan gamomdinare, somxur
eklesias (da albaT, sxva adgilobriv eklesiebsac, maT Soris, qarTulsac)
ara hqonia ufleba, Tavisi episkoposebi, an kaTolikosi daesva ise, rom amis
Sesaxeb ar miemarTa mezobeli eklesiebisaTvis. `faustos buzandis erTi
cnobis analizis Semdeg n. adonci wers: `somxebs saSualeba ar hqondaT
daedginaT Tavisi episkoposebi, an kaTolikosi, mezobel eklesiebTan mima-
rTvis gareSe~.89
  arseni safarelis mixedviTac, imis Semdeg, rac somxurma eklesiam kesari-
asTan kavSiri gawyvita, somxeTSi aRar icodnen, sad ekurTxebinaT, anda
rogor ekurTxebinaT TavianTi episkoposebi. aseTi dabneulobis dros maT
sxva veraferi moifiqres _ ganmoarCies somexi episkoposi, romlis samwyso
456                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
yvelaze axlos iyo kesariis eklesiasTan da mas daavales axali somexi
episkoposebis kurTxevisaTvis Tanxmobis gacema. am somxurma saepiskoposom
Secvala kesariis eklesia. taronis saepiskoposo, misi kesariasTan terito-
riuli siaxlovis gamo, arsenis Tanaxmad, kesariis eklesiis Semcvleli
gaxda. formalurad TiTqosda yvelaferi Zveleburadve iyo _ episkoposis
axali kandidatis kurTxevis neba kvlav kesariis mxridan modioda: `... ara
aqunda adgil, sadamca ikurTxes episkoposi, da ganisma somxiTsa, viTarmed
gandges... Kel-dasxmisagan kesariisa... da mouvlines nerSapus, taronisa episko-
possa... orTa Tana moyuasTa misTa, da hrques... Cuen ara guaqus saydari, sada
Kelni davisxneT da mivhmarTeT Sensa keTilad msaxurebasa, raATa dagYdginne
Cuen episkoposni~.90
  arsenis Tanaxmad, episkoposTa kurTxevisaTvis aucilebeli iyo mezobeli
eklesiis Tanxmoba, ufro metic, TiTqosda mezobeli eklesia adgenda episko-
posebs. amitomac, srulebiT gasagebia arsenis gancxadeba imis Sesaxeb, rom
`qarTli yoveli da meoTxedi somxiTisa ganeyenes xelTdasxmasa mRdelo-
bisasa somexTagan~. arsenis Tanaxmad, msoflio sayovelTao eklesiasTan
somxeTi kesariis saSualebiTaa dakavSirebuli, qarTuli eklesia ki _ somx-
uri eklesiis saSualebiT. `qarTvelni etyodes, viTarmed: `wmidaman grigo-
li saberZneTiT moguca Cuen sarwmunoebaA~.91 radganac somxeTis episko-
posebi kesariaSi aRar iReben xeldasxmas, amitomac aRarc qarTveli sam-
Rvdeloeba miiRebs xeldasxmas somxeTSi.
  nerse kaTalikoss dvinSi meorejerac mouwvevia kreba iustinianesa (527-
565) da xosros dros: `da kualad SeaCuenes wmidaA igi kreba qalkidonisaA~.92
  arseni safarelis mixedviT, `qarTlisagan somxiTis~ ganyofa xdeba am
nerse II-s dros, VI saukunis meore naxevarSi. qarTl-somxeTs erToba hqonia
VI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi, kerZod 506-520-iani wlebidan 550-ian wlebSi
mowveul dvinis I krebamde.
  arseni safarelis TxzulebaSi nerse II da kirioni (595-610) TiTqosda
Tanamedroveni arian, magram arseni gulisxmobs imas, rom kirionis dros
ukiduresad oficialurad gamwvavda is winaaRmdegoba, rac nerses dros
daiwyo or eklesias Soris.
  2. ioane II gabeleneli (557-574) somxeTis kaTalikosi agrZelebda ners-
es kurss. man SemoiRo somxur eklesiaSi jer kidev VI saukuneSi dadas-
turebuli praqtika ziarebisas aufuebeli purisa da wyalgaureveli Rvinis
xmarebisa. arseni aRwers nerse II-is mier mowveul dvinis krebas da Semdeg
iqve urTavs cnobas nerses Semdgomi kaTalikosis ioane gabelenelis mier
manaskertSi mowveuli krebis Sesaxeb. `s. kakabaZe Tvlida, rom arsenis mier
dasaxelebuli manazkertis kreba da misi meTauri ioane kaTalikosi _
arian ara 726 wlis kreba da ioane oZuneli (718-729), aramed kaTalikosi
ioane gabeleneli (557-574) da mis mier VI saukunis 60_ian wlebSi mowveu-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              457
li somxuri adgilobrivi saeklesio kreba~.93 am krebas daudgenia ziarebi-
sas wyalgareuli Rvinisa da safuariani puris miRebis akrZalva. marTalia,
am krebis Semdgom VII saukunis garkveul periodebSi somxuri eklesiis
qalkedonituri aRmsareblobis gamo es dadgenileba irRveoda, amitomac
saWiro gaxda 726 wels manaskertis krebaze am dadgenilebis kvlav gamot-
ana da damtkiceba. somxuri eklesiis praqtikaSi ziarebisas wyalgaureveli
Rvinis xmarebas adasturebs VI msoflio kreba. `VI msoflio saeklesio
krebis kanonebis 32-e muxli ukve am praqtikis winaaRmdeg aris mimarTu-
li~.94 arseni safarelis mixedviT, ziarebisas wyalgaureveli Rvinisa da
aufuebeli puris xmareba SemouRia nerse II-is Semdgom kaTalikos ioanes, IV
saukunis meore naxevarSi. am cnobas iqve adasturebs da amtkicebs arseni
imiT, rom ioane gabelenelis Semdgomi kaTalikosi mose elivardeli (574-
604) Zalze mtkiced icavs ziarebisas wyalgaureveli Rvinisa da aufuebeli
puris miRebis wess. ufro metic, is dascinis ziarebisaTvis saWiro RvinoSi
wylis garevasa da puris afuebas. uwodebs am wess berZnebis mier SemoRe-
buls. afuebul purs dacinviT `furnids~ uwodebs, wyalgareul Rvinos ki _
`Termons~. aqedanac Cans, rom ara 726 wlis manaskertis krebas gulisxmobs
arseni `ioanes mier mowveul krebaSi~, aramed VI saukunis meore naxevris
somxuri eklesiis krebas, romelsac ziarebis zemoT moyvanili wesi daud-
genia, da romelsac mtkiced icavs VI saukunis momdevno kaTalikosi mose.
  3. mose elivardeli (574-604), somxeTis kaTalikosi, antiberZnuli orien-
taciisaa. is ar midis konstantinopolSi, sadac miwveuli iyo molaparakeb-
isaTvis, amayad acxadebs: `ara wiaRvKde mdinaresa azatsa, romel ars sazR-
vari sparsTaA, ara vWamo furnidi berZenTa da arca vsua Termoni maTi~.95
mose ar apirebs sparsTa saxelmwifos datovebas, romelSic somxeTic Se-
dioda, da araTu molaparakeba, aramed berZnebTan ziarebac ki ar surs.
berZnuli ziarebis wesi misTvis sruliad miuRebelia.
  mose elivardelis dros somxuri eklesia orad gaiyo. erTi, monofiz-
ituri nawilis kaTalikosi TviT mosea, meore, qalkedonituri nawilisa ki _
ioane kogoviteli. `591 wels mavrikesa da xosros Soris dadebuli zaviT
airaratis umetesi nawilis somxeTis bizantiur nawilSi moeqca, male gaqalke-
donitda da kaTalikosadac qalkedoniti ioane kogoviteli daudga~.96 male
srulebiT icvleba saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba, iniciativas iRebs sparseTi,
gadadis Setevaze da ipyrobs qalkedonitur somxeTs. sebeosis cnobiT,
`sparselebi basianSi Casulan xosros mefobis me-18 wels. (591+18=609),
daumarcxebiaT berZnebi, alya SemourtyamT karnu qalqisaTvis da auRi-
aT...~97 arseni wers: `iqmna homi igi basianisa, romelsa iZlivnes ionni
sparsTagan... amas welsa war-ityuena karnu-qalaqi ahmadisagan da iohane
kaTalikosi, romeli iyo nawilsa berZenTasa da amave welsa gadasxna mose
kaTalikozman mRdelni TYsisa Kelisagan. iohanes kerZni, da warvides romeln-
458                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ime taos romelnime ionTa Tana~.98 ueWvelia, am winadadebaSi gadamwers
SemTxveviT erTmaneTisaTvis gadaubams ori, sul sxvadasxva winadadeba.
sparsTa mier qalkedonituri somxeTis dapyrobis dros kaTalikosi iyo
ara mose, aramed abraami, amitomac winadadeba _ `...amasve welsa ganasxna
mose...~99 ar zis Tavis adgilze. Tu es ase ar aris da gadamwers Secdoma
ar dauSvia, maSin gamodis, rom arsens tao ar miaCnia somxuri eklesiis
nawilad, radganac sparselebma daipyres ara marto airarati, aramed taoc
da samxreTi saqarTveloc _ mesxeTi. cxadia, tao somxeTis nawili rom
yofiliyo, an somxur eklesiaSi Semavali provincia, masze Tavis uflebas
ganaxorcielebda somxeTis monofiziti kaTalikosi taos sparsTagan dapy-
robis dros (ise, rogorc airaratze) da somexi samRvdeloeba taoSi ar
gadavidoda. SeiZleba tao _ qarTlis erT-erTi provincia _ somxuri ek-
lesiis zegavlenis qveS, mis SemadgenlobaSi Semavali maSin iyo, roca
saerTod qarTuli eklesia iyo somxuri eklesiis zegavlenis qveS 506-20-
iani wlebidan 551-570-ian wlebamde, 590-ian wlebSi is qalkedonitur somx-
ur eklesiaSi Sedioda. qalkedonituri somxuri eklesiis gaqroba-ganad-
gurebis kvalobaze tao Tavis deda qarTul eklesias ubrundeba da nel-
nela iSorebs aramSobliur somxur enobriv kvals.
  4. abraham albaTaneli (607-615), kaTalikosi somxeTisa. abraamis dros
`gandevna kYrion qarTlisa kaTalikozman mose episkoposi curtavisaA say-
drisagan TYsisa... iTxova abraham kYrionisagan saydari misi, xolo igi ara
erCda mas da ganzYnda cilobaA igi Soris maTsa~.100 aqedan Cans, rom
arsenis Tanaxmad, kirionma qarTul eklesiaSi Semavali curtavis eparqi-
idan gandevna episkoposi: `gandevna... saydrisagan Tvisisa~. aq igulisxmeba
ara kirionis `saydari~, aramed curtavelis saepiskoposo `saydari~. abraami
sTxovs kirions, gadasces somxur eklesias mTliani eparqia curtavisa:
`iTxova abraham kYrionisagan saydari misi~. kirionma ar gadasca curtavis
eparqia (`saydari~) somxur eklesias, ramac gamoiwvia urTierTSecileba _
`ganzYnda ciloba~.
  5. komitasi (daaxl. 614-630), somxeTis kaTalikosi, monawileobda `spar-
sul krebaSi~ 614 wels. iyo mdidari, antiqalkedoniti. man gamoaCina ioane
mairavaneli, anu mairagomeli. mis dros Seicvala `kanoni da wesni pirvelni~,
TviT gamosca axali kanonebi, romlis gamoc `aiSala Zueli da ver daamt-
kices axali, aramed yoveli kaci TYs-TYs saxeobs vidre moaqamomde~.101 e.i.
komitasis droidan arseni safarelis dromde somxeTis saeklesio cxovre-
ba aSlilia. arsenis azriT, `ese yoveli qmna KeliTa gancofebulisa ioane
maAreguemelisaATa.102
  6. qristefore apahuneli (628-630), somxeTis kaTalikosi, mteri iyo ioane
mairagomelisa. igi taxtidan Camoagdes.
  7. ezra faraznakerteli (628-642), somxeTis kaTalikosi. mis dros `somxuri
eklesia kvlav dauaxlovda diofiziturs, Tumca, monoTelitobis niadagze,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                459
rac wyvetilebiT 726 wlamde gagrZelda~.103 mis dros kvlav aRorZinebula
komitas-mairagomelis wvaleba. aRivsoo, _ wers arseni, `queyanaA somxiTi-
saA sikudilisa momtyuebeliTa swavliTa~.104 misTvis herakle keisars sparse-
Tis damarcxebis Semdeg ubrZanebia saeklesio krebis mowveva karnu-qalaqs.
somxurma eklesiam, arsenis Tanaxmad, am krebaze aRiara `marTali~ sarwmu-
noeba, anu qalkedonitoba. karnu-qalaqis, anu Teodosiopolis kreba, romelzedac
somexTa sapatriarqom qalkedonitoba aRiara, TariRdeba 632 wliT. arseni
wers: `movida herakle mefe somxiTs da ixila wvalebaA somexTaA da friad
Sewuxna warwymedisa maTisaTYs... brZana krebaA didi yofad episkoposTa da
moZRuarTa somxiTisaTa da miwera wigni ezra kaTolikozisa da aznaurTa,
raATa Semokrben karnu-qalaqs da gamoiZion sarwmunoebaA krebisaTYs. qalki-
donisa da cnan WeSmaritad ori bunebaA qristHsi somexTa da moiwivnes
yovelni erTobiT winaSe mefisa da gamoiwuliles mesamed mravliTa ZiebiTa
da daamtkices marTali. da daemorCilnes somexni ficiT KeliTweriliTa...
da viTar uk-moiqces dvins, miiqces masve nebasa wymedulsa...~105 kaTalikos
ezras ebrZvis ioane mairagomeli.
  8. nerse iSxneli (641-661), somxeTis kaTalikosi, kaci Rirsi da marTl-
morwmune. gandevna da dasaja ioane mairagomeli. mas ixsenebs giorgi
merCule IX saukuneSio, _ wers is, _ `nebiTa RvTisaTa iqmna saba episkopos
iSxans zeda, netarsa nerse kaTalikozisa aRSenebulsa kaTolike eklesiasa
da saydarsa missa, romeli weliwadTa mravalTa daqvrivebul iyo~.106
marTalia, nerse somxeTis kaTalikosi iyo, magram qalkedoniti, amitom mas
merCule netars uwodebs, arseni ki _ marTlmorwmunes. SeiZleba nerse taoe-
li qarTveli iyo, somxuri eklesiis wevri ise, rogorc taos qarTveloba.
SeiZleba misi qarTvelobis gamo, somex kaTalikosTa Soris gansakuTrebuli
simpaTiiT TiTqmis mas erTaderTs moixsenieben qarTveli istorikosebi.
  9. anastasi (661-667) somxeTis kaTalikosi, TiTqmis qalkedoniti.
  10. israeli (667-677) somxeTis kaTalikosi. man ioane mairavanelis sikvdi-
lis Semdeg gandevna misi mowafeebi. arseni am kaTalikosis Semdeg arc
erT sxva somex kaTalikoss ar axsenebs (TariRebisaTvis ix. iqve, z. aleqsi-
Zis komentarebi).

             qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo eklesiad
                   gamocxadeba VII saukuneSi

  qarTul eklesias sapatriarqo eklesiad wodebis Rirseba miuRia VII
saukuneSi. am saukunis meore naxevarSi jer antioqiis sapatriarqos uRi-
arebia es, ganusazRvravs misi iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi, xolo Semdeg VI
msoflio saeklesio krebas daudasturebia. masac aseve ganusazRvravs qarTuli
eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom msoflio krebis mier
460                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gansazRvruli iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi qarTuli eklesiisa gansxvavdeba
antioqiis sapatriarqos mier aRiarebuli iurisdiqciis sazRvrebisagan.
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTi, romelSic moyvanilia es cnobebi, gadmogvcems,
rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs patriarqis titulis tarebis ufleba mieca,
swored am dros, jer antioqiis sapatriarqos, xolo Semdeg VI msoflio
krebis mier.
   `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTis cnobebs, Cans, adasturebs ucxoeTSi aR-
moCenili epigrafikuli masalac.
   saqarTvelos farglebs gareT guTeTSi aRmoCenila VIII saukunis dasawy-
isis berZnuli warwera, romelSic qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs `patriarqi~
ewodeba. xersonis arqeologiuri gaTxris dros aRmoCenila marmarilos
fila berZnuli warweriT: `goTiis marTlmadidebeli mosaxleoba 750 wels
irCevs Tavis moZRvrad (winamZRvrad) Rirs (wmida) ioanes da gzavnis mas
iberiis sapatriarqo taxtze, sadac igi episkoposad ekurTxa da sadac
Seucvlelad icaven saeklesio WeSmariti sarwmunoebis dogmebs.107
   guTeTis samwyso, rogorc am warweridanac Cans, Zveli saeklesio tradicie-
bisa da wesebis erTguli yofila. aq qarTul eklesias `sapatriarqo say-
dars~ ar uwodebdnen, mas es Rirseba karga xnis miRebuli rom ar hqonoda. am
warweris Tanaxmad, 750 wels qarTuli eklesia ukve sapatriarqo eklesiaa.
   arsebobs sxva wyaroebic, romelTa analiziTac SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom
qarTuli eklesiis meTauri iseve atarebda patriarqis tituls VII sauku-
neSi, rogorc mezobel eklesiaTa meTaurebi amierkavkasiaSi.
   cnobilia, rom amierkavkasiis sam _ qarTlis, albaneTis da somxeTis
eklesiebs mWidro urTierToba hqondaT, magram Zvel somxur da albanur
wyaroTa Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesia tols ar udebda arc somxur da, miT
umetes, arc albanur eklesias. qarTuli eklesia Tavis pativsa da Rirsebas
albanurze ufro maRla ayenebda. uxtanesisa da sxva istorikosTa Tanaxmad,
ganxeTqileba qarTul da somxur eklesiebs Soris imas gamouwvevia, rom
raRac mizeziT somxuri eklesiis meTaurs albaneTis eklesiis mamamTavari
ufro maRla dauyenebia, vidre qarTuli eklesiisa. qarTveli mamamTavari
Zalze ganawyenebula, radganac mas Tavisi pativi ufro metad miaCnda, vidre
albaneTis mamamTavris pativi. aqedan is daskvna SeiZleba gamovitanoT, rom
Tu VII saukuneSi somxeTis eklesiisa da gansakuTrebiT ki, albaneTis ekle-
siis meTaurs hqonda tituli patriarqisa, aucileblad amave tituls qarTuli
eklesiis meTauric atarebda.
   adreuli Sua saukuneebis qarTuli eklesiis istoriis sakiTxebis rkvevi-
sas, aucileblad mxedvelobaSi unda iqnas miRebuli albaneTisa da somxe-
Tis eklesiaTa istoriis masalebi. am eklesiebs hqondaT msgavsi struqtu-
ra da erTnairad iyvnen mowyobilni. am eklesiaTa erTmaneTTan Sedareba da
erTi eklesiis magaliTze meore eklesiisaTvis daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              461
TiTqmis IX-X saukuneebamde. es iTqmis gansakuTrebiT qarTlisa da albane-
Tis eklesiebze, radganac, Tu somxeTis eklesias lider eklesiad miaCnda
Tavisi Tavi, qarTlisa da albaneTis eklesiebi Tanabar uflebriv mdgomar-
eobaSi iyvnen, Tumca, qarTlis eklesiis meTaurs ufro meti pativi hqonia,
vidre albaneTis eklesiisas (qarTvel ierarqTa mtkicebiT).
  bunebrivia, Tu qarTuli eklesiis pativi aRemateboda albaneTis eklesiisas,
maSin qarTuli eklesia meti uflebebiT isargeblebda; Tu albaneTis eklesia
V-VII saukuneebSi albaneTSive akurTxebda mirons, aseTi ufleba qarTul
eklesiasac eqneboda; Tu albaneTis kaTalikosi atarebda patriarqis tituls,
aseTive uflebiT isargeblebda qarTuli eklesiis meTauric da a.S.
  Tu SeiZleba bizantiis imperiis gareT myofi amierkavkasiis eklesiaTa
uflebriv mdgomareobaTa Soris paralelis gavleba, SeuZlebelia am dros
erTmaneTs SevadaroT bizantiis imperiaSi Semavali eklesiebisa da qarTu-
li eklesiis uflebebi. imis Semdeg, rac qarTuli eklesia Camoscilda
amierkavkasiis eklesiebs da umWidroesi kavSiri daamyara bizantiis ekle-
siasTan, gansakuTrebiT XI saukunis Semdeg, qarTuli eklesiis yvela Zveli
ufleba TiTqmis xelaxali msjelobisa da aRiarebis sagnad iqca.
  mose kalankatuelis `alvanTa qveynis istoria~ Zalze mniSvnelovani
wyaroa albaneTis da agreTve saqarTvelos istoriisaTvisac. is Seicavs
masalebs X saukunis naxevramde. zogierT mkvlevarTa TvalsazrisiT, am
wignis I da III Tavis erTi nawili dawerilia VII saukunis TviTmxilveli
avtoris mier. `... VII saukunis avtors movses kalankatuacis gauTval-
iswinebia xalxuri Tqmulebebi da gadmocemebi... samoqalaqo Tu sasuliero
pirTa oficialuri mimowera, rac daculi unda yofiliyo monastrebsa da
sasaxleebSi~.108
  mose kalankatuelis `alvanTa qveynis istoriis~ Tanaxmad, albanuri ek-
lesiis mamamTavrebi patriarqis tituls atareben wina saukuneebidan VI
saukunemde, aseve VI-VII da IX-X saukuneebSi. saerTod, am wignis Tanaxmad,
albaneTis mamamTavari atarebs rogorc kaTalikosis, aseve patriarqis tituls.
patriarqis tituli ara Tu ucxoa, aramed bunebrivicaa albaneTis kaTali-
kosisaTvis.
  mose kalankatuelis Tanaxmad, albaneTis eklesia garkveulad somxur
eklesiazea daqvemdebarebuli; somxuri eklesia upiratesi eklesiaa. miuxe-
davad amisa, somxuri eklesiis mamamTavari albaneTis mamamTavars uwodebs
patriarqs da ase mimarTavs: `Cvens Tanamosaydre alvaneTis patriarqs~.109
asea VII saukunis miwurulisaTvis.
  mose kalankatueli gadmogvcems aseT ambavs: albanTa qveynis erTi episko-
posi gaigzavna honTa qveyanaSi maT gasaqristianeblad. episkoposma moaqcia
honebi. honTa mTavrebma ramdenjerme dabejiTebiT sTxoves episkoposs, dar-
Ceniliyo maTi qveynis mwyemsad. episkoposma upasuxa: `me ar SemiZlia dag-
462                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
eTanxmoT alvaneTis didi patriarqis wmida eliazaris gareSe... saWiroa
Tqveni gonivruli azri werilobiT gaacnoT mTels alvaneTis qveyanas da
patriarq eliazars, romelmac wmida eliSas droidan dRemde daamkvidra
Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT erTi samociqulo taxti~.110 honTa mTavarma ratom-
Rac werili gaugzavna somxuri eklesiis mamamTavars da sTxova am episko-
posis honTa qveyanaSi datoveba. somexma mamamTavarma upasuxa: `...amis ufle-
ba mxolod Cvens Tanamosaydre alvaneTis patriarqs, eliazars, aqvs...~111
  zemoT moyvanili ambavi momxdara VII sakunis damlevs, anda VIII saukunis
pirvel wlebSi. ara marto am dros, aramed sxva saukuneebSic, albanTa
qveynis kaTalikoss patriarqs uwodeben. `alvanTa qveynis istoriis~ erT
TavSi, romelsac `alvaneTis mamamTavarTa saxelebi, wlebi da maTi moR-
vaweoba~ ewodeba, naTqvamia: `... uwindel patriarqTa saqmeni, [moRvaweobis]
dro da saxelebi dakargulan...~112 Cans, igulisxmeba Zveli droidan vidre
VI saukunemde. VI saukuneSi moRvawe kaTalikos abass patriarqis tituli
aqvs. masze naTqvamia: `Semdeg iyo ufali abasi, romelmac somxuri welTaR-
ricxvis dasawyisSi sapatriarqo taxti Coridan partavSi gadaitana...~113 e.i.
551 wlisaTvis albanur eklesias gaaCnia `sapatriarqo taxtis~ Rirseba.
  851 wlisaTvis albanTa kaTalikoss hovsefis dros, `misi patriarqobis
mesame wels Sesrulda samasi weli somxuri welTaRricxvidan~.114 IX sauku-
nis am kaTalikoss patriarqi ewodeba iseve, rogorc X saukunis kaTalikoss,
gagiks `misi patriarqobis meoTxe wels Sesrulda 400 weli somxuri wel-
TaRricxvidan~.114
  VII saukuneSi patriarqis tituli aqvT ara marto albaneTis, aramed
somexTa kaTalikosebsac.
  mose kalankatueli patriarqs uwodebs VI saukunis somexTa kaTalikoss
_ moses da VII saukunis somexTa kaTalikoss _ abraams.
  `movses patriarqis gardacvalebis Semdeg... patriarqad dasves WeSmari-
ti da rCeuli kaci abraami~.115
  rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan kargad Cans, qarTuli eklesiis mezobeli
albaneTisa da somxeTis kaTalikosebi atarebdnen agreTve patriarqis tituls.
patriarqis wodeba albaneTisa da gansakuTrebiT somxeTis mamamTavrebi-
saTvis bunebrivi iyo da araviTar uxerxulobas ar iwvevda VII saukuni-
saTvis. albaneTis, qarTlisa da somxeTis mamamTavrebi da eklesiebi TiTqmis
Tanabari uflebisa da Rirsebisa iyvnen. isini erTmaneTs tols ar udebdnen
maSin, roca saqme eklesiis Rirsebasa da pativs Seexeboda, samive eklesia
Tavs samociqulo eklesiad Tvlida; samive eklesiis meTaurs kaTalikosi
ewodeboda, amitomac gasakviri ar aris, rom maT patriarqis titulic hqono-
daT, amitom VII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs iseve aqvs patriarqis
tituli, rogorc misi mezobeli amierkavkasiis eklesiaTa meTaurebs.
  zemoT Cven moyvanili gvqonda erTi Zveli mematianis cnoba imis Sesaxeb,
rom iustinianes saeklesio reformis Semdeg, VI saukuneSi, rac man mo-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               463
ciqulTa nawilebi konstantinopolsa da ierusalimSi gadaitana da amiT
sapatriarqoTa ricxvi gazarda, yvela qveynis eklesia, sadac mociquli iyo
aRsrulebuli, Seecada sapatriarqo saydris Rirseba mieRo. aman sapatri-
arqoTa ricxvi gazarda. garda amisa, TviT sityva `mamamTavari~, romelic
ewodeboda damoukidebel eklesiaTa meTaurebs, Targmania sityvisa `patri-
arqi~; uZveles dros yvela mamamTavars _ eklesiaTa meTaurs, patriarqi
ewodeboda, mxolod Sua bizantiur epoqaSi mieniWa am sityvas gansakuTrebu-
li fasi _ imperiis interesebidan gamomdinare.
   somxuri da albanuri eklesiebi gansaxilvel VII saukuneSi TavianT Tavs
`kaTolike samociqulo~ eklesiebs uwodebdnen. somxuri eklesia samociqu-
lo iyo, radganac mociqul Tadeozis mier iyo daarsebuli; albanuri ekle-
sia samociqulo iyo, radganac misi meTauri damkvidrebulia samociqulo
taxtze mociqul eliSas Semdeg da kurTxeva uflis Zmis iakobisagan aqvs
miRebuli.116
   cxadia, Tu albanur da somxur eklesiebs samociqulo eklesiebi ewode-
bodaT, qarTul eklesiasac samociqulo ewodeboda. marTlac, Cveni eklesiis
istoriisaTvis gansakuTrebulad saintereso `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Teimuraz-
iseul nusxaSi VII saukunis dasawyisis ambavTa Soris mocemulia cnoba,
romelSic, kerZod, naTqvamia, rom qarTul eklesias ewodeba sveticxovlis
(anu rac igivea, mcxeTis) wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia, sapatriarqo
eklesia. misi meTauri zis mociqulTa taxtze, mociqulTa magieria da aqvs
wodeba patriarqisa. qarTul eklesias mcxeTis, anu sveticxovlis sapatri-
arqo ewodeba.
   aRsaniSnavia, rom sxva ucxour eklesiebsac mTavari qalaqebis mixedviT
aqvT saxeli, magaliTad romis, aleqsandriis, konstantinopolis, ierusali-
mis, moskovis sapatriarqoebi. qarTulsac aseve hqvia _ `wmida kaTolike
samociqulo eklesia sveti-cxoveli~, anu `mcxeTis~.117
   qarTuli eklesia samociqulo eklesiaa, misi meTauri mociqulTa taxtze
zis da mociqulTa magieria _ es ucvlel WeSmaritebad hqonda miCneuli
qarTvelobas.
   qarTuli eklesia VII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi `qarTlis cxovrebis~
Tanaxmad, srulebiT damoukidebeli eklesiaa, romelmac miiRo sapatriarqo
eklesiad wodebis Rirseba. male VII saukunis meore naxevarSi mowveul
msoflio saeklesio krebas daudasturebia qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo
Rirseba. amis Sesaxeb `broseseuli~, `baraTaSviliseuli~, `falavandiSviliseu-
li~ nusxebi weren:
   `qristes aqeT... iqna kreba meeqvse, 170 wmidaTa mamaTa konstantinopolis
Sina meaTsametesa welsa poRonati konstantines mefobasa ... amis krebisa
mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesiisa saqarTvelosaTvis, romel ars wmida
mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa, viTarca wmidani samociqulo kaTolike
464                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
eklesiani, sapatriarqoni. da iyos kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori patriarqTa
Tana da akurTxevdes, mwysides da ganagebdes simarTliT mTavarepiskoposTa,
mitropolitTa da episkoposTa da sawmysosa Tvissa qarTlsa, gamoRma-gaRma
kaxeTsa, Saqsa, Sirvansa da midgmiT-wamosvliT mTisa adgilisaTa, svaneTisa
da Cerqezis sazRvramdis, sruliad ovseTsa da yovelsa zemo-qarTlsa,
samcxe-saaTabagosa. misTvis migviTvlia saqarTvelos eklesiani _ pirvel-
iTgan antioqiis krebisa mier ganpatiosnebul iyo, da am krebisa mier
dagvimtkicebia patriarqad, rameTu nu iqnebian mitropoliti, nuca episkopo-
si kaTalikosisa Seundoblad ... odesca enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva
mironisa, akurTxos Tvissa eklesiasa....~118
  680-681 wlebSi Sesdga VI msoflio kreba, romelic monoTelitTa winaaRmdeg
iyo mimarTuli. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, es kreba Semdgara konstan-
tine poRonatis (konstantine IV _ 668-685) mefobis mecamete wels. konstan-
tine IV zeobis mecamete weli aris 681 weli, rodesac marTlac Catarda
VI msoflio kreba.
  es kreba monoTelitTa winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, monoTelitTa eresiar-
qi sxvebTan erTad iyo lazikis (fazisis) mitropoliti kironi, romelic
qarTveli istorikosebis msjelobiT, igive egrisis arqiepiskoposi, qarTlis
kaTalikosi kirionia. aqedan gamomdinare, VI msoflio krebas, pirdapir Tu
arapirdapir, Sexeba hqonia qarTul eklesiasTan, msjeloba hqonia mis erT-
erT _ lazikis qveyanaze, qarTuli eklesiis ierarqze. amitomac, srulebiT
araa moulodneli, am krebas ganesazRvra qarTul eklesiasTan dakavSirebu-
li sakiTxi. kerZod, ganesazRvra qarTul eklesiasTan msoflio (berZnuli)
eklesiis mimarTeba, faqtobrivad eRiarebina iuridiulad ukve arsebuli
qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirseba, romelic manamde antioqiis sapa-
triarqosac ucvnia _ `pirveliTgan antioqiis krebisa mier ganpatiosnebul
iyo~ _ igulisxmeba (630-660-ian wlebSi) antioqiis mier qarTuli eklesiis
sapatriarqo Rirsebis aRiareba.
  aucileblad yuradReba unda mieqces im faqts, rom VII saukuneSi (ise,
rogorc mimdinare saukuneebSi) qarTuli eklesiis mimxrobisaTvis, qarTuli
eklesiis Tavis mxareze gadayvanisaTvis aqtiurad ibrZoda ori msoflio
qristianuli banaki, romlebic siZlieriT tols ar udebdnen erTmaneTs
aRmosavleTis regionSi. berZnul-bizantiuri banaki Tavisi didi samxedro
ZaliT sxvadasxva xerxebiT cdilobda qarTuli eklesia yovelmxriv moew-
yvita aRmosavlur-somxur-albanuri eklesiisagan. qarTuli eklesiis Sina-
gani survili iyo CamoSoreboda aRmosavleTis eklesias, romelSic qarTveloba
Tavisi erovnuli gadagvarebis safrTxes xedavda da daaxloeboda bizanti-
is eklesias. magram es procesi Zalze rTuli Sinagani winaaRmdegobebiT
iyo aRsavse, garda amisa, arabi dampyroblebi, mose kalankatuelis Tanaxmad,
yovelmxriv aZlierebdnen somxur eklesias, raTa igi win aRdgomoda bizan-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              465
tiuri eklesiis gavlenas amierkavkasiaSi. mose kalankatueli gadmogvcems
aseT ambavs _ dampyrobel arabTa umaRles xelisufalTan Civis somxeTis
kaTalikosi, rom albaneTis eklesia apirebs Tavi daaRwios aRmosavlur-
somxur eklesias da SeuerTdes bizantiur-berZnul eklesias. kaTalikosi
wers arab xelisufals _ `Cven da alvanebic erT rwmenas vemsaxurebiT _
qristes RvTaebriobas, xolo alvaneTis axlandeli kaTalikosi, romelic
partavSi zis, SeuTanxmda berZenTa keisars, ixseniebs mas locvebSi da
qveyanas aiZulebs mis rwmenas daeTanxmos. icodeT Tqven es da gulgrilad
nu SexedavT _ ubrZaneT, dasajon isini Tanaxmad TavianTi moqmedebisa...~119
albanuri eklesiis ltolva berZnuli eklesiisaken arabTa mier Sefase-
bul iqna rogorc arabTa xelisuflebisagan gandgoma. amitomac, alvanelTa
dasasjelad gaigzavna arabTa didi jari. am jaris meTaurs davalebuli
hqonda albanelebi moeqcia somxur rjulze. arabi xelisufali wers somex
kaTalikoss: _ `... gavgzavne iq Cemi sarwmuno msaxuri didi jariT da
vubrZane: Cveni xelisuflebisagan ganmdgari alvanelebi Tqveni rjulis
mixedviT simarTleze moaqcion~.120 arabTa didi jariT albaneTSi Cavida
somexTa kaTalikosi, somxuri sjulisagan ganmdgari albanelTa kaTalikosi
daapatimra da erT qalTan jaWvebiT `fexiT-fexze~ gadaabmevina. berZnuli
orientaciis momxre albanTa kaTalikosma es tanjva ver aitana da rva
dRis Semdeg gardaicvala. xolo somexTa kaTalikosis win Seikriba albane-
Tis umaRlesi samRvdeloeba, romelTac dasdes mtkice fici, rom arasodes
somxur sarwmunoebas ar gadauxvevdnen da maradis ierarqiul daqvemde-
barebaSi iqnebodnen somxur eklesiasTan.121 es momxdara somxuri welTaR-
ricxvis 148, anu 699 wels.
  rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, VII saukunis bolos, roca VI msoflio
kreba Catarda, amierkavkasiaSi Zalze rTuli saeklesio viTareba iyo. bi-
zantiuri orientaciis momxre eklesiebs arabebi sastikad sjidnen, arse-
bobda realuri safrTxe imisa, rom qarTuli eklesiac CamoeSorebinaT
bizantiis saeklesio gavlenisagan, amgvar situaciaSi sruliad bunebrivi
iqneboda msoflio krebas daekmayofilebina qarTuli eklesiis miswrafeba
sruli damoukideblobisaken, aRiareba imisa, rom qarTuli eklesia arc
erTi sxva romelime eklesiis ierarqiul damokidebulebaSi ar imyofeba,
aravis ar eqvemdebareba, aramed TviTve aris samociqulo, Tanaswori sxva
samociqulo eklesiebisa, sapatriarqo Rirsebis mqone, rom saqarTvelos
eklesiis kaTalikosi (anu sayovelTao mTavarepiskoposi) msoflios sxva
eklesiebis patriarqTa Tanasworia da TviTve aris patriarqi. unda SevniS-
noT, rom albaneTis eklesias Tavisi damoukideblobis aseTi garantiuli
dokumenti rom hqonoda VII saukuneSi, somxeTis kaTalikosi, albaT, nakle-
bad gabedavda albaneTis kaTalikosis dasjas da misi eklesiis kidev
ufro daqvemdebarebas, rogorc sarwmunoebrivi, ise ierarqiuli TvalsazrisiT.
466                                              mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
    VII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis orive mezobeli qveynis _ somxeTisa da
albaneTis kaTalikosebs patriarqebs uwodebdnen, rogorc zemoT vwerdiT,
orive eklesia samociqulod iyo miCneuli, orive eklesias (somxeTisa da
albaneTisa) gaaCnda zeTis _ mironis _ adgilze kurTxevis saukunovani
praqtika. amitomac, igive uflebebi da igive praqtika gaaCnda qarTul
eklesiasac, anu qarTuli eklesia iseve iyo samociqulo-sapatriarqo ekle-
sia, rogorc somxeTisa da albaneTis eklesiebi da adgilzeve, qarTlSi,
akurTxebda mirons, rac VI msoflio krebam aRiara da daamtkica.
    VII saukunis ideologiiT, sapatriarqo eklesias unda hqonoda samRvde-
loebis cxra xarisxi: _ `berZnebma... Tqves, RmerTma daawesa cxra xarisxi
eklesiaSi, rogorc zeviT zecaSi, aseve aqac dedamiwaze da saydris Signi-
To: patriarqi, romelic igive mamamTavaria, arqiepiskoposi, romelsac episko-
posTa Tavs uwodeben, mitropolitebi, episkoposebi, mRvdlebi, arqidiakvnebi,
diakvnebi, wignis mkiTxvelebi, mefsalmuneni...~122 uTuod am ideologiis gav-
lena aqvs `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTs qarTuli sapatriarqos daarsebis
Sesaxeb, romelSic CamoTvlilia patriarqis xelqveiT myof ierarqTa igive
xarisxebi, romelic kalankatuels aqvs gadmocemuli. aq naTqvamia _ `iyos
kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori patriarqTa Tana da akurTxevdes, mwysides da
ganagebdes simarTliT mTavarepiskoposTa, mitropolitTa da episkoposTa..~, kalanka-
tuelisa da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ monacemebis erTgvarovneba VII saukunis
saeklesio ierarqiis Sesaxeb ar aris ubralo damTxveva, rogorc erTi Sexed-
viT Cans, aramed asaxavs im dros eklesiaSi arsebul Tvalsazriss.
    kalankatueli aRwers, rom berZnuli eklesia ekamaTeboda somxur ekle-
sias ierarqiuli daqvemdebarebis Sesaxeb. berZnebi amtkicebdnen, rom msof-
lioSi arsebobs mxolod oTxi sapatriarqo _ aleqsandriis, antioqiis,
romisa da efesosi. somxuri eklesia im dros arc erTs ar eqvemdebarebo-
da. berZnebi mouwodebdnen somxebs, damorCilebodnen romelime patriarqs,
ise, rogorc pirveli mTavarepiskoposi somxeTisa grigoli emorCleboda.
`...gviCveneT patriarqi, romelsac emorCileba Tqveni arqiepiskoposi, is, romelic
dRemde Cvens xelqveiT iyo, xolo Tu Tqven patriarqi da sxva samRvdeloni
ara gyavT eklesiebSi, maSin arioziviT gzasacdenili mwvaleblebi yofilx-
arT... amaze somxebma veraferi upasuxes, radganac maTi eklesia marTlacda
amgvar viTarebaSi imyofeboda~.123 es iyo daaxloebiT VI saukunis Sua wleb-
Si. male TviT somxeTSive Seiqmna sapatriarqo eklesia. amis ufleba somx-
ur eklesias misca iman, rom iustinianem TviTneburad gazarda sapatri-
arqoTa ricxvi. Seiqmna axali sapatriarqoebi: aman ki stimuli misca kidev
axali sapatriarqoebis Seqmnas _ `maSin daiZrnen erTianad gulzviadni da
sadac ki aRsrulebulni iyvnen mociqulni, yvela taxti sapatriarqod aRi-
ares~.124 es xdeba VI saukunis bolodan.
    somxuri eklesia am dros Tavis Tavs acxadebs sapatriarqo eklesiad.
magram sapatriarqo eklesiis ierarqia cxra xarisxiani unda yofiliyo.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               467
patriarqs Tavis xelqveiT unda hyoloda arqiepiskoposi da mitropoliti.
aseTi xarisxebi ki imdroindel somxur eklesiaSi ar iyo. Tu rogor
moiqcnen am saqmis gadasawyvetad, movses kalankatuaci wers: `rac Seexeba
cxra xarisxs, eklesiaTa mesveurebma TviTneburad, somexTa ampartavani xas-
iaTis gamo, patriarqad abraami daadgines, arqiepiskoposad _ alvaneli,
xolo mitropolitad _ qarTveli. ganawyenda qarTveli, romelsac kirioni
erqva da ganxeTqilebisaTvis mizezs eZebda~.125
   somxeTis sapatriarqo misi Semqmnelebis surviliT moicavda mTel am-
ierkavkasias, masSi Sedioda saqarTvelo, somxeTi da albaneTi. patriarqi
iyo somxeTis kaTalikosi, mTavarepiskoposi _ albaneTis kaTalikosi, mitro-
politi ki qarTlis kaTalikosi. qarTlis kaTalikosi albaneTis kaTaliko-
sze ufro dabal xarisxze iqna dayenebuli. aseTi sapatriarqo mxolod
Teoriulad arsebobda. es kargad miuTiTebs, Tu ratom iyo aucilebeli
qarTuli eklesia sapatriarqo eklesiad aRiarebuliyo VII saukuneSi, winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli eklesia romelime ucxour sapatriarqos unda daqvem-
debareboda. arsebobda ori gza. imdroindeli SexedulebiT, adgilobrivi
eklesia an TviTve unda yofiliyo sapatriarqo eklesia, anda romelime sxva
sapatriarqos unda daqvemdebareboda. Tu sapatriarqo eklesia iyo, mas pa-
triarqis garda, arqiepiskoposi da mitropolitic unda hyoloda. `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, VII saukuneSi daarsebul saqarTvelos sapatriarqos
hyavda ara marto patriarqi, aramed mTavarepiskoposni da mitropolitni. im
dros dawesda, rom qarTlis kaTalikosi patriarqTa Tanasworia da is ga-
nagebs `mTavarepiskoposTa, mitropolitTa da episkoposTa...~126
   unda davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos sapatriarqo daarsda ara XI saukune-
Si, rogorc dRevandel mecnierebaSia miRebuli, aramed VII saukuneSi. trad-
iciuli qarTuli saeklesio istoriografia dabejiTebiT miuTiTebs saqarTve-
los sapatriarqos VII saukuneSi daarsebis Sesaxeb. saukuneTa manZilze
miRebuli es Tvalsazrisi kidev ufro mtkicdeba axali masalebiT, kerZod,
rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, amaze miuTiTebs VIII saukunis berZnuli warwera.
   msoflio eklesiis mier VII saukuneSi aRiarebul iqna, rom saqarTvelos
(anu mcxeTis) eklesia aris sxva kaTolike samociqulo eklesiebis Tanas-
wori samociqulo eklesia, is aris sapatriarqo, misi meTauri ki patriarqia.
   rogorc `qarTlis cxovrebis~ zemoT moyvanili amonawerebidan Cans, VII
saukuneSi saqarTvelosa da somxeTis axalformirebuli sapatriarqoebi
aqtiurad ibrZvian albaneTis eklesiis teritoriis TavianT sazRvrebSi
moqcevisaTvis. es bunebrivad mogveCveneba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom albane-
Tis eklesia am droidan denacionalizacias ganicdida, rasac Sedegad
albaneli xalxis sxva xalxebSi gaTqvefa da gaqroba mohyva. albaneTis
eklesiis magaliTi kargad gviCvenebs qarTuli eklesiis mier damoukide-
blobisaTvis brZolis droulobas.
468                                               mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  VII saukuneSi formirebuli saqarTvelos sapatriarqo arsebobda VIII saukunis
Sua wlebamde. am dros erTiani qarTuli nominaluri `qarTlis samefos~
daSlas Sedegad mohyva qarTuli sapatriarqos daSla, ramac im saukuneSive
ori _ `afxazeTisa~ da `qarTlis~ sakaTalikosoebis warmoSoba gamoiwvia.


               movses kalankatuacis mier aRwerili
                       VII saukunis ambebi

  movses kalankatuacis `alvanTa qveynis istoria~ (Zveli somxuridan Targmnili
l. davlianiZe-tatiSvilis mier) gamoica 1985 wels. gadmovcemT am wignis VII sauku-
nis zogierT ambavs, dakavSirebuls qarTuli eklesiis istoriasTan.


      Tavi XI. herakle xazarebs ixmobs sparseTze salaSqrod
  herakles brZanebiT xazarebis Zlieri urdo daiZra amierkavkasiisaken.
sparsTa mefe maT daemuqra, amitom im weliwads dacxrnen da ukan dabrund-
nen. Semdeg wels jebu xaqanma Sekriba Tavisi xelqveiTi yvela tomi da
xalxi da Tavis SvilTan erTad albaneTSi Sevida uTvalavi jariT. albane-
Tis mTavari da mosaxleoba partavis cixeSi Caiketa. sparsTa mier albane-
Tis Crdilo sazRvarze kavkasiis mTidan zRvamde gavlebuli iyo didi
kedeli, romlis aSenebis xarjebmac albaneTi daauZlura. xazarTa jarma es
kedeli daamxo. albanelebi SeaSina boroti, utifari, farTosaxiani, uwamwamo,
qaliviT TmagaSlili brbos saSinelma risxvam, romelmac Seubraleblad
daxoca xalxi qalaqis quCebSi. ar indobdnen axalgazrdebsa da moxucebs,
ar ebralebodaT bavSvebi, romelnic daxocili dedis mkerdidan rZis nacv-
lad sisxls wovdnen. didi qalaqi partavi ubrZolvelad aiRes, ltolvili
mosaxleoba amowyvites. qveyana mxecebis namoqmedars daemsgavsa.

 berZenTa da xazarTa laSqari ` qarTvelTa qveynis winaaRmdeg ~
                                                 winaaRmdeg~
  `yovelive amis Semdeg, daiZra azvirTebuli niaRvari da aboboqrebuli
mdinare qarTvelTa qveynis winaaRmdeg, garemoicves nebieri, savaWro da
saxelovani didi qalaqi tfilisi~ (gv.70) rodesac herakle keisarma Se-
ityo, rom xazarTa (Crdilokavkasiel tomTa) jarma alya Semoartya Tbi-
liss, swrafad wavida Tavisi jariT... Sexvda xazarTa meTaurs. `mefuri
saCuqrebisa da saboZvrebis mirTmevasTan erTad, metad gaixares erTmaneTis
xilviT~. Tbilisis cixesimagreSi Caketili mosaxleoba cud dReSi Cavarda.
sparseTis mefe xosrom, roca Seityo berZenTa da xazarTa mefeebis TbilisTan
Sexvedris ambavi, Tbilisis garemocvis dawyebamde qalaqis dasacavad da
dasaxmareblad saswrafod gagzavna marjve da mamaci mxedarmTavari, 1000-
mde rCeuli mxedriTa da mxleblebiT.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               469

             berZnebi da xazarebi Tbiliss ver iReben
  Tbiliselebma, roca ixiles sparsTa maSveli Zala Zlieri da gamocdili
meomrebiT, metad gamxnevdnen da orive mefis dacinva daiwyes. Tumca, xe-
davdnen, CrdiloeTis (xazarTa) da dasavleTis (berZenTa) jarebis did sim-
ravles. isini mTebiviT Semortymodnen qalaqs garSemo. hqondaT bizantiel
ostatTa mier gakeTebuli oTxTvliani manqanebi da nair-nairi saSualebebi,
romlebic zustad isrodnen da uzarmazari qvebiT kedels angrevdnen, sxva
saSualebiT mdinare mtkvars ukan, qalaqis kedlisaken abrunebdnen.
  Tbiliselebs ar SeSinebiaT, mamacurad ibrZodnen, erTmaneTs amxnevebdnen,
dangreuls iqve aSenebdnen da amitomac mterma Tbilisi ver aiRo.
  berZenTa da xazarTa mefis jarebi dasustdnen, daZabundnen Tbilisis kar-
Tan da gadaiqcnen. maTi qveiTi laSqris nawili omSi daeca. erekle keisarma
bWoba gamarTa xazarTa mefesTan. maT Tqves: `risTvis davRupoT Cveni jarebi
Tbilisis karTan. umjobesia sparsTa mefes SevebrZoloT~. erekle keisarma
uTxra xazarTa mefes: `umjobesia am weliwads Sens qveyanaSi dabrunde, rad-
ganac Seni jarebi daqanculia. axla zafxulis sicxeSi veRar SevZlebT
sparseTis dedaqalaqSi Sesvlas. momaval wels ki SemodgomiT saswrafod
gamoeSure aqeT, raTa Cveni survili SevisruloT. me ki ar davcxrebi, Severk-
inebi sparseTis mefes, Sevaviwroveb mis qveSevrdomebs~.

   ukandaxeul berZen-xazarTa mefeebs Tbiliselebi dascinian
  rodesac mtris ukandaxeva gaiges, Tbiliselebi gaamaydnen da gaiTamaSes
oini _ moitanes erTi uzarmazari gogra, zed daaxates honTa (xazarTa)
mefis saxe, Tval-wamwamis adgilas daxazes motexili toti, romlis SemCneva
arc ki SeiZleboda, wverebis adgili utifrad moaSiSvles, cxviris nestoe-
bi mtkavelis siganeze gamosaxes, xolo ulvaSebad meCxeri Tmebi (mongol-
oiduri saxe gamoxates). es gogra dadges kedelze, uyvirodnen mibrunebul
xazarebis jars _ `ai Tqveni mefe, ukan dabrundiT, Tayvani eciT mas, es jebu
xaqaniao~. aiRes Subebi da xvretdnen gogras.
  uaresad dascinodnen da abuCad igdebdnen herakle keisars. Seuracxmyo-
feli bilwi sityvebiT aginebdnen mas.

  bizantielTa da xazarTa mefeebma fici dasdes, rom arc erT
          suliers ar datovebdnen qarTvelTa samefoSi
  dacinvis `... mnaxveli da gamgone mefeebi mZvinvarebdnen, ifxorebodnen,
gulSi siZulvils igrovebdnen, Tavebs aqnevdnen, udidesi wyevliT ifice-
bodnen, rom arc erT suliers ar datovebdnen maT samefoSi, vidre Surs ar
iZiebdnen am SeuracxyofisaTvis, romelic maTgan miiRes. Semdeg ki piri
ibrunes da imave muqariT wavidnen~. (gv.72)
470                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e

  Tavi XII. herakle eZebs saSualebebs TbilisTan miyenebuli
       Seuracxyofis autaneli senisgan gansakurneblad
  TbilisTan miyenebuli Seuracxyofis Semdeg `... keisari Tavis gonebaSi
saSualebebs eZebda, Tu rogor gankurnebuliyo Seuracxyofis autaneli
senisagan~ (gv.72) am xnis ganmavlobaSi daibruna sparsTa mier dapyrobili
bizantiuri miwebi. is eZebda gzebs, rom Crdilo kavkasiidan `... wamoeyvana
barbarosTa sxvadasxva tomebi da maTi saSualebiT gaeZevebina sparseTis
amayi mefe xosrovi~ (gv. 72). gagzavna CrdiloeTiT honebTan erTi Tavisi
didebulTagani, romelic honebs (xazarebs) hpirdeboda uricxv da uTvalav
ganZeulobas Tu daexmarebodnen.
  CrdiloeTis mefis nacvali jebu xakani daTanxmda keisars. xakanma kei-
sars Tavisi Tanxmoba gaugzavna 1000-mde mxedris xeliT, romelnic iyvnen
rCulni simamaciT da Zlierni mSvildosnobiT. maT advilad aiRes Coris
kari, arwivebiviT gafrindnen mtkvrisaken _ `aravis indobdnen, vinc maT
winaaRmdeg gamovidoda. gezi aiRes qarTvelTa da egerTa qveynebisaken~ (gv.
72). gadalaxes Savi zRva da warudgnen herakle keisars. am mxedrebma mas
gadasces xakanis Tanxmoba sparselebTan omSi monawileobaze.
  CrdiloeTis mefem Sepirebis Tanaxmad gagzavna jari SaTis meTaurobiT
herakles dasaxmareblad. es jari sparseTis mxareebs ekveTa. xosro gaiqca
da Tavis namdvil dedaqalaqSi, did tibzanSi Cavida. sparsi mxedarT-
mTavrisaTvis ukve cnobili iyo, rom xosrovis mier naCqarevad Sekrebili
susti jari keisris winaSe damarcxdeboda. is afrTxilebda Tavis mefes,
rom moispoboda sparselTa jari am uTanasworo omSi. sparsTa jari dama-
rcxda. rodesac sparseTis didebulebma dainaxes is didi marcxi, rac
maTma laSqarma ganicada, daiwyes fiqri amboxebisaTvis. xosrovis Svili
kavati aujanyda Tavis mamas, Camoagdo taxtidan da gamefda.

        Tavi XIV. Tbilisis aReba da dasja dacinvisaTvis
  axalgamefebuli kavatisgan yvelam moipova Tavisi danaSaulis miteveba.
gaaTavisufles patimrebi, maT Soris alvaneTis kaTalikosi viro.
  amierkavkasiaSi SemoWrili CrdiloeTis jarebi gamanadgurebeli ZaliT
ekveTnen sparselebs. es jarebi pirvel rigSi ekveTnen qarTvelTa qveyanas
_ qalaq Tbiliss. axla maT saSualeba miecaT, gaefantaT winandeli Seu-
racxyofis gamo dagrovili SurisZieba. Tbiliss alya Semoartyes, daiwyo
brZola. Tbiliselebi ori Tvis manZilze mxned icavdnen Tavs, Semdeg ki
dasustdnen. ukanaskneli Tavdauzogavi brZolis Semdeg Tbiliselebma ukan
daixies galavnisaken. mebrZolebi imalebodnen saxlebis saxuravebze, wyal-
saden milebSi, eklesiebSi. maTi godeba emsgavseboda cxvris didi faris
bRavils kravebisadmi, anda dedis mwuxare kvnesas Tavisi yrmis mimarT (gv.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                471

77). mTeli mosaxleoba amowyvites. Semdeg gamoiyvanes ori mTavari, erTi
sparseli mmarTveli am mxarisa, da meore ki qarTveli, qveynis adgilobrivi
mcxovrebi. CrdiloelTa mefem maT daTxara Tvalebi, imis samagierod, rom
Seuracxyofis mizniT misi saxe suraTze brma daxates. Semdeg ki daaxrCo
isini, tyavi gaaZro da TiviT gatenili fitulebi galavans zemoT Camohkida.
jariskacebma naZarcvi qalaqis qoneba zvinebad daawyves mbrZaneblis winaSe
_ `mis win imdenad xSrad mohqondaT, rom damqancveli gaxda uTvalavi
oqrosa da vercxlis talantebis yureba, xolo vis SeuZlia zedmiwevniT
aRweros margalitebiT mooWvili saeklesio WurWeli~ (gv. 77).
  alvaneTis kaTalikosi viro gaemarTa mterTan mosalaparakeblad. alv-
anelebma ixiles Rreoba mtris uTvalavi jariskacisa. maT `oqroTi mo-
varayebuli vercxlis Wiqebi da sasmisebi wamoRebuli hqondaT tfilisis
aoxrebisas~ (gv. 81).

           Tavi XIX. qarTvelebi exmarebian alvanelebs
    alvanelTa mTavar juanSers ebrZvian sparselebi, romelTac daatyveves
misi mama da Zmebi. juanSeri Tavisi jariT _ `swrafad gavida Tavisi
samSoblos sazRvrebidan da gadavida mtkvris iqiTa mxares kapiWanis ga-
varSi~ (gv. 91). (`kapiWani anu kambeCani alvaneTSi ki ar mdebareobs, aramed
mis gareT, alvaneTis mTavari `kapiWanSi~ Sedis `Tavis samSoblo sazRvre-
bidan~ gasvlis Semdeg).
    qarTvelTa sazRvrebTan juanSers Sexvda qarTvelTa mTavari adarnase _
`... qarTvelTa sazRvrebTan iq qveynis didad pativcemuli iSxani atrnerse,
romelsac hromaelTa samefosagan sammagi pativi hqonda miRebuli, movida
masTan da TviTon uxvevda Wrilobebs, radganac uxaroda misi didi gula-
dobiT mopovebuli gamarjveba. im dros maT mSvidobis urRvevi kavSiri
Sekres erTmaneTTan. juanSerma Tan waiyvana saSvelad qarTvelTa jari...~
(gv. 92), qarTvelTa jaris daxmarebiT mravalgzis daamarcxa sparselebi,
rac dainaxes `... somexTa da qarTvelTa qveynebis naxararebma...~ (gv. 92).

          Tavi X LII. honTa qveyanaSi `sapatriarqo taxtis~
                                                   taxtis~
                          daarsebis survili
  honTa didi mTavari eTaTbireba Tavis mTavrebs imis Sesaxeb, rom israel-
ma episkoposma honTa qveyanaSi daawesos `sapatriarqo taxti~ (gv. 121).
honebi sTxoven albanel episkoposs, darCes maT qveyanaSi. episkoposi pasux-
obs _ `me ar SemiZlia dageTanxmoT alvaneTis didi patriarqis wmida
eliazaris gareSe, radganac mxolos mas aqvs amis ufleba... saWiroa Tqveni
gonivruli azri werilobiT gaacnoT mTel alvaneTis qveyanas da patriarq
eliazars, romelmac wmida eliSas droidan dRemde daamkvidra Crdilo-
472                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
aRmosavleTiT erTi samociqulo taxti RvTis samyofel qalaq ierusalimi-
dan da kurTxeva miiRo uflis Zmis wmida iakobisagan~ (gv. 123).

       XLIV.
  Tavi X IV. honTa mTavari imave saqmeze werils ugzavnis somexTa mamamTavars,
somexTa mTavarsa da zorapets. is maT sTxovs albaneli episkoposi israe-
li gagzavnon honebis sulier mwyemsad.

       XLV.
  Tavi X V. somexTa kaTaliskosi da mTavari pasuxoben _ `israeli ekuTv-
nis ara Cvens samwysos, aramed _ alvaneTisas, Tumca Cveni survilia, rom is
samudamod TqvenTan iyos, magram amis ufleba mxolod Cvens Tanamosaydre
alvaneTis patriarqs eliazars aqvs. es misi saqmea~ (gv. 125).

             Tavi X LVI. somxeTis sapatriarqo taxtis
                    gayofa VI saukunis bolos
  `somxeTis sapatriarqo taxtis gayofis dros (igulisxmeba VI s-is bolo)
didi brZola moxda movsessa da karinis episkoposs Teodoss Soris...
marTlmadideblebi lanZavdnen berZenTa yovelgvar wess. movsesma (igulisxme-
ba somxeTis kaTalikosi mose elivardeli (590-607) Sekriba Tavisi mxaree-
bis vardapetebi da ubrZana amieridan urTierToba gaewyvitaT berZnebTan,
romlebic qalkedonis krebas emorCilebodnen, arc wignebi, arc xatebi, arc
nawilebi ar mieRoT maTgan. maSin Teodosma brZana Sekrebiliyvnen mis
xelisuflebaSi arsebuli mxaris somexi episkoposebi qalaq karinSi da
uTxra: saWiroa kaTalikosi avirCioT, moiyvanes vinme ioane sivnieli (ig-
ulisxmeba ioane gogoviteli), akurTxes da qalkedonur sarwmunoebas daemor-
Cilnen~ (gv. 126).
  `movses patriarqis gardacvalebis Semdeg da somxeTSi xosrovis gamefe-
bisas qveyana gaerTianda. patriarqad dasves WeSmariti da rCeuli kaci
abraami (igulsxmeba abraam albaTaneli, 607-615), romelmac jer wyevla-
krulviT aRmofxvra qalkedonis kreba, xolo Semdeg ekurTxa. xatmebrZole-
bi ki wamovidnen alvaneTSi da aRaSfoTes Tqveni qveyana, maSin gadmanis
mTavarma Sei pyro is sami kaci, romelTa saxelebi zemoT vaxseneT da
borkildadebuli somxeTSi miiyvana~... (gv. 127). (albaneTSi Sepyrobil xat-
mebrZolebs dasasjelad somxeTs ugzavnian).

          Tavi X LVII. qarTvelTa da somexTa ` ganyofa ~
                                              ganyofa~
  `...hromaelTa keTilmsaxuri mefeebis zenonisa da anstasis brZanebiT
erTsulovnad SeaCvenes qalkedonis kreba da leonis tomari. 47 wlis
Semdeg (z. aleqsiZis TargmaniT, 87 wlis Semdeg), somexTa kaTalikosis _
abraamis dros qarTvelebi somxebs gamoeyvnen kirionis mier. maTTanve iyvnen
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 473
berZnebi da italielebi. alvanelebs ki ar uaruyviaT marTlmadidebloba, ma-
gram somxebTan erToba SeinarCunes. abraamma yvelas gaugzavna kirionis gandgo-
milobis cirkularuli sigeli da ganaZeva is sulieri xmliT...~ (gv. 128).


            Tavi X LVIII. cxra saeklesio xarisxis Sesaxeb
  `berZnebma xom Tqves, RmerTma daawesa cxra xarisxi eklesiaSi, rogorc
zeviT zecaSio, aseve unda iyos aqac, dedamiwaze da saydarSi. patriarqi,
romelic igive mamamTavaria, arqiepiskoposi, romelsac episkoposTa Tavs
uwodeben, mitropolitebi, episkoposebi, mRvdlebi, arqidiakvnebi, diakvnebi,
wignis mkiTxvelebi, mefsalmuneni, _ yvela amaT SeerTebulad SeuZliaT
xeli daasxan mamamTavars, xolo mamamTavars SeuZlia _ yvelas. Tu gulwr-
felad gwamT (mimarTaven berZnebi somxebs), aRiareT vin aris Tqveni patri-
arqi? isini mxolod oTxni iyvnen qveyanaze: aleqsandriisa _ markozis
saydari, antioqiisa _ maTesi, romisa _ lukasi, efesosi _ ioanesi. _ qveynis
oTxi kuTxis mixedviT, edemis oTxnakadiani mdinaris mixedviT, oTxi maxare-
blis mixedviT, moses oTxi kanonis mixedviT...~ Cven yovelive amas vemor-
CilebiT. daemorCileT Tqvenc erT amaTgans, anda yvelas erTad, raTa erTi
sarwmunoeba gvqondes. Tqvenma wmida grigorma mTavarepiskoposad xeldasx-
ma kesariaSi miiRo da mas Semdeg aseve xdeba dRemde. Tu Tqven misgan
gansxvavebuli sxva eklesiis marTlmadideblebi xarT, maSin gviCveneT pa-
triarqi, romelsac emorCileba Tqveni arqiepiskoposi, is, romelic dRemde
Cvens xelqveiT iyo. xolo Tu Tqven patriarqi da sxva samRvdeloni ara
gyavT eklesiaSi, maSin arioziviT gzasacdenili mwvaleblebi yofilxarT...
amaze somxebma veraferi upasuxes, radganac maTi eklesia marTlacda amg-
var viTarebaSi imyofeboda. iustinianem Tavis gamefebisTanave wmida ioane
maxareblis nawilebi konstantinopolSi gadaitana da iq samamamTavro tax-
ti daawesa, ZiriTadi taxti ki efesoSi darCa. agreTve maTes nawilebi
antioqiidan ierusalimSi iqna gadatanili. Tan ambobda: `es qalaqi didi
mefis qalaqiao~, ZiriTadi taxti ki isev antioqiaSi datova. maSin daiZrnen
erTianad gulzviadni da sadac ki aRsrulebulni iyvnen mociqulni, yvela
taxti sapatriarqod aRiares... rac Seexeba cxra xarisxs somxeTSi, eklesi-
aTa mesveurebma TviTneburad somexTa ampartavani xasiaTis gamo patri-
arqad abraami daadgines, arqiepiskoposad _ albaneli, xolo mitropoli-
tad _ qarTveli. ganawyenda qarTveli, romelsac kirioni erqva da ganxeT-
qilebisaTvis mizezs eZebda. maSin wminda mRvdelmTavarma abraamma Tqva:
`alvanelebma qarTvelebze adre miiRes qristianoba da amitomac ufro
Seefereba mTavarepiskoposobao~. am marTlmadidebluri rwmenis ZiebaSi kama-
Tis dros qarTvelebma datoves marTlmadidebloba da qalkedonitebi gaxd-
nen. berZeni mxedarTmTavrebi aqezebdnen somxebs, moeTxovaT sasuliero pirvel-
oba alvanelebze, rasac alvanelebi ar emorCilebodnen, isini uTiTebdnen
474                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
erT pirvandel mociqulze, romelic alvaneTSi movida. mas eliSa erqva,
uflis mowafeTagani iyo da xeldasxmuli uflis Zmis _ iakobisagan. eliSas
iq uqadagia da aRuSenebia eklesia somxebze ufro adre. es aris aRmosav-
leTSi pirveli deda-eklesiao. am gisis eklesias erwmunen alvanelebi da
somxebisagan gaiTiSnen, raTa ar darCeniliyvnen sxvisi xelisuflebis qveS
(aseve aqvs arseni safarelsac _ herTa kaTalikosi abazi (552-596) kirion-
Tan erTad ganSorebia somxur eklesias). maSin somxebma, ampartavnebis gamo
berZenTa, romelnic cdilobdnen daemcirebinaT Tadeoz mociqulis gansas-
venebeli da ambobdnen, ara gyavT mTavarepiskoposi da mitropolitio, gada-
wyvites savardapetos episkoposi mitropolitad eqciaT. misces mas jvari
da pativi...~ (gv. 131).

                           wigni III
      Tavi III. albanelTa qalkedoniti kaTalikosis Sesaxeb
  albaneTis sakaTalikoso taxtze adis nersesi, romelic qalkedonitia,
magram malavs. eriskacobisas bakuri erqva, Semdeg gardmanis episkoposi
iyo. mas mxars uWers albaneTis dedofali, qalkedoniti sparami, varaz
Trdatis meuRle. roca Sesaferisi dro dadga, nersesma gaamJRavna Tavisi
qalkedonitoba, mas dedofali aqezebda. sxva qalkedonit mTavarTa dax-
marebiT man mravali eklesia qalkedoniturad aqcia, gandevna zogi monofiziti
episkoposi, maT Soris xazarTa momaqceveli israeli, sxvebi ki TviTonve
ganSordnen. monofizitebs emxroboda alvaneTis didi mTavari Sero. amaT
moiwvies kreba da SeaCvenes nersesi sxva qalkedonitebTan erTad. krebam
werili miswera somxeTis kaTalikoss _ elias.

      Tavi IV. albanel monofizitTa werili somexTa kaTalikoss
  albanel monofizitTa kreba Tayvaniscemas ucxadebs somexTa kaTalikoss
da swers: `Cvens mamebs Tqvens mamebTan erTad saerTo marTali rwmena
hqondaT _ imZlavra qalkedonurma rwmenam da aavso qveyana... nersesi
mglad iqca da daiwyo qristes gonieri samwysos gadabireba. amis gamo
moviwadineT Segvetyobinebina es... raTa moxvideT CvenTan, rogorc Tqvens
nawilTan da gankurnoT Cveni Wrilobebi...~ (gv. 138).
  (albanel monofizitebs miaCniaT, rom albanuri eklesia somxuri eklesi-
is nawilia, rom albanelTa da somexTa `mamebs~ saerTo rwmena hqoniaT.
mouwodeben somexTa kaTalikoss, raTa is mivides albaneTSi, rogorc `mis
nawilSi~ da imoqmedos. es xdeba VII saukunis miwuruls, am saukunis dasawyisSi
ki srulebiT identuri ambavi xdeba qvemo qarTlSi _ gugarqSi. `epistole-
Ta wignis~ Tanaxmad gugarqeli, anu qarTveli monofizitebi TavianT ekle-
sias miiCnevdnen somxuri eklesiis nawilad da mouwodebdnen somxeTis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               475
sakaTalikosos `emoqmeda~ gugarqelTa dasaxmareblad. (gugarqel qarTvel-
Ta, iseve rogorc albanelTa, saeklesio ena somxuri iyo).

        Tavi V. somexTa kaTalikosi arab amirasTan uCivis
                    albanel qalkedonitebs
  arab xelisufals somexTa kaTalikosi swers, rom somxeTi arabebs emor-
Cileba da emsaxureba RmerTis nebiT, albanelebi da somxebi qristianebi
arian, magram albanelTa kaTalikosi, romelic partavSi zis, SeuTanxmda
berZenTa imperators, ixseniebs mas locvebSi da albanelTa qveyanas aiZu-
lebs, miiRos bizantiuri sarwmunoeba. somexTa kaTalikosi Semdeg mou-
wodebs amiras, rom is albanelTa qalkedonitobas gulgrilad nu Sexedavs,
dasajos isini TavianTi moqmedebis Sesabamisad (msgavsad aseve somexTa
sakaTalikosom da marzpanma qarTuli eklesiis qalkedonitobis, anu `berZnuli
sarwmunoebis~ Sesaxeb Seatyobines sparsTa mefes kirionis dros da mou-
wodes, daesaja qarTuli eklesia bizantiuri rjulisaTvis).

        Tavi VI. arabi amira pasuxobs somexTa kaTalikoss
   arabi amira somexTa kaTalikoss `RvTis kacs~ uwodebs da atyobinebs, rom
man albaneTSi gagzavna didi jari erTguli msaxuris meTaurobiT. am jars
nabrZanebi aqvs arabTa xelisuflebisagan gamdgari alvanelebi moaqcios
somxur sarwmunoebaze. `...Cveni xelisuflebisagan gamdgari alvanelebi Tqveni
sjulis mixedviT simarTleze moaqcion~ (gv. 139).
   (aqedan Cans, rom arabebs qalkedonitebi miaCniaT arabTa xelisuflebisagan
gandgomilebad, xolo `somxuri sarwmunoebis~ mqoneni erTgul RvTis kacebad).
   Semdeg atyobinebs, rom `Cveni msaxuri Sens winaSe partavSi sisruleSi
moiyvans sasjels, nersessa da mis Tanamoazre qals rkinis jaWviT gadaabam-
en da Sercxvenilebs samefo karze moiyvanen, raTa yvelam ixilos meambox-
eTa Seuracxyofa~ (gv. 139).
   (yvela qalkedoniti arabTaTvis meamboxea. aseve uwodeben qalkedonitebs _
`Cveni xelisuflebiasagan gandgomilebs~, amitomac isini sastikad unda daisa-
jon. albanelTa kaTalikosi nersesic `meamboxea~ Tavisi qalkedonitobis gamo,
is unda daisajos somexi kaTalikosis winaSe, xolo somxebs ufleba aqvT
albanelebi `TavianT sarwmunoebaze~, anu somxur sarwmunoebaze moaqcion).


            Tavi VII. somexTa kaTalikosi albaneTSi sjis
                        albanTa kaTalikoss
  somexTa kaTalikosi sagangebod Cavida albaneTSi, dajda mTavar taZarSi
da brZana misTvis dasasjelad miegvaraT albanTa kaTalikosi nersesi. SeSineb-
476                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
uli albanelTa kaTalikosi daimala, Semdeg Sei pyres da miiyvanes somexTa
kaTalikosis winaSe. `mravalricxovan SekrebilTa Soris elias winaSe upa-
suxod idga ubeduri. mefis brZanebiT mas mZime sasjeli gamoutanes: gadaabes
fexiT fexze im qalTan da Soreul qveyanaSi gasagzavnad moamzades, magram
ver aitana es tanjva da rva dRis Semdeg gardaicvala~ (gv. 140). (aqedan
Cans, rom arabebma sastikad dasajes ara marto qalkedoniti samRvdeloeba,
nersesi da masTan daaxloebulni, aramed saero qalkedoniti xelisufle-
bac, magaliTad, albaneTis qalkedoniti dedofali sparami, romelic dasam-
cireblad albanTa kaTalikosis fexze gamoabes da gadaasaxles).
  qalkedonituri literatura gaanadgures. arabebma da albaneTSi sa-
gangebod Casulma somxebma albanTa kaTalikos nersesis qalkedonituri
wignebi, romliTac savse iyo zanduki, wyalSi Cayares.
  `... nersesis `wvalebiT~ savse wignebi, romliTac avsebuli iyo zanduki,
waiRes da mTlianad mdinare trtutSi Cayares...~ (gv. 140)


      Tavi VIII. somexTa kaTalikosi erTgulebis xelwerils,
          anu ` Semomtkicebis wigns ~ , arTmevs albanelebs
                              wigns~
  RmerTmao, _ weren albanelebi `Semomtkicebis wignSi~, _ `Segvibrala Cven
uZlurni, Seiwyala Cveni xalxi da gamogvigzavna RvTis madliT Rirseuli
mama elia _ somexTa kaTalikosi, kaci wmida da marTali, wmida grigoris
taZris mflobeli, episkoposebTan da vardapetebTan erTad~. somexTa kaTa-
likosi albaneTSi Casula sami somexi episkoposisa, vardapetisa da mraval
mowafeTa TanxlebiT (gv. 141). (SeiZleba Sedareba _ somxeTis eklesia
kirionis drosac apirebda qarTlSi somexi episkoposebis gagzavnas, raTa
maT kirionisaTvis `eswavlebinaT swori sarwmunoeba~).
  albanelebi Semdeg weren somxeTidan Casuli samRvdeloebis Sesaxeb _
`moxvediT Tqven Cvens dedaqalaq partavSi da tkbili moZRvrebiT aRkveTeT
boroti Cvens Soris. gagvaxseneT Cveni winapris anderZi...~ (gv. 141).
  Semdeg _ `rodesac gansacdelma moaRwia Cvenamde, RmerTma aRmogviCina
Semweoba wmida grigoris monacvlis meSveobiT, romlis marTlmorwmuneobis
mowafeni varT da viqnebiT. elia somexTa kaTalikosi gaxda simarTlis
mterze SurismaZiebeli da axla Cven yvelani vwyevliT `mwvaleblebs~ ...
qalkedonis krebasa da leonis tomars... SevaCveneT Cveni sacodavi ners-
esic, romelic saTnoeyo orbunebianTa `wvalebas~ da misi mimdevarni. Cven
SevadgineT es sabuTi RmrTisa... raTa amis Semdeg aRarvin gabedos gadaux-
vios Cveni mamebis naanderZevs. xolo Tu gamoCndeba vinme utifari... aseve
SeCvenebuli iqneba... Tu episkoposTagani iqneba vinme _ Rirseba CamoerTvas
da taxtidan Camogdebul iqnas. Tu mRvdeli _ aseve mouvides, Tu vinme
berTagani, _ SeCvendes da ganidevnos, xolo Tu azatTagani iyos _ eklesi-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              477
idan moikveTos da amxanagebSi gareva aekrZalos, vidre marTlmadideblur
rwmenaze ar Semobrundes~. (aqedan Cans, rom arabTa zemoqmedebiT al-
banelebi (da ara marto albanelebi, aramed kavkasiis qalkedonitebi) iZu-
lebulni arian TavianTi Tavi somxuri eklesiis wevrebad gamoacxadon da
dagmon qalkedonitoba. qalkedoniti samRvdeloeba ganikveTeba da ganidevneba,
qalkedoniti eriskacebi moikveTeba sazogadoebidan _ `amxanagebidan~ da
eklesiidan, mas ekrZaleba sazogadoebasTan raime kavSiri manam, sanam ar
miiRebs `somxur sarwmunoebas~. unda vifiqroT, rom albaneTis mezobel
qvemo qarTlSi, sadac arabobas gansakuTrebiT hqonda fexi mokidebuli,
mravalma qarTvelma qalkedonitma iZulebiT miiRo `somxuri sarwmunoeba~).


          albaneTis kaTalikosi somxeTSi unda ekurTxos
  amis Semdeg albanel monofizitTa krebis monawileni _ samRvdeloeba,
mTavrebi da aznaurebi deben SeTanxmebas somxeTis kaTalikosTan albaneTis
kaTalikosis kurTxevis wesis Sesaxeb. am SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, albaneTis
kaTalikosis kurTxeva xdeba somexTa kaTalikosis mier. albanTa kaTaliko-
sis kurTxeva unda moxdes somxeTSi `wmida grigoris taxtze~. Tu romelime
albaneTis kaTalikosi gabedavs da ar ekurTxeba somxeTSi _ is kaTaliko-
sad ar CaiTvleba. krebis monawileTa azriT, albaneTis kaTalikosi somxeT-
Si unda ekurTxos, imitom rom albaneTi somxeTis meSveobiT ganaTlda da
wmida grigoris droidan misi kurTxeva somxeTSi xdeboda, bolo dros ki
aseTi wesi darRveula. kreba aRadgens `Zvel wess~.
  `Cven Tavidan davaweseT agreTve alvaneTis kaTalikosis xeldasxma, rad-
gan bolo xanebSi Cvenma kaTalikosebma daarRvies episkoposTa dadgenis
wesi. gamoucdelobiT da ucodinarobiT Cvens qveyanaSi ganxeTqilebam iCina
Tavi. amitom SevTanxmdiT RvTisa da Tqveni mamamTavrobis winaSe, rom al-
baneTis mRvdelmTavris kurTxeva wmida grigoris taxtze moxdes, Cveni
qveynis TanxmobiT, rogorc es xdeboda wmida grigoris dros. radganac Cven
Tqvenidan gavnaTldiT, WeSmaritad gvwams, rom visac Tqven airCevT, is sa-
surveli iqneba RvTisTvisac da CvenTvisac, nuravin gabedavs am SeTanxmebis
darRvevas da sxvanair moqmedebas, xolo Tu vinme daarRvevs _ misi xel-
dasxma gauqmebulad CaiTvleba... rwmena iyos mtkice da Seuryeveli Cven
orive xalxs Soris~... (gv. 143).
  SeTanxmeba daido somxuri welTaRricxviT 148, anu 699 wels. krebas
somexTa kaTalikosi elia Tavmjdomareobda.
  aqedan Cans, VII saukunis bolos rogor SeZlo somxurma eklesiam mTli-
anad gabatonebuliyo albanur eklesiaze. amis Semdeg albanur eklesiaSi
arabTa ZaldatanebiT aikrZala qalkedonitoba da albanelebma `somxuri
sarwmunoeba~ miiRes, rasac Sedegad mohyva albanur eklesiaSi ukve daner-
478                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gili somxurenovani wirva-locvis sruli gabatoneba. albanuri eklesia
mTlianad gaiTqvifa somxur eklesiaSi. erovnuli eklesiis gareSe darCeni-
li albanelTa didi nawili mahmadiandeba da asimilirdeba sxva xalxebSi,
morwmune qristiani albanelebi ki monofizitebi arian da somxuri eklesi-
is nawili xdebian.
  arabebma, ise rogorc adre sparselebma, `somxuri sarwmunoeba~ savalde-
bulod aqcies kavkasieli xalxebisaTvis. Tu VII saukunis dasawyisSi alba-
nurma eklesiam gabeda da somxur eklesias gamoeyo, msgavsad kirionisa, VII
saukunis bolos arabebi albanelebs sabolood uqvemdebareben somxur ek-
lesias. arseni safareli da mose kalankatueli erTxmad weren albaneTis
somexTagan gamoyofis Sesaxeb VI-VII saukuneTa mijnaze. isini am dros
uTiTebdnen pirvel mociqul eliSaze, romelmac albanuri eklesia daafuZ-
na _ `...mxedarmTavrebi aqezebdnen somxebs, moeTxovaT sasuliero pirveloba
alvanelebze, rasac alvanelebi ar emorCilebodnen. isini uTiTebdnen erT
pirvandel mociqulze, romelic alvaneTSi mivida, mas eliSa erqva. iq
uqadagia da aRuSenebia eklesia somxebze ufro adre. es aris aRmosavleT-
Si pirveli deda eklesiao. am gisis eklesias erwmunen alvanelebi da
somxebisgan gaiTiSnen, raTa ar yofiliyvnen sxvisi xelisuflebis qveS~.
axla ki VII saukunis bolos albanelebma aRar wamoayenes idea ierusalim-
idan, uflis Zma iakobisagan qristianobis albaneTSi Semotanis Sesaxeb,
axla isini ukve acxadeben, rom maT somxeTisagan miiRes qristianoba. pirda-
pir weren kidec _ `... Cven Tqvengan gavnaTldiT...~ (gv. 143). amitomac
albanuri eklesia unda daeqvemdebaros somxurs.


           Tavi IX. somexTa kaTalikosi SeTanxmebis werils
                         aZlevs alvanelebs
  `uTanxmoebani, romlebic alvaneTSi moxda rwmenis gamo urjulo nersesi-
sagan, mravalTa sulebSi qalkedonitur rwmenas aRvivebs da Tavisi cbieri
borotebiT saSiSroebas uqmnis episkoposebs, mRvdlebsa da berebs. rodesac
gavige me, somexTa kaTalikosma eliam, Cems episkoposebTan erTad mivedi
alvaneTSi, didebul qalaq partavSi. CemTan Seikribnen sasulieroni da
saeroni... episkoposebma da eklesiis mTelma dasma xelweriliTa da beWd-
iT... daadgines: Tavisi nebiT mtkiced daicvan rwmena da ar Seerion qalke-
donituri rwmenisa da bakuris moZRvrebis mimdevrebs... Tu vinme kaTaliko-
si an episkoposi gadauxvevs am SeTanxmebas, maSin mas aRar unda hqondes
ufleba mrevlze... me elia, somexTa kaTalikosma Cems episkoposebTan erTad
miviRe Semomtkicebis wigni alvanelTa krebisagan da momeciT Tqven es
SeTanxmebis werili...~ (gv. 144).
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  479

           Tavi X. arabTa amiras divanSi aTavseben sias
       albaneli mTavrebisa, imisaTvis: Tu romelime maTgani
           qalkedonitobas miiRebs, sikvdiliT dasajon
  arabi amiras samdivnoSi moaTavses sia albaneli naxararebisa, maT Soris
erTi mTavrisa, erTi spaspetisa, patrikebisa, iSxnebis mflobelebisa _ isini
monofizitebi iyvnen, erTi ki iakobitia. _ `yvela eseni Cawerili iyvnen
abdal meliq amir mumnis divanSi, imisaTvis, rom Tu vinme maTgani aRiarebda
orbunebianobas, sikvdiliT daesajaT~ (gv. 144).
  (aqedan Cans, Tu ra sastikad devnidnen arabebi qalkedonitebs da aZlierebdnen
`somxur sarwmunoebas~. TviT qveynis mfobeli mTavrebic ki sikvdiliT isje-
bodnen qalkedonitobisaTvis. dabali fenebi kidev ufro sastikad daisjebod-
nen, Tu isini gabedavdnen da `somxur sarwmunoebas~ ar aRiarebdnen. sastikad
idevneboda qalkedoniti samRvdeloebac. qarTlSic aseTive viTareba iyo. qarTlis
mflobeli xosroiani mefeebi TavianTi qalkedonuri sarwmunoebisaTvis sas-
tikad daisajnen VIII saukunis dasawyisSi. idevneboda qarTuli qalkedoni-
turi eklesiac. mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelo da mesxeTi _ bizantiis mfarvel-
obis wyalobiT gadarCa `somxuri sarwmunoebis~ iZulebas).

   Tavi XXI. arabul administraciul erTeul _ ` armeniaSi ~
                                               armeniaSi~
          Sedis qarTvelTa da albanelTa qveynebi,
                 misi amira erovnebiT somexia
  somex mTavars sahl smbatians 837 wels `...samefodan didi jildo ergo.
mas uwyalobes somxeTis, iberiisa da alvaneTis mTliani gamgebloba mTavris
uflebiT~. (gv. 161)
  838 wels _ `... ufalTufalma iunesma, romelic somexTa, iberTa da alv-
anelTa xelisufali iyo, samefosagan kidev iTxova sami qveyana...~ (gv. 161)
  (iberia anu qarTli, an misi erTi nawili) Sedis arabTa mier Seqmnil admin-
itraciul erTeulSi _ `armeniaSi~, romelSic qarTlis garda, somxeTi da
albaneTi Sedioda. am administraciuli erTeulis amirebi (anu vostikani) IX
saukunis Sua wlebSi somxebi arian. maTTvis mefuri ufleba miuniWebiaT. isini,
cxadia, xels Seuwyobdnen qarTlSi `somxuri sarwmunoebis~ gavrcelebas).

        Tavi XXII. alvaneTis kaTalikosi samueli somexTa
              gareSe ekurTxa, ris gamoc SeaCvenes
  albanelTa kaTolikosma samuelma xeldasxma miiRo ara somxeTSi, aramed
Tavisi albaneli episkoposebis xeliT. am ambavma `...metad aaRelva alvane-
Tis iSxanebi. maT erTxmad acnobes es somexTa kaTalikoss, ufal gevorgs,
480                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
xolo man kanonieri ganCinebiT miswera somexTa iSxanebs da sTxova dax-
mareba ... amasobaSi kaTalikosi samueli brZnulad mourigda alvaneTis
Tavkacebsa da iSxanebs da maT Soris mSvidoba damyarda. amis gamo somxeb-
ma SeaCvenes alvanelebi. somexTa iSxani aSoti moiTxovda wmida grigoris
mier ganwesebas da somexTagan xeldasxmas... somexTa didma mTavarma mis-
wera gevorg mRvdelmTavars amis Sesaxeb, amasTanave daarwmuna samueli
daTanxmeboda mTeli alvaneTis survils da Tundac Tavisi nebis gareSe
wasuliyo dvins da... xelmeored mieRo xeldasxma somexTa kaTalikos gev-
orgisagan~. es moxda 877 wels.
  daaxloebiT 893 wels arabi mxedarTmTavari `...Tavs daesxa qarTvelTa
qveyanas. mis winaaRmdeg gamovida ori mamaci qarTveli mxedarTmTavari
giorgi da misi Zma aravesi. orive wamebiT daxoca~ (gv. 164).

                 Tavi XXIV. albanelTa mamamTavrebi
   albaneTis `...uwindel patriarqTa saqmeni, dro da saxelebi dakargulan...~
(gv. 168). albanTa ganaTlebis wyaro yofila wmida eliSa, wmida Tadeozis
mowafe (miaqcieT yuradReba am Txzulebis VI saukunis dasasrulisa da VII
saukunis damdegis avtoris ideiT, albanTa ganmanaTlebeli wmida eliSa
uflis Zmis, iakobis mowafea, dakavSirebulia ierusalimTan da araviTari
kavSiri ara aqvs somxeTTan, ufro metic, is somxebze ufro adre aarsebs
samociqulo taxts albaneTSi. es idea icvleba VII saukunis dasasruls. am
dros albaneTSi Casuli somexTa kaTalikosi elia mTlianad ucvlis am
ideas saxes da gadmogvcems, rom mociquli eliSa mowafe iyo Tadeoz
mociqulisa. es idea meordeba X saukunemde. Tadeozi somxuri eklesiis
damaarseblad iyo aRiarebuli. Tu eliSa Tadeozis mowafe iyo, maSin alban-
Ta ganmanaTlebeli mowafe yofila somexTa ganmanaTleblisa. amitomac al-
banuri eklesia somxurs unda daemorCilos).
   `Semdeg iyo yrma grigorisi, somexTa ganmanaTleblis grigoris SviliS-
vili~... (e.i. albanTa kaTalikosi iyo); `...Seqmna netarma mesropma alvanuri
damwerloba. manve didi Sromis Sedegad anbani misca somxebsa da qarTvelebs.
Semdeg iyo ufali abasi, romelmac somxuri welTaRricxvis dasawyisSi sapa-
triarqo taxti Coridan partavSi gadaitana... misi droidan Cveulebad iqca
daeweraT aseTi pativi: `alvanTa, lfinTa da Coris kaTalikosi~. dvinis kreb-
dan mas miuTiTes, raTa eRiarebina mxolod erTbunebianoba qristesi...~ (gv. 168).
   `ufali viro... man xazari SaTis tyveobidan gaaTavisufla somxebi, qarTvelebi
da alvanelebi... ufali zaqaria... (man) siunqis episkoposad akurTxa vinme
vrTanesi, rac moxda somexTa nebis gareSe~ (gv. 168). `ufali nersesi... mas
goneba aeria, moindoma alvanelTa keTilSobili saxli CamoeSorebina da
qalkedonituri rwmenisaTvis daemorCilebina~.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             481
  `ufalma miqaelma daswyevla agreTve qarTvelTa mwyemsi Talale, radga-
nac man neba darTo ukanono qorwinebas~.
  `ufali samueli... man TviTon, xeldasxmis gareSe miiRo samamamTavro
pativi, ris gamoc ganTavisuflebul iqna. xelmeored xeldasxma miiRo somexTa
kaTalikos georgisagan dvinSi. ufali iunani... kaTalikos georgis daukiTx-
avad mivida alvaneTSi da xeldasxmac mis gareSe miiRo, Semdeg TviTon
georgma xelmeored akurTxa is~ (gv. 170).
482                                       mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e




                 T a v i VI I


 qarTuli eklesia VIII-X saukuneebSi



                    ` C v e n m a s a m R v d e l o e b a m k a r ga d i c o d a ,
          rom mamuli da erovneba rjulTan erTad
          S e e r T e b u l i , r j u l T a n S e x o r c- T v i s e b u l i ,
                 u Z l e v e l i x m a l i a d a S e u l ewe l i f a r i
                                                            m t r i s a wi n aS e~.

                                                       ilia marTali
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              483

     `qarTlis~ istoriuli geografia VIII saukunisaTvis

  qarTlis wyaroTa Tanaxmad, V saukunesa da wina saukuneebSi sityva `qarT-
lis~ qveS igulisxmeboda mTeli saqarTvelo.
  aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ukiduresi aRmosavleTi provinciebic _ kaxeTi
da hereTi _ qarTlis nawili iyo. V saukunis avtors ase aqvs gadmocemuli:
`viTarca moiwia igi sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa qveyanasa mas hereTisasa... wina
miegebnen mas aznaurni~.1
  hereTi qarTlis erT-erTi Semadgeneli qveyanaa, xolo qarTlis sazRvre-
bi mtkiced aris gansazRvruli. iakob xucesma kargad icis, Tu sad gadis
qarTlis saxelmwifos sazRvari da iseve, rogorc leonti mroveli, jua-
nSeri da sxva Zveli qarTveli mematianeebi, xmarobs termins `sazRvari
qarTlisaA~. hereTi, misi sityviT, qarTlis sazRvrebs SigniT moqceuli
qveyanaa. hereTSi wamebuli wmida SuSanikis ambavi mTel qarTls moefina,
`ganiTqva yovelsa qarTlsa saqme misi~, wmidanis sanaxavad `aznaurni da
uaznoni soflisa qarTlisani movides~.2
  qarTli sxvagan ki ar aris, aramed TviTve hereTia qarTli, aseve dasav-
leT saqarTvelo, kerZod, egrisis zRvis sanapiro klisuramde qarTlis
erT-erTi qveyana iyo. swored amitom am teritoriebis berZnebis mier dapy-
robis dros, mTel iveriaSi _ qarTlSi urva da wuxili daiwyo.
  qarTlsa da saberZneTs Soris Tavidanve iyo sazRvari dadebuli, qarT-
lis samefos SeqmnisTanave, farnavazis dros. farnaozma `qujis misca qvey-
ana... egrisis wylamde...~, xolo gorgasals _ `...ukusca keisarman sazRvari
qarTlisa cixe Tuxarisi da klarjeTi... gamoikiTxa keisarman sazRvari
saberZneTisa da qveyana zRvispirisa, romel ars afxazeTi da hrqua: egri-
sis wyliTgan vidre mdinaremde mcirisa xazareTisa ese sazRvari ars
saberZneTisa aleqsandrobiTgan~.3
  keisarma vaxtang gorgaslis saxelmwifos daubruna is teritoriebi, ro-
melnic istoriulad Sediodnen qarTlSi.
  egriswyals iqiT mdebare qveyana qarTls ekuTvnoda. marTlac, arsebobs
`egriswyalsaqeTis~ Sesabamisi ZvelqarTuli termini _ `egriswyalqvemo qvey-
ana~, vaxtang gorgaslis Zem daCim `ukumoixvna egriswyalsquemoTi queyana~.4
  vaxtang gorgasalis meoxebiT qarTlis sazRvari gadaweuli iqna Crdilo-
eTiT da qarTlsa da saberZneTs Soris saxelmwifo sazRvari mdinare egrisw-
ylis nacvlad daido md. klisuraze _ `klisura romeli masa Jamsa iyo
sazRvari saberZneTisa da saqarTveloAsa~, `zRude igi sazRvari klisurisa~.5
  ase rom, qarTli vaxtang gorgaslis dros, iseve rogorc manamde da mis
Semdeg, vidre VIII saukunis Sua wlebamde, erTiani qveyanaa, romelsac aqvs
mtkiced gansazRvruli sazRvrebi mezobel saxelmwifoebTan. dasavleTiT
qarTlis cnebaSi Sedis egrisi, aRmosavleTSi ki _ hereTi, xolo samxreTiT
cixe-Tuxarisi da klarjeTi. aseTia mtkicebani qarTuli wyaroebisa.
484                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  `vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis periodi _ uaRresad mniSvnelovani movle-
nebiT aRivso: gaerTianda aRmosavleTi `iveria~ da dasavleTi `egrisi~.
qarTl-kaxeTis garda; am erTian samefos farglebSi Semovida alvaneTis
momijnave mxareebic (hereTi, kambeCani)~6.
  vaxtang gorgaslis Semdeg maleve, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi qveyana
sparselebma da bizantielebma dai pyres, qarTli mainc erTiania, mas erTi
kanonieri mmarTveli hyavs (nominaluri) samefo gvaridan.
  qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT, vaxtangis Ze daCic mTel qarTls marTavs.
man qarTls daubruna `egriswyalsqvemoTi qveyana~.
  XXXVI mefe farsmanmac `dai pyro yoveli giorgia~ _ anu mTeli qarTli
_ saqarTvelo. mis drosve qveynis SigniT sxvadasxva politikuri dajgufe-
bis warmoqmna, urTierTgamijvna mimdinareobda (528-542 wlebSi).
  mefe farsmani sparselebis momxrea, xolo Zeni mirdatisani _ berZnebisa.
  XXXVII mefis farsman VI-is dros (542-557) `arRara moiyvandian kaTali-
kossa saberZneTidan~. mis dros Semosula 12 sirieli mama.
  XXXVIII mefis bakuris Semdeg qarTli, anu saqarTvelo daiSala
saerisTavoebad.
  guaram kurapalatma (575-600), romelsac `mosca mefoba saqarTvelosi kei-
sarman~...7 _ `erisTavni ver scvalna, vinaidgan gujriT aqvndaT mflobeloba
keisrisa da sparsTa mefisagan, garna morCilebasa Sina guaramisa iyvnen~.8
  aqedan Cans, rom qveyana, faqtobrivad, gayofilia sparseTsa da saberZneTs
Soris. es qveynebi TviTon amtkiceben erisTavebs saqarTveloSi, magram
saqarTvelo, anu qarTli mainc erTiani qveyanaa da erisTavebi erT qarTvel
mefes _ qarTlis mefes emorCilebian.
  ra iyo amis mizezi, ram SeunarCuna aseT pirobebSi qarTls erTianoba?
                                              `faqtia isic, rom miuxedavad
                                            politikuri damoukideblobis da-
                                            kargvisa, qarTli VI saukunis gan-
                                            mavlobaSi... ekonomikur aRmavlo-
                                            bas ganicdis...~9 am dros gacxove-
                                            lebula-gaRrmavebula saqarTve-
                                            los sxvadasxva provinciebs So-
                                            ris ekonomikuri kavSiri, gafarT-
                                            ovebula Sinagani bazari. `yvel-
                                            aferi es, ra Tqma unda, xels uwy-
                                            obda da apirobebda am calkeuli
                                            provinciebis Serwyma-gaerTianeb-
is process. amdroindeli qarTlis ekonomikuri da kulturuli aRmavlo-
bis maCvenebelia mniSvnelovani arqiteqturuli nagebobani, romlebic am
periodSi iqmneba da romelTa dagvirgvinebasac warmoadgens qarTuli xe-
lovnebis brwyinvale Zegli _ mcxeTis jvari~.10
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  485
  ase rom, vaxtang gorgaslis Semdeg qarTli ki ar daSlila, piriqiT,
mimdinareobda `calkeuli provinciebis Serwyma-gaerTianebis procesi~ da
`ekonomikuri kulturuli aRmavloba~. swored amiT iyo gamowveuli is, rom
sxva saxelmwifoebis mier `mflobeloba~ miniWebuli erisTavebi erT qarT-
lis mefes, anda mTavars emorCilebian.
  adarnase mTavarsac, mcxeTis jvris erT-erT aRmSenebels, yvela erisTavi
emorCileba. magram erisTavebis Secvla mas ar SeuZlia. adarnases Ze
stefanoz mTavari da misi Zeni _ arCili da miri gadadian dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, egrisSi da iqidan marTaven saxelmwifos: egrisi rom qarT-
lis samefoSi Semavali qveyana ar yofiliyo, qarTlis mefe-mTavrebi iq ver
dadgebodnen.
  arCil mefis erT-erTi Ze, iovane, egrisis mmarTveli mTavari iyo. mas
mematiane `iovane erisTavs~ uwodebs.
  egrisi qarTlis erT-erTi qveyana iyo imiTac, rom qarTlis kaTalikosi
kirioni xeldasxmulia `...gugarqis, qarTlis da egrisis kaTalikosad~.11
amasve miuTiTebs atenis sionSi axladaRmoCenili warwerebi, sadac qarT-
lis erisTavi amave dros egrisis erisTavicaa.
  wmida mefe arCilis mematianes erT-erT wyarod gamouyenebia anonimis
Txzuleba, romelic asaxavs swored im epoqas, romelsac igi gulisxmobs, e.i.
arCilis moRvaweobis xanas. arCili ki, Cveni azriT, VIII saukunis pirveli
naxevris moRvawea.12
  am anonimis koncefciiT `...dasavleTi saqarTvelo, anu egrisi, afxazeTis
gamoklebiT, qarTls warmoadgens, anu ukeT, dasavleT saqarTvelos Semad-
geneli mxareebi arian igive `qveyanani qarTlisani~. rogorc viciT, aseTi
koncefcia saerTod axasiaTebs `qarTlis cxovrebas~ da mas garkveuli
safuZvelic unda hqondes. anonimis mixedviT, `qarTlis mefeebs~ mirs da
arCils, romlebic murvan yrus Semosevisas dasavleT saqarTvelos afareben
Tavs, am ukanasknelze suverenuli uflebebi aqvT~.13
  `sikvdilis win miri eubneba arCils: `mamaca Cveni mokvda SfoTsa amas
Sina da ver warveciT igi mcxeTas. warscen Zvalni misi da daflen saydarsa
quTaissa, raTa ipovos igi sawameblad samkvidrosa Cvenisa~. e.i. quTaisis
saydari, sadac stefanoz qarTlis erisTavis saflavia, iqneba simbolo qarT-
lis mmarTvelTa axali rezidenciisa. es tendencia saxelmwifos kulturul-
politikuri centris dasavleTSi, kerZod ki quTaisSi gadatanisa, marTlac,
SesaZlebelia ukve maSin arsebuliyo, ramdenadac VIII saukunis 40-iani wlebidan,
rogorc viciT, Tbilisi arabi amiras adgil-samyofeli xdeba~.14
  rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, sazRvari qarTlsa da `saberZneTs~ Soris
gadioda mdinare klisuraze. arabobis dros mefe arCili gadasuli iyo
`saberZneTSi~, mdinare klisuras iqiT. qveynis dawynarebis Semdeg mefe
arCilma adgilobriv erisTavs _ afxazeTis mmarTvels, romelic `keisris-
486                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gan~ iyo dadginebuli (`erisTavi keisrisa leon~), uTxra _ `...aw uwyies
Seneba adgilTa CvenTa klisuriTgan aRmarT. warval da daveSenebi cixe
gojs da quTaiss~.15
  klisuriTgan `aRmarTi~ qveyana qarTlis mefeTa sakuTari `adgilia~ _
qarTlia.
  arCili arabebTan omis win agonebs mirs, rom qarTlidan wamoRebul
saganZurTa Soris `orni igi gvirgvinni oqroisa da anTrakisani: erTi
mirian mefisa da erTi vaxtangisi. Sen da mamaman Cvenman dasdeviT igi
quTaTis da cixe gojis~.16
  samefo niSnebis, Zveli qarTlis mefeTa samefo gvirgvinebis quTaissa da
cixe gojSi `dadebiT~, es qalaqebi qarTlis politikur centrebad unda
qceuliyvnen.
  ase rom, VIII saukunis 50-ian wlebamde sityva `qarTlis~ qveS igulisxme-
boda mTeli saqarTvelo, rogorc misi aRmosavleTi, aseve dasavleTi naw-
ili. amitomac, qarTlis sakaTalikoso Tavis iurisdiqcias axorcielebda
ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTveloze, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelozec,
sakaTalikosos daarsebis droidan _ V saukunidan, xolo qarTuli eklesia
Tavis uflebamosilebas axorcielebda dasavleT saqarTveloze qarTuli
eklesiis warmoqmnis droidanve.
  VIII saukunis meore naxevarSi (80-90-ian wlebSi) arCilis Zis, iovane
egrisis erisTavis gardacvalebis Semdeg, iSleba qarTuli samefo. erTiani
qarTlis samefo gaiyo sam nawilad: warmoiqmna `afxazeTi~, `qarTli~ da
`kaxeTi~. am dromde, e.i. VIII saukunis 80-90-ian wlebamde _ farnavaz pirve-
li mefidan arCil mefis Svilebamde, yovelTvis sityva-termini `qarTli~
aRniSnavda mTel saqarTvelos, xolo amis Semdeg dasavleT saqarTvelos
ukve aRar ewodeboda qarTli, aramed ewodeboda afxazeTi.
  qarTlis samefo TiTqmis uwyvetad arsebobda farnavaz mefis Semdeg VIII
saukunemde, TiTqmis 1000 wlis ganmavlobaSi, xolo VIII saukuneSi qarTlis
saxelmwifos daSlis Sedegad, rogorc aRvniSneT, warmoiSva afxazeTis, tao-
klarjeTis (qarTlis), kaxeTisa da hereTis samefoebi.
  `xolo amieridgan iwyo Semcirebad mefobaman didTa mefeTa xuasroanTa-
man. pirvelad ufleba sarkinozTa gandidna da mieridgan mieca yoveli ese
qveyana JamiTi Jamad rbevasa da oxrobasa~.
  `ganiryvna qveyana, rameTu romeli gamoCndis Rirsi mefed xosrovani
agarianTagan Semcirdian, vinaATgan gandidna Zali sarkinozTa da dai pyres
qarTli da tfilisi da ganmravldnen mTavarni~.17
  arabebis Semosevis gamo `klisuris iqiTa qveyana~ _ afxazeTi berZenTa
batonobisagan gaTavisuflda, `rameTu mouZlurebul iyvnen berZennica agaria-
nTagan, vinaiTgan miuRies zRvis gareTi~.18
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                487
  e.i. saberZneTis `zRvisgareTi~ qveyana _ mcire azia, arabebs daupyriaT.
amis gamo, saberZneTi mouZlurebula. amiT usargeblia afxazeTis erisTavs,
leon II-s da Tavisi qveyana gauTavisuflebia.
  es qveyana `istoriulad~ `berZnebs~ ekuTvnoda da mdebareobda qarTlis
mdinare klisuras gadaRma. am qveyanaSi _ afxazeTSi, erisTavebs niSnavda
keisari. am afxazeTs Seafares Tavi murvan yrusagan devnilma mefe mirma
da arCilma. aqve maT daamarcxes mteri _ `sarkinozni ukun iqcnen meotni~.
afxazeTSi bizantiis mtrebze qarTvel mefeTa gamarjvebiT kmayofil kei-
sars `leonisaTvis mieca mkvidrad erisTaoba afxazTa msaxurebisaTvis
mefeTasa, rameTu ese leon I erisTavi iyo mun keisrisagan~.19 aqve garda-
icvala mefe miri, xolo misi qaliSvili miaTxoves leon afxazTa erisTavs.
leoni afxazeTis erisTavia, xolo arCilis Svili iovane _ egrisis erisTavi,
iovane erisTavis sikvdilis Semdeg, afxazeTis erisTavi leon II xdeba egrisis,
anu mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos mmarTveli _ `...leon daipyra sruliad
egrisi da iwoda mefe afxazTa. `mematiane qarTlis samefos kuTvnil terito-
riaze `afxazTa samefos~ warmoSobis mizezad iovane erisTavis sikvdilis
garda, asaxelebs mefe arCilis Zis, qarTlis mTavris, juanSeris siberesac _
`juanSerica daberebul iyo~. namdvili mizezi, cxadia, arabebis mier qarTlis
samefo saxlisa da samefos centraluri nawilis ganadgureba iyo~.
  qarTlis samefos VIII saukuneSive gamoeyo kaxeTis damoukidebeli samTavro
_ `kaxeTis samTavro qarTls agreTve VII saukunis meore naxevarSi unda
gamoyofoda, yovel SemTxvevaSi 764 wlis Semdeg~.20
  qarTveli mematianis Tanaxmad, `afxazTa samefos~ warmoqmnisTanave war-
moiqmna kaxeTis samTavro _ `...juanSerica daberebuliyo da mokuda igica...
kualad gandga grigoli mTavari. aman dai pyra kaxeTi~.21
  es iyo qarTuli samefos saboloo daSla; Tumca, es samefo mainc ganagr-
Zobda arsebobas Sida qarTlsa da tao-klarjeTSi.
  erTiani qarTlis, erTi politikuri erTeulis, adgilze warmoiqmna sami
politikuri erTeuli _ `afxazeTi~, `qarTli~, `kaxeTi~. afxazeTis samefos
warmoSobis, anu dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTlis saxelmwifosagan Camoc-
ilebis Semdeg, Cans, moxda eklesiis administraciuli gayofac _ qarTlis
sakaTalikosos SigniT Camoyalibda dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia da
warmoiqmna afxazeTis sakaTalikoso.
  rogorc aRniSnuli gvqonda, VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebamde dasavleT
saqarTvelos qristianebi eqvemdebarebodnen qarTlis kaTalikoss, iseve
rogorc kaxeTisa. `amis SesaniSnavi mowmobaa jvris ti pis qristianuli
taZrebis mSenebloba qarTlsa, kaxeTsa da egrisSi; kirionis xeldasxma
gugarqis, qarTlisa da egrisis kaTalikosad~.22
  `,...am TvalsazrisiT, uaRresad mniSvnelovnad gveCveneba vaxuSti batoniSvi-
lis erTi Cveneba: `ars xons eklesia didi gumbaTiani, mSvenieri nagebi, zis
488                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
episkoposi, mwyemsi vakisa. es iyo erTobasa Sina qarTlisa mTavarepisko-
pozisa Semdgomad ganyofilsa dasves aqa episkopozi~.
  vaxuStis es cnoba erTxel kidev amtkicebs im azrs, rom saqarTveloSi
qristianobis pirvel saukuneebSi, qarTuli eklesiis erTobis dros, dasav-
leT saqarTvelos mrevli emorCileboda qarTlis mTavarepiskoposs, qarT-
lis kaTalikosobis warmoqmnis Semdegac, es mrevli mcxeTis (samTavros)
episkoposis mrevlia. rogorc aRvniSneT, es iyo qarTuli eklesiis erTobis
dros (V-VII saukuneebSi, VIII saukunis Sua wlamde), vaxuSti wers, _ `...es iyo
erTobasa Sina qarTlisa mTavarepiskopozisa~, xolo erTiani qarTuli ek-
lesiis gayofis Semdeg, anu afxazeTis sakaTalikosos warmoqmnis Semdeg,
xonSi, anu dasavleT saqarTvelos centrSi _ vake samoqalaqoSi dausvamT
episkoposi _ `... Semdgomad ganyofisa dasves aqa episkopozi~.
  `vaxuStis am cnobidan, romelic, eWvi ar aris, mas romeliRac Zveli
wyarodan unda hqondes, gamodis, rom erTiani saqarTvelos samefos arsebo-
bis pirobebSi vake imereTi, anu samoqalaqo, qarTlis mTavarepiskoposis
iurisdiqcias emorCileba...~23
  vaxuSti `erTobasa Sina~-Si gulisxmobs ara qarTuli saxelmwifos erTo-
bas, aramed qarTuli eklesiis Zvel erTobas VIII saukunemde, magram qarTu-
li eklesia XI saukunis Semdeg kvlav gaerTianda, amitom mkiTxveli rom ar
daibnes, Tu eklesiis romel erTobazea saubari, vaxuSti brZanebs: `... erTo-
basa Sina qarTlis mTavarepiskopozisa...~ vaxuStis dros mkiTxvelma kar-
gad icis, rom mTavarepiskoposoba, anu mTavarepiskopoz-kaTalikosoba arse-
bobda V-VIII saukuneebSi, xolo kaTalikos-patriarqoba XI saukunis Semdgom.
vaxuSti mTavarepiskopozisdroindeli erTobis qveS gulisxmobs V-VIII sauku-
neebs. `marTlac, SeuZlebelia XI saukunis erTiani saqarTvelos monarqiis
Camoyalibebis Semdeg, roca qristianoba ayvavebuli iyo da saepiskoposo
uamravi, dasavleT saqarTvelos erTi nawilis saepiskoposo damorCilebo-
da mcxeTis mTavarepiskoposs da ara saqarTvelos `mcxeTis~ patriarqs~.24
  `erTiani saqarTvelos monarqiis arsebobis dros, aseTi movlenis warmoqm-
na gaugebaria. safiqrebelia, rom igi gacilebiT ufro Zveli drois nayofia
da maincdamainc im droisa, rodesac egrisi Zlieri qarTlis kulturul
eqspansias ganicdida. SesaZlebelia, es friad saintereso faqti dakavSirebu-
li iyos im movlenasTan, romelic fiqsirebulia somxur wyaroSi da romlis
mixedviT `winandel wesTa magaliTisamebr~ VII saukunis dasawyisSi qarTlis
kaTalikosis iurisdiqcia egrisis garkveul nawilze vrceldeba.25
  `amgvarad gamodis, rom uZvelesi droidanve (V s-dan) egrisis aRmosav-
leT nawilSi oficialuri qristianuli kulti qarTul enaze sruldeboda...
mTel im teritoriaze, romelic moicavs swored vake imereTs _ argveTis
udides nawils, raWa-leCxumianad, arc erTi bizantiuri saepikoposo kaTe-
dra ar moixsenieba. es garemoeba ar unda iyos umizezo da amdenad, yve-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               489
laferi zemoT Tqmuli gvaiZulebs vifiqroT, rom am teritoriaze ukve
maSin mcxeTis kaTalikosis iurisdiqcia moqmedebda qarTuli eniT, qarTuli
mwignobrobiT da, aqedan gamomdinare, yvela Rrma SedegebiT. am konteqstSi
saamiso myar argumentad moCans VII saukunis mcxeTis jvris ti pis taZris
ageba WyondidSi~.26
  Tu qarTlis kaTalikosis iurisdiqcia vrceldeboda mTel saqarTveloze,
rogorc aRmosavleTze, ise dasavleTze, maSin unda aixsnas dasavleT
saqarTveloSi berZnuli saepiskoposoebis warmoqmnis mizezebi. Cans, berZnu-
li qristianuli centrebi saqarTvelos Savi zRvis sanapiroze TandaTan
gaqristianebuli adgilobrivi mosaxleobis saWiroebisaTvis ki ar warmo-
iqmna, aramed es centrebi Seiqmna erTdroulad `berZnul-romauli jarisk-
acebisa da garnizonisaTvis~, agreTve, zRvispira polisebis savaWro araqarTu-
li qalaqebisaTvis.
  saqarTvelos zRvispireTis yvela berZnuli saepiskoposo biWvinTis gar-
da, Seiqmna VII saukunis Semdgom. am dros saqarTveloSi SemoWrilma imper-
atorma heraklem garkveuli mizezebis gamo, mcxeTis sakaTalikosos Camo-
aWra dasavleTis zRvispira teritoriebi, sadac konstantinopolma Tavisi
iurisdiqcia ganaxorciela.
  saqarTvelos SavizRvispira berZnuli saepiskoposoebi, erovnuli saepisko-
posoebi rom ar iyvnen, es iqidanac Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelodan
bizantielebis garnizonebis gayvanisa da qveynis gaTavisuflebis Semdeg,
VIII-IX saukuneebSi, es saepiskoposoebi gauqmdnen, xolo teritoria afxaze-
Tis sakaTalikosos iurisdiqciaSi Sevida. sulieri TvalTaxedviT, Tavis
mxriv, afxazeTis sakaTalikoso iyo mcxeTis sakaTalikosoze damorCilebu-
li, qarTuli saeklesio eniT, qarTuli mwignobrobiT. is iyo erTiani qarTu-
li eklesiis erT-erTi Semadgeneli nawili. misi meTauri mcxeTis kaTali-
koss eqvemdebareboda sulierad, xolo mirons afxazeTis sakaTalikoso
mcxeTis sakaTalikosodan iRebda. afxazeTis sakaTalikoso, `qarTlis cx-
ovrebisa~ da ucxour wyaroTa mowmobiT, daarsebula bizantieli imperato-
ris, lev isavrosis dros, 720 wels, xolo iuridiuli gaformeba miuRia,
anu qarTvel mefeebs afxazeTis sakaTalikosos arseboba ucvniaT 830 wels.
  giorgi merCulisaTvis Zalze kargad aris cnobili, rom istoriulad
qarTli ewodeboda, rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos uZve-
lesi droidan VIII saukunis Sua wlebamde. marTalia, mis dros dasavleT
saqarTvelos ewodeba ara qarTli, aramed afxazeTi, magram man icis, rom es
aris politikuri mdgomareobis Sedegi, xolo sulierad da kulturulad,
afxazeTi, e.i. dasavleT saqarTvelo, IX-X saukuneebSic qarTlia, afxazeTis
samefos udidesi Zlierebis drosac ki. es, rogorc grigol xanZTelis
cxovrebidan Cans, cnobilia ara marto qarTuli da saeklesio politikuri
wreebisaTvis, aramed ierusalimis sapatriarqosTvisac, romelic avalde-
490                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
bulebs afxazeTis sakaTalikosos, mironi miiRos qarTlis sakaTalikosodan.
es sakiTxi ganxilulia qvemoT.

       qveynis zogadi mdgomareoba VIII-X saukuneebSi

  juanSeri gadmogvcems, rom arabTa SemosevebiT Sewuxebulma mefe ste-
fanozma Tavisi samefo saganZuri Suaze gahyo. erTi naxevari gadaitana
Tavisi samefos dasavleT nawilSi _ egrisSi, egrisSive Tan waiyvana Tavisi
pirmSo _ taxtis memkvidre mihri. saganZuris meore naxevari misca umcros
vaJs arCils, romelmac es ganZi gadaitana qveynis aRmosavleT nawilSi da
iq dafla (Seinaxa). ganZis nawili gorSic Seinaxa, xolo saeklesio sagan-
Zuri mTliani saqarTvelosi (yovlisa qarTlisa) dafles mcxeTaSi. male
arCilic egrisSi gadavida.
  736-38 wlebSi saqarTveloSi murvan yru SemoiWra. saqarTvelos mTavrebi
da erisTavebic ki kavkasiis mTebis tyeebSi da RreebSi imalebodnen.
  `da yovelni mTavarni da pitiaxSni naTesavni erisTavTa da warCinebul-
Tani Seimeotnes kavkasiad da daimalnes tyeTa da RreTa da movlo yruman
yoveli kavkasia... Semusrna yovelni qalaqni da umravlesni cixeni sazRvar-
Ta qarTlisaTa~.27
  rogorc aRiniSna, am dros sazRvari qarTlisa (anu saqarTvelosi) gadio-
da klisuraze da egrisi qarTlis mefeTa samefoSi Sedioda.
  murvan yrum, roca gaigo, rom qarTlis mefeebi egrisidan afxazeTSi
gadavidnen, gahyva maT kvals da bizantiis sazRvrebSi (romelic im dros
klisuras marjvena sanapiroze mdebareobda) gadavida. `Sevlo yruman kli-
sura, romel mas Jamsa iyo sazRvari saberZneTisa da saqarTveloAsa~.28
  RvTis SewevniT, murvan yrus laSqari Seimusra qarTvel mefeTa xeliT.
wyaldidobisagan Zaladakargulma arabebma datoves saqarTvelo. arabTa
ukuqceviT gaxarebuli bizantiis imperatori swers Tavis moxeles, afxaze-
Tis mmarTvels, erisTav leons Semdegi saxis brZaneba-miTiTebas _ Cven
xSirad varRvevdiT da varRvevT qarTlis samefos sazRvrebs (romelic im
dros gadioda mdinare klisuraze). amJamad mahmadianTa Semosevebis gamo,
unda gavixsenoT, Tu rogor gvarges da Tanagvidgnen qarTlis axlandeli
mefeebi, unda gavixsenoT is Zveli saqmeni, rac maT mefeebs gaukeTebiaT
bizantiis imperiis sasargeblod, amitomac gibrZaneb, ar daarRvio qarTlisa
da bizantiis sazRvari, romelic gadis egrisSi _ `yovladve sazRvarTa
qarTlisasTa Cvengan qmnil ase vneba da mefeTa maTTagan Cvenda momarT
Tanadgoma da rgeba. aw ese mesame msaxureba da rgeba dadves CvenTana...
keTilad pativscemdi mefeTa da erTa magaT qarTlisaTa, da amieriTgan
nuRaramca xelgewifebis vnebad maTda da sazRvarTa maTTa egrisaTa~.29
  imperatori Tavis erisTavs ubrZanebs: `keTilad pativscemdi... erTa magaT
qarTlisaTa~. Cans, `qarTlis erSi~ keisari gulisxmobs mdinare klisuras
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  491
aqeT mcxovreb mosaxleobas, radgan swored am mdinareze gadioda egrisSi
is sazRvari bizantiisa, romlis gadalaxvac man aukrZala afxazeTis erisTavs.
    mcxeTa isea dangreuli arabebis Semosevis gamo da qarTli mooxrebuli,
rom egrisSi gadasuli `mefe~ stefanozis gvami mcxeTaSi, sagvareulo safla-
vze ver dakrZales. igi quTaisSi dakrZales _ qveynis axal politikur
centrSi. is gamxdara samefo dinastiis axali samkvidro da imis dasamt-
kiceblad, anu `sawameblad~, rom is mcxeTis magieri `samkvidro~ iyo, mefe-
mTavari stefanozi am centrSi, quTaisSi dakrZales. `saydarsa quTaissa,
raTa ipovos igi sawameblad samkvidrosa Cvenisa~.30
    quTaisi qarTlis samefos axal dedaqalaqad iqca. SeuZlebelia, am dros
quTaisis saydari, sadac mefe dakrZales, ar yofiliyo qarTuli eklesiis
iurisdiqciaSi.
    arCil qarTlis mefes sauxucesod (anu samefo domenad _ saufliswu-
lod) mefe miris anderZiT, ergo dasavleT saqarTvelo.
    amave anderZiT, axal mefe arCils `qveyanani qarTlisani~ orad unda
gaeyo. erT-erTi nawili unda mieca miris qaliSvilebisaTvis, meore Tvi-
Tonve unda daetovebina. arCils Sexvda dasavleT saqarTvelos kuTxeebi.
    sikvdilis win miri eubneba arCils: `...ganuyavi maT qveyanani qarTlisani,
naxevari Sen da naxevari maT... gqondes sauxucesod: egrisi, svaneTi, Tavkveri,
argveTi da guria~, aqedan aSkaraa, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo qarTlis
samefos nawilia.
    arabTagan dapyrobili Tbilisis nacvlad, qarTlis mefeebs quTaisi
dedaqalaqad miaCniaT. arCili eubneba sakuTriv afxazeTis erisTav leons:
`...aw uwyies Seneba adgilTa CvenTa klisuriTgan aRmarT. warval da dave-
Senebi cixe-gojs da quTaiss...~31
    arCilis gancxadeba `aw uwyies Seneba adgilTa CvenTa klisurTagan aR-
marT~ niSnavda imas, rom arabTa mier darbeuli qarTlis samefoSi Senele-
bula dampyrobTa gamanadgurebeli moqmedeba, ris Sedegadac, samefoSi daw-
yebula aRmSeneblobiTi procesi. qarTlis samefo swored `klisuriTgan
aRmarT~ iwyeboda. mdinare klisuris marcxena napiridan iwyeboda qarTlis
qveyanani _ egrisi, guria, argveTi, svaneTi, Tavkveri.
    arCil mefe Tavis samefoSi Semaval qveynad miiCnevs dasavleT saqarTve-
los da ucxadebs sakuTriv afxazeTis erisTavs _ `warval da daveSenebi
cixe-gojs da quTaiss~. sakuTriv afxazeTi ki, mdinare klisuras marjvena
sanapirodan iwyeboda.
    arCilis gardacvalebis Semdeg, umalve, dasavleTi saqarTvelo, anu qarTlis
samefos is nawili, romelic mdinare klisuras marcxena sanapirodan iwyeboda,
Tavis samTavros SeuerTa sakuTriv afxazeTis erisTavma da dasavleT saqarTve-
los ewoda afxazeTi. imitom, rom am qveyanas marTavda dinastia, romlis
tituli iyo `afxazTa erisTavi~, e.i. dasavleTi saqarTvelo politikurad iqca
492                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
`afxazeTad~, xolo manamde saqarTvelos am nawils politikurad ewodeboda
`qarTli~. misi mpyrobeli iyo qarTlis samefo saxli. dasavleT saqarTvelos
manamde marTavda _ `qarTlis mefe~, anu `qarTvelTa mefe~.
   ra mizeziTac dasavleT saqarTvelos afxazTa erisTavis mier `dapyro-
bis~ Semdeg ewoda `afxazeTi~, im mizeziT mas iq qarTlis mefeTa batonobis
dros ewodeboda `qarTli~. Secdomaa amJamad sayovelTaod miRebuli azri,
TiTqosda am mxares qarTli ewoda IX-X saukuneebSi. sinamdvileSi, piriqiT
iyo. uZvelesi droidan swored VIII saukunis bolomde ewodeboda am qvey-
anas qarTli, IX-X saukuneebSi ki mas afxazeTi ewodeboda. amis miuxedavado,
wers giorgi merCule, Tumca, dasavleT saqarTvelos amJamad afxazeTi ewodeba,
is Tavisi arsiT qarTlia, qarTvelTa qveyanaa, radganac Zveleburadve aq
RvTismsaxureba qarTul enaze aResrulebao.
   `afxazTa samefo~ Seiqmna qarTlis samefos teritoriis nawilze. amis
Semdeg dasavleT saqarTvelos politikurad aRarasodes ewodeboda `qarT-
li~, politikurad is `afxazeTi~ iyo. erTiani qarTuli samefos Seqmnis
Semdeg ki _ dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ukve ewodeboda ara `qarT-
li~, aramed `saqarTvelo~. wina saukuneebisagan gansxvavebiT, X-XI sauku-
neebSi `qarTli~ geografiuli termini gaxda, Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom, marTa-
lia, VIII saukunis Semdeg dasavleT saqarTvelos politikurad `qarTli~
ar ewodeboda, magram kulturulad mas zogjer Zveleburadve `qarTls~
uwodebdnen. swored am kulturul `qarTlzea~ giorgi merCulis Txzuleba-
Si naTqvami _ `qarTlad friadi queyanaA aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina
qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis, da locvani aResrulebis~. aq `qarTlSi~
igulisxmeba `dasavleT saqarTvelo~, magram ara politikuri, aramed kul-
turuli mniSvnelobiT. politikurad, am Txzulebis daweris dros, dasavle-
Ti saqarTvelo afxazeTia. sakulto msaxurebam, eklesiam Tavisi tradicie-
bisadmi erTgulebis gamo, ar Secvala `qarTlis~ VIII saukunemdeli gageba
da X saukuneSic ki dasavleT saqarTvelos `qarTls~ uwodebda.
   cnobilia, rom teritoria, romelsac sakuTriv `afxazeTi~ ewodeba, adre
Sedioda bizantiis imperiaSi. mas qarTvelebi saberZneTs uwodebdnen. sazR-
vari `saqarTvelosa da saberZneTs~ Soris mdinare klisuraze gadioda.
imis Semdeg, rac arCilis dros bizantia dasustda, mdinare klisura gada-
iqca sazRvrad qarTlis samefosa da sakuTriv afxazeTis saerisTavos, e.i.
saberZneTs Soris.
   afxazeTis erisTavi arCils ucxadebs _ `amieriTgan ars ese mamulobiT
samkvidrebel Cemda klisuriTgan, vidre mdinaremde did xazareTad~, e.i.
afxazeTis saerisTavos sazRvrebi gadis: samxreTiT _ mdinare klisura,
xolo CrdiloeTiT mdinare yubani, anu `mcirisa xazareTisa~ wyali.
   afxazeTis am saerisTavos Semqneli leoni male danaTesavebis gziT
xdeba memkvidre dasavleT saqarTvelos `sauxucesosi~ _ `qarTlis same-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 493
fos~ nawilisa, rac ase momxdara: qarTlis mefe mirma Tavisi samefos orad
gayofis Semdeg, samefos erTi naxevari _ dasavleT saqarTvelo `sauxuce-
sod~ gadasca Tavis Zma arCils, xolo meore naxevari gaunawila qarTlisave
erisTavebs _ guaram kurapalatis erT-erT STamomavals, ferozis naTesav
pitiaxSs, nerses nersesians, adarnase adarnasians, varazmans, juanSers jua-
nSerians, romelTac Tavisi qaliSvilebi miaTxova.
  mefe miris anderZis Tanaxmad, misi qaliSvilebi mxolod qarTlis erisTavebs
unda SeerToT. ucxo qveynels ufleba ar hqonda siZeobisa. afxazeTis
erisTavs surda mefe miris qaliSvilis SerTva, magram afxazeTi sazRvris
gadaRma mdebareobda, amitomac leoni ar iTvleboda qarTlis erisTavad
da mas ufleba ar hqonda siZeobisa.
  mefe miris anderZi arCilisadmi aseTia: _ `ara mivis Ze wuli Svilad
mkvidrad, aramed misxen Svidni qalni. aw Sen xar mkvidri saxlisagan
mefobisa Cvenisa... da Cven Semcirebul varT, rameTu Sen xar ucolo da me
var uZeo. aw radgan moyvanian mamaTa CvenTa colni asulni erisTavTa
CvenTani, miscen maT asulni Cemni da ganuyven qveyanani qarTlisani: naxevari
Sen da naxevari maT. xolo sauxucesod romel mqonda, momicemia Senda da
gqondes sauxucesod: egrisi, svaneTi, Takveri, argveTi da guria. xolo
klarjeTi da SuamTiuleTi miec asulTa CemTa~.32
  e.i. anderZi aseTi Sinaarsisaa: marTalia, Cveni samefo saxlis siZlieris
dros Cveni winaprebi irTavdnen ucxo mefeTa asulebs, magram dauZlurebis
Semdeg winamorbedi mefeebi Cvenive (qarTlis) erisTavebis asulebs irTavd-
nen, amitomac amJamadac ase moiqec _ SerTe Cemi asulebi Cvensave (qarTlisave)
erisTavebs da ganuyavi maT Cemi samefoo. dasavleTi saqarTvelo, romelic
adre mefe miris sauxuceso iyo, arCils gadaeca.
  mefe arCilma ganaxorciela anderZi. mefe miris qaliSvilebi SerTo
qarTlisave erisTavebs da `ganuyo maT qveyanani qarTlisani~.
  am proceduris damTavrebisTanave arCil mefesTan TxovniT midis sakuTriv
afxazeTis erisTavi leoni. Txovs, raTa arCil mefem miiRos rogorc Tavi-
si `mona~. konteqstidan Cans, rom iTxovs CarTos qarTlis erisTavTa siaSi
da miaTxovon mas mefe miris erT-erTi qaliSvili.
  juanSeri wers _ rogorc ki arCilma miris qaliSvilebi SerTo qarTlis
erisTavebs da amiT es erisTavebi Tavis `Svilebad da Zmebad hyo~, maSinve
afxazTa erisTavi leoni mefes ucxadebs: _ `...ars ese mamulobiT samkvi-
drebel Cemda: _ klisuriTgan, vidre mdinaremde didad xazareTad, sada
daswvdebis wveri kavkasiisa. SemrTe meca monaTa SenTa Tana, romelni ese
dRes Rirs yven Svilad da Zmad Senda. ara minda nawili Sengan, aramed Cemica
ese Senadve iyos, maSin misca leons colad Zmiswuli misi guranduxt...~.33
  juanSeri iyo erT-erTi siZe arCilisa, romelic TviTmxilveli da msmene-
li yofila Tavismierve matianeSi moTxrobili ambisa. juanSeris Tanaxmad,
494                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
moxda aseTi saxis politikuri garigeba _ erisTavma leonma Tavisi samTavro
Seiyvana arCilis samefoSi _ `Cemica ese klisuriTgan mdinaremde mcirisa
xazareTisa Senadve iyos~, samagierod, arCilma mas miaTxova mefis qaliS-
vili, aqcia is Tavis `Svilad da Zmad~, misca mas Zveli samefo gvirgvini. am
gziT afxazeTis erisTavi qarTlis samefo taxtis erT-erT memkvidred,
samefo saxlis Svilad iqca.
  ivane javaxiSvili wers, rom juanSerso `...VII-VIII s.s. Sesaxeb ufro
sayuradRebo cnobebi moepoveba~.34 marTalia, iv. javaxiSvils ar sjera, rom
juanSerma aRwera vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreba, rac sruliad SesaZlebe-
lia, radganac `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, juanSerma vaxtangis cxovre-
ba ki ar aRwera, aramed `...vaxtang mefisiTgan vidre aqamomde aRwera juanS-
er juanSerianmao~.35
  e.i. juanSeris matiane Seicavda ara gorgaslis cxovrebas, aramed mis
Semdeg, VII-VIII saukuneTa aRweras.
  unda iTqvas, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, `qarTvelTa cxovreba
vidre vaxtangisamde aRiwereboda JamiTi-Jamad~, xolo vaxtang gorgaslis
cxovrebis avtori cnobili ar yofila.
  leonti mroveli ki mxolod redaqtor-aRmwereli yofila da ara avtori
`mefeTa cxovrebisa~ da `ninos mier qarTlis moqcevisa~. am TxzulebaTa
avtorTa vinaoba ar scodniaT, magram scodniaT, rom isini drodadro, Jami-
Ti Jamad iwereboda qronikebis saxiT. leonti mroveli mxolod arCil
mefis wamebis momTxrobeli orfurcliani Txzulebis avtoria da redaq-
tori mTeli wignisa.
  juanSeris Tanaxmad, TiToeul qarTlis erisTav-siZes Sexvda qarTlis
samefos romelime nawili samemkvidreod. yovel siZes amis Semdeg potenci-
urad SeeZlo Tavisi Tavi qarTlis samefo taxtis memkvidred gamoecxade-
bina. erT aseT memkvidred iqca leon afxazTa erisTavi. teritoria mdinare
klisuriTgan mdinare yubanamde leon erisTavis surviliT Sevida `qarT-
lis samefoSi~. aRsaniSnavia, rom leon erisTavamde es teritoria `bizan-
tiis imperiaSi~ Sedioda. am aqtis Semdeg, rac leonma mefis asuli
guranduxti SeirTo, afxazTa erisTavi iqca arCilis sauxuceso dasavleT
saqarTvelos erTaderT kanonier memkvidred, radganac arCils im dros
Svilebi ar hyavda. yvela sxva memkvidre siZe-erisTavi aRmosavleT saqarTvelo-
Si cxovrobda, miT umetes, rom arCilma leons uboZa samefo niSani _
`gvirgvini romeli berZenTa mefesa warmoeca mirisaTvis~. qarTlis mefis,
miris, samefo gvirgvini mefis asulis, guranduxtis meuRlis, leonis, sakuTre-
ba gaxda. afxazTa erisTavebi qarTlis mefeTa ojaxis wevrebi da taxtis
memkvidreni gaxdnen, iseve rogorc sxva siZe-erisTavebi.
  mkvlevarebi miiCneven, rom qarTlis cxovrebaSi gadmocemuli mefe miris
da arCilis mier saqarTvelos samefos dayofa warmoadgens ara realur
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                495
aRweras, aramed legendas, romelic Seiqmna saqarTvelos erisTavTa wreSi
maTi interesebis dakmayofilebis mizniT. cnobili mkvlevari wers _ `mkvl-
evarebi usafuZvlod ar Tvlian, rom es legenda aRmocenda qarTvel
erisTavTa wreSi da mimarTuli iyo im mZafri brZolis sawinaaRmdegod,
romelsac centraluri xelisufleba eweoda separatist feodalTa sawi-
naaRmdegod X-XI saukuneebSi erTiani monarqiis SeqmnisaTvis~.36 `am pirobebSi
Seiqmna kidec legenda mefe arCilis `reformebis~ Sesaxeb, arsi romlisa
imaSi iyo, rom TiTqosda arCilma jer kidev VIII saukuneSi, Tavis Zmis, miris
anderZis Tanaxmad, miaTxova misi qaliSvilebi erisTavebs da mziTvis saxiT
misca maT saqarTvelos naxevari~.37
  davuSvaT, arCilisa da miris mier qarTlis samefos dayofa da gadacema
Svid siZe-erisTavze, marTlac legendaa da is warmoiSva erTiani monarqi-
is sawinaaRmdegod, separatist erisTavTa moZraobis gasamarTleblad. am
SemTxvevaSi auxsneli rCeba yvelaze arsebiTi da mTavari, kerZod, legend-
is mixedviT, miris eqvsi qaliSvili miaTxoves aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
erisTavebs, xolo erTi _ afxazeTis erisTavs, amitomac legendis Tanaxmad,
rogori uflebac aqvT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erisTavebs qarTlis same-
fo taxtze, igive ufleba aqvs afxazeTis erisTavs. aqedan gamodinare, afx-
azTa mefeebs ufleba hqondaT elaSqraT tao-klarjeTSi, Sida qarTlsa Tu
kaxeTSi _ qarTlis samefo taxtze Tavisi memkvidreobiTi uflebis ganxor-
cielebis mizniT, rasac marTlac hqonda adgili.
  afxazTa mefeebi mudmivad laSqrobdnen Sida qarTlSi, saqarTvelos
sxva kuTxeebSi, `legendis SemTxzvel~ erisTavebis mamulSi, itacebdnen maT
samkvidrebels da uerTebdnen TavianT samefos. aSkarad Cans, rom Tu `leg-
enda SeTxzulia~ qarTlis erisTavTa wreSi, igi ver asrulebda Tavis
daniSnulebas.
  Tu davuSvebT, rom legenda marTlac SeiTxza, unda vifiqroT, rom igi
afxazTa mefeebis karze, maTi aRmosavluri laSqrobebis gamarTlebis
mizniT SeiTxza, magram CvenTvis am SemTxvevaSi mTavaria is, rom Zveli
wyaroebis Tanaxmad, afxazeTis mefeebs hqondaT erTiani saqarTvelos same-
fo taxtze pretendentobis kanonieri, memkvidreobiT miRebuli ufleba.
  rogorc aRvniSneT, leon I-ma politikuri mosazrebiT Tavisi samTavro
afxazeTi iuridiulad SeuerTa qarTlis samefos, raTa amiT mieRo ufleba
qarTlis erisTavis titulis tarebisa da mefis memkvidre asulis SerTvisa.
guranduxtis SerTvis Semdeg, marTlac, mTel dasavleT saqarTveloSi samefo
taxtis ori kanonieri memkvidre aRmoCnda _ mefis Zma arCili da mefis
qaliSvili guranduxti, aRmosavleTSi ki ufro meti. arCili uSvilo iyo im
dros, amitomac guranduxts (leonis meuRles) arCilis aRmosavleT saqarTvelo-
Si (kaxeTSi) gadasvlis Semdeg SeeZlo kanonierad emarTa mTeli saqarTve-
lo. guranduxtis meuRles, leon I-s, davalebulic eqneboda arCilisagan es.
arCilma mas xelisuflebis niSani _ samefo gvirgvini uboZa.
496                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi arCils SeeZina ori vaJi. aqedan erT-erTi,
ioane, gadadis dasavleT saqarTveloSi. ioane arCilis Ze, cxadia, amis
Semdeg aris `mpyrobeli~ mmarTveli am mxarisa, magram saqarTvelos verc
erT kuTxeSi arabTa Zalebi ver iTmenen qarTlis samefo taxtis pirdapiri
memkvidreebis gaZlierebas. amis Sesaxeb mematiane wers: _ `ukeTu vinme
gamoCndis SvilTa Soris vaxtangisaTa, romelica Rirs iyo mefed, iqmnis
Semcrobil sarkinozTagan~, amitomac, unda vifiqroT, rom mterTagan Zal-
adakarguli ioane arCilis Ze xosroian-gorgasliani _ dasavleT saqarTve-
los kanonieri `mpyrobeli~, ufro TanammarTveli, anu ufro sworad, for-
maluri mmarTveli iqneboda, xolo leon I _ faqtobrivi mmarTveli. le-
ons arabebi ar sdevnian, da rac mTavaria, mas xazarTa samxedro da poli-
tikuri mxardaWera aqvs, xazarebi ki arabTa tolfardi da arabTa mowi-
naaRmdege Zala iyo amierkavkasiis arenaze. amitomac, ioanes gardacvalebi-
sTanave gaerTianebuli egris-afxazeTis `mpyrobeli~ xdeba ara ioanes STa-
momavali, aramed leon I-is STamomavali _ leon II. leon II-is Sesaxeb
wers mematiane _ `dai pyra afxazeTi da egrisi vidre lixamde~. aq `dai pyra~
niSnavs ara ZaliT dapyrobas, aramed imas, rom afxazeT-egrisis TviTmpyro-
beli mmarTveli gaxda leon II, nacvlad ioanes STamomavlebisa. ioanes
STamomavlebs am politikur erTeulze igive ufleba hqondaT, rac leons,
radganac oriveni qarTlis mefe miris kanonieri politikuri memkvidreebi
iyvnen. swored am `kanonierebis~ gamo, afxazeT-egrisis samefos Seqmnas, anu
leonis mier dasavleT saqarTvelos `dapyrobas~ ar gamouwvevia araviTari
winaaRmdegoba qveynis SigniT, radganc moxda `dapyroba~ ara ZaliT, aramed
moxda erTi mmarTveli dinastiis Secvla meore kanonieri mmarTveli di-
nastiiT. dapyrobas, am sityvis Tanamedrove gagebiT, adgili ar hqonia.
  g. wulaia wers: `aseT dapyrobas adgili rom hqonoda, maSin bunebrivia,
mas ar SeeZlo ar gamoewvia sapasuxo reaqcia egrisis mxridan _ amitomac
`matiane qarTlisaASi~ aRwerili ambavi kvalificirebul unda iqnas, rogorc
mSvidobiani SeerTeba egrisisa da afxazeTisa. da moxda es, rogorc Cans,
jer kidev VIII saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, sakuTriv afxazeTis samefos Seqmnam-
de~.38 marTlac, afxazeT-qarTlis SeerTeba moxda jer kidev afxazeTis
samefos warmoqmnamde, ris Sesaxebac mogviTxrobs `matiane qarTlisaA~, ufro
dawvrilebiT ki juanSeri. qarTlSi im dros egrisic Sedioda, amitomac
qarTlisa da afxazeTis SeerTeba, imavdroulad afxazeT-egrisis SeerTe-
basac gulisxmobda da es afxazeTis samefos Seqmnamde moxda. leon II-m
miiRo afxazeTis mefis tituli, dasavleT saqarTvelos ewoda afxazeTi,
mmarTveli dinastiis warmomavlobis mixedviT.
  `afxazTa samefos~ daarsebis Sesaxeb ivane javaxiSvili wers: `VIII saukuneSi
bizantia dasustebuli iyo arabebTan brZolisa da Sinauri saeklesio uTanx-
moebisa da gamwvavebuli brZolis gamo xatebis Tayvanismcemlebsa da uarmy-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             497
ofelTa Soris. amiT usargeblia afxazeTis imdroindel erisTavs ... leon
I gamefebula 746 wels da umefia 791 wlamde... am drois ganmavlobaSi
qarTlSi arabTa mkacri batonobis qveS erisTavobdnen jer nerse, xolo mis
Semdgom stefanozi, Ze gurgenisa. VIII saukunis ukanasknel meoTxedSi ki
erisTavad qarTlSi aSot didi yofila, magram raki qarTlSi arabebi xan-
grZliv mSvidobianad aravis aboginebdnen, verc qarTlis erisTavma aSot
kurapalatma (786-826) gauZlo... igi daesaxla artanujSi da `misca RmerTma
gamarjveba da axelmwifa igi SavSeT-klrjeTsa zeda~... `berZenTa mefeman
miuboZa kurapalatoba aSots~.39
  `...swored am dros, rogorc etyoba, kaxeTis mTavari grigoli daZrula da
qarTlis erTi nawili, qsnis xeoba da qsnis dasavleTiT mdebare Sida
qarTli daupyria... amitom `gamoilaSqra aSot kurapalatman da uSvela
Teodosi afxazTa mefeman, Zeman meoris leonisaman, romeli igi iyo siZe
aSot kurapalatisa~.40 es ambavi 791-818 w. Sua unda momxdariyo.
  magram arc aSot kurapalatis gamarjveba da batonoba yofila qarTlSi
xangrZlivi: `movida xalid iazidis Ze arabi da dai pyra somxiTi, qarTli
da hereTi... gaqceuls kurapalats arabebi kvaldakval daedevnen, moewivnen
da 29 ianvars 826 wels eklesiaSi zed sakurTxevelze maxvliT mohkles~.41
  853 wels SemoiWra buRa Turqi da Tbilisi gadawva. `...bagrat kurapalati
moxerxebulad iqceoda da arabebis urTierTSoris mtrobiTa da uTanxmoebiT
TavisTvis sargeblobda. magram Tu arabebis Zalis daxmarebiTa da mfarvel-
obiT bagrat kurapalati kargad afarToebda Tavis samflobelos da amave
dros, afxazTa mefis moZraobas aRmosavleTisaken gzaze eRobeboda, calke
TviTon SavSeT-klarjeTis batons misi winaaRmdegobis gaweva ar SeeZlo. aki
amitomac iyo, rom `mas Jamsa Sina gamovida igi afxazTa mefe giorgi Zma
Teodoresi da dimitrisi, Ze leonisa, dai pyra qarTli da dauteva erisTa-
vad Cixa Ze dimitrisi~ da bagrati iZlebuli iyo gaCumebuliyo~.43
  IX saukunis meore naxevarsa da X saukunis dasawyisSi ara marto qvemo
qarTli _ Tbilisis samxreTiT myofi teritoria, aramed qarTlis cen-
traluri nawili, Sida qarTli, xSirad somxeTis `samefoSi~ SehyavdaT da
mas somexi mmarTvelebi marTavdnen. sakiTxavia, qarTvel qalkedonitTa da
qarTuli eklesiis mdgomareoba, qarTlze somex monofizitTa da arab musul-
manTa batonobis dros, miT umetes, rom am droisaTvis amierkavkasiis arabTa
mier dapyrobil nawilSi Seqmnili iyo administraciuli erTeuli `armeni-
is~ saxelwodebiT. am erTeulSi qarTlic Sedioda da mas zogjer arabTa
nacvlad, erovnebiT somxebi marTavdnen.
  891 wels adarnase kurapalati, qarTvelTa mefe, somexTa mefis biZam
abasma gzad mimavali Sei pyro.
  `904 wels `gamovida konstantine afxazTa mefe~ da `dai pyra qarTli~,
romelic am dros qarTlis aznaurebis xelT iyo. amis gamo `daemtera
498                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
somexT mefe sumbat tiezerakali da moilaSqra spiTa didiTa da moadga
ufliscixesa... da wariRes cixe xerxiTa~.
   somxebs ufliscixe auRiaT.
                                            `konstantine afxazTa mefe... miu-
                                         val adgilebSi Seixizna, magram
                                         raki mokavSireni mis sabrZanebels
                                         aoxrebdnen, isev dazaveba airCia
                                         da sumbats mociqulebi miugzav-
                                         na. somexTa mefem Tavis mxriv war-
                                         momadgenlad zavis pirobaze mosa-
                                         laparakeblad somexi didebule-
                                         bi gagzavna. roca afxazTa mefe
                                         konstantine maTTan saubriT garT-
                                         uli iyo, somexTa didebulebi adar-
                                         nase qarTvelTa mefis brZanebisa-
mebr moulodnelad miscvivdnen konstantines da daatyveves. ueWvelia, am
veragi ganzraxvis monawile somexTa mefe unda yofiliyo. somexTa mefem
igi anisSi gagzavna~.44
   somex monofizitTa Sida da qvemo qarTlze zegavlenis gaZlierebis
dros, arabTa mxardaWeriT, qarTuli eklesiis qalkedonurma centrebma IX-
X saukuneebSi gadainacvla mesxeTsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi. dasavleT
saqarTveloSi mainc qarTuli eklesiis pozicia ise Zlieri ar iyo, rogorc
mesxeTSi, radganac dasavleT saqarTveloSi bizantias Tavisi berZnuleno-
vani saepiskoposoebi hqonda daarsebuli. afxazTa mefeebma Tavis upirve-
les saqmed aqcies TavianT samefoSi berZnuli saepiskoposoebis gauqmeba
da maT nacvlad qarTuli saepiskoposoebis daarseba. mesxeTSi ki imis
Semdeg, rac iq tao-klarjeTis `qarTvelTa samefo~ daarsda, qarTulma
qalkedonurma eklesiam frTebi gaSala. amis Semdeg IX-X saukuneebSi aq
sarwmuneobiT `somexi~, magram erovnebiT qarTveli mosaxleoba ubrundebo-
da Tavis deda-qarTulenovan eklesias. aseTi `sarwmunoebiT somexTa~ (grigol
bakurianis mier gamoyenebuli terminia _ `sarwmunoebiT somexi~) raodenoba
mkvidr qarTul mosaxleobaSi arc Tu ise mcire iqneboda, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,
rom taosa da klarjeTze VI-VII saukuneebSi rogorc somxuri monofizituri,
ise somxuri qalkedonituri eklesiebi hegemonobdnen, qarTuli eklesiis mna-
Tobis, wmida mama grigol xanZTelis da misi mowafeebis dros ufalma RmerTma
aayvava da gaaZliera qarTuli eklesia tao-klarjeTSi.
   dasavleT saqarTveloSi damoukidebeli `afxazTa samefos~ daarsebas,
saeklesio kanonebis Tanmaxmad, unda gamoewvia da gamoiwvia kidec am saxel-
mwifoSi TavisTavadi eklesiis daarseba. afxazeTis sakaTalikosos daarse-
bis politikuri safuZveli iyo afxazeTis samefo. VIII saukunidan afxaze-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                            499
Tis qarTuli sakaTalikoso ukve arsebobs. IX saukuneSi misi arseboba
aRiara `qarTvelTa mefem~.
  qarTlis yofili samefos teritoriis nawilze, afxazeTis samefos warmo-
qmnis Semdeg, iq TavisTavadi eklesiis daarsebas araviTari garTuleba da
winaaRmdegoba ar unda gamoewvia aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio moR-
vaweTa mxridan, radganac qalkedonisa da sxva msoflio krebaTa Tanaxmad,
eklesiis iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi unda emTxveodes saxelmwifo _ adminis-
traciul sazRvrebs. amitomac, Tu saeklesio moRvaweni cnobdnen afxazeTis
damoukidebeli saxelmwifos arsebobas, kidevac unda ecnoT am saxelmwifo-
Si TavisTavadi afxazeTis qarTuli sakaTalikosos arseboba.
  VIII-X saukuneebSi qarTlis sakaTalikosos Sesaxeb unda iTqvas Semdegi:
rogorc aRvniSneT, TavisTavadi da avtokefaluri eklesiis politikuri
safuZveli iyo saxelmwifo, romlis sazRvrebs SigniTac eklesia Tavis
iurisdiqcias axorcielebda. am Teoriidan gamomdinare, tao-klarjeTis
`qarTvelTa samefos~ Seqmnas TiTqosda tao-klarjeTSi avtokefaluri ek-
lesiis Seqmna unda gamoewvia. mkvlevarTa erTi nawili aviTarebda kidec
am Teorias da amtkicebdnen, rom `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ aRwerili avtoke-
faliis dadasturebani VIII saukuneSi, qarTuli eklesiisadmi antioqiis
sapatriarqos mier, Seexeboda ara mcxeTis sakaTalikosos, aramed tao-
klarjeTis avtokefalur eklesias. Cans, aseTi mosazrebani arasworia.
  `qarTlis cxovreba~ gadmogvcems, rom tao-klarjeTis `qarTvelTa same-
fo~ axalwarmoqmnili, axaldaarsebuli saxelmwifo ki ar iyo, Seqmnili VIII-
IX saukuneebSi, aramed warmoadgenda im `qarTlis samefos~ memkvidres,
romelic daaarsa farnavaz mefem. Zvel istorikosTa Tanaxmad, `qarTvelTa
samefo~, romelic realurad im dros samxreT saqarTveloSi, taosa da
klarjeTSi arsebobda, igive Zveli samefo iyo xosroian-farnavazian-gor-
gaslianTa, mxolod am samefos mmarTveli Zveli dinastiebi axalma, bagra-
tionTa dinastiam Secvala.
  `qarTvelTa mefeebi~ ara marto tao-klarjeTis mefeebs ewodebodaT, aramed
Zveli `qarTlis samefos~ farnavazian-xosroian-gorgaslian mefeebs, maT
Soris, ukanasknel xosroian mefes, arCil II-sac. ase rom, bagrationebis
`qarTvelTa samefo~ ara axali, aramed Zveli samefos politikuri memkvi-
dre iyo.
  zemoT moyvanilis gamo, radganac `qarTvelTa samefo~ VIII-X saukuneebSi
warmoadgenda igive Zveli `qarTlis samefos~, amitomac iq axali avtoke-
faluri eklesia ki ar daarsda, aramed Zveli qarTlis sakaTalikoso
kvlavindeburad, Zveleburadve axorcielebda Tavis iurisdiqcias tao-klar-
jeTze da saerTod Tavis Zvel iurisdiqciisqveSa teritoriebze. aRsaniSna-
via, rom yvela xelisufali dinastia VIII-X saukuneebSi arsebuli qarTuli
saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebisa _ afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTisa, Tu kaxeT-
500                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
hereTisa, TavianT dinastiebs warmosaxavdnen Zveli, erTiani qarTlis same-
fos mmarTveli farnavazian-gorgaslianebis memkvidreebad. es imas niSnavs,
rom axali xelisufalni ar cnobdnen erTiani qarTlis samefos daSlas da
pretenzia hqondaT gaeerTianebinaT mTeli saqarTvelo Zveli qarTlis samefos
sazRvrebSi, Savi zRvidan alvaneTamde, TavianTi dinastiis meTaurobiT.
   VIII saukunis Semdeg qarTul eklesiaSi arsebobs ori qarTuli sakaTa-
likoso _ afxazeTis da qarTlis. amaTgan mcxeTis, anu qarTlis kaTalikosi
ufros `uxuces~ kaTalikosad iTvleboda, xolo afxazeTisa _ umcros, anu
`umrwmes~ kaTalikosad. aseTi urTierTdamokidebuleba imiT iyo gamowveu-
li, rom mcxeTis, anu qarTlis kaTalikosi (igulisxmeba VIII-X saukuneebi)
zis (ijda) mcxeTis kaTalikosis Zvel taxtze (igulisxmeba IV-V-VI-VII ss)
romelic iurisdiqcias mTels qarTlze _ aRmosavleT-dasavleT
saqarTveloze axorcielebda, amitomac VIII-X saukuneebSi mcxeTeli kaTa-
likosi Zveleburadve uflebis mqonea mTel qarTul eklesiaze, rogorc
aRmosavleTSi, ise dasavleTSi. Tumca, am dros dasavleT saqarTveloSi
ukve arsebobda afxazeTis sakaTalikoso. rogorc afxazTa kaTalikosi, ise
dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio wreebi cnobdnen mcxeTis kaTalikosis
uzenaesobas.
   or qarTvel kaTalikoss Soris ufros-umcrosobiTi urTierTdamokide-
buleba iseTivea, rogorc `qarTvelTa~ mefesa da afxazTa mefes Soris. rogorc
`qarTvelTa mefea~ ufrosi, xolo afxazTa mefe umrwmesi45 (asea wyaroTa
Tanaxmad), aseve `qarTlis~, anu mcxeTis kaTalikosi ufrosia, xolo afxazTa
kaTalikosi _ umrwmesi, amas naTlad miuTiTebs grigol xanZTelis cxovreba.
aq, kerZod, aRwerilia aseTi ambavi _ imis Semdeg, rac `qarTlis cxovrebis~
Tanaxmad, 830 wels `mefe~ bagrat kurapalatma cno (aRiara) _ `gaaCina da
ganawesa kaTalikosi afxazeTs~, saWiro gaxda garkveuliyo mironis kurTxe-
vis sakiTxi. arsebobda ori gza, _ mironi axali afxazeTis sakaTalikosos an
TviTve unda ekurTxebina, anda mieRo sxva uzenaesi eklesiidan.
   sakiTxiT dainteresebul ierusalimis sapatriarqos gadauwyvetia ase:
radganac dasavleTi saqarTvelo ZvelTaganve igive qarTlia, amitomac aq
mironi ar unda ekurTxos, aramed afxazeTis sakaTalikosom mironi qarT-
lis sakaTalikosodan miiRoso. ase rom, qarTlis kaTalikosis uzenaesoba
ucxoelebmac aRiares; _ `aramed didi efrem mravlisa keTilisa momatyvebel
iqmna qveyanasa Cvensa, rameTu pirvelad afxazeTisa (da ara `aRmosavalisa~,
rogorc Cans, SecdomiT dauweria gadamwers qaragma `a-sa~-s gaxsnis dros)
kaTalikosTa mihroni ierusalemiT mihyvanda. xolo efrem qristesmieriTa
brZanebiTa mihronisa kurTxeva qarTls ganawesa ierusalimisa patriarqisa
ganwesebiTa da wamebiTa sixaruliT. aramed qarTlad friadi qveyana aRir-
icxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis, locva yoveli
aResrulebis~, _ wers giorgi merCule.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              501
  aqac gadmocemulia igive formula, romelzedac Cven vilaparakeT, rom
Zvel qarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, qarTli mudam ZvelTaganve ewodeboda
aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos. giorgi merCule wers, rom marTalia,
dasavleT saqarTveloSi daarsda afxazeTis sakaTalikoso, magram miuxeda-
vad amisa, mainc dasavleTi saqarTvelo _ qarTlia, radganac aq qarTvelebi
cxovroben da wirva-locvis ena qarTuli enaa. amis gamo, mcxeTis Zvel
sakaTalikosos uzenaesoba aqvs afxazeTis axal sakaTalikosoze, afxazeTis
kaTalikosi umrwmesia, qarTlisa _ uxucesi, amitom afxazeTma mironi qarTl-
idan unda miiRoso.

               afxazeTis sakaTalikosos daarseba

  qalkedonis IV msoflio krebis me-17 da sxva kanonebis Tanaxmad, eklesi-
is iurisdiqciis sazRvari unda emTxveodes saxelmwifo-administraciuls,
anu yoveli saxelmwifos SigniT SeiZleba arsebobdes Tavisufali eklesia
Tavisi iurisdiqciis sazRvrebiT.
  afxazeTis samefos _ damoukidebeli saxelmwifos daarsebam safuZveli
daudo afxazeTis samefoSi Tavisufali qarTuli saeklesio erTeulis _
afxazeTis sakaTalikosos daarsebas. VII s-dan Seqmnili politikuri vi-
Tarebis gamo, dasavleT saqarTvelos mrevli sxvadasxva saeklesio cen-
trebs eqvemdebareboda, zRvis piras arsebobda lazikis _ foTis samitro-
polito. misi iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi aRmosavleTiT iyo skanda-Sorapnis
xazi, CrdiloeTiT ki _ mdinare klisura. am mdinaris marjvena sanapiro,
vidre jiqeTamde, abazgiis saarqiepiskoposoSi Sedioda, skanda-Sorapnis
xazis aRmosavleTiT mdebare teritoria Sedioda mcxeTis sakaTalikosoSi,
foTis samitropolitosa da abazgiis eklesiebi Sedioda konstantinopo-
lis sapatriarqoSi. afxazeTis samefom am eklesiebis teritoriebi moicva,
amitom, saWiro gaxda am samefoSi erTiani eklesiis daarseba da daarsda
kidec afxazeTis qarTuli sakaTalikoso. is daarsebisTanave 750-ian wleb-
Si cno antioqiis sapatriarqom da konstantinopolze misi damokidebuleba
gaauqma, avtokefalia mianiWa mas. mcxeTis sakaTalikosom is mogvianebiT, IX
saukuneSi cno, radganac mcxeTas mTeli dasavleTi saqarTvelo Tavis samw-
ysod miaCnda. konstantinopolis sapatriarqoc, albaT, iZulebuli gaxda
ecno axali eklesia X saukunis bolos.46
  VIII saukunis meore naxevarSi Seqmnil `afxazTa samefoSi~ Sevida da
misi ZiriTadi nawili gaxda iberiis samefos yofili teritoriebi dasav-
leT saqarTveloSi _ egrisi, guria, Takveri, argveTi, svaneTi, amitomac afx-
azTa samefos VIII-X saukuneebSi `qvemo iberias~ uwodebdnen. arsebobda ori
iberia: zemo iberia _ anu aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo da `qvemo iberia~ _ anu
dasavleTi saqarTvelo.
502                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  XVII saukunis ierusalimeli patriarqi dosiTeosi wers _ `iberiaSi ori
avtokefaluri arqiepiskoposia, romelTac qarTvelebi uwodeben kaTaliko-
sebs. qvemo iberia, romelsac Zvelad kolxeTs da lazikas uwodebdnen,
aqvs eparqiebi imereTSi, guriaSi, samegreloSi, afxazeTSi, svaneTsa da mesx-
eTis nawilSi. es eparqiebi eqvemdebarebodnen konstantinopolis saydars
fasidis mitropolitis saSualebiT... ase rom, erekles Semdeg _ lev
isavrosamde qvemo iberia ukve iyo avtokefaluri saarqiepiskoposo, magram
Cven ar viciT, romeli imperatoris dros da romel krebaze mianiWes mas
avtokefalia... zemo da qvemo iberias Soris sazRvari aris qedi, romelic
kavkasiis mTebSi iwyeba, qarTulad qulfargi ewodeba, qvemo iberiis kaTali-
kosi pativiT ufro metia zemo iberiis kaTalikosze, radganac is ukve
isavrosis dros, 720 wels, kaTalikosi iyo qvemo iberiisa ... iberebi qvemo
iberiis kaTalikoss miiCneven ufros kaTalikosad, radganac mefe, e.i. imere-
Tis Tavi, maTTan iwodeba mTeli iberiis mefeTa-mefed~.47
  meore ierusalimeli patriarqi xrisanfi ambobs: `...saqarTveloSi, romel-
sac adre iberia erqva, iyo ori avtokefaluri arqiepiskoposi, romelTac
Cveulebis Tanaxmad uwodeben kaTalikosebs da ara arqiepiskoposebs. ase maT
marto qarTvelebi uwodeben. amaTgan erTi, e.i. arqiepiskoposi qvemo iberiisa,
iwodeba imereTis, oseTis, guriis da sruliad qvemo iberiis unetares kaTa-
likosad, anu martivad, sruliad iberiis unetares kaTalikosad, rogorc
ufrosi zemo iberiis kaTalikosze. xolo meore, e.i. zemo imereTisa, iwodeba
qarTlis, kaxeTis, alvaneTis da sruliad zemo iberiis unetares kaTaliko-
sad... romeli imperatoris dros, an romel krebaze gaxda is saarqiepisko-
poso, Cven zustad ver davadgineT, magram 26 ivnisis svinaqsarSi vpoulobT,
rom ioane, goTeTis episkoposi, xeldasxmuli iqna iberiis kaTalikosis mier
(gulisxmobs ara mcxeTis, aramed `qvemo iberiis~ kaTalikoss, e.p. an.), radga-
nac romaul qveynebSi batonobda xatmebrZolTa eresi, ase rom, rogorc Cans,
erekles Semdeg isavramde qvemo iberia saarqiepiskoposo gaxda...~.48
  es ierusalimeli patriarqebi XVII saukuneSi cxovrobdnen. fasisis samit-
ropolito konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi Sevida VII saukunis 30-iani
wlebidan herakle keisris Semdeg. manamde is Sedioda iberiis eklesiis
iurisdiqciaSi.49 herakle keisarma raRac mizezis gamo dasaja iberiis
samefo da mas matianeTa Tanaxmad, CamoaWra zRvispira miwebi. es CamorTmeu-
li teritoriebi uSualod imperiaSi Seiyvana. amis gamo, am teritoriebze
iurisdiqcia VII saukunidan ganaxorciela konstantinopolis sapatriarqom.
fasisis samitropolitoSi Sedioda oTxi saepiskoposo.
  am mitacebul miwebze, romelic imperiaSi Sevida, Tavisi iurisdiqcia
ganaxorciela konstantinopolis sapatriarqom VII saukunis 30-iani wlebidan.
konstantinopolis sapatriarqom am dros Tavisi iurisdiqcia ganaxorcie-
la ara mTel dasavleT saqarTveloze, aramed `zRvis pirze~, anu sakuTriv
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   503
egrisze, romelic jer kidev Zvel dros vrceldeboda `skanda-Sorapnis
xazamde~, marTalia, iberia ewodeboda mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos (kli-
suramde) aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad, magram `sakuTriv iberia~
ewodeboda miwebs skanda-Sorapnis aRmosavleTiT, sadac es cixeebi idga.
aseve egrisi vrceldeboda lixis qedamde, magram sakuTriv egrisi skanda-
Sorapnis xazis dasavleTiT mdebareobda. iberiis im teritoriaze, romelic
dasavleT saqarTveloSi skanda-Sorapnis xazis aRmosavleTiT mdebareobda,
Tavis iurisdiqcias VII saukunis Semdegac Zveleburadve axorcielebda
iberiis (mcxeTis) sakaTalikoso. aq wirva-locvis ena ZvelTaganve, V sauku-
nidan qarTuli iyo.50
  ase rom, afxazeTis samefos Seqmnis droisaTvis mis teritoriaze aRmoCn-
da sami erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli eklesia _ afxazeTis (abazgiis)
saarqiepiskoposo, mdinare klisuras CrdiloeTiT, fasisis samitropolito,
skanda-Sorapnis xazamde da argveT-egrisis eklesia (am xazidan lixis
qedamde), aqedan ori bizantiis eklesiaSi Sedioda, mesame ki, argveTis saepisko-
poso _ iberiis sakaTalikosoSi.
  vaxuSti afxazeTis sakaTalikosos Sesaxeb wers: `.... ara saCinod uwyebu-
li cxovrebidam Tu rodis ganTavisuflda, aramed mwerali ityvis cxovre-
bisaganve: odes gandga leon da iwoda afxazTa mefed, maSin mouZlurebul
iyvnen berZennica da am levanis mier, anu SemdgomTa misTagan, ganTavisu-
flda TxovniTa berZenTaganve~.51
  vaxuStis Tanaxmad, afxazeTis avtokefaluri eklesia Seiqmna ara arakanon-
ikurad, aramed am eklesias avtokefalia mianiWa `berZnulma~ sapatriarqom.
ismis kiTxva: romelma sapatriarqom mianiWa afxazeTis, anu `qvemo iberiis~
eklesias avtokefalia _ antioqiis Tu konstantinopolis sapatriarqom?
  saerTod, unda iTqvas, rom 720 wlisaTvis (am TariRs uTiTebs, rogorc
qarTuli, ise ucxouri wyaroebi) afxazeTis mTavar leon I-is dros, roca
is TanammarTveli iyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi arCil mefisa, konstantinop-
olSi lev isavrosis zeobisas (717-741) mZvinvarebda xatmebrZoloba. jer
kidev 713 wels Tavisi Camogdebis win imperatori fili pike vardane apirebda
gamoeca kanoni xatebis Tayvaniscemis akrZalvisa, 726 wels imperatorma
levma aSkarad gamoTqva Tavisi uaryofiTi azri xatebis Sesaxeb.52 xolo
iberiaSi (egris-afxazeTSi) xatebis Tayvaniscema Zalze iyo miRebuli. gar-
da konstantinopolTan sarwmunoebrivi uTanxmoebisa, afxazeTis mTavari
saerTod mtrulad iyo ganwyobili bizantiis (konstantinopolis) mimarT.
  750-ian wlebSi gaerTianebuli qvemo iberiis, anu egris-abazgiis eklesi-
idan antioqiis sapatriarqoSi gagzavnil iqna samRvdeloeba. antioqiis
sapatriarqom, rogorc mTeli aRmosavleTis dedaeklesiam, cno axalSeqmni-
li eklesia, mianiWa mas avtokefalia da akurTxa misi pirveli kaTalikosi.
es eklesia Tavis iurisdiqcias jer kidev ar axorcielebda skanda-Sorap-
504                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
nis xazs iqiT _ argveTSi, magram 830 wels, matianis Tanaxmad, aRmosavleT
(zemo) iberiis samefom cno egris-afxazeTis sakaTalikoso da mis iuris-
diqciaSi gadasca argveTis eklesia. amis Semdeg 830 wlidan afxazeTis
sakaTalikoso Tavis iurisdiqcias mTel dasavleT saqarTveloze axor-
cielebda. rogorc aRiniSna, 720-iani wlebidanve axalSeqmnil eklesias
ucxoelebi uwodebdnen `qvemo iberiis~, anda ubralod `iberiis~ eklesias.
swored amiTaa gamowveuli is, rom cnobebi am ori eklesiis (e.i. qvemo da
zemo iberiis) Sesaxeb erTmaneTSia areuli da xSirad is cnoba, rac Seexeba
qvemo iberiis eklesias, miiCneva rogorc zemo iberiis (mcxeTis) eklesiis
Sesaxeb cnobad. amgvar Secdomas ver ascda cnobili moRvawe efrem mcire.
man qvemo iberiis eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis miniWebis Sesaxeb cnoba miiC-
nia zemo iberiis (mcxeTis) eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis miniWebis cnobad.
  cnobebi efrem mcires XI saukunis 50-ian wlebSi amouRia `xronografsa
Sina antioqias aRwerilsa~.
  `antioqiur qronografs~ Cvenamde ar mouRwevia, magram radganac efremis
Tanamedrovesa da TanamoRvawes nikon SavmTels Tavis `pandeqtebSi~ qarTu-
li eklesiis Sesaxeb igive masala aqvs gadmocemuli, rac efrems, fiqroben,
rom orive avtors Sav mTaze arsebuli erTi da imave wyaroTi unda
esargebla. mkvlevarTa Tanaxmad, `antioqiuri qronografis~ uZvelesi varian-
tis arsebobaze `isic miuTiTebs, rom misiT jer kidev VI saukunis bizan-
tiel istorikoss ioane malalas usargeblia~, _ wers v. goilaZe.
  Cans, `antioqiur qronografSi~ ewera `iberiis~ eklesiam rogor miiRo
avtokefalia VIII saukuneSi, magram ar iyo miTiTebuli, rom es iyo `qvemo~,
da ara `zemo~ iberiis eklesia.
  efrem mcires pirdapir aqvs gadmowerili qronografiidan: _ `dReTa
konstantine skoris (741-775) mosaxelisaTa, antioqias patriarqobasa netar-
isa Teofilaqtessa (744-751) movidnen qarTliT (iberiidan) mociqulad
monazonni orni da mouTxres netarsa Teofilaqtes, viTarmed didsa Wirsa
arian qristianeni mkvidrni qarTvelTa (iberielTa) soflebisani, rameTu
dRiTgan netarisa anastasi mRvdel-mowamisa antioqiel patriarqisa (561-599)
ara kurTxeul ars maTda kaTalikosi _ mTvarepiskoposi siZnelisaTvis
gzisa, rameTu agarianTagan veravin ikadrebs svlad. xolo man bWobiTa kreb-
isaTa _ mTavarepiskoposTa, mitropolitTa da episkoposTa TvisTa misca
qarTvelTa protreptikoni, romel ars ganxsniTi, raATa TviT maTisa sazRvrisa
episkoposTagan xelni daesxmodin Jamad-Jamadsa kaTalikossa qarTlisasa,
raAca saRmrToman madlman uCvenos maT da romeli gamoirCion moyvasTa mis
eklesiisaTa TanadgomiTa da wamebiTa episkoposTaATa wesTaebr saeklesioTa.
da Seuqmna maT aRweriT mosaxsenebeli Tavisa TvisisaTvis da mun Semokrebu-
lisa krebisaTvis da xelT-dasxmul yo erTi orTa maT missa movlinebulTa.
monazonTagani saxeliT ioane mis Jamisa kaTalikosad maTda~.53
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                505
  am cnobis Tanaxmad, iberiidan (das. saqarTvelodan) antioqiaSi Casuli
ioane iberiis (igulisxmeba qvemo iberia) kaTalikosad xatmebrZoli imper-
atoris, konstantine kopronimis Tanamedrove Teofilaqte antioqelma akurTxa.
am cnobidan gamomdinare, ioanes kaTalikosobis dasawyisi 744 wlis Semdeg
ivaraudeba. es ki is droa, roca bizantiis vasali leon afxazTa erisTavi
jer aerTianebs egris-afxazeTs, Semdeg ki Tavs iTavisuflebs bizantiis
vasalobisagan da `samefod yalibdeba~.54 uZvelesi droidan antioqiis sap-
atriarqos kuTvnili dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia... da politikuri
damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZoli leon I, ra Tqma unda, Seecdeboda poli-
tikuri damoukideblobis mopovebis paralelurad Tavisi qveynisTvis saek-
lesio Tavisuflebac moepovebina~.55
  `afxazTa erisTavis leon I-is zeobas 720/30-740-iani wlebiT, xolo misi
memkvidris (Zmiswulis) leon II-is (753/58-798) wlebiT varaudoben. rogorc
vxedavT, leon I-s politikuri damoukideblobis mopovebasTan erTad qveyni-
saTvis eklesiuri damoukideblobis mopovebac ucdia. rogorc iv. javaxiS-
vili fiqrobs, aseTi nabijisaTvis mas droc Sesaferisi SeurCevia. saqme is
iyo,rom imperatori lev III (719-740) 726 wels xatTayvanismcemelTa winaaRmdeg
gamovida, xolo 730 wlis ediqtiT xatTayvanismcemloba akrZala mTeli
imperiis masStabiT. daiwyo monastrebis daxurva, saeklesio miwebis gayidva
da eklesiis saganZuris konfiskacia. xatTayvanismcemelTa winaaRmdeg gan-
sakuTrebiT konstantinopolSi ibrZodnen, amitom im droisaTvis konstanti-
nopolis sapatriarqoSi Semaval dasavlur-qarTul eklesias marTlac Sei-
Zleboda Tavisi eklesiis umaRlesi saWeTmpyroblis xeldasasxmelad Zve-
li siuzerenis _ antioqiis sapatriarqo kaTedrisaTvis miemarTa. garda
imisa, rom antioqiis eklesia dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis Zvel siu-
zerenad iTvleboda. am droisaTvis antioqiidan gaismoda damaskeli moZRvris,
ioane damaskelis (gard. 753) xma xatTayvanismcemelTa dasacavad. aRniSnu-
lidan gamomdinare, miuxedavad imisa, rom imxanad dasavleT saqarTvelos
eklesia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos eklesiis eparqias warmoadgenda,
dasaSvebia, Teofilaqtes am qveyanaze antioqiis sapatriarqos Zveli Zalau-
flebis da rac mTavaria, konstantinopolSi arsebuli xatmebrZolobis gamo,
marTlac, ekurTxebina ioane afxazeTis damoukidebel kaTalikosad. ase rom,
744 wlis Semdgom xanaSi qarTlis kaTalikosTa Soris, radganac ioanes
saxelis mqone pirovneba ar Cans, Teofilqate antioqelis mier 744-750
wlebSi saqaraTvelos (iberiis) kaTalikosad xeldasxmuli ioane dasavleT
saqarTvelos (afxazeTis) pirvel avtokefalur kaTalikosad unda iqnas
miCneuli. misi moRvaweoba 744 wlis Semdgom xanaze mova~.56
  v. goilaZis mosazrebas, antioqiis eklesiis mier qvemo iberiis kaTaliko-
sis kurTxevis Sesaxeb, adasturebs XVII saukunis antioqeli patriarqi makar-
iosi da amave saukunis ierusalimeli patriarqebi dosiTeosi da xrisanfi.
506                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
makariosi wers, rom antioqel patriarq Teofilaqtes dros afxazeTis
mefem daviTma antioqiaSi episkoposad xeldasasxmelad gagzavna mravali
pirovneba _ `afxazeTidan antioqiaSi gagzavnilebs, gzaze yaCaRebi daxvdnen
da daxoces. ori maTgani gadarCa... Teofilaqtem moiwvia kreba, romelzedac
gadawyda afxazeTisTvis daeniSnaT damoukidebeli kaTalikosi, romelic
afxazeTisaTvis akurTxebda mRvdelmTavrebs, magram im pirobiT, rom igi
moixseniebda antioqiis patriarqebs... erTi maTgani, ioane, patriarqma kaTa-
likosad akurTxa. mas mudmivad unda ecxovra afxazeTSi. meore afxazi
patriarqma episkoposad akurTxa da orive saxlSi, afxazeTSi gamoistumra~.
goilaZe wers: _ es ambavi qarTlis (zemo iberiis, mcxeTis) eklesias rom
Seexebodes, maSin ioane qarTlisaTvis, ra Tqma unda, pirveli kaTalikosi ar
iqneboda.57 makariosi ioanes Sesaxeb werda, rom ioane iyo pirveli kaTali-
kosi Tavisi eklesiiso.
  efrem mcire, makariosi, nikon SavmTeli erTsa da imave ambavs mogviTxroben.
goilaZis azriT, makariosis cnobebi dasavleT saqarTvelos rom exeba,
iqidanac Cans, rom makarioss iqve mohyavs VI saukunis istorikosis, evagre
sqolastikosis cnoba imperator iustinianes mier afxazeTSi taZris aSenebisa
da afxazeTidan konstantinopolSi bavSvebis Camoyvanis Sesaxeb iustini-
anes dros.
  `makareosis cnobebs ioanes dasavleT saqarTvelos pirvel kaTalikosad
kurTxevis Sesaxeb mxars uWers: 1. IX saukunis bolos Sedgenili konstanti-
nopolis sapatriarqosadmi daqvemdebarebul kaTedraTa nusxebSi `afxaze-
Tis avtokefaluri arqiepiskoposis~ moxsenieba. 2. ioane guTelis saqarTvelo-
Si xeldasxmis cnoba~.58
  744-750 wlebSi Teofilaqte antioqelis mier dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTa-
likosad ioanes xeldasxmis Sesaxeb cnoba, Cans, `antioqiur qronografiaSi~
Sevida da, roca XI saukuneSi mas efrem mcirem miakvlia, mTeli saqarTvelos
eklesiaze gavrcelda. namdvilad ki, rogorc makariosis Txzulebidan Cans,
es cnoba qvemo iberiis eklesias exeboda da ara zemo iberiis an mTliani
iberiis eklesias. es kargad gaugiaT ierusalimel patriarqebs dosiTeossa
da xrisanfs, romelTa cnobebic zemoTaa citirebuli.
  dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefalia konstantinopolis sapat-
riarqos ucvnia da uRiarebia X saukunis damdegs.59
  matiane wers _ `xolo aman bagrat gaaCina da ganawesa kaTalikosi
afxazeTs qristes aqeT 830 wels~.60
  bagrat kurapalati mmarTveli iyo zemo iberiisa da ijda xosroianTa
(erTiani iberiis mmarTveli dinastia, gorgasali am dinastias ekuTvnoda)
taxtze. amdenad, Sesabamis wreebSi miaCndaT, rom mas uflebebi gaaCnda
mTels iberiaze, maT Soris `qvemo iberiaze~, anu afxazeTze.
  bagrat kurapalatis dros saqarTvelos eklesiis mnaTobma grigol xanZT-
elma ineba afxazeTis eklesiis moxilva. afxazeTis mefem, demetrem, didi
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               507
pativiT miiRo is. grigoli darwmunda, rom afxazeTSi wirva-locvis ena,
kvlav, Zveleburadve qarTulia, xolo `qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiricxebis,
romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aRes-
rulebis~. imis Semdeg, rac `aqa gamoCnda kaTalikozi afxazeTisa, Jamsa mas
leon isavrosisasa, qristes aqeT 720 wels~,61 aRmoCnda, rom qarTvel ers
Tavisi samSoblos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi hqonda ori avtokefaluri eklesia,
erTmaneTze administraciulad damoukidebeli, magram sulierad erTiani,
amaSi gasakviri araferia. berZnebs oTxi sapatriarqo da ramdenime damoukide-
beli saarqiepiskoposo hqondaT, aseve sxva erebs.
   bagrat kurapalatis mier 830 wels afxazeTis kaTalikosis `gaCena~ unda
gavigoT im mniSvnelobiT, rom faqtobrivad, 720 wlidan afxazeTis sakaTa-
likosos arseboba 830 wels aRiara da cno qarTlis sakaTalikosom. Cans,
am faqtSi garkveuli Rvawli miuZRoda grigol xanZTels, xolo misi mowafis
efrem mawyverelis RvawliT ganwesda, rom afxazeTis sakaTalikoso mirons
miiRebda qarTlis (mcxeTis) sakaTalikosodan, rogorc `umrwmesi~ _ `uxuc-
esisagan~. afxazeTis sakaTalikosos warmoqmniT, faqtobrivad, aRsdga qarTuli
eklesiis mTlianoba, radgan dasavleT saqarTvelos erTi mniSvnelovani
nawili gaTavisuflda konstantinopolis iurisdiqciisagan da iq aRdgeni-
li iqna qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba.


                    mironis kurTxevis Sesaxeb
  Tanamedrove qarTul mecnierebaSi damkvidrda azri, rom qarTulma ekle-
siam mironis kurTxevis ufleba miiRo IX saukuneSi. marTlac, grigol
xanZTelis cxovrebaSi weria, rom mironis kurTxevis neba ierusalimis
patriarqs gamosTxova efremma.
  Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi damkvidrebuli azriT, mironis kurTxevis neba
qarTulma eklesiam miiRo qalkedonis krebis _ 451 wlis Semdeg.
  ekurTxeboda Tu ara qarTul eklesiaSi mironi V saukunidan, am sakiTxis
garkvevisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs am mxriv mezobel somxeTsa da
albaneTSi arsebul mdgomareobas.
  somxur istoriografiaSi Semonaxuli cnobebis Tanaxmad, qarTveli xalxi
da samRvdeloeba qarTuli eklesiis Rirsebas ufro maRla ayenebda, vidre
albanurisas. amitomac, rodesac somxeTis patriarqma albaneTis eklesias
qarTul eklesiasTan SedarebiT mianiWa upiratesoba da igi qarTul ekle-
siaze win daayena, es qarTvelma mamamTavarma iukadrisa da uxtanesis mier
Segrovili cnobebis Tanaxmad, gawyvita kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan. al-
baneli istorikosi mose kalankatuaci wers, rom somxeTis `...mTavarma saek-
lesio moRvaweebma, somxeTis ampartavani xasiaTis mixedviT, TviTneburi
surviliT ganaweses abraami _ patriarqad, albaneli _ arqiepiskoposad,
508                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qarTveli _ mitopolitad: aRSfoTda qarTveli, romelsac kirioni erqva da
sawinaaRmdego kamaTi daiwyo. xolo wmida mamamTavari abraami ambobda, rom
albanelebi qarTvelebze adre iyvnen qristianebi da mTavarepiskoposoba
maT Seefereba~.62
   albaneTis eklesiaze ufro dabal safexurze dayeneba qarTulma ekle-
siam pativisa da Rirsebis damcirebad miiCnia. aseTi Tvalsazrisi ara
marto mose kalankatuels, aramed Zvel somex istorikosebsac hqondaT.
amas miiCnevdnen zogierT wreebSi saeklesio ganxeTqilebis mizezad. aqedan
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom qarTul eklesias Tavisi Rirseba da pativi arc
albanur da arc somxur eklesiaze naklebad ar miaCnda. amitom, Tuki
somxur, anda albanur eklesiaSi akurTxebdnen mirons, maSin aucileblad
qarTuli eklesia imave uflebiT isargeblebda. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi,
qarTuli eklesiis damoukidebloba sruli ar iqneboda da igi veRarc
Seedreboda Tavisi pativiT da RirsebiT im eklesiebs (am SemTxvevaSi
albaneTisa da somxeTisas), romelTac mironis kurTxevis ufleba hqondaT
mopovebuli.
   albaneTis eklesias, mose kalankatuelis Tanaxmad, mironis kurTxevis
ufleba hqonda araTu IX saukunemde, aramed VI saukuneSi. ufro metic, am
dros albaneTis eklesia sivnieTis eklesiasac ki aZlevda mirons. mose
kalankatueli Tavisi `albaneTis istoriis~ 48-e Tavs asaTaurebs ase: _ `...
sivnieTelTa moqceva somexTagan albanelebisaken da xeldasxmisa da zeTis
(maTgan) miReba~.63
   uxtanesi am mdgomareobas ase xsnis: `...somxeTi sparselebsa da berZnebs
hqondaT erTmaneTSi gayofili... gayofili sapatriarqo saydari uaryves
sivnieTis uflebma da winaaRmdegobis gamo ar daeTanxmnen romelimes damor-
Cilebodnen petre episkoposis brZanebiT, romelmac ... ubrZana Tavis samwy-
sos, xeldasxma da mironis kurTxeva albanelTagan mieRoT, sanam wmida
grigoris sapatriarqo saydari gaerTiandeboda. am droidan aqamde xel-
dasxmasa da mirons sivnielebi albanelTagan iRebdnen~...64
   aqedan Cans, rom rogorc albaneli mose kalankatuelis, ise somexi ux-
tanesis mixedviT, albaneTis eklesia TviTve akurTxebda mirons jer kidev
somxeTis sakaTalikosos orad gayofamde, VI saukunis dasasrulamde. ioane
kogoviteli, gayofis droindeli somexi qalkedoniti kaTalikosi, 590-611
wlebSi zeobda.
   albaneTis eklesia VI sakuneSi mirons akurTxebda, xolo saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi sxva eklesiasac ki awodebda mirons.
   z. aleqsiZe wers: `mose kalankatuelis gadmocemiT, roca somxeTis sakaTa-
likoso orad gaiyo VI-VII saukuneebis mijnaze ioanesa (qalkedoniti) da
moses (monofiziti) Soris, sivnieTis mmarTvelebma arc erTi aRara scnes
da xeldasxmisaTvis albanelTa kaTalikosebs mimarTavdnen xolme. alban-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                509
eTidanve iRebdnen mirons, sanam abraam albaTanelma ar gaaerTiana orive
saydari~.65 aqedan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Tu albaneTis eklesias mironis
kurTxeva SeeZlo VI saukuneSi, qarTul eklesiasac aseTive ufleba eqnebo-
da, radganac qarTul eklesias albanur eklesiaze Rirseulad da meti
pativis mqoned miaCnda Tavi.
  somxeTis kaTalikosisadmi kirion qarTvelTa kaTalikosis mier gagzav-
nili werilebidan Cans, rom qarTul eklesias Tavisi Tavi somxuri eklesi-
is Tanaswor da Tanatol eklesiad miaCnda.
  hqonda Tu ara somxur eklesias mironis kurTxevis ufleba?
  hqonda, radganac VII saukunis dasawyisSi, sapatriarqo taxtze asvlisTanave
kaTalikosma abraamma mironi akurTxa. uxtanesi aRwers kidec, Tu ra aris
mironi da rogori wesiT akurTxeben mas.
  somexma ierarqebmao, _ wers uxtanesi, _ krebis damTavrebis Semdeg `...isic
kanonierad miiCnes, rom Sevedreboden TavianT mamamTavars, ekurTxa da
maTTvis mieca sacxebeli zeTi, e.i. mironi, romliTac scxeben da naTlaven...
radganac moses sikvdilis Semdeg aravis ukurTxebia sacxebeli zeTi...
Seudga mwuxris msaxurebas fsalmunebiT, kurTxeviTa da sulieri galobiT
dRis saidumlos msgavsad. saidumlos Sesaferisad kiTxviT gaaTies Rame
da mTeli dRe mRviZared RmrTisa mimarT locvaSi, vidre aRsruldeboda
yvela saidumlo RmrTis sadideblad, xolo meore dRes gaunawila mamamTa-
varma kurTxevis zeTi...~.66
  uxtanesi wers, rom VI saukunis bolos mironi akurTxa kaTalikosma
mosem (574-604), xolo VII sakunis dasawyisSi _ abraamma.
  rogorc zemoT aRniSnulidan Cans, saqarTvelos mezobeli eklesiebi VI-
VIII, SesaZloa V saukuneebSi akurTxebdnen mirons da amitomac, maTi Tana-
tol-Tanafardi, maTTan saeklesio kavSirSi myofi qarTuli eklesiac VI-VII
saukuneebSi amave uflebiT isargeblebda.
  qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT, qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSive akurTxebda
mirons. moRweulia kidevac mironis kurTxevis teqsti, romelic Sevsebulia
Semdgom saukuneebSi. masSi Camatebulia axal saukuneTa atributebi, amito-
mac axali drois dokumentad miiCneva. aseve efrem mcire Tavis SromaSi
wers, rom mironis kurTxevis ufleba qarTul eklesias mieniWa V saukuneSi.
  efrem mcire ase aRwers am process: wmida ninos dros evstaTi antio-
qelma patriarqma daamyara qarTuli eklesia. gadawyda, rom mironi qarTul
eklesias mieRo antioqiis sapatriarqodan. im dros, IV saukuneSi, mirons
mxolod antioqiis sapatriarqo amzadebda da akurTxebda. mironis Sesasy-
idad qarTvelebs antioqiisaTvis unda eZliaT aTasi kvamlis gadasaxadi.
mcire xnis Semdeg antioqiam aTasi kvamlis gadasaxadis nacvlad iTxova
aTasi drahkani yovelwliurad. maleve antioqiam berZenTa mefis Suamavlo-
biT, qarTvelTa aTasi drahkani gadasca ierusalimis sapatriarqos. axla
ukve mironis Sesasyidi Tanxa qarTvelebs ierusalimisaTvis unda eZliaT.
510                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  Semdeg efrem mcire wers: `aqa dagYSTa saZiebeli mravalTaA, Tu odes
miiRes qarTvelTa kurTxevaA mironisaA da amisda cnobad... vpoe sazogadod
yovelTaTYs, viTarmed qalkidonisa krebasa esma, rom siZvirisaTYs fasiT
hyiddes mihronsa, amisTYs brZanes wmidaTa mamaTa, raATa ara xolo antio-
qias, aramed sxuaTaca eklesiaTa Sina wmida iqmnebodes mihroni. xolo
TYisagan qarTvelTaA sagonebel ars, viTarmed siSorisaTvis gzisa da romel
friad saSiS ars ucxo TeslTa Soris KmeliT antioqiiT qarTls warRebaA
wmidisa mihronisaA, amisTYs TYT adgilsa da dawesebul ars maTda kurTx-
evaA mihronisaA~.67
  efrem mcires azriT, V saukuneSi 451 wlis qalkedonis krebis Semdeg,
yvela eklesias da maT Soris qarTulsac, neba daerTo adgilze mironis
kurTxevisa. asec rom ar yofiliyo, siSorisa da gzis siZnelis gamo miro-
nis transportireba Zalze Zneli iyo. ase rom, efremis Tanaxmad, V sauku-
nidanve mironi saqarTveloSive ekurTxeba.
  sxva sakiTxia is anaqronizmebi da uxeSi qronologiuri Secdomebi, rom-
lebmac efremis naSromi TiTqmis gaugebari gaxada da amasTanave, saTave
daudo sxva Secdomebs saukuneTa manZilze.
  marTalia, efrem mcire Tavisi drois udidesi da ubrwyinvalesi filol-
ogosi da mTargmnel-komentatori iyo, magram es mas ar avaldebulebda
aseTive masStabis istorikosi yofiliyo, rac Cans mis mier daweril naS-
romSi qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis istoriis Sesaxeb.
  efrem mcire IV-V saukuneTa Soris momxdari ambebis aRwerisas daeyrdno
antioqiuri `xronografis~ cnobas, romelic man CarTo Tavis SromaSi. swored
amaSi mdgomareobda efremis Secdoma. qronografSi naTqvami iyo imperator
konstantine skoris, antioqiis patriarq Teofilaqtes, ierusalimis patriarq
orestis, basili mefis dros bizantiur da dasavlur qarTul eklesiaTa
Soris damokidebulebis Sesaxeb. Tanamedrove istoriografiis ganviTarebis
wyalobiT cnobilia, rom es mefe–patriarqebi moRvaweobdnen VIII-X saukuneeb-
Si, magram efremi fiqrobda, rom isini iyvnen IV-V saukuneTa moRvaweni.
amitomac efremma antioqiuri `xronografis~68 cnoba CarTo Tavisi istoriis
im nawilSi, romelic IV-V saukuneTa Soris momxdar ambebs Seexeboda.
  basili mefe, romelsac exeba efremis mier gamoyenebuli cnoba, TiTqmis
efremis Tanamedrove iyo, misgan daaxloebiT naxevari saukuniT daSorebu-
li. magram efremis Sromidan aSkarad Cans, rom igi saubrobs ara Tavis
Tanamedrove pirze, aramed Zveli drois basilze.
  rogorc Cans, X saukunis bolos da XI saukunis dasawyisSi swored
`arasruli avtokefaliis~ momxre antioqielma Teoretikosebma `Seaswores~
da damatebebiT Seavses antioqiuri qronografi. efrem mcirem XI saukunis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               511
Sua wlebSi moiZia es matiane, miiCnia IV-V saukuneTa qronikad da CarTo
Tavis naSromSi.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi ZvelTaganve damkvidrebuli iyo tradi-
ciuli gadmocema, romlis Tanaxmadac mironi gadmoedineboda sveticxovl-
idan, anu cxovelmyofeli xis gadanaWridan mcxeTaSi. amitomac, roca arsen
iyalToeli imeorebs efremis cnobas `...sasyidlad nivTTa wmidisa mihroni-
saTa eklesiasa antioqiisasa... drahkani aTasi~,69 igi, Cans, darwmunebulia,
rom qarTvelebi yidulobdnen ara TviT mirons, aramed misi Semzadebi-
saTvis saWiro surnelovan aromatul nivTierebas; xolo TviT mironis
Sezaveba-kurTxeva da damzadeba saqarTveloSive xdeboda. `antioqiuri
`xronografis~ Zvel slavur TargmanSic weria: `wmida mironis aromatis
SesaZenad~ da ara wmida mironis SesaZenad.70
  mironis kurTxevis wesi aseTi yofila:
  odes mefe, aTabagi, qarTlisa erisTavi, spasalari da yovelni erisTavni
da yovelni mRdelTmoZRuarni Semokrben mcxeTas, didsa xuTSabaTsa, didisa
somxiTisa mitrapolitsa, hmarTebs nivTTa zeda dgomad da quabni sakurTx-
evelTad gamoixunen da mitrapolitsa da qadagsa etYrTnes ketni quabTani.
winaTa ketTa mitrapoliti Seudges da ukanaTa qadagi. Tu mwirveli iyos,
TeTriTa SesamosliTa Semosil iyos, Tu mwirveli ara iyos, TeTrisa atla-
sisa CaCi Tavsa eburos moyuntuzvili; da meoreTa quabTa mTavarefiskoposi
queSe udges da wina mividodes da ukanaTa ketTa mawyuereli da ukana
mTavarefiskoposi mihyvebodes. da raJams ganazavebden takuksa, takuki mawyu-
erelsa etYrTos ki mawyuerelsa etvirTos da raJams ganazaon, takuki
qadagisa KeliTa daibeWdvodes. da yovelTa efiskoposTa TiToA kokaA mironisa
etYrTos...~.71
  amave dokumentSi moxsenebulia mefe arCili da kaTalikosi miqaeli.
patriarq kalistrate cincaZis mier gamocemuli siis Tanaxmad,72 saqarTve-
los XV saukunemde sul ori arCili hyavda mefed _ arCil I (410-434), papa
vaxtang gorgasalisa da arCil II (668-718 ww.). am periodSi Cndeba ori
kaTalikosi miqaelic: miqael I (459-467 ww.), romelmac vaxtang gorgasals
kbilebi Caumtvria da miqael II (774-780ww.). marTalia, aRniSnul siaSi
dadasturebuli mefobis TariRebi miaxloebiTia, magram savsebiT naTelia,
rom jer arCil I mefobs, Semdeg kaTalikosobs miqael I, aseve arCil II-is
moRvaweobis wlebi uswrebs miqael II-is kaTalikosobis TariRs. dokumentSi,
romelsac ewodeba `mironis kurTxevis wesi~, mefe arCili davalebas aZlevs
saeklesio pirs miqaels, Seadginos mironis kurTxevis gangeba, rasac miqae-
li garkveuli drois Semdeg asrulebs. is iZiebs, irkvevs mironis kurTxe-
vis wess da adgens gangebas mironis kurTxevis Zveli `niSnis~ Sesabamisad,
xolo dokumentis gamocemis dros is ukve kaTalikosia.
  `didni SfoTni da amboxni iqmnebodes efiskoposTa cilobisagan da Rmr-
Tiv-gYrgYnosanma mefeman arCil ara saTno iCina amaT SfoTTa qmnad. da
512                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gYbrZana gaCenad, viTa niSanTa Seetyueboda, da Kel-vyaviT me, glaxakman
miqael qarTlisa kaTalikozman da vakurTxeT wmidaA mironi...~73
   ueWvelia, rom mironis kurTxevis es dokumenti Sedgenilia IX saukunemde,
amitomac igi sruliad abaTilebs azrs, rom qarTulma eklesiam mironis
kurTxevis neba miiRo IX saukuneSi. arsebobs mosazreba, rom es dokumenti
aris natyuari. unda iTqvas, rom natyuari sigeli, anda dokumenti SeiZleboda
SeedginaT raime kerZo, mcire adgil-mamulis da msgavsi sakiTxis Taobaze,
romlis Semowmeba saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebriv interess ar
warmoadgenda. mironis kurTxevis saerTo saxalxo _ saxelmwifo mniS-
vnelobis ceremonialSi ki monawileobdnen saxelmwifos meTauri _ mefe,
qveynis yvela provinciaTa mmarTveli erisTavebi, kaTalikos-episkoposebi.
muSaobda mTeli saxelmwifo da saeklesio aparati, imarTeboda sagangebo
darbazoba, romelzec erisTavebi da episkoposebi sxdebodnen mtkiced gan-
sazRvruli wesiTa da rigiT. nuTu isini `natyuar~ dokuments iWerdnen
xelSi da imis mixedviT akurTxebdnen mirons? `xelmwifis karis garige-
bidan~ srulebiT aSkarad Cans, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba hqonda aseTi
saxelmwifoebrivi ceremoniis dros sagangebo wesebis dacvas. aseTive sax-
is dokumentia `kurTxeva mironisa~.
   `mironis kurTxevis~ aRniSnuli dokumenti xelT hqoniaT erekle II-sa da
anton kaTalikoss, ris mixedviTac ganusazRvravT maT ninowmindelis pativi
da adgili darbazobis dros. es dokumenti erekles II-sa da anton I-s miaCniaT
im dros Sedgenilad, roca samefo anu sataxto qalaqi iyo ara Tbilisi,
aramed nisani da quTaTisi. amis gamo, weren isini, Tbileli episkoposis pativi
da Rirseba SedarebiT mcirea da is dgas episkoposTa rigis boloSio.
   `tfileli ukue ganCinebasa mas Sina samefosa friad qvemore dgebodis,
anu jdebodis krebasa Sina, amisTvis romel samefo qalaqi ara iyo tfilisi
droTa mas Sina, aramed nisani da quTaTisi~.74
   anton I-isa da erekles II-is mixedviT, mironis kurTxevis dokumenti
Sedgenili yofila VII-XI saukuneebSi, radganac mcxeTa dedaqalaqad araa
moxsenebuli, xolo XII saukunis Semdeg Tbilisi dedaqalaqia (saqarTve-
los dedaqalaqad Tbilisi iTvleboda V saukunidan arabebis mier dapy-
robamde, arabTa gandevnis Semdeg Tbilisi kvlav dedaqalaqia).
   `sabuTi pirvelad T. Jordaniam gamoaqveyna (qronikebi, I, 1892, gv. 45-46).
igi fiqrobda, rom sabuTSi moxseniebuli `mefe arCili~ unda iyos pirveli
(gard. 434 w.) da ara meore (gard. 718 w.), radgan ukanasknelis dros
miqael kaTalikozi ara sCans da arc dasajerebelia, rom VII-VIII saukunee-
bis arev-darevis dros amisTana kiTxvaze mocla SesaZlebeli yofiliyos;
arc didi `somxiTis mitropoliti~ yofila VIII saukuneSi, magram radganac
aTabagi aris moxseniebuli darbazobaSi da sxvaca ramdenime arCil I
dros winaaRmdegni wes-wyobilebani, amiT safuZveli gveZleva vifiqroT, rom
`darbazobaSi~ droTa mixedviT, sxvadasxva cvlileba unda SemoeRoT.75
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 513
   mironis kurTxevis ufleba qarTul eklesias IX saukunemde rom hqonia,
amis Sesaxeb wers `qarTlis cxovrebac~, saidanac Cans, rom qarTuli ek-
lesiis ZvelTaganve (V saukunidan) arsebuli mironis kurTxevis ufleba
VII saukuneSi, 681 wels, daudasturebia msoflio saeklesio krebas:
   `...iqmna kreba meequse... amis krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesi-
isa saqarTvelosTvis, romel ars wmida mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa
viTarca wmidani samociqulo kaTolike eklesiani, sapatriaqoni, da iyos
kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori patriarqTa Tana... am krebisa mier dagvimtki-
cebia patriarqad... xolo odesca enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva mironisa,
akurTxos Tvissa eklesiasa~.76
   marTlac, amierkavkasiis yvela avtokefalur eklesias (igulisxmeba somx-
eTisa da albaneTis eklesiebi) VI-VII saukuneebSi mironis kurTxevis ufle-
ba hqonda miniWebuli. qarTuli eklesia ar SeiZleboda gamonaklisi yofil-
iyo, radganac swored somxuri wyaroebidan Cans, rom im droisaTvis igi
iseTive rangis avtokefaluri eklesiaa, rogoric somxuri da albanuri.
   amitomacaa, rom efrem mcires Tanaxmad, romelsac yvela qarTuli wyaro
eTanxmeba, qarTvelebi mirons ukve V saukunidanve akurTxebdnen.
   Cvens mecnierebaSi damkvidrebulia Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda qarTulma
eklesiam `...mxolod IX saukunis 40-iani wlebidan miiRo misi damzadebis
ufleba ierusalimis patriarqisgan, risi iniciatori da saqmis momgvarebe-
li iyo awyuris episkoposi efremi...~.77
   aseTi Tvalsazrisi ar aris misaRebi, radganac giorgi merCulis cnobis
araswor gaSifrvazea damokidebuli. giorgi merCule, Cans, werda _ `rameTu
pirvelad a-sa kaTalikosTa mihroni ierusalimT mohyvanda, xolo efrem
qristesmieriTa brZanebiTa mihronis kurTxeva qarTls ganawesa ierusali-
mis patriarqisa ganwesebiT da wamebiTa sixaruliT. aramed qarTlad fri-
adi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis
da locva yoveli aResrulebis~...78 am cnobaSi Semdegdroindel gadamwers
sworad ver gauxsnia qaragma `a-sa~. qaragma `a-sa~ konteqstis mixedviT,
unda gaixsnas `afxazeTisa~, maSin azri naTeli da sruliad gasagebi gaxde-
ba. mwerali wers _ Tavidan afxazeTis kaTalikosebs mironi ierusalimi-
dan mohqondaT, efremis SemweobiT ki afxazeTisaTvis saWiro mironis kurTxeva
gadawyda qarTlSi. radganac, afxazeTi, anu dasavleTi saqarTvelo qarTlia,
qarTuli eklesiis nawilia, radganac wirva-locva aq qarTul enaze war-
moebs. azri sruliad naTeli da gasagebia.
   amJamad ki, roca nacvlad afxazeTisa ikiTxeba `aRmosavlisa~, qaragmis
araswori gaxsnis gamo, azri dabnelebuli, uSinaarso da arasworia _ TiTqosda
aRmosavleTis qveynebis sakaTalikosoebs Tavdapirvelad mironi ierusalim-
idan mihqondaT. es sruliad mrude azri ar SeiZleba iyos giorgi merCulis
514                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
dednisa, radganac giorgi merCule aris sruliad sando, ganaTlebuli, moazrovne
moRvawe. saqme isaa, rom I saukunis 70-ian wlebSi ierusalimi mTlianad
daangries da mis adgilze erTi mcire sofeliRa aRmocenda saukunis Semdeg.
IV saukuneSi elenem da konstantine romis imperatorma es qalaqi aRadgines,
magram misi episkoposi im dros eqvemdebareboda xan antioqiis episkoposs,
xan ki kesaria-palestinis episkoposs. mxolod V saukuneSi qalkedonis
krebis Semdeg gamovida ierusalimis episkoposi kesaria-palestinis episko-
posis daqvemdebarebisgan da gadaiqca sapatriarqo eklesiad.
  amitomac I-V saukuneebSi aRmosavleTis qveynebis sakaTalikosoebi mirons
ierusalimidan ver waiRebdnen. I saukunis 70-ian wlebamde, roca qalaqi
ierusalimi arsebobda, maSin aRmosavleTis sakaTalikosoebi ar arsebobdnen.
xolo Semdeg saukuneebSi ierusalimi ar iyo arc saeklesio da arc saerTa-
Soriso mniSvnelobis qristianuli centri. aseTi iyo mTeli aRmosavleTi-
saTvis mxolod antioqia, amitomac SeiZleba marTalia efrem mcire, roca
wers, rom antioqiis sapatriarqoSi ekurTxeboda mironi da sxvagan arsado.
  Tu `aRmosavalisas~ qveS vigulisxmebT qarTlis kaTalikosebs, maSin swored
`qarTlisa~ unda daewera kidec avtors, miT umetes, rom ramdenime sityvis
Semdeg naxsenebia sityva `qarTli~.
  magram konteqstidan Cans, rom am cnobaSi laparakia axladSeqmnili
afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mier mironis miRebis Sesaxeb, kerZod, Tavidan
afxazeTis kaTalikoss mironi ierusalimidan mihqonda, xolo Semdeg ganewesa,
rom afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mironi mieRo ara ierusalimidan, aramed
qarTlis sakaTalikosodan, radganac afxazeTis qveyana (e.i. das. saqarTve-
lo) qarTlis qveynis nawilia, xolo afxazeTis sakaTalikoso qarTlis
sakaTalikosos, anu erTiani qarTuli eklesiis nawilia, radganac `...qarT-
lad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami
Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis~.
  giorgi merCules axali araferi uTqvams, radganac dasavleT saqarTve-
los ukve mefe farnavazis droidanve uwodebdnen qarTls _ mdinare egrisw-
ylis aRmosavleTiT mimdebare qveyanas, vidre albaneTis sazRvramde.
  giorgi merCules cnobidan iseTi daskvna unda gamovitanoT, rom afxaze-
Tis sakaTalikoso daarsebis Semdeg, e.i. 720-iani wlebidan, mirons iRebda
ierusalimis sapatriarqodan, xolo 840-ian wlebSi is mirons iRebda ukve
mcxeTidan _ msoflio marTlmadideblobis dasturiT.
  marTlac, afxazeTis sakaTalikoso 830 wels cno qarTlis (tao-klarje-
Tis) samefo karma da albaT qarTlis (mcxeTis) sapatriarqomac, maleve am
cnobis Semdeg is mirons mcxeTidan iRebs _ e.i. afxazeTis sakaTalikosoSi
mironi ar ekurTxeboda, dasavleT saqarTveloSi mironi mcxeTidan mihqon-
daT, qarTuli eklesiis erTianobis niSnad.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              515
   xolo rac Seexeba mcxeTas _ aq mironi V saukunidanve ekurTxeboda.
   ismis aseTi kiTxva _ ratom mihqondaT afxazeTSi mironi ierusalimidan
IX saukunis 40-ian wlebamde? roca dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTis,
abazgiis avtokefaluri saarqiepiskoposos da foTis samitropolitos gaer-
Tianebis Semdeg warmoqmnilma eklesiam xatmebrZoluri eresis gamo gawyvi-
ta kavSiri konstantinopolis sapatriarqosTan, axalma eklesiam konstanti-
nopolTan kavSiris gawyvetis Semdeg, Cans kavSiri daamyara ierusalimis
sapatriarqosTan.
   arsebobs msgavsi magaliTic: roca goTeTis eklesiam VIII saukunis pirv-
el naxevarSi konstantinopolis sapatriarqoSi warmoqmnili xatmebrZoluri
eresis gamo kavSiri gawyvita konstantinopolTan, goTeTis mTavari episko-
posi ierusalimSi Cavida kurTxevisaTvis da iq sami weli eloda kurTxevas
(ix. `cxovreba ioane guTelisa~).
   ioane guTeli antioqiis sapatriarqoSi ar mivida im mizezis gamo, rom
antioqieli patriarqebi arabTa Semosevebis gamo ara antioqiaSi, aramed
konstantinopolSi imyofebodnen im dros.
   aseve, abazgiis saarqiepiskopososa da fazisis samitropolitos gaer-
TianebiT Seqmnilma axalma eklesiam, romelsac Semdgom afxazeTis sakaTa-
likoso ewoda, VIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi xatmebrZolobis gamo kavSi-
ri gawyvita konstantinopolTan da daamyara ierusalimis sapatriarqosTan.
   aRsaniSnavi da yuradsaRebia, rom ierusalimis sapatriarqoSi goTeTis
episkoposi ar akurTxes da is qarTlSi (iberiaSi, mcxeTaSi) ekurTxa qarT-
lis kaTalikosis xeliT. ioane goTelis mcxeTaSi kurTxevis Sesaxeb berZnuli
wyaroebic miuTiTeben. aseve srulebiT msgavsia da eTanxmeba aRniSnul
faqts is, rom afxazeTis eklesiis mimarTac aseve moqceula ierusalimis
sapatriarqo.
   msgavsad goTeTis damoukidebeli eklesiisa, afxazeTis eklesiac iberiis
_ qarTlis eklesiisaTvis dauqvemdebarebia ierusalimis sapatriarqos.
   Cans, ierusalimsa da qarTul eklesias Soris im dros kargi urTierToba
arsebobda.
   cnoba ioane guTelisa da afxazeTis mcxeTaze damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
erTmaneTis msgavsia. ierusalimis sapatriarqos nebiT, afxazeTisaTvis saWiro
mironi mcxeTas (qarTlSi) ekurTxeba, aseve ierusalimis sapatriarqodan
mosuli ioane guTelic mcxeTaSi ekurTxeba.
   unda davaskvnaT, rom mironi mcxeTaSi V saukunidanve ekurTxeba, xolo
daaxloebiT 720-830 wlebSi dasavleT saqarTvelos is nawili, romelic
ufro adre konstantinopolze iyo damokidebuli, mirons ierusalimidan
iRebda, xolo amis Semdeg mcxeTidan.
516                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e

                 afxazeTi da tao-klarjeTi
          qarTvelTa erovnuli konsolidaciis kerebi

   Tanamedrove istoriografiaSi miRebuli TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli erovnebis
formireba dasrulebula XI saukuneSi.79 gansxvavebiT Zveli qarTuli istorio-
grafiisagan, romelsac miaCnia, rom qarTuli erovnuli erToba farnavazis
saxelmwifos Seqmnis dros ukve arsebobda.
   IX-X saukuneSi, da saerTod arabTa batnobis Semdeg mkvlevarTa Tval-
sazrisiT, qarTuli erovnebis formirebisa da qarTveluri tomebis konsol-
idaciis kerebi yofila tao-klarjeTi da afxazeTi.80
   g. wulaias azriT, afxazeTis samefos Seqmna yofila qarTveluri tomebis
konsolidaciis erT-erTi etapi: «ÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ, ÍÍÍÍÍ `ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ~ ÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍ, ÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ. ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍ-
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ«.81
   sainteresoa, rogori eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa iyo qarTveluri tomebis
konsolidaciis kerebi _ tao-klarjeTi da afxazeTi.
   tao-klarjeTis eTnikuri Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb Tanamedrove mkvlevarTa
Soris n. maris Semdeg, azrTa sxvadasxvaoba arsebobs. `qarTlis cxovrebisa~
da sxva wyaroTa mixedviT, tao-klarjeTi da saerTod samxreT saqarTvelo
mudam qarTvelebis qveyanaa. Tanamedrove mkvlevarebi midian daskvnamde, rom
tao-klarjeTis aborigeni mosaxleoba iyo Wanur-megruli, rac srulebiT ar
ewinaaRmdegeba Zvel qarTul wyaroebs. Tavis droze niko marma, Tavisi cno-
bili daskvnebidan gamomdinare, ganacxada, rom tao-klarjeTi TiTqosda somx-
uri qveyana iyo, xolo am mxareSi qalkedonitTa gamarjvebis wyalobiT am
mxaris mosaxleoba gaqarTvelda _ TiTqosda saqarTvelo gamdidrda tao-
klarjeTis mosaxloebiT.
   tao-klarjeTi mudam qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, is qarTlis samefo-
Si Semavali qveyana iyo. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, qarTloss mieca
qveyana, romlis samxreTi sazRvari gadis mTaze, romelic `mihyvebis dasav-
liT, kerZo, romlisa wyali gardmodis CrdiloT kerZo da mierTvis mtkuar-
sa, romel mihyvebis mTaSoris klarjeTsa da taos vidre zRuamdis~,82 `oZr-
Koss misca tasiskariTgan vidre zRuamde sperisa, qveyana kldovani. aman
oZrKos aRaSena orni cixe-qalaqi; ozZrKe da Tuxarisi~,83 `javaxoss misca
fanavriTgan vidre Tavadmde mtkuarisa da aman javaxos aRaSena... qalaqi
artanisa, romalsac... hqYan huri, 84 farnavaz `movida klarjeTs da dai pyra
klarjeTi~.85 farnavaz `JamiTi-Jamad mividis egriss da klarjeTs, moikiTx-
nis megrelni da klarjni~.86 `andria moaqcivna megrelni da warvida gzasa
klarjeTisasa~.87
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 517
  meTormete mefe farsmanis dros somxeTis samefom SemoierTa qarTlis
sasazRvro qveynebi. mefis Zem arzokma ganizraxa `Zieba sazRvarTa qarTli-
saTa~. `da iyo klarjeTis erisTavi arzuk mefisa, ... da igi avnebdis sazR-
varTa somxiTisaTa, queyanasa parxlisasa, romel ars tao, da vervin Sevido-
da mavne klarjeTs...~.88 imperatori konstantine ubrZanebs episkopos ioanes:
`sadaca jer iCino adgilTa qarTlisaTa, aRaSenen eklesiani~. `da warmovi-
da episkoposi... da viTar moiwivnes adgilsa, romelsa hqYan eruSeTi da
dautevna xuroni saqmeT eklesiisa~.89 vaxtang gorgaslis ymawvilobis dros
osebs `daurCes warutyuenvelad Kevni qarTlsani: kaxeTi da klarjeTi da
egrisi~.90 gorgasalma daniSna `artavaz, erisTavi klarjeTisa~.91 vaxtangma
`dasua erTi episkoposad klarjeTs eklesiasa axizisasa, erTi artans eruSeTs~.92
herakle keisris dros `kualad wariRs berZenTa sazRvari qarTlisa; speri
da bolo klarjeTisa, zRvispiri. da Svilni stefanozisni darCes `kldeTa
Sina klarjeTisaTa~.93 arCil mefem qali `erTi misca mamis Zmiswulsa missa,
Svilsa guaram kurapalatisasa, romelsac hqonda klarjeTi da javaxeTi~.94
  moyvanili amonaweridan Cans, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, mefe
farnavazidan vidre mefe arCilamde, samxreTi saqarTvelo da tao-klarje-
Ti mudam qarTlis samefoSi Semavali qveyanaa, Tumca, zogjer saberZneTi da
somxeTi TavianT samefoebs uerTeben qarTlis am qveyanas. magram am dros
rogorc qarTlis samefo xelisuflebis, aseve adgilobrivi qarTvelebis
mizania, gaaTavisuflon es qveynebi da daubrunon qarTls. sarwmunoebriva-
dac qarTlis `xevTagan~ pirveli swored klarjeTi (da egrisi) iRebs
qristianobas. andria pirvelwodebulma iqadaga ara marto klarjeTSi, aramed
taoSic.95 berZeni episkoposi, romelsac nabrZanebi aqvs qarTlis sxvadasxva
kuTxeebSi aaSenos eklesiebi, pirvel eklesias aSenebs tao-klarjeTSi. vax-
tang gorgasali ki ukve klarjeTSi niSnavs episkoposs. klarjeTis mosax-
leobas, `klarjebs~, moikiTxavs xolme mefe farnavazi. klarjebi qarTlis,
anu Tavis mamulis moyvaruli patriotebi, kargi meomrebi arian: `mkYdrni
klarjeTisani iyvnes kacni mkYrcxni da mKedarnica~.96 roca qarTlis same-
fos mosazRvre somxeTis saxelmwifom sasazRvro teritoriebi CamoaWra,
ver SeZlo klarjeTis dapyroba _ klarjebis mamacobisa da mamuliSvilo-
bis gamo, piriqiT, klarjeTis erisTavi Tavisi meomrebiT am mezobeli sax-
elmwifos sazRvrebSi iWreba, mitacebuli teritoriebis qarTlis samefos-
aTvis dabrunebis mizniT.97 aqedan Cans, rom `klarjni~ qarTveli eris
nawilia, cxovroben qarTvelTa samefoSi da erTgulad icaven mas.
  aseTive mdgomareoba iyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ `afxazeTSi~. dasav-
leT saqarTvelos eTnografiuli saxe `msgavsi~ iyo tao-klarjeTis eTno-
grafiuli saxisa.
  xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia da friad mniSvnelovani qarTveli eris Camoyal-
ibebis istoriisaTvis, rom swored tao-klarjeTi da afxazeTi, eTnografiu-
518                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
li saxiT TiTqosda araerTgvarovanni, iqcnen `qarTvelTa erovnebis formire-
bisa~ da qarTveluri tomebis `konsolidaciis~ kerebad. TiTqosda `qarTu-
li erovnebis~ Camoyalibebisa da Seqmnis kera unda yofiliyo Sida qarTli,
romelic eTnografiuli saxiT erTgvarovani iyo da Sedgeboda mxolod
qarTebisagan, magram IX-X saukuneebSi, qarTuli erovnebis formirebis pro-
cesSi yvelaze naklebad swored Sida qarTli monawileobs (arabTagan dapy-
robis gamo). am saqmeSi aqtiuri roli akisria tao-klarjeTs da afxazeTs. im
gasaocar faqts, rom qarTuli erovnebis erTobis idea da qarTveluri tome-
bis konsolidacia moxda im kuTxeebSi, romelnic eTnografiulad TiTqosda
araerTgvarovanni iyvnen, SeiZleba movuZebnoT erTaderTi mizezi: ukve IX
saukuneSi da manamdec Camoyalibebuli iyo erTiani qarTveli eri, romlis
sacxovrissac warmoadgenda rogorc dasavleT saqarTvelo, aseve tao-klar-
jeTi. sinamdvileSi es mxareebi eTnikurad erTgvarovanni iyvnen.
   IX-XI saukuneebSi tao-klarjeTisa da afxazeTis qarTul-erovnuli aqti-
uroba, am mxareebSi qarTul-kulturuli aRorZineba gamowveuli iyo ara
imiT, rom iq axlad Camoyalibda erovnuli erTobis grZnoba, aramed imiT,
rom qarTveli eris erovnuli centrebi _ mcxeTa da Tbilisi, aseve Sida
qarTli, arabTagan iyo dapyrobili da iq SeuZlebeli iyo erovnuli kerebis
arseboba. amitomac, erovnul centrebad iqca qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli is
kuTxeebi, romlebzedac mters naklebad miuwvdeboda xeli. es iyo, swored,
tao-klarjeTi da afxazeTi, miT umetes, rom am mxareebSi gadainacvla
qarTveli eris politikurma centrebma. arabTagan qveynis dapyrobasa da
qarTlis samefos ganadgurebas unda gamoewvia ara `qarTuli erovnebis
formirebis dasruleba~, aramed, piriqiT, qarTvelebis denacionalizacia,
radganac arabTa batonobas iseTi didi xalxis `denacionalizaciac~ ki
gamouwvevia, rogoric iyvnen iranelebi.98 g. wulaias gamokvlevis Tanaxmad,
qarTvel erovnebas saxelmwifoebriobis likvidaciisa (VI s.) da arabTagan
dapyrobis Semdeg (VII s.) `Zalze maRali done hqonia eTnikuri konsolidaci-
isa~,99 advili misaxvedria, Tuki qarTvelobas erovnuli saxelmwifos gauqmeb-
is Semdegac ki erovnuli konsolidaciis done Zalze maRali hqonda, kidev
ufro maRali iqneboda qarTvelTa eTnikuri konsolidaciis done erovnuli
saerTo qarTuli saxelmwifos arsebobis dros. swored amas miuTiTebs da-
JinebiT `qarTlis cxovreba~. mefe farnavazidan (III s. qristes win) vidre
vaxtang gorgaslis Svilebamde (VI) qarTvel ers uwyvetad hqonda erovnuli
saxelmwifo, romlis SemadgenlobaSic uciloblad Sedioda rogorc dasavle-
Ti (Semdgomdroindeli `afxazeTi~), ise samxreT saqarTvelo (tao-klarjeTi).
   cxadia, qarTuli eTnikuri konsolidaciis done erovnuli saxelmwifos
ganadgurebis Semdeg Semcirdeboda, da Tu igi mainc inarCunebda pirvandel
saxes, es imaze miuTiTebs, rom qarTuli erovnuli erToba erovnuli saxelm-
wifos arsebobis dros kidev ufro maRali iqneboda, rac qarTveli eris
arsebobis safuZvels qmnida.100
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              519
  qarTuli tomebis integraciis erT-erTi maCvenebeli qarTuli damwerlo-
bis Seqmnac yofila.101 `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, qarTuli mwignobroba
Seiqmna erTiani saqarTvelos mefis, farnavazis dros. iv. javaxiSvilis
azriT, qarTuli damwerloba saTaves iRebs VII-VI saukuneebSi qristes win,
xolo r. patariZis ganmokvlevis Tanaxmad, qarTuli damwerloba Seqmnila
V saukuneSi qristes win.
  fuZeqarTuli enobrivi erTobis daSla swored qristemde, VIII-IV sauku-
neebSia mosalodneli. ase rom, im dros, rodesac qarTvelebma Seqmnes
qarTuli anbani (anda SemoiRes finikiuri anbani TavianTi enobrivi saWiroe-
bisaTvis), jer kidev ar yofilan formirebulni qarTebi da megrelebi, jer
kidev arsebobda maTi enobrivi erToba. damwerlobis SemoReba kidev ufro
Seuwyobda xels rogorc fuZe-qarTulenovani tomebis integracias, agreTve
farnavazis mier erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmnasac, romlis SemadgenlobaSi
Sedioda rogorc dasavleTi, aseve samxreT saqarTvelo, Semdeg afxazeTad
da tao-klarjeTad wodebuli miwebi.
  am saukuneebSi (IV-III saukune qristes win) megruli ena naklebad iqnebo-
da formirebuli rogorc damoukidebeli ena; SesaZloa, is yofiliyo di-
aleqti fuZeqarTuli enisa; fuZeqarTuli ki jer kidev mis saboloo daSlamde
iqca saxelmwifo da kultis msaxurebis enad. fuZeqarTuli ena da Zveli
qarTuli saliteraturo ena erTi da igive unda iyos.
  samegreloSi saSualo da maRali fenebi (samRvdeloeba da aristokra-
tia) saxelmwifoebrivi, sakulto da xSirad saojaxo saWiroebisaTvis iy-
enebdnen ara megrul, aramed qarTul saxelmwifo da kultis msaxurebis
enas _ Zvel qarTul saliteraturo enas. Cans, megruli, rogorc damoukide-
beli ena, mxolod SemdegSi, saukuneTa manZilze Camoyalibda. es unda momx-
dariyo pirvel aTaswleulSi qristes Sobis Semdeg. swored egrisisaTvis
sparseT-bizantiis omebi, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos gauqmeba (VI sauku-
neSi), romlis SemadgenlobaSi yovelTvis Sedioda egrisi, arabTa Semoseva
VII saukuneSi, VII saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis aneq-
sia bizantiis mier da iq berZnuli eklesiis gabatoneba xels Seuwyobda
megruli dialeqtis gadaqcevas damoukidebel enad. es procesi SemdgomSic,
qarTuli saxelmwifos saboloo daSlis merec gaRrmavdeboda. ase rom,
arabTa mier qarTuli erovnuli (arCilis) saxelmwifos dangreva xels ki
ar Seuwyobda qarTveli erovnebis formirebis saqmes, piriqiT, saxelmwifos
daSla eris daSlas da erovnul gadagvarebas ganapirobebda. amas adas-
turebs ioane sabanisZe, romelic `abo Tbilelis wamebaSi~ aRniSnavs, rom
qarTvelni am mZime dros iseve meryevni arian, rogorc lerwamni qariSx-
lis droso. magram faqtia, rom arabTa batonobis odnavi SesustebisTanave
yofili qarTlis samefos periferiebSi (radganac centri dapyrobili iyo)
_ dasavleT saqarTvelosa da tao-klarjeTSi _ ganviTarda da swrafad
520                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ayvavda qarTuli erovnuli kultura, erovnuli TviTSegnebis grZnoba, erovnuli
saxelmwifoebrioba. amis mizezi iyo is, rom arabTa Semosevamde gacilebiT
adre rogorc dasavleT, ise samxreT saqarTvelos mcxovrebni erovnulad
qarTvelebi iyvnen da maT amis Segneba hqondaT. swored am mizezis gamo
qarTuli erovnuli centrebi arabTa mier aRmosavleT saqarTvelos dapy-
robis dros gadavida dasavleT da samxreT saqarTveloSi. swored afxaze-
Ti da tao-klarjeTi qarTveli eris politikur centrebad iqca, erovnuli
saxelmwifoebrioba aRdga, qarTuli kultura ayvavda. im dros, roca aRmo-
savleT saqarTvelo (qarTuli erovnebis `birTvi~), arabTa mier iyo dapyro-
bili da iqauri qarTvelebi erovnul gadagvarebas ganicdidnen, qarTuli
erovnuli erTobis, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisa da kulturis kerad afx-
azeTi imitom iqca, rom arabTa Semosevamde didi xniT adre dasavleTi
saqarTvelo ukve qarTuli qveyanaa, romlis mcxovrebT qarTvelebi ewode-
baT. g. wulaias azriT, jer kidev Cveni welTaRricxvis dasawyisSi qarTve-
luri tomebis integracia iTvlida araerT aswleuls.102 amave Tvalsazriss
adasturebs `qarTlis cxovrebac~.
   ZvelqarTuli erovnebis konsolidaciis axali etapi dawyebula qristi-
anobis saxelmwifo religiad gadaqcevis Semdeg.103 qarTul enaze werilobi-
Ti literaturis Seqmna qarTvelTa eTnikuri konsolidaciis maRali donis
niSani yofila.104 TviT sakuTriv afxazeTSic ki, e.i. egriswylisa da klisu-
ras iqiT mdebare teritoriaze, qarTul werilobiT kulturas xangrZlivi
istoria hqonia jer kidev qarTuli miwebis gaerTianebisaTvis moZraobis
dawyebis adreul etapze, miT umetes qarTul werilobiT kulturas gac-
ilebiT ufro xangrZlivi istoria eqneboda egrisSi, anu dasavleT saqarTvelo-
Si, saidanac es kultura gavrceldeboda sakuTriv afxazeTSi. saukuneTa
manZilze, arabTa Semosevamde, egrisi politikurad `qarTlis samefos~ Se-
madgenel nawilad miiCneoda.
   «... ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍoÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ, ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ, ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍ
Í ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ. ÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ...
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ Í ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ-ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ, Í Í ÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ
ÍÍ ÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍÍ«.105
   qarTuli istoriuli tradicia jer kidev afxazTa samefos Seqmnamde dasav-
leT saqarTvelos _ egrisis mcxovrebT miiCnevda qarTlis samefos mcxovre-
blebad _ `naTesaviT qarTvelebad~. mematianeebma ician, rom afxazeTis samefos
SeqmniT dasavleT saqarTvelos erovnuli Semadgenloba ar Secvlila _ Se-
icvala mxolod da mxolod qveynis saxelwodeba. dasavleTi saqarTvelo, anu
afxazeTi da samxreTi saqarTvelo, anu tao-klarjeTi, ara marto politikurad
da kulturulad, aramed eTnikuradac qarTuli qveynebi iyvnen.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              521
  swored am mizezis gamo iqcnen eTnografiulad `araerTgvarovani~ afx-
azeTi da tao-klarjeTi qarTuli erovnuli formireba – konsolidaciis
kerebad. sinamdvileSi es qveynebi eTnikurad erTgvarovanni iyvnen da maTi
mcxovrebni erovnulad qarTvelebs miakuTvnebdnen TavianT Tavs ZvelTa-
ganve _ ZvelqarTuli saxelmwifos arsebobis dros.
  IX-X saukuneebamde gacilebiT adre dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas
qarTvelebad miiCnevdnen ara marto qarTveli, aramed ucxoeli istorikose-
bic. V-VI saukuneTa ucxoeli istorikosebi xSirad uwodebdnen dasavleT
saqarTvelos iberias.106

        qarTuli eklesiis Tavdadebuli Rvawli pirveli
            mahmadianuri Semotevis winaaRmdeg
        (wmida abo Tbileli, wmida daviTi da konstantine,
             wmida arCil mefe, wmida miqael gobroni,
                   wmida konstantine qarTveli)

  saqarTvelos, rogorc mTlian eTnokulturul erTeuls, mahmadianobam
Semoutia orjer. pirveli Semoteva daiwyo VII saukuneSi, mahmadianuri
sarwmunoebis warmoSobisTanave da gagrZelda TiTqmis XII saukunemde, xolo
meored _ mahmadianobam saqarTvelos Semoutia XV-XVIII saukuneebSi. am or
SemotevaTa Sua, XI-XIV saukuneebSi, qarTvelma xalxma SeZlo Tavisi qveynis
politikuri gaerTianeba, saqarTvelos Zlier saxelmwifod daarseba, romelic
agresorTagan icavda sakuTar da saqarTvelos mfarvelobis qveS myof
xalxebs. VII-VIII saukuneebSi `ganefina qadageba mahmad usjulosa da mrava-
li eri Seudga mas~,107 saqarTvelos mezoblad mcxovrebi mravali qris-
tiani xalxi gamahmadianda, ris gamoc dakarga Tavisi eTnikuri saxe da
gadagvarda. siriel xalxs gaaCnda didi warsuli, kultura da TavisTavadi
saxe. gamahmadianebis Semdeg ki TandaTanobiT gaarabda. siriuli qristian-
uli literatura gansaxilvel epoqaSi iseTive Rrma da mdidari iyo,
rogorc berZnuli qristianuli literatura. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani
danakargi iyo qristianobisaTvis saqarTvelos mezoblad mcxovrebi al-
baneli xalxis gadagvareba gamahmadianebis Semdeg. igive bedi eweoda Cvens
ersac, Tuki medgar winaaRmdegobas ar gauwevda maxviliT mosul mters da
mis sarwmunoebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom mahmadianobis zemoaRniSnulma pirvelma
Semotevam mniSvnelovnad daaziana Cveni erovnul-kulturuli sxeuli,
saqarTvelom dakarga Tavisi zogierTi istoriuli provincia samxreT-aR-
mosavleTiT am kuTxeTa erovnuli gadagvarebis gamo.
522                                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   qariSxlis siswrafiT SeiWrnen muslimebi bizantiur miwa-wyalze. 634
wlis Semdeg sul ramdenime weliwadSi dai pyres siria, palestina da
egvi pte. es qveynebi manamde bizantias ekuTvnoda, 640-ian wlebSi daeca
irani. Cveni mematianis TvalsazrisiT, dacema daaCqara iman, rom iqamde
herakle keisars sastikad mouoxrebia irani. `rameTu vinaiTgan Sesrul iyo
erakle mefe sparseTs da ganeryuna sparseTi, da arRaravin iyo winaaRmdgo-
mi sparseTs, agarianman dai pyra sparseTi~.108
   bizantiis aRmosavluri qveynebis mosaxleoba, romelTac tradiciuli
siZulvili gaaCndaT bizantielTa mimarT eTnikuri da sarwmunoebrivi gan-
sxvavebulobis gamo, ar uwevda winaaRmdegobas arabebs. wyaroebSi aRniS-
nulia, rom siria-palestinis fanatikosi monofiziti berebic ki masobrivad
tovebdnen monastrebs da arabul laSqars uerTdebodnen. amis Semdeg
gasakviri ar aris, Tu am qveynebis bevri qalaqis kari ubrZolvelad ixsne-
boda arabebis winaSe.109 herakle keisarma miatova aRmosavleTis qveynebi.
vinme erT monazons misTvis uTqvams: `ivltodeT, rameTu ufalman misca
aRmosavleTi da samxreTi sarkinozTa~.110
   sayovelTao SiSis dros, roca TviT qristiani monofiziti berebic ki
sasoebiT Sehyurebdnen arabebs, viTarca uflis nebis aRmsruleblebs, qarTuli
eklesia, misi moweseTa dasi, ber-monazvnoba mxneobas aniWebda qarTvel ers,
sityviT da saqmiT aZlevda mahmadianebTan brZolis saocar magaliTebs.
   yvela qristiani da araqristiani morwmunisaTvis cnobili iyo, Tu ras niSnav-
da abraamis memkvidreoba, RvTisagan rCeuli eris Sviloba. msoflio arenaze
arabTa warmatebuli gamosvla CaiTvala imis niSnad, rom RvTisagan arCeul
abraamis Zes, ismailsac, daubruna ufalma rCeuloba, rom ismailitebic abraamis
STamomavalni, RvTisagan rCeulebi arian. aqedan gamomdinare, maTi sarwmuneobac
RvTismieria da RvTis nebiT imarjveben mTels qveyanaze. miiRes kidec muhamedis
mier qadagebuli sarwmunoeba siriisa da palestinis qristianma xalxebma, iranisa
da maxlobeli aRmosavleTis cecxlTayvanismcemlebma.
   arabTa aseTi sarwmunoebrivi Zlevamosilebis fonze cis quxiliviT gais-
ma abraamis STamomavali arabi abos mier qristes sarwmunoebisaTvis Tavis
gawirva. wmida mama grigol xanZTeli werda:
                     `m k v i d r a d a R T q m i s a ga m o b rwy i n d i
                     d a Z e d z e c i s a C i n e b u l a d iwo d e
                     n aS o b a d a b r a h a m i s a
                     iqmen sanatrelo isaak meore
                     n e b s i T m o gv r i l i d a k v l a d
                     S e s awi r a v a d u f l i s a~. 111

  wmida abo Tbilelis Rvawli WeSmaritad samagaliTo iyo abos arabuli
warmoSobis gamo. rogorc abraamma Seswira ufals isaaki da dasaklavad
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              523
miiyvana uflis sakurTxevelTan, aseve abo Tbilelma, meore isaakma, abraamis
Zem, Tavisi STamomavlobis gamo, Tavi Tvisi nebiT Sewira ufals. stefane
sananois Ze _ Wyondideli episkoposi mouwodebda msoflios yvela ers
qarTvelebTan erTad misuliyvnen da exilaT abo Tbilelis qristesTvis
moRvaweoba _ `yovelni Teslni movediT mkvidrTa Tana qarTlisaTa dRes, da
ixileT Rvawlisa mZle habo ganSuenebuli brwyinvaled sisxliTa wamebisaA-
Ta~.112 wmida abom Tavisi sisxliT ganwmida eri da qveyana. `ganswmide
qarTli sisxliTa SeniTa daTxeviTa, mowameo~.113 abos galobaSi naTqvamia _
`aRavso man eklesiaA nelsacxebeliTa surnelebiTa da wmida yo eri madl-
iTa saRmToATa~.114
  qarTulma eklesiam, da saerTod qarTvelobam, SeZlo Seuryeveli dacva
qristianuli sarwmunoebisa, Tumc ki _ `mravalni SeacTunnes da gardadriknes
gzisagan simarTlisa... naSobni qristianeTani gardagularZnnes, romelnime
mZlavrebiT, romelnime SetyuviliT, romelnime siyrmesa Sina umecrebiT,
romelnime mzakvrebiT da sxvani, romelni ese varT morwmuneni mZlavrebasa
queSe damonebulni da naklulevanebiTa da siglaxakiTa Sekrulni viTarca
rkiniTa, xarksa queSe maTsa guemulni da qenjnilni Zvir-Zvirad zRveulni
SiSiTa ganilevian da iryevian viTarca lerwamni qarTagan ZlierTa, aramed
qristes siyvaruliTa da SiSiTa, Cveulebisaebr mamulisa svlisa WirTa
moTminebiTa ara ganeSorebian _ mxolod Sobilsa Zesa RmrTisasa~.115
  am dros (e.i VIII s-Si) qarTvelebi _ `xuTasis wlisa JamTa da uwinaresRa
sjuldebul yofil arian wmidiTa madliTa naTlisRebisaATa~. swored aseT
dros _ `Jamsa amas oden mefobisa ismaitelTa didebisa _ Sen nebsiT
simdable qristesTvis aRirCie da maxviliTa pyrobili igi sjuli ganagde
da WeSmariti igi aRiare~, _ mimarTavs abo Tbilels ioane sabanisZe. `gana
es qristianobis zneobrivi Zlierebis saucxovo damamtkicebeli sabuTi ar
iyo, Tu rom TviT arabma TavisiT, Zaldautanebliv, mahmadianoba qristianoba-
ze gascvala? mahmadianobas ki arabebi ZaliT avrcelebdnen, amitomac igi
`maxviliTa pyrobili Sjuli iyo~... am garemoebam `swavlulni ufrois
gulisxmier~ hyo da Caafiqra, `Seryeulni ufrois ganamtkica~ da gaamxneva,
xolo `ganmtkicebulni `gaamxiarula da gaaxara~.116 abos xseneba iyo 7
ianvars. uwamebiaT 786-790 wlebSi. wmida grigol xanZTeli Tavis locvaSi,
romelic man `cremliT warTqva~ xanZTis saxelovani taZris Senebisas,
mowameebs uwodebs eklesiis burjsa da zRudes. winaswarmetyvelni, mo-
ciqulni, mowameni da Rirsi mamebi _ `ese oTx-kerZo krebuli... simtkice
eqmnnes wmidaTa SenTa eklesiaTa~117 _ loculobda igi macxovris winaSe.
  eklesiis siqadulsa da erisaTvis misabaZ magaliTs warmoadgenda qrist-
esTvis Tavdadebul qarTvel mefeTa mowamebrivi Rvawli arabTa Semosevis
dros. Zveli qarTuli wyaroebiT bizantiis xatmebrZol imperator lev III
isavrosis (daax. 675-741), `qarTvelTa zeda vaxtang gorgaslisisa SvilT-
524                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
asa~118 (igulisxmeba miri da arCili) mefobis dros dasavleT saqarTveloSi,
argveTSi, uwamebiaT mTavrebi mxeiZeTa sagvareulodan _ daviTi da konstan-
tine (xseneba `TTuesa okdonbersa 31~).
  `viTarca gviswavies ZvelTa uwyebaTagan, iyvnes wmidani ese mowameni dav-
iT da konstantine qarTvelni, sanaxebisagan argueTisa, didni da didebulni
tomobiT, mTavarni amis queynisani, da Tvis eyvodes urTierTas da iyvnes
ganaTlebul embaziTa qadagebulisa andria da simon kananelisaTa, rameTu
maT uqadages qriste qarTvelTa Soris, pirvelad ninois mosvlisa~.119 isini
iyvnen ucoloni, sruliad Wabukni `qalwul xorciTa da mecnier Zuelisa da
axlisa sjulisa, WeSmariti morwmuneni da gamocdilni da axovanni wyobasa
Sina~. argveTSi, qarTulma laSqarma daviTisa da konstantines meTaurobiT
daamarcxa arabTa laSqris winmavali rCeuli nawili, `uricxvi mosres da
aRudgines ZlevaA didi qristianeTa~.120 amis Semdeg murvan-yru Tavisi
laSqriT samcxidan gadasula dasavleT saqarTveloSi. `warmoemarTnes vi-
Tarca qviSaA simravliTa da movides queynad argueTisa da Seicves tye da
veli da mTani da borcuni~. daviT da konstantine Sei pyres. mematianis
sityviT, qarTvelTa winaaRmdegobiT gakvirvebulma murvan-yrum mimarTa
mowameebs _ `vinani xarT Tqven qvaTa da ZelTa msaxurno, romelTa ikadreT
winaganwyobaA Cemi? anu ara iciTa, viTarmed didisa mociqulisa muhamedisa
diswuli var, romlisa sjulsa hmonobs yoveli arabeTi da sparseTi da
damimorCilebia yoveli qveyanaA dasavleTiTgan vidre aRmosavleTamde?~121
  murvani maTgan iTxovda qristianobis uaryofas da mahmadianobis aRiare-
bas, ris sanacvlodac hpirdeboda qveyniur didebas, razedac pasuxad mi-
iRes wmidanebisagan: `viTarca igi pirvel aRviareT sarwmunoeba Cveni WeS-
mariti da vwameT, mas zeda mtkiced da urqcevel varT da veraraman Wirman
da arca didebaman amis sawuToAsagan ver ganmaSornes Cuen siyvarulsa da
sarwmunoebasa iesu qristessa~.122
  sastiki tanjvis Semdeg wmida mowameni mdinare rionSi daaxrCves. murvan-
yrum amis Semdeg `Semusrna yovelni qalaqni da simagreni egrisis queya-
nisani da cixe igi sam-zRude, romel ars cixe-goji, Semusra da Sevlo zRude
`igi sazRvari klisurisa... da viTarca Sevlo yruman klisura, romel iyo
sazRvari saberZneTisa da saqarTvelosa, da Semusra qalaqi afSileTisa
cxumi da moadga cixesa anakofiisasa, romelsa ars xati yovladwmidisa
RmrTismSoblisa... mun Sina iyvnes maSin mefeni qarTlisani miri da arCil~.123
  ltolvilma qarTvelma mefeebma gabedes iqamde uZleveli laSqris winaaRm-
deg gabrZoleba. `eCuena mas Ramesa arCils angelozi uflisa, romelman
hrqua mas: `warvediT da ewyueniT agarianTa, rameTu mimivlinebia maTzeda
guema sastikad momsvreli, kaciTgan pirutyvTamde~.124 marTlac, RamiT sas-
tikma muclis tifma daxoca 35 aTasi sarkinozi, xolo mefeebma SebrZoleb-
isas daxoces 3 aTasi. mteri ukuiqca, dabanakda mdinareebs, abaSasa da
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              525
cxeniswyals Sua. aq uecarma wyaldidobam daxoca aTeul aTasi molaSqre
da maTi cxenebi. saqarTveloSi arabTa am sakvirvel damarcxebas didad
gauxarebia bizantiis imperatori, rogorc amas gvauwyebs mematiane.
  arabTa batonoba kavkasiaSi kidev didxans gagrZelda. `amieriTgan iwyo
Semcirebad mefobaman didTa mefeTa xuasroanTaman~.125 xosroian mefeTa, anu
qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebel mirianisa da vaxtang gorgaslis STamomavali
arCil mefe devnili gadasula kaxeTSi, magram Semdgom misula arabebTan,
raTa qveynisaTvis mSvidoba gamoeTxova. `wmidaman arCil ganizraxa gonebasa
Tvissa... raTa mivides da naxos da iTxovos mSvidoba queyanisa da dacva
Seuryevlad eklesiaTa da ara dapatiJeba datevebisaTvis sjulisa~.126 ar-
Cili Sei pyres, moTxoves qriatianobis uaryofa, nacvlad Sepirdnen yovel-
gvar qveyniur sikeTes. wmida arCili awames da Tavi mohkveTes `Tvesa
mirkanissa, romel ars marti, ocsa mis Tvisasa~. es momxdara 744 wels.
  qarTuli eklesia 17 noembers aRniSnavda wmida mowame gobronisa da
masTan erTad 133 mxedris xsenebas. isini arabebs 914 wels uwamebiaT.
`gobroni~ arabulad Turme uSiSar vaJkacs ewodeba. gobronis naTlobis
saxeli miqaeli yofila. wmida miqael _ gobronis martvilobis aRmweri
stefane mtbevari (tbeTis) episkoposi wers arabTa Sesaxeb _ `kacni mxecisa
bunebisani, mtacebelni, romelTa saxli ars da cxorebaA aqlemisa zurgi,
naTesavni uricxvni, romelTaTvis viTarca ZaRlni mbrZolni arian mxecTa
maT velurTa~.127
  eklesias swyuroda xalxis simSvidiT cxovreba, raTa `samwysoni igi
qristesni myudroebiT iswavebodnen RmrTis msaxurebasa da ara brZolasa
`viTarca winaswarmetyveli ityvis `dasWridnen maxvilebsa maTsa manglad
da laxvrebsa maTsa saxnisad~,128 magram mahmadianTa Semosevam Secvala
qristianTa mSvidi cxovreba, wers mematiane.
                              sarkinozTa Cveuleba aseTiao, wers istori-
                            kosi, roca qveynis dapyrobis Semdeg gascemdnen
                            qristianis sikvdiliT dasjis brZanebas, aRi-
                            Wurvebodnen, rogorc brZolis dRes, alesavd-
                            nen maxvils, erTmaneTs uswrebdnen, TiTqosda
                            qristianis mokvliT raRac didi safasuri unda
                            miiRono. aseve, roca yveliscixidan gamohyavdaT
                            misi 133 damcveli da maTTan erTad wmida mowame
                            gobroni, maSin arabebi `viTarca mxecni borot-
                            ni gamZvinebulni Seerines aRreulad da urT-
                            ierTsa uswrebdes, romelnime maxviliTa scem-
                            des, romelime horoliTa da isriTa SesCxueb-
                            des da dasWrides xorcTa maTTa, danebiTa ganap-
                            ebdes da RviZlebi igi maTi, viTarca ZaRlTa
526                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
piriTa ganetaca. da esreT dasTxines sisxlni maTni, da esreT srul iqmna wamebaA
maTi qristes mier, xolo netari gobron waradgines winaSe amirisa mis~.129
  arabebs surdaT, wmida gobroni, viTarca saxelovani kaci, gaemahmadianebi-
naT. mtkice uaris Semdeg gobrons jer aCvenes daWril-dasaxiCrebuli da
nawamebi qarTveli qristianebi, mere ki aCvenes simdidre da qoneba, romlis
micemasac dahpirdnen qristianobis uaryofis Semdeg. am xerxma ar gasWra,
amitomac gadawyvites gobronis SeSineba, mis Tvalwin dakles cocxlad
gadarCenili qristianebi. `sisxli maTi epkureboda mas, da romelnime guami
davardis mis winaSe da romelsame guami Segordis queSe ferxTa misTa~,130
magram `ver SeaZrwunes guli misi~.
  amiras winaSe wmida gobronma ganacxada: `iqmode raAca gnebavs, me qristiani
var da arasada uvarvyo saxeli misi~. wmida gobrons Tavi warkveTes. misi
wamebiT `Seimosa eklesiaman samkauli sixarulisa da brwyinvalebisaA sisxl-
iTa misiTa, daidga gvirgvini Suenierebisa da didebisaA simxniTa misiTa~.131
  avtori stefane mtbevari episkoposi mouwodebs qristianebs _ `aw ukue
moakvdineniT xorcni Tquenni da juars acuT igi SromiTa da marxviTa,
gvirgviniTa mowameTaATa... Sen nebsiT Tavi Tvisi moswyvide da ese ars
msxverpli ubiwoA, romelsa ara uxms mRdeli Semwirveli, rameTu romeli
amas qveyanasa zeda damdabldes, igi caTa Sina amaRldebis qristeis iesuis
mier uflisa Cvenisa, romlisa aras didebaA mamisa Tana suli wmidiTurT,
aw da maradis da ukuniTi ukunisamde~.132
                               853 wlis 10 noembers uwamebiaT konstanti
                             qarTveli. `mas Jamsa oden iyo vinme queyanasa
                             qarTlisasa, sanaxebsa zena soflisasa, kaci,
                             romelsa saxeli erqua konstanti, romelsa ewo-
                             da kaxaA, saxelad mamulisa mis queyanisa~.133 iva-
                             ne javaxiSvilis azriT, konstanti qarTvelis
                             martvilobis aRmweri, SesaZloa, iyo saberZneTSi
                             myofi romelime beri,134 radgan avtors dro
                             qarTvel mTavarTa mefobisda mixedviT ki ara
                             aqvs gansazRvruli, aramed bizantiis dedofl-
                             is mefobisda gvarad.135 konstanti didad warCi-
                             nebuli kaci yofila mTel saqarTveloSi (`yov-
                             elsa queyanasa qarTlisasa~), mdidari, saqarTve-
                             los farglebs gareTac ki ganTqmuli iyo misi
                             saxeli, bizantiis imperatorebsac smenodaT mis
Sesaxeb. igi Semkuli iyo `orkerZoiTave maT saqmiTa~, pirvelad hqonda
sarwmunoeba Cveni uflis ieso qristes mimarT `da kualad aqunda netarsa
mas sarwmunoebaA mRdelTa moZRvarTa mimarT da yovelTa moweseTa elesi-
isaTa~.136 iyo stumarTmoyvare, glaxakTmoyvare, hqonda simdable, Tavis Tavs
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               527
yvelaze ufro met codvilad Tvlida, moiloca ierusalimi da simdidriT
gaavso iqauri glaxakebi `da viTar moxucebuli iyo, iqmna netari igi
oTxmeoc da xuTisa wlisa JamTa oden hasakisa misisaTa aRdga devnulebaA
didi qristianeTa zeda yovelsa queyanas qarTlisasa~. konstanti-kaxa 26
agvistos Sei pyres `viTarca winamZRvari da warCinebuli yovelsa queyanasa
qarTlisa~. Seiyvanes Tbilisis sapyrobileSi, warudgines buRa-Turqs, romelmac
imave wlis (853w.) 5 agvistos Tbilisi dawva. atenis sionis warweraze
dayrdnobiT, ivane javaxiSvilis azriT, konstantisTan erTad SeupyriaT misi
Ze Tarxujic. konstantis mosTxoves qristianobis uaryofa. uaris Sedeg
daades borkili da gagzavnes SuamdinareTis qalaq samaraSi xalifa ja-
faris winaSe. cemis, tanjvis, Seuracxyofa-damcirebis miuxedavad, wmidanma
ar uaryo qristianoba, risTvisac sikvdiliT dasajes. Tavis mokveTis win
loculobda: `gigalob Sen, ufalo, RmerTo ZalTao, RmerTo saukuneTao, romelman
momec me Zali winaaRmdgomad ukeTurisa amis msajulisa, viTarca igi winaiswar
sTqvi, viTarmed: `Tquen momceniTa gulni Tquenni da me migec Zali Cemi...~
konstantis sikvdilis Semdeg bizantiis dedofals werili miuweria wmida-
nis ojaxisa da saerTod qarTvelTaTvis, sadac, kerZod, naTqvami iyo: `amas
ara Tu Tqven oden gibrZanebT, aramed yovelTa, romelni Cuen, kerZo da
xelTa queSe Cuensa arian qarTvelni.... kualad aRdegiT da ganZlierdiT
uflisa mier~. ucxoelebi, kerZod ki, bizantielebi, rogorc qvemoTac araerT-
gzis iqneba aRniSnuli, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos `zemo iberias~, xolo
dasavleT saqarTvelos `qvemo iberias~, anu iverias uwodebdnen. konstanti,
rogorc misi martvilobis aRmweri wers, cxovrobda `queyanasa qarTlisasa,
sanaxebsa zena soflisasa~. `zena sofeli~ igive `zemo iveria~, anu aRmosav-
leT saqarTveloa. konstanti, kerZod, kaxeTis mcxovrebi unda yofiliyo,
radganac mas ewoda `kaxaA, saxelad mamulisa mis queynisa~. maSasadame, misi
mamuli qveynis saxelic `kax~ yofila, anu kaxeTi. kaxeTi maSin erqva mt-
kvris gadaRma gadaSlil vrcel qveyanas. Tbilisis saamiro uSualod mas
emezobleboda, ufro sworad, es saamiro kaxeTis erT nawilsac moicavda.
rogorc aRiniSna, iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, am Txzulebis damweri saberZneT-
Si mcxovrebi romelime beri unda yofiliyo. amitomac mas, rogorc `ucx-
oels~, qarTvelTa qveynis mimarT uxmaria is geografiuli terminologia,
rogoric iyo miRebuli ucxoeTSi. qarTlis sakaTalikososac ucxoelebi
`zemo iberiis saarqiepiskoposos~ uwodebdnen, afxazeTis sakaTalikosos ki
_ `qvemo iberiis saarqiepiskoposos~. amitomac, saeklesio terminologiis
dadgenisaTvis `konstantines martvilobaSi~ moxmobili geografiuli ter-
minologia CvenTvis sainteresoa. ucxoelTaTvis, miuxedavad imisa, rom daquc-
macebuli iyo politikur erTeulebad, saqarTvelo warmoadgenda mTlian
qveyanas. mas iverias uwodebdnen, romlis qarTuli Sesatyvisi iyo `yoveli
qveyana qarTlisa~. es termini samjer gvxvdeba wmida konstantines mar-
528                                              mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
tvilobaSi. es `yoveli qveyana qarTli~ Sedgeboda, rogorc iTqva, `zemo~ da
`qvemo~ mxareebisagan, anu dRevandeli terminologiiT, aRmosavleT da dasavleT
saqarTvelosagan. bagrat IV (1020-1074 w.w.) Tavis sigelSi, romelic gasca
mijnaZorisa da opizis monasterTa davis gadaWrisas, axsenebs am terminebs.
`Sekriben karsa darbazisa Cuenisasa yovelTa xevTa zemoTa da quemoTa
aznaurni~.137 bagrat IV-s quTaisSi samefo karze Seukrebia `zemo xevTa~ e.i.
aRmosavleT saqarTvelosa da `qvemo xevTa~, e.i. dasavleT saqarTvelos
aznaurebi. bagrat III-m (1014 w.) akurTxa `eklesia quTaTisisa, rameTu Semokribna
... yovelni didebulni zemoni da quemoni mamulisa da samefosa misisa
myofni~.138 aq `zemo mamuli~ anu `zemo samefo~ _ aRmosavleTs, xolo qvemo _
dasavleTs ewodeba. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogjer `zemosa kerZi~ qvey-
ana ewodeboda, `li parit moirWuna zemosa kerZsa dauflebulad... xolo
bagrats aqunda lixsa quemoTi dawyobiT~.139 marTlac, li parits ekuTvnoda
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi Semavali saqarTvelos imJamindeli saxelmwi-
fos TiTqmis yvela cixe _ kldekari, birTvisi, ufliscixe, yueliscixe, ar-
tanuji. SemdgomSi bagrat IV `eufla zemosa da quemosa Tavis mamulsa~.
    dedaqalaqis quTaisidan TbilisSi gadmotanis Semdeg `qvemos~ imeri,
xolo `zemos~ _ ameri ewoda. giorgi III-is dros (1117 wels) _ `Sekrbes
yovelni samefoisa Cuenisa monazonni da ebiskoposni imerni da amerni~.140
    saqarTvelos eklesiac or administraciul erTeulad, anu `saeklesio
samTavrod~ iyo gayofili. qarTlis (aRmosavleTis) da afxazeTis (dasavle-
Tis) sakaTalikosoebad. basili ezosmoZRvari wers, rom Tamaris winaSe
`Semo-rakrbes orsave samTavrosa episkoposni~.141 erT saeklesio samTavrod,
rogorc iTqva, iTvleboda `zemo~, anu aRmosavleT saqarTvelos sakaTaliko-
so, meores ki `qvemo~, dasavleT saqarTvelos sakaTalikoso warmoadgenda.
    musulmanTa pirveli Semotevis dros erTiani qarTuli eklesia gabrwyin-
da da ganmtkicda mowameTa sisxliT.


             wmida grigol xanZTelis samoRvaweo are

  udidesi moRvawe qarTuli eklesiisa, `netarTa Soris brwyinvale, madliT
savse, gansrulebuli sibrZniTa, didi mRvdeli, keTilad ganmgebeli moRvawe,
udabnoTa qalaqmyofeli, zecisa kaci da queyanisa angelozi~ grigol xanZ-
Teli dabadebula 759-60 wlebSi, `saSoATgan dedisaAT Sewirul iyo RmrTi-
sa dedisagan Tvisisa~, mas warCinebuli da didebuli mSoblebi hyolia.
siyrmidanve izrdeboda didi nerse erisTavis saxlSi. zrdida TviTon
nerses meuRle, romelic grigolis mamida iyo. `marxvaTa Sina izardeboda
msgavsad winamorbedisa~. Seaswavles daviTis fsalmunebi da `xmiTa saswav-
leli swavlaA saeklesio, samoZRvroA qarTulsa enasa Sina yoveli daaswav-
la~. Seuswavlia sxvadasxva enebi, `saRmrToni wignni zepiriT moiwuarTna~.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             529
Seuswavlia agreTve, filosofia, qarTlis erismTavari nerse II, Ze adarnase
kurapalatisa, qristianuli sarwmunoebis erT-erT burjs warmoadgenda qveynis
arabTagan dapyrobis Jams. mis karze miuRia qristianobis siyvaruli da
qristianuli aRzrda wmida mowame abo Tbilels. arabTa sawinaaRmdego
saqmianobisaTvis nerse baRdadis sapyrobileSi Casves 772 wels ramdenime
wliT, gaTavisuflebis Sedeg 5 weli samSobloSi moRvaweobda, Semdeg ki
xazareTSi gaiqca, saidanac dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadavida. pavle ingor-
oyvas TvalsazrisiT, wmida grigoli nerses xazareTSi wasvlis dros unda
gadasuliyo qarTlidan klarjeTSi, romelic SedarebiT daculi iyo mtris-
gan da samonastro cxovrebisaTvis garkveuli pirobebi arsebobda. am dros
igi mRvdeli yofila. mRvdloba `ufroAs ars yovelTa didebaTa sulierTa
da xorcielTa, rameTu qristes nacvlobaA ars~, _ ambobda igi mRvdlad
kurTxevamde da amitomac uars acxadebda am udides pativze. Semdeg ki
daemorCila mowodebas: `morCil eqmen brZanebasa qristesa~. xolo, roca
misi episkoposad kurTxeva gadawyvites, wmida grigolma miatova qarTli da,
rogorc iTqva, klarjeTs miaSura. `xolo ese morwmunisa da keTilad msax-
urisa queyanisagan gamoiyvana amis mizezisaTvis RmerTman, raTa uqmTa maT
udabnoTa Sina gamobrwyindes sanTeli ese daufsebeli~, _ wers misi biografi
giorgi merCule. wmida grigoli tao-klarjeTSi gadasula sxva moweseebT-
an (berebTan) erTad _ `i povna moyvasni keTilni SewevniTa qristeis madl-
iTa _ saba, romelsa ewoda saban, dedis diswuli misi, iSxnisa meored
maSenebeli da episkoposi misi, da Teodore neZvisa maSenebeli da mamaA, da
qristefore, kvirikeTisa maSenebeli da mamaA ese oTxni Seanawevrna sarwmu-
noebaman~. pirvelad isini mividnen opizis monasterSi _ `iyvnes opizas
Zmani mciredni Sekrebul qristes siyvarulisaTvis, vinaATgan povnili iyo
wmidaA igi mcire eklesia wmidisa naTlismcemelisani, da iyo winamZRvrisa
maTisa saxeli amba giorgi, rameTu mesame mamaA iyo opizisaA, raATgan
samoel da andre gardacvalebul iyvnes~.142 Tu vigulisxmebT, rom wmidaG-
grigoli opizaSi pirvelad mivida 780 wels (am wels unda wasuliyo
xazareTSi nerse erisTavi), samoelisa da andres winamZRvroba opizis mon-
asterSi SeiZleboda gagrZelebuliyo, vTqvaT, 50 weliwads, aqedan gamom-
dinare, opizis monastris pirveli winamZRvari 730-ian wlebSi daniSnula.
swored am wlebSi klarjeTi da mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo gadawva
murvan yrum. es momxdara 735 wels. safiqrebelia, rom man klarjeTSi
iqamde arsebuli monastrebi iavaryo, xolo murvanis wasvlis Semdeg klar-
jeTSi aRdgenila erTaderTi opizis monasteri 730-ian wlebSive. samonas-
tro cxovrebis aRorZineba samxreT saqarTveloSi VIII saukuneSi, jer kidev
grigol xanZTelamde dawyebula. Cans, qarTlidan da saqarTvelos sxva
kuTxeebidan, im droisaTvis arabTagan SedarebiT dacul mxareSi berebi
ukve VIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSive gadadiodnen. amas miuTiTebs is, rom
530                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
opizasTan axlos, xanZTaSic, martomyofeli beri saxeliT _ xuediosi grigo-
lamdec cxovrobda, magram xanZTis monastrisaTvis saboloo saxe da saer-
Tod, monastris Seneba grigols dauwyia. am saqmeSi mas opizeli berebic
Sewivnen, `rameTu mas Jamsa Sina sxuaA monasteri ara Sen iyo maT queyanaTa
Tvinier opizisa~. mosaxleobac ver exmareboda mSeneblobas, radganac `eriskacni
msoflioni~ klarjeTs da taoTa Sina SavSeTs da yovelTa maT maxlobelTa
qveyanaTa mciredni i povebodes, daSenebul tyeTa Sina adgil-adgil~.143
   wmida grigolma mTeli epoqa Seqmna tao-klarjeTis samonastro cxovre-
baSi, gaaCaRa farTo samonastro mSenebloba. xanZTasa da SatberdSi mamaTa,
xolo meresa da gunaTleSi _ dedaTa monastrebi daafuZna. wmida grigol-
is mowafeebma mravali monastrebi daaarses. aqedan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniS-
navia iSxnis monastrisa da saepikoposos daarseba. samonastro mSenebloba
daiwyo bareTelTaSi, wyarosTavSi, neZvSi. piradad wmida grigolma daafuZna
dasavleT saqarTveloSi ubeis monasteri. klarjeTSi Casvlidan daaxloebiT
50 wlis Semdeg wmida grigoli iqur monasterTa arqimandritad daadgines.
mas Tavisi monastrebisaTvis ierusalimis sabawmidis monastris tipikoni au-
Ria. Seudgenia himnografiuli krebuli `saweliwado iadgari~ _ `sibrZnisa
misisa mdinareTagan irwyvodes yovelni udabnoni klarjeTisani~.
   Cveni gansjis sagans Seadgens wmida grigolis samoRvaweo are. Tanamed-
rove mecnierebaSi miRebulia mtkiceba imisa, rom mosaxleoba wmida grig-
olis samoRvaweo areSi, (e.i. mesxeTSi), Tavisi eTnikuri warmomavlobiT ar
iyo qarTuli, TiTqosda wmida grigolis Semdeg qarTuli eklesia gaba-
tonebula am mxareSi, mosaxleoba gamxdara qalkedonituri aRmsareblobisa.
qarTuli eklesiis meSveobiT iq gavrcelebula qarTuli ena da SemdgomSi
mosaxleoba `gaqarTvelebula~. aseT Tvalsazriss pasuxi gasca pavle in-
goroyvam. daamtkica, rom mesxeTis mosaxleoba uZveles drosve iyo qarTu-
li. aseTad darCenila maSinac ki, roca taos umetesi nawili somxeTis
saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda VI-VII saukuneebSi. somxebi ki ar
`qarTveldebodnen~, aramed piriqiT, somxuri saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi
yofnisas taos da mimdebare mxareebis qarTuli mosaxleoba somxuri ek-
lesiis iurisdiqciis sferoSi moeqca da eklesiebSi maTTvis somxureno-
vani msaxureba dainerga.
   somxebis `gaqarTvelebis~ momxreebs, mamtkiceblebs imisa, rom TiTqosda
VIII-IX saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesia SeiWra somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqci-
is sazRvrebSi, erT-erT Tavis argumentad moyavT iSxnis cnobili kaTedra-
lis nangrevebze qarTuli saepiskoposos daarseba wmida grigolis dros.
p. ingoroyvas mohyavs Cveni cnobili mecnierebis Tvalsazrisi, rom ara Tu
tao, _ aramed klarjeTic TiTqosda somxuri qveynebi iyo. marTlac, cnobil-
ia, rom iSxnis didebuli eklesia aaSena somexTa kaTalikosma nersesma VII
saukunis 30-ian wlebSi. wmida grigolis mowafis, arseni safarelis cnobis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                531
Tanaxmad, nerses iSxneli (641-661) iyo kaci Rirsi da marTlmorwmune (e.i.
qalkedoniti). man somxeTidan gandevna pavlikianobis erT-erTi eresiarqi
ioane mairagomeli.144 giorgi merCule nerse somexTa kaTalikoss `netars~
uwodebs. IX saukunis dasawyisSi `nebiTa RmrTisaTa iqmna saba episkopos
iSxans zeda, netarisa nerse kaTalikozisa aRSenebulsa kaTolike ekle-
siasa da saydarsa missa, romeli weliwadTa mravalTa daqvrivebul iyo~.145
  `daviT da tariWanis martvilobis~ avtori, romelic VII saukunis ambebs
aRwers, nerses `wmidas~ uwodebs. daviT da tariWani arian qarTuli eklesi-
is wmidanebi. e.i. qalkedoniti marTlmadideblebi. maT moixseniebs ara
marto qarTuli eklesia, aramed saerTod marTlmadidebluri samyaro. ma-
galiTad, rusuli eklesia maT xsenebas, viTarca qarTveli wmidanebisas,
aRniSnavs 18 maiss.146 qarTuli da sxva marTlmadidebeli eklesiebi am
wmidanebs ar moixseniebdnen, isini qalkedonitebi rom ar yofiliyvnen.
`daviT da tariWanis~ cxovrebis (avtoris da sxva wyaroebis) Tanaxmad,
somxurma eklesiam VII saukuneSi aRiara qalkedonitoba (sxva sakiTxia is,
Tu ramdenad icavdnen am xelSekrulebas), somxeTi, Tanaxmad arseni safa-
relisa, qalkedonituri qveyana iyo VII saukuneSi. aseTad darCenila igi
726 wlis manaskertis krebamde, e.i. VIII saukunis TiTqmis 30-ian wlebamde.
amitomac wers xsenebuli martvilobis avtori _ `iyo sanaxebTa maT sof-
lisa somxiTisasa, JamTa netarisa didisa nerse kaTalikozisaTa da adam
aregawoTelisaTa, xevsa basianisasa, dabasa, romelsa hrqvian onkom, iyo vinme
kaci warCinebuli erisTavi, saxeli erqua vardan, saxeli colisa misisa
Tagine. iyvnes ornive igi naTesavTagan sameufoTa. da amaT aqunda sarwmu-
noebaA WeSmariti da marTali wmidisa samebisaA. cxovndebodes igini Rmr-
Tis msaxurebiTa, yovliTa RirsebiTa da RmrTis moSiSebiTa~.147
  aqedan Cans, rom avtoris azriT, somxeTSi VII saukuneSi damkvidrebuli
iyo WeSmariti da marTali sarwmunoeba, e.i. qalkedonitoba. Tagines SeeZina
ori vaJi _ daviT da tariWani. iZulebis gamo deda da Svilebi Seefarnen
taos _ `warmoivltoda CrdiloiT kerZo queyanad tavoAsa~.148 aq biWebi
mowameobrivad daxoces, ris Semdegac maT gvamebs daadga naTeli. `euwya
saqme ese wmidasa mamasa Cuensa nerses kaTalikozsa somxeTisasa, rameTu
TviT hxedvida igi iSxniT sakvirvelebasa da brwyinvalebasa miuwdomelisa
naTlisasa... srbiT miiwia divris... xolo Tevdosi Seuvarda ferTa nerse
kaTalikozisaTa... wmidaman nerse TvisiTa xeliTa wargragna guamni igi~.149
  cxadia, rogorc iTqva, qalkedonitebi rom ar yofiliyvnen, kaTalikosi
nerse da aRniSnuli wmidanebi, maT ar moixseniebdnen qalkedonitur ekle-
siaSi, msgavsad _ wmida grigolis mowafe arseni safareli ar ganaaxlebda
da ar ganavrcobda asurel mamaTa cxovrebas, asureli mamebi qalkedonite-
bad rom ar yofiliyvnen miCneulni. wmida grigolsa da mis mowafeebs nerse
kaTalikosidan Tu asureli mamebidan ar hyofda didi dro. nerses xsovna
jer kidev cocxali yofila maT dros.
532                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom VII saukuneSi, vidre VIII saukunis 30-ian
wlebamde, somxuri eklesia qalkedonuri aRmsareblobisad miiCneoda. swored
amitom, taosa da misi mimdebare kuTxeebis qarTveloba, romelic tradiciu-
lad qalkedonitobis erTguli iyo, Sedioda somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqci-
is farglebSi. maSasadame, tao, misi sasuliero centri iSxani, mimdebare
qveynebi, qalkedonituri iyo, dasaxlebuli eTnikuri qarTvelebiT, romlebic
warmoadgendnen samwysos somxuri eklesiisa. p. ingoroyva wers _ `imieri
tao da zemo speri erT periodSi somxeTTan iyo politikurad dakavSirebu-
li. zog mkvlevars ise esmis, TiTqos am periodis manZilze moxda am
mxareTa eTnikuri mxaris Secvla, magram es Secdomaa... politikuri sazRvre-
bis gadawevas ar mohyolia cvlilebebi mosaxleobis eTnikur Semadgenloba-
Si, taosa da speris moxsenebuli nawilebi, imieri tao da zemo speri, mosax-
leobis SemadgenlobiT da aq gavrcelebuli enis mixedviT Tavidanve iyo
qarTuli mxare da aseTad darCa igi Tavisi istoriis Semdgom periodebSi~.150
  taos aRniSnuli nawili somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi moqceula IV s-is das-
asrulidan, `V s-is pirveli naxevridan, mefobis mospobis Semdeg, taos es
mxare, aRmosavleT somxeTis sxva mxareebTan erTad, iranis provinciad
iqca~.151 VII s-is 20-iani wlebidan taos es mxare bizantias dauqvemdebare-
bia, magram amave saukuneSi sadavod iqca es mxare arabebsa da bizantielebs
Soris, sabolood VII s-is dasasrulisaTvis is arabebs darCaT. VIII s-is
30-ian wlebSi murvan yrus Semosevam mxare gaanadgura~.152
  `taos es mxare, romelic somxeTTan iyo dakavSirebuli, saqarTvelom
daibruna VIII-IX saukuneTa mijnaze~153 nangrevebis saxiT da daiwyo iq didi
mSenebloba. marTlia, somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda es mxare, magram
`salaparako enis mixedviT qarTul mxared darCenila, amis Sesaxeb moi-
poveba pirdapiri Cvenebebi~.154
  aqedan gamomdinare, wmida grigoli somxuri eklesiis mrevlSi ki ar
SeiWra, somxebi ki ar gaaqalkedonita, rogorc miaCnia zogierT specialists,
aramed tao-klarjeTSi qarTuli eklesiis Zvel samwysoSi ganamtkica qarTu-
li eklesiis uflebamosileba. rac Seexeba TiTqosda `tao-klarjeTis somex-
Ta gaqalkedonitebas~, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, tao-klarjeTis mosax-
leoba wmida grigol xanZTelis tao-klarjeTSi mosvlamde _ qalkedoni-
turi iyo. am qalkedonitur mxareSi wmida grigolma da misma mowafeebma
mTeli xalxis erTsulovani mxardaWeriT miaRwies udides warmatebas.
  maSasadame, iSxanis samwyso taoSi _ eTnikur qarTvelebs warmoadgendnen.
cxadia, somxuri eklesiis wiaRSi yofnisas qarTvelebi iTvisebdnen somxur
enas, somxuri kulturis elementebs, magram sabednierod, maT qarTuli eTni-
kuri saxe ar daukargavT.
  taosa da misi mimdebare mxareebis mrevlma, romelic qalkedonitobas
uWerda mxars Tavidanve, somxur eklesiasTan kavSiri gawyvita VIII s-is 30-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              533
iani wlebidan, rac somxurma eklesiam 726 wels mowveuli krebis Semdeg
sabolood miiRo monofizituri mrwamsi. somxuri eklsiis qarTulma mrev-
lma amis Semdeg sabolood miatova am eklesiis wiaRi da daubrunda Tavis
deda qarTul eklesias. maSasadame, es mrevli tao-klarjeTisa VIII-IX sauku-
neebSi prozelitebad ki ar iqcnen, aramed mSobliur wiaRs daubrundnen.
e.i. wmida grigoli sxvis eklesiaSi ki ar SeiWra, aramed mSobliuri aRad-
gina. iSxani, romelic nangrevebad iyo qceuli, aRadgenina da iq saepisko-
poso daaarsebina. iSxani _ qarTvelTa saeklesio centri iyo odiTganve,
magram aramSobliuri eklesiisa. somxuri eklesia, rogorc Semdgom iqneba
aRniSnuli, rogorc sparsTa, ise arabTa da bizantielTa xelSewyobiTac ki
Tavis saeklesio iurisdiqcias avrcelebda arasomxur mezobel mxareebze.
erT-erT aseT mxares warmoadgenda tao da sxva qarTuli Temebi samxreT
saqarTveloSi.
   somxuri eklesiis am mtaceblobas aRniSnul periodSi kargad amCnevdnen
qarTveli moRvaweebi, magram maT saSualeba ar hqondaT mieRoT raime RonisZ-
ieba qarTuli mrevlis somxuri eklesiis wiaRidan gamosaxsnelad. wmida
grigolis mowafe, episkoposi stefane, aRniSnulis gamo somxeTs amsgavsebda
ninevias. SuamdinareTis ninevia, rogorc cnobilia, sxvadasxva erebis sasti-
ki dampyrobi da mCagvreli iyo. roca somxeTSi mtris jari `Sevida qalaqsa
dvinisasa da oxraA guliswyromisa misisasa moaswavebda oxrebasa somxiTi-
sasa, viTarca ninevelTa daqcevasa~. cxadia, avtori, episkoposi tbeTisa,
moxaruli ar iyo qveynis aoxrebisa, magram axsovda, rom Tavisi samwysos
mrevli swored somxeTis eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi iyo moqceuli, poli-
tikur viTarebaTa gamo. am drois procesebi mas aTqmevinebda _ `rameTu
miwaA igi somxiTisaA ampartavan da mkvidrni misni cudad mzuaobar, angahar,
laR, da coduis moyuare, ampartavan, uwyalo, uyuarel da yovliTa uke-
TurebiTa savse, romelsa Sina ara i pova Tavisi misadrekeli qristeisi,
romelTaTvis qriste cudad mokvda...~155
   wmida grigol xanZTelis meore mowafe arsen safarels moupovebia VII
saukunis wyaro somxuri eklesiis istoriis Sesaxeb. am wyaros Tanaxmad
miiCneva, rom VII saukuneSi somxuri eklesiis umaRlesi ierarqia aris
qalkedonituri da eklesiac saerTo jamSi qalkedonituria. magram eklesi-
is SigniT arsebobs budeebi mwvaleblobisa, rom somxuri eklesia mwvale-
blobiskenaa Sinaganad midrekili. amis magaliTad moyvanilia cnobili
eresiarqis ioane mairegomelis cxovreba. arsenma am wyaroze dayrdnobiT
Seqmna, faqtobrivad ideologiuri naSromi somxuri eklesiis avtoritetis
Sesaryevad.156 cxadia, somxuri qalkedonituri eklesia mis wiaRSi myof
qarTveli qalkedonitebisaTvis avtoritetuli da sarwmunoebrivad misaRe-
bi eklesia iyo. VII saukuneSi opozicioner qarTvelebs SeuqmniaT Txzule-
ba (wyaro arseni safarelis aRniSnuli Txzulebisa) somxuri eklesiis
534                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
WeSmariti istoriis Sesaxeb im qarTvelTaTvis, romelTaTvisac somxuri
eklesia avtoritetuli eklesia iyo. VII saukuneSi, roca somxuri eklesia
qalkedonitobas ase Tu ise aRiarebda, qarTvel samRvdeloebas ucdia somx-
uri eklesiis Sinagani winaaRmdegobis warmoCeniT qarTveli mrevlisaTvis
daenaxvebina somxuri eklesiis wiaRSi arsebuli mwvaleblobis safrTxe.
ioane mairegomeli mwvaleblobis eresiarqi, albaT, cnobili piri iyo
saqarTveloSic. amitomac TxzulebaSi yovelgvari gacnobiTi komentarebis
gareSe saubaria masze: `viTarc gvelTa ufroisRa SesZines aRZvraA erisaA
da SfoTi birebiTa maireguemelisaTa~,157 `esma ese bersa borotsa mai-
reguemelsa~; `moewoda mas bersa borotsa~; `maireguemeli aRsZvrida viTme
monazonTa borotTa mwvalebelTa~, mairegomelma `...aRmoiboyina simyrale,
msgavsi borotisa mwvaleblisa~ da sxva msgavsi.
  saerTod, arsenis wyaros didi nawili eZRvneba mairegomelis cxovrebasa
da zemoqmedebas somxur eklesiaze. am wyaros Tanaxmad, somxeTis kaTali-
kos ezras dros VII s. mowveuli krebis mier `daamtkices marTali~, anu
qalkedonitoba. ezra eubneba mairegomels: `SeviwynareT ori buneba uflisa
Cuenisa iesu qristesi sruli RmrTeebiTa da sruli kacebiTa~, magram am
qalkedonit kaTalikoss mairegomeli ar emorCileba. am wyaros Tanaxmad,
somxeTis `netari~ kaTalikosi nerse iSxnelic qalkedonitia, amitomac aZevebs
somxeTidan mairegomels, aseve qalkedonitebi arian VII s-is sxva somexi
kaTalikosebic _ anastasi da israeli. miuxedavad amisa, wyaros Tval-
sazrisiT, somxuri eklesiis wiaRSi arsebuli mwvalebluri budeebis gamo
somxur eklesias aqvs midrekileba mwvaleblobisaken. wyaros avtors surs,
VII saukuneSive daemtkicebinaT somxuri eklesiis mrevlad gadaqceuli
qarTvelebisaTvis somxuri eklesiidan gamoyofis sargeblianoba, saWiroeba
da aucilebloba. ase, Tuki aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi VII saukunis dasawyisSi
kirionis moZraobis Sedegad qarTulma eklesiam somxuri eklesiidan `gamoy-
ofa~ SeZlo, samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSi (taosa da mis mimdebare kuTx-
eebSi) VII saukuneSi es procesi ar iyo dasrulebuli da qarTuli eklesia
ganagrZobda somxuri eklesiis artaxebidan am kuTxis mosaxleobis daxsni-
saTvis moRvaweobas. marTlac, VIII-IX saukuneebSi es mxareebi gaTavisufld-
nen somxuri eklesiis batonobisagan.
  n. mari Tavis Teorias somexTa `gaqarTvelebis~ Sesaxeb afuZnebda ara
raime uZveles wyaros, aramed imas, rom am epoqaSi mesxeTSi aSkarad aRiniS-
neboda somxurenovani elementis arseboba. somxurenovani mosaxleoba XX
saukunis mecnierebam miiCnia erovnulad somxur mosaxleobad, romelic
TiTqosda Semdgom gaqarTvelda qarTuli eklesiis Zaladobrivi poli-
tikis wyalobiT. mecnierebas ver warmoedgina, rom somxurenovani mosaxle-
oba SeiZleboda erovnebiT qarTuli yofiliyo, qarTuli saojaxo da somx-
uri saeklesio eniT. mecnierebam yuradRebis gareSe datova msgavsi magali-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                535
Ti, romelic ukve arsebobda amierkavkasiaSi. kerZod, rom albanelebs RvTism-
saxurebaSi miRebuli hqondaT somxuri ena, e.i. albanuri saRvTismsaxuro
wignebi _ wmida werili, wmidanTa cxovreba da sxva, iyo somxurenovani. aseve
iyo saqarTvelos im provinciebSic, romlebic uSualod emezoblebodnen
somxeTs. saqarTvelos am provinciebSi cxovrobdnen ara somxebi, aramed
somxurenovani qarTvelebi, e.i. mrevli somxuri eklesiisa, somxuri saekle-
sio da qarTuli saojaxo eniT.
  samwuxarod, n. maris Teoria gaziarebuli iqna, radganac am Teorias
TiTqosda adasturebdnen axal-axali mikvleuli masalebi _ somxurenovani
elementi namdvilad arsebobda samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobaSi, romelic
Semdgom gaqra _ gadafara qarTulma enam.
  zogierT qarTul xelnawerSi somxurenovani warwerebis arsebobasTan
dakavSirebiT r. Smerlingi wers, rom aseTi ram `...upasuxebda somxuri
fenis arsebobas tao-klarjeTis provinciis qarTul mosaxleobaSi, aseve
samonastro Zmobis SemadgenlobaSi, rac gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom tao-
klarjeTis somxebi ganekuTvnebodnen berZnul-aRmosavlur marTlmadide-
blobas, romelsac aRiarebda qveynis ZiriTadi qarTuli mosaxleoba~. amave
dros, mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom mxatvari, romelic am somxurenovan warw-
erebs akeTebda, iyo ara somexi, aramed qarTveli _ `...mxatvris mSobliuri
ena ... qarTulia~.158
  e.i. somxurenovani fena tao-klarjeTis mosaxleobisa IX-X saukuneebSi
iyo qalkedonituri, rac samarTliania, magram erovnulad es fena somxuri
arasodes ar yofila, es iyo qarTuli mosaxleoba somxuri saeklesio eniT,
romelTa winaprebic VI-VII ss-Si iyo wevri somxuri diofizituri eklesi-
isa, amitom somxur enaze saeklesio msaxureba kidev SeinarCuna ramdenime
xniT, radganac somxurenovani msaxureba maTTvis tradiciuli iyo, tradici-
is ukugdebas ki saukuneebi sWirdeba. am somxurenovani mosaxleobis winaprebi
iyvnen qarTveli qalkedonitebi, oRond somxuri saeklesio eniT, radganac
maTi uSualo mosazRvre somxuri qalkedonituri sakaTalikoso VI-VII ss.
somxurenovani iyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, tao-klarjeTis somxurenovani fena
iyo erovnebiT qarTuli, romelTa winaprebsac somxur eklsiasTan xangr-
Zlivi urTierToba hqondaT.
  i. abulaZis azriT, romelic sagangebod ikvlevda am sakiTxebs da romlis
gamokvlevasac xSirad iyeneben, tao-klarjeTSi mcxovrebni eTnikurad somxuri
fena enobrivi gadagvarebis gzaze damdgara, e.i. somxuri daviwyebia da qarTu-
li SeuTvisebia, amas ki somexi mosaxleobis sruli `denacionalizacia~ mohyo-
lia: _ `aRsarebiT tao-klarjeTis qarTul elementTan monaTesave es wre
qarTul kulturul da politikur sferoSi eqceva... da enobrivad gadagvare-
bis gzaze dgeba, rasac sabolood sruli denacionalizacia mohyva~.159
  k. kekeliZec miiCnevs, rom `...tao-klarjeTSi... mosaxleobdnen qalkedoniti
somxebic. ai, swored am wreSi, sadac qarTvelebi da somxebi erTmaneTs
536                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
pirdapir xvdebodnen, ganagrZobda arsebobas somex-qarTvelTa literatu-
ruli erToba da kavSiri ara marto VIII_IX saukuneebSi, aramed X-Sic~.160
   sinamdvileSi araviTar denacionalizaciasa da gadagvarebas somexi mo-
saxleoba mesxeTSi ar ganicdida, somxurenovani qarTvelebi mama-papaTa
erovnul qarTul enas amkvidrebdnen TavianT eklesiebSi ucxoenovani msax-
urebis nacvlad. somxurenovani mosaxleoba mesxeTisa da saqarTvelos
sasazRvro provinciebisa erovnulad qarTuli iyo, sarwmunoebiT ki es
somxurenovani qarTuli mosaxleoba mesxeTSi qalkedonituri iyo, xolo
hereTsa da nawilobriv qvemo qarTlSi _ monofizituri. saqme isaa, rom
somxuri eklesiis dasavleTi nawili tradiciulad bizantiis siaxlovis
gamo qalkedonituri iyo TviT VIII saukunis dasawyisamdec ki, xolo aRmo-
savleTi nawili somxuri eklesiisa, qvemo qarTlisa da hereT-sujeTis mo-
sazRvre nawili ufro monofizituri gavlenis qveS imyofeboda. cxadia,
qalkedonitur somxur eklesiaSi VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebamde danergili
iyo ara qarTulenovani msaxureba, aramed somxurenovani. am qalkedonituri
somxuri eklesiis gavlenis qveS myofi mesxeTis mosaxleoba eklesiurad
VIII saukunemde somxuri ti pikonis mqone iyo. am dros erTmorwmune somxur
da qarTul eklesiebs mWidro kavSiri aqvT. VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebSi
kavSiri wydeba. mesxeTis somxurenovani qarTvelebi amis Semdeg kvlav somx-
urenovan msaxurebas aRasruleben, Semdgom ki TandaTanobiT ubrundebian
mama-papaTa qarTulenovan msaxurebas. aq procesi hqonda ara denacionaliza-
cias, aramed piriqiT, am mosaxleobaSi gaiRviZa qarTulma erovnulma grZnobebma,
erovnulma qarTulma siamayem da isini yovel Sesabamis momentSi sagangebod
acxadebdnen, rom isini `naTesaviT~, anu erovnulad qarTvelni arian.
   miT umetes, albaT, arasworia aseTi gancxadeba, TiTqosda `...erTi eklesia
iWreba meoreSi da maT gverdiT Tu maT naamagarze Tavisas afuZnebs. esec
araa ucxo ambavi im droisaTvis. somxeTis miwa-wyalze ara erTi da ori
`qarTvelTa~ savane ixsneba am dros~.161 ra gamodis, qarTuli eklesia TiTqosda
SeWrila somxur eklesiaSi da mis naamagarsa da nafuZarze Tavisi daumkvi-
drebia. qarTuli eklesiis mimarT aseTi gancxadeba namdvili gaugebrobaa.
qarTuli eklesia yovelTvis Semwynarebeli iyo sxva sarwmunoebis mimarT,
misTvis ucxoa fanatizmi. is yovelTvis pativs scemda sxva erebs da amit-
omac sxvis naamagarsa da nafuZarze Tavisas ar amkvidrebda, rac ucxoa
saerTod qriatianobisaTvis da, kerZod, qarTuli eklesiisaTvis. sinamd-
vileSi, rogorc mesxeTSi, aseve hereTsa da qvemo qarTlSi da TviT somxeT-
Si mravlad cxovrobdnen erovnebiT qarTvelebi, sarwmunoebiT qalkedo-
nitebi an monofizitebi, ti pikoniT VI-VIII ss-Si somxurenovanni, xolo IX-
X ss-Si qarTulenovanni. swored es qarTvelebi, yofili somxurenovani
ti pikonis mqoneni, aarseben TavianT savaneebsa da centrebs saqarTvelos
sxva kuTxis mcxovreblebTan erTad. somxeTSi rom mravali qarTveli cx-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              537
ovrobda, es Cans sxvadasxva arapirdapiri masalebidan. kirionic ki somxeT-
Si moRvaweobda da SemTxvevis gamo moiwvies qarTlSi, somxeTSi Sedioda
saqarTvelos mTeli provinciebi, mTeli qarTuli qveynebi. cxadia, am provin-
ciebidanac somxeTis politikur da kulturul centrebSic mravali qarTveli
Cavidoda sacxovreblad. e.i. adgili eqneboda migraciis process ganapira
kuTxeebidan qveynis savaWro, ekomonikur, administraciul, politikur da
kulturul centrebSi. es gamoiwvevda qarTuli mosaxleobis garkveuli
fenis Seqmnas somxeTSi. miT umetes, rom VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebamde
somxeTSi iseve cxovrobdnen qalkedonitebi, rogorc monofizitebi. asevea
Semdgom epoqaSic. arsebobs legenda, rom cnobili somexi filosofosi
daviT uZleveli warmoSobiT hereTidan iyo.
  albaneTi da misi nawili hereT-sujeTi somxuri eklesiis `batonobis~
sferoSi Sedioda. hereTis teritoriaze mosaxleobis ena qarTuli iyo _
ojaxsa da SinaurobaSi, eklesiurad ki _ somxurenovani. am qarTuli mosax-
leobis ti pikonis ena manamde iyo somxuri, sanamdec es qveynebi monofiz-
ituri iyo. X saukuneSi hereTis cnobili dedofilis, wmida dinaras meoxebiT,
hereTis eklesia daubrunda Tavis deda-qarTul, wmida ninos eklesias. amis
Semdeg hereTis mosaxleobas ukve mSobliuri qarTulenovani tipikoni aqvs.
  `ukanaskneli wlebis gamokvlevebSi, vrceli faqtobrivi masalis moxmo-
bisa da gaanalizebis safuZvelze damajerebladaa dasabuTebuli, rom VII-X
ss. hereTis teritoriaze adgilobrivi mosaxleobis (herebis, sujebis) kul-
tura aRmosavlur-qarTul wres ganekuTvneboda, ena ki uciloblad qarTu-
li iyo; es miT ufro dabejiTebiT iTqmis garejis mravalmTis adgilobrivi
mosaxleobis Sesaxeb _ eWvgareSea, rom igi mTlianad qarTuli iyo~.162
magram faqtia, rom hereTSi da kerZod, garejSi arsebul sabereebis monas-
tris erT eklesiaSi somxuri warwerebic arsebobs qarTulTan erTad. cxa-
dia, monastrebSi myofi im qarTveli ZmebisaTvis, romlebmac ar icodnen
qarTuli wera-kiTxva, magram icodnen somxuri. am movlenis axsnac am peri-
odSi hereTis politikur-kulturuli mdgomareobiT SeiZleba. X saukuneSi
hereTi qalkedonituri gaxda, magram cxadia, SeuZlebeli iyo im dros
hereTSi erTbaSad damkvidrebuliyo maTTvis mSobliuri qarTuli ena RvTism-
saxurebaSi, somxuri enis nacvlad, im mizezis gamo, rom wera-kiTxvis mcodne
herebis umravlesobas wera-kiTxva bavSvobidanve somxur enaze hqonda Ses-
wavlili. maT, ubralod, wera-kiTxva qarTulad ar icodnen, Tumca, qarTvele-
bi iyvnen da qarTuli ena icodnen. magram literaturul saqmianobasac
somxurad misdevdnen, rogorc mTel albaneTSi. swored amis gamo hereTSi,
sabereebis monasterSi, qarTul warwerebTan erTad somxuri ganmartebiTi
warwerebi gaakeTes, rogorc hereTeli, aseve albaneTidan, an tao-klarjeTidan
mosuli somxurenovani qarTveli berebisaTvis. am qarTvelebisaTvis somxur
enaze gaakeTa warwerebi qarTvelma mxatvarma. somxuri warwerebis mxatvari
rom qarTvelia, damajereblad aqvs gamokvleuli z. sxirtlaZes.
538                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  aRiarebda Tu ara oficialuri qarTuli ekelesia qarTveli monofizite-
bis arsebobis faqts? marTalia, oficialuri qarTuli eklesia yovelTvis
uaryofda qarTuli eklesiis, rogorc mTliani erTeulis mwvaleblobis
raime gzaze dgomas, magram aRiarebda calkeuli kuTxis garkveul period-
Si monofizitobas. magaliTad, miRebulia, rom X saukunemde hereTi monofiz-
ituri iyo da am saukuneSi hereTis dedofalma dinaram es kuTxe Tavisi
Svilis, iSxanikis SemweobiT qalkedonitobaze moaqcia. ioane xelaSvilis
xelnawerebSi arsebobs mosaxsenebeli, romelSic mowiwebiT moixseneba ded-
ofali dinara da misi TanamoRvaweni, monofizitobidan hereTis aTasobiT
mcxovrebis momaqcevelni, e.i. XIX saukunis qarTuli eklesiisaTvis ar aris
ucxo is, rom X saukunemde qarTveli monofizitebis aramciredi ricxvi
arsebobda. hereTsa da kerZod garejSi, romelic curtavidan ar iyo didi
manZiliT dacilebuli, qarTveli monofizitebis saeklesio da oficialuri
mimarTvis ena somxuri iyo. amis Sesaxeb unda migviTiTebdes daviT gareje-
lis cxovrebaSi aRwerili erTi cnoba. daviTi samoRvaweod Cadis garejSi,
adgilobrivi mosaxleobis qalkedonitobaze mosaqcevad. mosaxleobis erTi
nawili, romelic Tavisi sarwmunoebis, monofizitobis erTguli iyo, cudad
iRebs axal moRvawes. qarTveli monofizitebis sarwmunoebis ena, cxadia,
somxuria, amitomac daviTi, imisaTvis, raTa kidev ufro ar gaaRizianos
adgilobrivi monadire, somxur enaze pasuxobs.
  `mas Jamsa Sina movida barbarozi vinme naTesavi adgiliTgan ruisTavisa-
Ta... da hrqua: `vinaA xar Sen?~ miugo man somxuriTa eniTa...~163 somxuri eniT
pasuxi, Tu es simarTlea, kidev erTxel miuTiTebs adgilobrivi qarTuli
mosaxleobis sarwmunoebis enad somxuris gamoyenebas.
  ase rom, hereTSi, tao-klarjeTSi, qvemo qarTlSi cxovrobdnen ara somexi
qalkedonitebi, aramed eklesiurad somxurenovani qarTvelebi.
  maT unda emoRvawaT kidec somxur eklesiaSi, romelsac Tavis Tavs mi-
akuTvnebdnen. `lalians XIX saukunis bolos Cauweria Zveli somxuri gad-
mocema, romlis mixedviT daviT anhaRTa hereTeli keTilSobili gvarisa
iyo... cxadia, daviT uZlevelis somxuri warmoSobis uaryofa dausabuTebeli
da miuRebelia, magram misi (daviTis) qarTul azrovnebasTan kavSiris kate-
goriuli uaryofac gaumarTlebelia. daviT uZlevelis qarTuli azrovneb-
isagan mowyvetiT sruliad gaugebari da auxsneli gaxdeba misi saqarTveloSi
gadmosaxlebis faqti~.164 SeiZleba aseTive warmoSobisa iyo somxeTis kaTa-
likosi nerse iSxneli, kaci Rirsi da marTlmorwmune, rogorc arseni
safareli uwodebs.165 aseTive simpaTiiT moixseniebs somxeTis am qalkedonit
kaTalikoss `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebac~. iSxnis mSenebeli netari nerse
kaTalikosi, Cans, adgilobrivi warmoSobisa iyo, somxurenovani, somxuri ek-
lesiis wevri, rogorc mTlianad es kuTxe. qarTul-somxuri eklesiebis
saboloo ganyofis Semdeg (VIII s-is pirveli naxevridan) mesxeTis es miwa
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             539
qarTulenovani xdeba da iSxnis kaTedras aRorZinebs qarTveli episkoposi
_ `nebiTa RmrTisaATa iqmna saba ebiskopos iSxansa zeda, netarisa nerse
kaTalikozisa aRmSenebulsa kaTolike eklesiasa da saydarsa missa, romeli
weliwadTa mravalTa daqvrivebul iyo~.166
  mosazrebaa, TiTqosda `...petriwonis qarTul monasterSi... yofila somexi
qalkedoniti beri, saxelad gvirpeli. mas aq mcire xniT Seufarebia Tavi,
aqve monaTlula, rameTu somexi iyo da arseni uwodebs~.167 safiqrebelia,
rom ara erovnebiT somexi gvirpeli moinaTla, aramed sarwmunoebiT `somexi~
da erovnebiT qarTveli. `...radgan maSin somexi saxeli, es marto eris
aRmniSvneli saxelwodeba ki ar iyo, aramed igi konfensionaluri gagebiTac
ixmareboda~.168 gvirpeli konfensiiT, anu aRmsarebloba-sarwmunoebiT iyo
somexi, xolo erovnebiT _ qarTveli.
  qarTul eklesiaSi miRebuli iyo kanoni, romlis Tanaxmadac xelaxla
unda monaTluliyo monofiziti, Tuki is qalkedonituri eklesiis wevrad
gaxdomas isurvebda. am kanonis ZaliT sarwmunoebiT somexi, xolo gvar-
tomiT qarTveli gvirpeli xelaxla moinaTla. ase rom, gvirpeli ki ar
`gaqarTvelda~, aramed somxuri sarwmunoeba uaryo.
  imis Semdeg, rac VI saukuneSi sparseTma mospo qarTuli saxelmwifoe-
brioba, qarTul eklesias ucdia Tavis xelSi aeRo ara mxolod sasuliero
zedamxedveloba qveynisa, aramed saeroc. es gansakuTrebiT gamoCnda VII-
VIII saukuneebSi, roca arabebi devnidnen vaxtan gorgaslis _ `xosroian~
mefeTa STamomavlebs, xolo bagrationebis xelisufleba jer kidev ar iyo
ganmtkicebuli. am rTul dros, roca mterma mospo qveynis adgilobrivi
administraciuli sammarTvelo aparati, saeklesio mmarTveloba (kaTaliko-
si da episkoposebi) iqcnen kanonierebisa da wesrigis warmomadgenlebad. es
kargad Cans serapion zarzmelis cxovrebaSi, roca samcxis TemSi didi
mTavrebi erTmaneTs waekidnen, mawyverelma episkoposma SeZlo maTi damor-
Cileba da saero xelisuflebis xelSi aReba. `samcxis umaRles saeklesio
ierarqs am qveynis mTeli `gangeba~ ugdia xelT da is Tavis `sabrZaneblad~
gadauqcevia. mawyverelma, SfoTis amtexTa (`pirvel meSfoTeTa~) e.i. moklu-
li feodalis adgil-mamulic _ rogorc patronma, amowyvetili ymis mamuli
_ TavisTvis daitova~.169
  rogorc Cans, qarTuli eklesia marTavda kaxeTs `qorepiskoposis~ institu-
tis meSveobiT, radganac iq arc samefo da arc sxva mTeli qveynis momcve-
li xelisufleba ar arsebobda. `qorepiskoposi Tavisi Tavdapirveli Si-
naarsiT, sofluri dasaxlebis mxareSi episkoposis xelisuflebis gamtare-
blad gamodis, magram wanarTa qorepiskoposma Cans, TandaTan, feodalizaci-
is procesis Sesabamisad, miitaca saero xelisufleba, saero da sasuliero
xelisuflebis erTi piris xelSi gaerTianebis aseTi tradicia ucxo ar
540                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
aris saqarTvelos mTianeTis mosaxleobisaTvis~.170 IX saukuneSi am xelisu-
fals Tavisi sasuliero funqcia daukargavs da saero Sinaarsi miuRia.171
   qarTul eklesias Zala da gavlena unda hqonoda TbilisSic. wmida
konstanti-kaxi `vidre pyrobil-Ra iyo mowame qristesi tfiliss Sina, miw-
era wignebi yovelTa mimarT meudabnoeTa qalaqisaTa da mamasaxlisTa mo-
nastrisaTa~.172 Txzulebidan Cans, rom konstanti-kaxma werilebi miswera
TbilisSi arsebuli monastrebis berebs. aqedan Cans, rom arabTa mflobelo-
bis drosac ki TbilisSi qarTul eklesias gavlena ar daukargavs. Cans,
arabTa amira grZnobda qarTuli eklesiis Zalas da gadauwyvetia tao-
klarjeTSi qarTuli eklesiis daxmarebiT am mxareebze kontrolis dawese-
ba. amitomac uWerda mxars anCis saepiskoposo saydarze Tavis warmomadge-
nels, episkopos cqirs. rodesac samcxeSi mowveulma saeklesio krebam igi
ganaSora saepiskoposo saydars, cqiri `tfiliss warvida sahak amirisa,
patronisa Tavisisave~.173 igi saydridan mouSorebiaT aSot kurapalatis,
qarTlis kaTalikosis da misgan gamogzavnili `Rirsi episkoposebis~ da
meudabnoe mamebis nebiT.174 eklesia iseTi didi Zalaa, rom moicavs mTel
saqarTvelos, Tumca ki politikurad daqucmacebuls. am Zalis gamoyeneba
surT rogorc Tbilisis amiras, ise sxva kuTxeTa mmarTvelebs.
   T. papuaSvilis TvalsazrisiT, IX-X saukuneebSi saqarTvelos teritori-
aze erTiani xelisuflebis ararsebobis dros eklesia cdilobda, dapiri-
spireboda saero xelisuflebas da upiratesoba moepovebina masze _ `aseTi
ganwyobilebis gamomxatvelia `grigol xanZTelis cxovreba~. giorgi mer-
Cule cdilobs, dagvanaxos eklesiis ufleba batonobaze, gviCvenos misi
avtoriteti da gavlena saero cxovrebaze. saamiso cnobebi sakmaod mrav-
lad moipoveba mis TxzulebaSi~.175 VI-VIII saukuneebSi, maSin, roca saqarTvelo-
Si ara Tu saerTo xelisufleba, kuTxeebSi feodaluri samTavroebic ki ar
arsebobda. mefis adgilze mjdomi stefanozic did moridebasa da mowiwe-
bas amJRavnebs monasterTa da sasuliero xelisufalTa mimarT, rogorc es
`wmida Siosa da evagres cxovrebidan~ Cans. asurel mamaTa mowafeebi jer
kidev VI-VII saukuneebSi gadasulan tao-klarjeTSi da iq dauwyiaT samo-
nastro Rvawli. p. ingoroyvas Tanaxmad, aseTi yofila wmida Sio mRvimelis
mowafe miqaeli. saerTod ki, samonastro cxovrebas tao-klarjeTSi safuZve-
li Cayria vaxtang gorgaslis dros, rodesac man aq opizis monasteri
daaarsa. vaxtangma `aRaSena cixe artanujisa da monasteri, romel ars
opizisa, da samni eklesiani: dabisa, merisa da Sindobisa, da ganaaxla cixe
axizisa da qmna igi qvabad~. opizis monasteri _ Tavidanve qarTuli iyo. Tu
igi Semdgom, rogorc k. kekeliZe fiqrobs somxuri gaxda, swored aRniSnuli
saeklesio mtaceblobis gamo. saerTod, taos mxareebis qarTulobas isic
amtkicebs, rom maT bizantielebma `iberiis Temi~ uwodes.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               541

         avtokefaliis arsi _ `episkoposTa kurTxeva
               Tavisive episkoposebis mier~
    `roca III msoflio kreba icavda kvi prosis eklesiis avtokefalias, ar
gauxsenebia am eklesiis arc erTi ufleba, garda misive episkoposTa ufleb-
isa Tavisi episkoposebisganve mieRoT qirotonia da amaSi xedavs sxva
eklesiaTa avtokefaliis arss _ `kviprosis eklesiis zedamdgomT hqondeT
Tavisufleba... xeli TviTve daasxan dadgenil RvTismoSiS episkoposebs.
igive, dae, dacul iqnas sxva olqebSi (diocezebSi) da yvela eparqiebSi
(mitropolitebSi), _ naTqvamia me-8 kanonSi... avtoritetuli kanonistebi
avtokefaliis arss xedaven swored mocemuli ekelesiis episkoposTa xel-
dasxmaSi Tavisive episkoposebis mier: `miaqcie yuradReba _ rCevas iZleva
Teodore balsamoni, II msoflio krebis me-2 kanonis ganmartebisas _ rom am
kanonis Tanaxmad, provinciebis yvela mitropoliti avtokefaluria da xel-
dasxmuli iyo Tavisive krebis mier (aTeni. sint. II, 171)... ar emorCilebian
arc erT patriarqs bulgareTis, kviprosis, iberiis eklesiebi, radganac am
eklesiebis mRvdelmTavrebi, rogorc wesi, qirotonias Tavisive episkoposTa
mier iReben~, _ wers Tavis alfabetur sintagmaSi maTe blastaresi (aTen.
sint. VI, 258)... avtokefaliis aseTive wesiT ganisazRvreba yvela avtoke-
faluri eklesiis mowyobis safuZvlebi.176
    Cvenamde moRweulia, SeiZleba iTqvas, oqmi saeklesio krebisa, romelic
Sedga IX saukuneSi da romelmac airCia iberiis kaTalikosi. igi Semonax-
ulia 951 wels daweril giorgi merCules naSromSi: `SromaA da moRua-
weobaA grigol arqimandritisa xanZTisa da Satberdisa aRmaSeneblisa~,
romelic asaxavs VIII-IX sakuneebis saqarTvelos politikur, socialur,
sarwmunoebriv da kulturul cxovrebas. am naSromSi gadmocemul movlena-
Ta mimdinareoba aseTia: aSot kurapalatis (gard. 826 w.) Zis xelmwife
guaram mamfalis iniciativiT javaxeTSi mowveul iqna saeklesio kreba,
romelsac unda gamoerCia kaTalokosi _ meTauri qarTuli eklesiisa. am
krebamde cota xniT adre erT-erTi provinciis `samcxis ers~ gavleniani
episkoposebis `mZlavrobiT~ ukurTxebia da daudgenia `TanadgomiTa da
kurTxeviTa mciredTa episkoposTa... didi arseni kaTolike eklesiasa, qristHs
kuarTisa samkYdrebelsa mcxeTas, qarTlisa kaTalikozad~.177
    vinaidan arsen didis kaTolikosad kurTxeva momxdara kanonikuri wese-
bis darRveviT, amitom guaram mamfalma gadawyvita gaeuqmebina wina krebis
dadgenileba da `brZana SekrebaA episkoposTaA da udabnoAsa mamaTaA~.178
    kreba asea aRwerili: jer dabrZandeba mefe da brZanebs saeklesio pirTa,
`moweseTa~, `Semokrebas~. pirvel sityvas warmoTqvams mefe: Tavis sityvaSi
exeba `Sjuliskanons~, e.i. msoflio krebaTa kanonebsa da mamaTa kanonebs:
`...iciT yovelTa kanoni SjulisaA, rameTu ara brZanebs episkoposisa da
542                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
kaTalikozisa mZlavrobiT dajdomasa~.179 es winadadeba motanilia mociqulTa
kanonebidan da msoflio krebaTa dadgenilebebidan. guaram mamfali yofi-
la sjuliskanonis kargi mcodne, da amitomac is am krebaze kanonTa `Sjulisaca
mravalTa sityuaTa ityoda~.180
    grigol xanZTels, romelic eswreboda am saeklesio krebas, ar moewona mefe
guaram mamfalis aqtiuroba da ganucxada mas, rom _ `...wmidaTa mociqulTa da
RirsTa maT mRdelT-moZRuarTa gansazRvrebulsa kanonsa Sina arave brZaneb-
ul ars eriskacisaA, viTarmca episkoposTa da wesisa winamZRuarTa mamaTa
gansagebelisa moZRurebisa ikadrebda...~181 e.i. mociqulTa da mRvdelmTavarTa
(wmida mamaTa) kanonebSi ar weria, rom eriskacma ikadros da ganagos sjulis-
moZRvreba episkoposTa da saeklesio wesebis mcodne mamaTa magier. amiT
grigol xanZTelma sityva mouWra guaram mamfals. mefe arsen didis kaTali-
kosad dadgenas miiCnevda samociqulo kanonebisa da krebaTa kanonebis dar-
Rvevad, romelTa Tanaxmadac, ar SeiZleboda mZlavrobiT saepiskoposo da
sakaTalikoso taxtis daWera. arseni ki swored Zlieri da gavleniani aznau-
ris, mirianis (mamamisisa) da samcxis eris mZlavrobiT gamxdara kaTalikosi
(rac mefis gareSe daudasturebia wina saeklesio krebas).
    guaram mamfali saeklesio kanonebiT _ `SjulismoZRvrebiT~ _ umtkiceb-
da krebas amgvari moqmedebis ukanonobas.
    grigol xanZTelma mefes miugo, rom imave kanonebSi, romelsac Sen iyeneb,
arc is weria, eriskacma (am SemTxvevaSi guaramma) episkoposebs sjulis-
kanoni aswavloso. grigolma ganacxada, rom msoflio saeklesio krebebs
eswrebodnen mefeni, magram isini wmida mamebs ki ar aswavlidnen sjuls da
sjulismoZRvrebas ki ar kadrulobdnen, piriqiT, wmida mamebisagan eZiebd-
nen sjuls, maTgan iTxovdnen RvTis sityvaTa axsnas, radgan maTgan RvTis
mcnebebi iswavleba da ara piriqiTo: `...uwyodi, rameTu pirvelTa wmidaTa
maT mamaTa Sekrebasa episkoposTa... Tana iyvnes pirvelni morwmuneni mefeni.
ara Tu maT Tana Sjulis-moZRurebasa ikadrebdes, aramed rjulis gamoZie-
basa maTsa ikiTxian da iTxoian sityYsa gamocxadebaA, rameTu maT mier
iswavebdes mcnebaTa RmrTisaTa~...182 amitom, grigolis sityviT, saeklesio
krebaze eriskacis (Tundac mefis) sityva gonieri da samarTlianic rom
iyos, mainc rjulisa da episkoposTa Seuracxyofa ariso. eriskacis sityva
`...daRacaTu samarTlad sagonebel iyos, aramed Sjulisa da mRdelT-moZRu-
arTa SeuracxebaA ars...~183
    javaxeTSi Sekrebilma qarTuli eklesiis adgilobrivma saeklesio kre-
bam daiyolia guaram mamfali da kaTalikosad daadgina is piri, romelmac
episkoposTa umravlesobis xma miiRo.
    aqedan Cans, rom sworia `qarTlis cxovreba~, rodesac wers: qarTuli
eklesiis meTauri, anu `...kaTalikozi qarTlisa xelqveiT ara ars patriarq-
Ta da ara ikurTxevian patriarqTagan... rameTu Tavisufal ars da mociqul-
Ta magieri, mociqulTa taxtsa zeda mjdomi da patriarqi~.184
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               543
  `qarTlis cxovrebis Tanaxmad, VII saukuneSi qarTul eklesias VI msof-
lio krebisagan araTu avtokefalia, aramed sapatriarqo eklesiad wodebis
Rirsebac ki miuRia. es gasaocrad ar mogveCveneba, Tu gavixsenebT, rom VII
saukunis bolos, somxur wyaroTa Tanaxmad, iberiis mezobel somxeTisa da
albaneTis eklesiebis meTaurebsac hqoniaT patriarqis tituli.
  javaxeTis saeklesio krebam kaTalikosad daadgina arseni, krebis Semdeg
mas axares (is krebas ar eswreboda): `...moZRuarman Senman, grigol mamaman,
daamtkica kaTalikozobaA Seni~.185
  moyvanili saeklesio krebis oqmi naTlad uCvenebs, rom qarTlis kaTaliko-
sis kurTxevaSi ar monawileobs ucxo eklesiebis arc erTi patriarqi. qarTuli
eklesia IX saukuneSi srulebiT damoukidebeli da Tavisufali iyo.
  aseTive mdgomareobaa VIII saukuneSic: qarTveli kaTalikosi xels asxams
ucxoel guTeTis episkoposs. berZnuli wyaroebiT dadasturebulia, rom
guTeTis episkoposis kurTxeva moxda iberiaSi.
  guTeTis eklesia eqvemdebareboda konstantinopolis sapatriarqos, rad-
ganac qalkedonis krebis 28-e kanonis Tanaxmad, pontos diocezi Tavisi
saeklesio gavlenis sfero alania-guTeTiT da sxva barbarosTa Crdilo
mxareebiT konstantinopolis iurisdiqciaSi Sevida.
  VIII saukuneSi, mas Semdeg, rac konstantinopoli xatmebrZolebis xelSi
aRmoCnda, guTeTma gawyvita kavSiri konstantinopolTan, rogorc aramarTl-
madidebel eklesiasTan da eZebda sxva sapatriarqos, sadac episkoposs
akurTxebda. guTeTis eklesia iyo mitropolia. arsebobs mosazreba, rom es
eklesia 8 saepiskopososgan Sedgeboda, Tumca es saeWvoa.186
  lev III-is memkvidris, konstantine V kopronimis (743-775), mier 754 wels
konstantinopolSi mowveulma saeklesio krebam xatTayvaniscemis akrZalva
daadastura. krebaze damswre guTTa episkoposi, radganac man krebis gada-
wyvetilebas xeli moawera, Trakiis herakliis mitropolitad daniSnes. am
mizeziT 754 wlidan guTeTis saepiskoposo kaTedra Tavisufali darCa.
guTeTis marTlmadidebelma mosaxleobam episkoposad ioane airCia, magram
misi kurTxeva gaWirda, radganac konstantinopoli mwvaleblebs eWiraT.
  `ioane guTelis cxovrebaSi~ arsebuli cnobiT, _ wers v. goilaZe, _ igi
jer wmida miwaze, ierusalimSi gaemgzavra. aq sami weli icxovra, magram
xeldasxmuli ar iqna. ukanve guTeTSi dabrunebuli ioane adgilobrivma
mosaxleobam iberiaSi gamoagzavna xeldasasxmelad, sadac igi guTeTis episko-
posad daadgines. sxva cnobiT iberiaSi Camosvlamde ioane antioqiaSi cdi-
lobda xeldasxmas, magram amaod.
  VIII saukunis 50-ian wlebSi iberiaSi guTeTis episkoposis xeldasxma
naTlad miuTiTebs, rom qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluria VIII saukuneSi.
ufro metic, kaTalikos-patriarq kirion II-s gamouTqvams mosazreba, rom
ioane guTelis qarTlSi (iberiaSi) kurTxevis Semdeg guTeTis eparqia iberiis
eklesias daemoCila.187
544                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  amas TiTqosda isic adasturebs, rom afxazeTis (qvemo iberiis) sakaTali-
kosos iurisdiqciis Crdilo sazRvari iyo kafa, romelic xersonesTan
axlo guTeTSi mdebareobda.
  iberiis eklesia daarsebisTanave didi eklesia iyo. 506 wels somxeTis
dedaqalaqSi amierkavkasiis xalxTa saeklesio krebaze iberiidan kaTalik-
osis meTaurobiT Casuli iyo 24 episkoposi. SeuZlebelia iberiidan somx-
eTSi yvela episkoposi Casuliyo. erTi wyaros Tanaxmad, am saukuneSi iberi-
is eklesiaSi 35 episkoposi iyo. episkoposTa didi raodenobis gamo iberia-
Si ori sakaTalikoso Seiqmna, sadac episkoposebi da sakaTalikosoTa me-
Taurebi TviT iberiel episkoposTa mier iyvnen xeldasxmulni. amas zemoT
moyvanili wyaroebic adastureben.

   abo Tbilelis `qarTvelobisa~ da `qarTvelTa sisxliT
       monaTesaobis eTnikuri momentis~ Sesaxeb

  `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis~ gadamweris mier, erTi qaragmis araswo-
rad gaxsnam XX saukunis zogierT did istorikoss safuZveli misca ise
gaego merCulis cnoba, TiTqosda qarTlis sakaTalikosos IX saukunemde
mironis kurTxevis ufleba ar hqonda da dasavleT saqarTvelos pirvelad
IX-X saukuneSi ewoda qarTli, aq qarTul enaze RvTismsaxurebis gavr-
celebis gamo gamoiTqva azri, rom giorgi merCulem pirvelma uwoda afx-
azeTs _ e.i dasavleT saqarTvelos `qarTli~, iq qarTuli saeklesio enis
gavrcelebis gamo, da daaskvnes, rom qarTveli xalxi Camoyalibda X-XI
saukuneebSi, radganac swored am dros ewoda dasavleT saqarTvelos mo-
saxleobas `qarTvelebi~, xolo qveyanas `qarTli~, razedac merCule werso.
  mkvlevari wers _ `giorgi merCulis TvalsazrisiT, erovnul erTianobas
safuZvlad udevs saerTo qristianuli kulturis miCneva, serTo qarTuli
eniT~. mkvlevaris azriT, romelic imeorebs aRiarebul Tvalsazriss _
`kulturuli erToba win uswrebs politikurs~ da es `kulturuli erToba~,
anu `qristianuli ideologia iyo `qarTvelTa maSindeli eTnikuri erTiano-
bis (feodaluri eris) erT-erTi niSan-piroba~.188
  qarTuli qristianuli kultura miiCneva bazad, romelzedac daemyara
qarTuli erovnuli erToba. aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo-
Si X saukuneSi qarTuli qristianuli kulturis gavrcelebis gamo, am
kulturis mimRebi xalxi iqca qarTvelebad~. qarTuli qristianuli kul-
turis gavrceleba Turme `...xdis SesaZleblad qarTuli kulturis areal-
Si sxva erovnebisa da rjulis warmomadgenelTa moqcevas... `qarTvelis~
cneba mainc uSualod qristianobas ukavSirdeba~.189 Turme, Tu araqarTveli
da araqristiani miiRebda qarTul qristianul kulturas, e.i. qarTul enas,
is ukve `eTnikurad `qarTveli~ xdeboda. ufro metic, Turme `qarTveli~
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 545
(`qarTvelTa naTesavi~)... niSnavs qarTuli feodaluri kulturis Tanaziars.
misgan savsebiT gamoiricxeba sisxliT naTesaobis eTnikuri momenti~.190 `grigol
xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ sruliad ar Cans misi avtoris giorgi merCulis
Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda mas qarTuli erovnuli erTianobis safuZvlad qris-
tianuli kultura miaCnda saerTo qarTuli eniT. sinamdvileSi is uxsnis
mkiTxvels, Tu ratom ar mieca mis dros axlad Seqmnil afaxazeTis sakaTa-
likosos mironis kurTxevis ufleba afxazeTSive, e.i. dasavleT saqarTveloSi.
Tu ratom ganewesa afxazeTisaTvis saWiro mironis kurTxeva qarTlis sakaTa-
likosoSi, Tu ratom unda mieRo Tavisi eklesiisaTvis saWiro mironi afx-
azeTis sakaTalikosos qarTlis sakaTalikososgan. amis mizezad giorgi
merCule asaxelebs imas, rom afxazeTis qveyana, e.i. dasavleTi saqarTvelo,
qarTlis qveynis nawilia. merCule ar gulisxmobs da ar wers, rom mis
dros, mis saukuneSi gaxda dasavleT saqarTvelo (afxazeTi) qarTlis qvey-
nis nawili, piriqiT, is am sakiTxSi garkveul pirebs mxolod Seaxsenebs, rom
axal sakaTalikosoSi wirva-locvis ena qarTuli enaa, da radganac afxaze-
Tis eklesia qarTuli eklesiis nawilia, amitomac man mcxeTidan _ qarTlis
sakaTalikosodan unda miiRos mironi da ara aqvs ufleba TviTve akurTxos
igi. daaxloebiT aseTi azri unda Caedo merCules Tavis cnobaSi. is msjelobs
wminda saeklesio sakiTxebze da ara imaze, Tu qarTul erovnul erTianobas
ra edo safuZvlad.
   giorgi merCulis sruliad patiosani cnobis Seusabamo gagebis gamo XX
saukuneSi daaskvnes, TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas `qar-
Tvelni~ ewoda mxolod da mxolod imis gamo, rom maT Turme X saukuneSi
miuRiaT `qarTuli feodaluri kultura~ _ anu qarTul enaze wirva-locva.
aseTi daskvna saerTod niko maridan momdinareobs, swored amitom akri-
tikebda n. mari iv. javaxiSvils, maSin roca, iv. javaxiSvili megrelebs,
svanebs da Wanebs `qarTvelebs~ uwodebda jer kidev maT mier qristianobis
miRebamde da asubuTebda kidec amas.
   ara marto niko mari, aramed XIX saukunisa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi
garkveuli wreebi amtkicebdnen, TiTqosda qarTuli ena da qarTuli kultu-
ra qristianobis produqti iyo (e.i. TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTvelos mo-
saxleoba qarTuli kulturis Semoqmedi ki ar iyo, aramed amTvisebeli da
TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli ena qristianobis Semdeg gavr-
celda). ivane javaxiSvilma miznad daisaxa eCvenebina, rom es wreebi cde-
bodnen. is wers: winaT egonaT, rom qarTuli ena da kultura qristianobis
xanisa da garkveuli saxelmwifoebriobis Semoqmedebis nayofiao.
   mecnierma gamoikvlia, rom qarTuli ena qristianobis miRebis Semdeg ki
ar gavrcelda samegrelosa da svaneTSi, aramed qristianobamde didi xniT
adre igi yvela qarTvelisaTvis, maT Soris megrel-svanTaTvisac, saerTo ena
iyo; ufro metic, maT qristianobis miRebamde saerTo warmarTuli sarwmu-
546                                               mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
noeba gaaCndaT da kultmsaxureba am sarwmunoebisa erT _ qarTul enaze
mimdinareobda.
  iv. javaxiSvili wers: `qarTuli ena qarTlel-kaxel-imerel-gurulebisa
da megrel-svanebisaTvis saerTo enaa, magram igi, rogorc winaT egonaT,
TiTqosda qristianobis xanisa da garkveuli saxelmwifoebriobis Semoqme-
debis nayofia. arsebobda ki Tu ara qristianobamde aseTi saerTo niadagi
qarTveli eris saerTo warmarTuli sarwmunoebrivi SemoqmedebisaTvis, iyo Tu
ara aseTi saerTo Semoqmedeba, erTi sityviT, arsebobda Tu ara yvela qarTveli
tomisaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvis, saerTo qarTuli warmarToba?~191
  mecnierma dasmul kiTxvas ase upasuxa: `aramcTu sazogado qarTuli, yve-
la qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvisac, saerTo
warmarToba arsebobda, aramed am warmarTobas saerTo terminologiac, saerTo
enac qarTuli hqonia~.192
  ivane javaxiSvils aseTi mtkice poziciisaTvis usayvedura n. marma: `unda
aRvniSno, rom akad. n. mari misayvedurebs, rom megrelebs, svanebs... me qarTvelebs
vuwodeb...~193
  qarTuli ena `...es TviT akad. n. marsac kargad moexseneba da TviTonac
araerTxel daudasturebia, megrelebisa da svanebisTvisac erTaderTi sam-
werlobo da kulturis ena iyo da aris exlac, romlis Seqmna-SemuSaveba-
Sic megrelebsa da svanebs TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili~.194
  n. maris mier tendenciurad gagebuli giorgi merCulis aRniSnuli cno-
bidan Semdegi daskvnebi gamomdinareobs: _ `...magram `qarTvelis~ cneba
mainc uSualod qristianobas ukavSirdeba~.195 TiTqosda cneba `qarTvelisa-
gan~ `...savsebiT gamoiricxeba sisxliT naTesaobis eTnikuri momenti~.196
  `naTesaviT qarTveli~ swored erTi sisxlis, erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis
`naTesavs~ _ e.i. erTi Teslidan, erTi genisagan `naTes~ _ warmoSobil
xalxs hqvia da rogorRa gamoiricxeba misgan `sisxliT naTesaobis eTni-
kuri momenti~? Tu cneba `qarTvelisagan~ `sisxliT naTesaobis eTnikuri
momenti~ gamovricxeT, vinRa darCeba? darCeba sul `sxvadasxva~ eTnikuri
warmoSobis tomebis konglomerati, romelnic, Turme, Tavis Tavs `qarTvelebs~
uwodebdnen qristianuli sarwmunoebis gamo. Turme `qristiani~ da `qarTve-
li~ erTi da imave mniSvnelobis mqone sinonimebi yofilan. aqedan daskvna:
qarTvelebi `gaCndnen~ IV-V saukunis Semdgom, Tanac es `qarTvelebi~ mx-
olod aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi cxovrobdnen, dasavleT saqarTvelos mo-
saxleobas ki qarTvelebi ewodaT X saukunis Semdgom, iq `qarTuli feodaluri
kulturis~ _ qarTul enaze wirva-locvis SemoRebis gamoo.
  magram Cven viciT, rom qarTveli sarwmunoebiT SeiZleboda yofiliyo ara
mxolod qristiani, aramed cecxlTayvanismcemeli da warmarTi: `...iranis
administracias qarTlis mTavrobisagan mouTxovia: `vinca qarTveli nebiTa
TvisiTa aRirCevdes sjulsa Cvensa nu ayenebTo~.197
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               547
  gana is `qarTveli~, romelic iranis administraciis moTxovniT Tavis
sarwmunoebad cecxlTayvanismcemlobas airCevda, kvlav qarTveli ar iqne-
boda? aq arCevazea laparaki, e.i. Tuki mounaTlavi, araqristiani qarTveli
`airCevda~ Tavis sarwmunoebad ara qristianobas, aramed cecxlTayvanism-
cemlobas, adgilobriv xelisuflebas ufleba ar hqonda Careuliyo misi
piradi sindisis saqmeSi, swored amazea laparaki. mounaTlavi, e.i. jer
kidev araqristiani qarTveli iseve aris erovnebiT qarTveli, rogorc
sarwmunoebiT cecxlTayvanismcemeli, warmarTi anda qristiani qarTveli.
gana qarTlis `wvrili eri~ sarwmunoebiT cecxlTayvanismcemeli ar iyo,
razedac wers mematiane? gana warmarTuli qristianobamdeli qarTveloba
ar unda CaiTvalos qarTvelobad maTi mounaTlaobis gamo? swored amito-
mac cneba `qarTvelSi~ sisxliT naTesaobis eTnikuri momentia arsebiTi da
mTavari, radganac im epoqaSi `qarTveli~ ara sarwmunoebrivi Sinaarsis
mqone termini, aramed eTnikuri Sinaarsis matarebeli termini iyo, romelic
mianiSnebda erovnul kuTvnilebas da ara sarwmunoebrivs.
  iseTi daskvnebi, rogoricaa `qarTveli, niSnavs qarTuli feodaluri kul-
turis Tanaziars, misgan savsebiT gamoiricxeba sisxliT naTesaobis eTni-
kuri momenti... `qarTvelis~ cneba mainc uSualod qristianobas ukavSirde-
ba~ da a.S. _ Turme gamomdinareobs iqidan, rom sagaloblebSi abo Tbilels
`qarTvels~ uwodeben. marTlac, cnobilia, rom abo Tbileli erovnebiT ara-
bia, magram mas ramdenime krebulSi `qarTvels~ uwodeben; es im dros, roca
TviT avtorebma da redaqtorebma kargad ician, rom abo erovnebiT ar aris
qarTveli. amis gamo, mkvlevari msjelobs: Tuki abo Tbilels qristianobis
miRebis Semdeg uwodes `qarTveli~, cxadia, `qarTveli~ niSnavs ara erovnebiT
qarTvels, aramed `qarTuli feodaluri kulturis Tanaziars~ da misgan
`savsebiT gamoiricxeba sisxliT naTesaobis eTnikuri momenti~.
                                 `swored amas adasturebs abo Tbilelis
                              misamarTiT Tqmuli `galobani naTelTani da
                              habo ismaitel-yofilisa qarTvelisa~ (stefane
                              Wyondideli); `xsenebaA RuawliT Semosilisa
                              uZlevelisa mowamisa habo ismaitel-yofilisa
                              qarTvelisaA (miqael modrekili). abo qarTve-
                              lia, is himnografebs aRar miaCniaT sarkinozad
                              mas Semdeg, rac man aRiara qarTuli feodaluri
                              kultura, qarTuli qalkedonituri qristianoba
                              da Tavic Seswira, e.i. gaqarTvelda~.198
                                sinamdvileSi abo Tbilels, Tavis droze,
                              `qarTveli~ uwodes ara imis gamo, rom man
                              mahmadianoba uaryo da qristianoba miiRo, aq
                              ufro faqiz momentTan gvaqvs saqme: esaa VII-
548                                         mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
VIII saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi gaCaRebuli religiuri omi. am periodSi,
iseve rogorc VI saukuneSi, saqarTvelo monofizitTa da qalkedonitTa
omis areals warmoadgens.
  IX-X saukuneebi aris rogorc qarTvel monofizitTa devnisa da ganad-
gurebis, aseve qarTvel qalkedonitTa zeobisa da gamarjvebis saukuneebi.
VIII da wina saukuneebSi qarTul eklesiaSi monofizituri mimdinareoba
sakmaod Zlier frTas qmnida. qarTvel monofizitebs gaaCndaT somxuridan
naTargmni an redaqtirebuli mdidari qarTulenovani saeklesio liter-
atura: monofizituri Txzulebebi, wmidanTa cxovrebebi, sagaloblebi, himne-
bi da sxva. IX-X saukuneebSi gamarjvebulma qalkedonitebma daiwyes qarTu-
lenovani monofizituri saeklesio literaturis totaluri ganadgureba.
amdroindel qarTul eklesiaSi berZnulis mixedviT daiwyo xelaxali re-
daqtireba an Targmna im wmida wignebisa, romelnic naredaqtirevi anda
naTargmni iyo somxuri enidan. ispoboda wina saukuneTa iseTi Zeglebi,
romelnic eWvs iwvevdnen sarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT. nadgurdeboda ara
marto saeWvo saeklesio literatura, aramed iseTi Txzulebebic ki,
romelnic mkiTxvels daaeWvebdnen somxur da qarTul eklesiebs Soris
Zveli urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb. aseTi Txzulebani qarTvel monofizitebs
mravlad unda hqonodaT. qarTvel monofizitebs orientacia somxur ekle-
siaze hqondaT aRebuli, romlis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli eklesia warmoad-
genda somxuri eklesiis Semadgenel nawils, TiTqosda mas uflebamosileba
gaaCnda albanur da qarTul eklesiebze. somxuri eklesia qarTuls masSi
Semaval avtonomiur erTeulad miiCnevda da ar cnobda mis srul damoukide-
blobas. aseTi saxis urTierTobis kanonierebis damadasturebeli Txzule-
bani somxur eklesias mravlad gaaCnda. isini qarTvel monofizitebs naT-
argmni unda hqonodaT. swored aseT Txzulebebs anadgurebda qarTuli
eklesia Tavisi damoukideblobis dacvis mizniT.199
  VIII saukuneSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo da saerTod qveyana, Zalze mZime
mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda arabebis Semosevis gamo (ramac gamoiwvia kidec
qarTlis saxelmwifos damxoba). aseT pirobebSi qarTul eklesias Zala ar
Seswevda, Seesustebina saqarTveloSi arsebul monofizitTa Zliereba (VIII
saukunis pirvel naxevarSi). maT saeWvod gauxdiaT qarTuli eklesiis somx-
uri eklesiisagan damoukidebeli arseboba da politika. wina wlebSi qarTuli
eklesia iZulebuli Seiqna, miemarTa antioqiis sapatriarqosaTvis da mieRo
misgan dadastureba, rom qarTuli eklesia srulebiT Tavisufali, avtoke-
faluri eklesiaa, magram Cans, es ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi da mainc somxur-
qarTuli tradiciuli `erTobis~ aRdgenis momxreTa ricxvi mravlad yofi-
la. maT surdaT somxur-qarTuli eklesiebis `erToba~ somxuri eklesiis
meTaurobiT.
  IX-X saukuneSi, mas Semdeg, rac Seiqmna da ganmtkicda qarTuli erovnuli
saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebi tao-klarjeTSi, afxazeTSi, kaxeTSi, qarTuli
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              549
eklesia gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda da Seutia qarTvel monofizitebs. am
dros, rogorc aRiniSna, daiwyo qarTuli monofizituri literaturis ma-
sobrivi ganadgureba. savaraudoa, am dros misaRebi da miuRebeli Txzule-
bebis garCevis mizniT, qarTul eklesiaSi misaReb Txzulebebs awerdnen
pirobiT simbolur niSans _ `qarTuli~, `qarTveli~ e.i. qarTuli erovnuli
eklesiisaTvis misaRebi, qarTuli erovnuli eklesiis wmidani, xolo, albaT,
amgvari warweris gareSe tovebdnen, anda anadgurebdnen qarTulenovan mo-
nofizitur Txzulebebs.
   safiqrebelia, rom swored am mizezTa gamo miuweres abo Tbilelis
sagalobels Tavdapirvelad simboluri niSani `qarTveli~, rac niSnavda,
rom abo Tbileli qarTuli erovnuli eklesiis wmidani iyo. es niSani im
areul dros icavda am Txzulebas ganadgurebisagan, Torem yvelam kargad
icoda, rom abo qarTveli ki ar iyo, aramed arabi, da ara ubralod arabi,
aramed wminda sisxlis arabi (amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda
imdroindeli msoflios arabTa mier dapyrobis dros): `ese naSobi iyo
abrameani, ZeTagan ismaelisTa, tomisagan sarkinozTaAsa, da ara Tu ucxo-
Asagan Teslisa, arca xarWisgan Sobili, aramed yovladve arabielTa Tesli,
mamulad da dedulad, romlisaA mamaA misi da dedaA misi Zmani da dani
misni iyvnes munve qalaqsa mas Sina baRdads babilovnisasa~.200
   IX-X saukuneTa avtori da redaqtori (stefane Wyondideli da miqael
modrekili) abosadmi sagangebod miZRvnil sagaloblebs saTaurad aweren:
`abo ismaitelyofili qarTveli~, orive mwerlis mier abos erTnairad mox-
seneba aCvenebs, rom ukve IX_X saukuneebSi qarTuli himnografia tradici-
ulad am wmidans ase moixseniebs.
   rogorc aRiniSna, warwera `qarTveli~ aq aRniSnavs ara sarwmunoebriv,
aramed saeklesio kuTvnilebas; abo qarTuli erovnuli eklesiis wmidania
da ara sxva romelime, vTqvaT, qarTul-monofizituri eklesiisa, romelic im
dros somxuri eklesiis nawilad gadaiqca da amitomac qarTvel monofiz-
itebs IX-X saukuneebSi `sarwmunoebiT somxebs~ uwodebdnen, `somexi~ niSnav-
da ara eTnikurad somexs, aramed somxuri eklesiis wevrs. SeiZleboda, rom
eriT da gvartomobiT qarTveli, anu `naTesaviT qarTveli~ somxuri eklesi-
is wevri yofiliyo, Tundac saqarTveloSi ecxovra. maT `sarwmunoebiT somx-
ebs~ uwodebdnen, msgavsad im albanelebisa, romlebic albaneTSi cxovrobd-
nen, magram somxuri eklesiis wevrebi iyvnen (albanuri eklesia somxuri
eklesiis nawili iyo). es albanelebi kulturulad da eTnikurad, marTlac
gasomxdnen. mesxeTSi, da albaT sxvaganac, grigol xanZTelis epiqaSi mrav-
lad yofilan erovnebiT qarTveli, magram somxuri eklesiis wevri mcxovreb-
ni. aseTi `somxebi~ qarTuli eklesiis wyalobiT kvlav daubrundnen deda
eklesias. maT gansakuTrebiT uyvardaT xazgasmiT moxsenieba imisa, rom isini
eTnikurad, gvartomobiT, warmoSobiT _ `naTesaviT~ qarTvelebi iyvnen.
550                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   sityva `qarTveli~ arc qalkedonobis aRmniSvneli termini yofila. amis
magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT is, rom miqael modrekilis krebulSi aris
himnebi, romelTac aqvT warwera `berZnuli~. Cans, VI-VII-VIII saukuneebSi
qarTul eklesiaSi yofila sagaloblebi siriul-somxur-aRmosavluri war-
moSobisa, Semdeg es sagaloblebi qarTuli eklesiis praqtikidan amouRiaT
da mouspiaT. qarTul erovnul eklesiaSi ZvelTaganve miRebuli sxva saga-
loblebic rom ar moespoT, maT gaukeTes warwera, niSani _ `qarTueli~. es
uflebas aZlevdaT, SeesrulebinaT sagalobeli. swored amgvarad qarTuli
erovnuli eklesiisaTvis misaRebi abo Tbilelisadmi miZRvnil sagalobels
Tavidanve gaukeTes warwera _ `qarTueli~. imis gamo, rom sagalobelTa
melodia saukuneTa manZilze erTi da igive rCeboda, xolo teqsti icvlebo-
da da xelaxla iwereboda, abo Tbilelis sagalobels sxvadasxva avtorebi
erTsa da imave saxels awerdnen. `qarTveli~ _ qarTuli erovnuli eklesi-
isadmi kuTvnils, qarTuli eklesiis wmidans niSnavda.
   niko maris mier giorgi merCulis cnobis mcdarad gagebam gamoiwvia
iseTi daskvnebi, TiTqosda qarTuli X saukunis Semdgom gaxda dasavleT
saqarTvelos mosaxleobis kulturis ena, amitomac `naTesaviT qarTveli~
TiTqosda niSnavs ara erovnebiT, eTnikurad, geniT qarTvels, aramed kultu-
riT qarTvels, ufro metic, TviT aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic ki yofila
raRac `saxlebi~, romlebic TiTqos daviT aRmaSenebelma `daipyro da
gaqarTveldnen~.
   iv. javaxiSvils gamowvlilviT aqvs gamorkveuli, rom qarTuli ena jer
kidev qristianobis miRebamde megrelebisa da svanebisaTvis iyo kultmsax-
urebis ena, ufro metic, qarTuli ena megrelebisa da svanebisaTvis erTad-
erTi samwerlobo da kulturis ena iyo, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSiac
megrelebsa da svanebs TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili. qarTuli damwer-
lobisa da literaturis arseboba IV-V saukuneebidanaa dadasturebuli.
am saukuneebSi samwerlo ena mxolod saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis _ wirva-
locvisa da samRvdlmsaxuro wignebisaTvis gamoiyeneboda. cxadia, Tuki
megrelebi da svanebi Semoqmedni arian qarTuli samwerlo enisa, am enas
gamoiyenebdnen kidec TavianTi saWiroebisaTvis, wirva-locvis dros IV-V
saukuneebSive. dasavleT saqarTvelo aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad
gaqristianebula. iv. javaxiSvili wers: `...dasavleT saqarTveloSic IV sauku-
nis damdegidan qristianobas gza gakvleuli unda hqonoda~.201
   qarTuli ena dasavleT saqarTveloSi kultmsaxurebis ena yofila ara
marto warmarTobis, aramed qristianobis miRebis drosac _ IV-V saukuneeb-
Si. dasavleT saqarTveloSi erTi sarwmunoeba meores Seucvlia, magram
kultmsaxurebis ena igive darCenila, bunebrivia, Seicvala ara eTnosi, aramed
sarwmunoeba. swored amis gamo uwodebs dasavleT saqarTvelos `qarTls~
(anu iberias) giorgi merCule. man icis, rom dasavleT saqarTvelo poli-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              551
tikurad qarTlis nawili iyo VIII saukunemde, xolo qarTuli ena aq wirva-
locvis ena iyo IV saukunidan. marTalia, VII saukunis Semdeg, rac dasavleT
saqarTvelos erT-erT mniSvnelovan nawilze Tavisi iurisdiqcia ganaxor-
ciela konstantinopolis sapatriarqom, wirva-locvis enad berZnuli Sem-
oiRo, magram es mdgomareoba IX-X saukuneebSi gamosworebula. merCules
afxazeTi, anu dasavleTi saqarTvelo qarTlis nawilad miaCnia.202

                  wmida nino da mociquli eliSa

  albaneTis avtokefaluri eklesia miiCnevda da gansakuTrebiT usvamda
xazs, rom albaneTis eklesia daaarsa mociqulma eliSam pirvel an meore
saukuneSi, eliSam kurTxeva uflis Zma iakobisagan miiRoo,203 amitomac alba-
nuri eklesia samociquloa da misi kaTalikosi (patriarqi) samociqulo
taxtze ziso _ aseTi iyo albaneTis eklesiis umTavresi ideologia misi
avtokefaliis arsebobisas. albaneTis eklesias es damoukideblobis dacvaSi
exmareboda, magram aseTi mtkiceba mxolod VII saukunis bolomde gagrZelda.
  daaxloebiT 699 wels albaneTis qalkedoniti kaTalikosis dasasjelad
albaneTSi arabTa jariT Cavida somxeTis kaTalikosi. is sikvdiliT sjis
albaneTis kaTalikoss qalkedonituri mrwamsis gamo. arabTa jariT daSineb-
uli albaneTis saeklesio kreba somxeTis eklesias aRuTqvams samudamo
morCilebas. amiT dasrulda albaneTis eklesiis isedac meryevi avtokefa-
lia. albaneTis eklesia somxeTis eklesiis nawilad iqca.
  avtokefaliis dakargvas Tan mohyva albaneTis eklesiaSi saukuneTa man-
Zilze arsebuli ideologiis _ mociqul eliSas Sesaxeb _ gadmocemis
Secvlac. albaneTis ganmanaTlebel mociqul eliSas Sesaxeb gadmocemis
axal saxes TviT somxeTis kaTalikosi ayalibebs.
  somxeTis kaTalikosis versia aseTia: marTalia, albaneTis eklesia daafuZna
mociqulma eliSam, magram eliSa iyo Tadeoz mociqulis mowafe. es aris
sruliad axali formula. Tadeoz mociquli somxuri eklesiis damaarse-
blad iyo aRiarebuli.
  imis gamo, rom mociquli Tadeozi somxeTis eklesiis damaarsebeli iyo,
xolo albaneTis eklesiis damfuZnebeli mociquli eliSa, Tadeozis mowafe,
amitomac albaneTis eklesia iseve unda damorCileboda somxur eklesias,
rogorc Tadeozs emorCileboda misi mowafe eliSa.
  mose kalankatueli am ambis aRweris Semdeg aRarafers ambobs eliSa
mociqulisa da iakob mociqulis ierusalimuri kavSiris Sesaxeb. VII sauku-
nidan dadginda, rom eliSa, upirveles yovlisa, mowafea Tadeozisa. ieru-
salimi somxeTiT Seicvala.
  msgavsi ambavi ganmeorda wmida ninos mimarTac. faqtia, rom wmida ninos
moixseneben IV-VI saukunisa (qarTuli da ucxouri) da IX-X saukuneTa
552                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qarTuli wyaroebi. VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTuli wyaroebi TiTqmis eridebian,
an mcired ixsenieben wmida ninos.
  berZen-laTini istorikosebi, TiTqmis Tanamedroveni wmida ninosi, sul 50-
100 wliT daSorebulni misgan, dawvrilebiT aRweren wmida ninos moR-
vaweobas, magram arasdros axseneben mas wmida grigolTan, somxeTis gan-
manaTlebelTan kavSirSi, aseve IV-V saukunis wmida ninos qarTuli cxovre-
ba ninos ar uwodebs wmida grigolis mowafes. amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom
wmida nino ar yofila wmida grigolis mowafe. wmida nino iyo qarTlis
damoukidebeli ganmanaTlebeli, mosuli ierusalimidan, aseTi iyo sazogado
azri IV da V saukunis I naxevrisa.
  V saukunidanve somxur eklesiaSi mkvidrdeba Tvalsazrisi, rom wmida
nino wmida grigolis mowafe iyo da man grigolis davalebiT gaanaTla
qarTli.
  am ideam praqtikuli ganxorcieleba hpova VI saukunis Semdeg. VI sauku-
neSi, sparsTagan qarTlis dapyrobam da aq somxuri eklesiis gavlenis
zrdam saSualeba misca somxur eklesias, Tavis sasargeblod gamoeyenebina
am ori wmidanis kavSiris Teoria iseve, rogorc mociqul eliSasa da
mociqul Tadeozis kavSiri.
  Tu somxuri eklesiis ganmanaTlebeli, wmida grigoli, iyo maswavlebeli da
xelmZRvaneli qarTuli eklesiis ganmanaTlebel wmida ninosi, somxur ekle-
sias garkveuli zedamxedvelobis uflebac eqneboda qarTul eklesiaze.
  am TeoriiT qarTuli eklesia somxurs eqvemdebareboda, am mizezis gamo
VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTvelebi (qalkedonitebi) eridebodnen wmida ninos
xsenebas. Tu aucilebeli iyo, isev wmida grigols axsenebdnen, radganac
wmida nino qarTul-somxuri eklesiebis damakavSirebeli gamodioda ise,
rogorc eliSa _ somxur-albanuri eklesiebisa VII saukunis bolos.
  mas Semdeg, rac qarTulma eklesiam VIII saukunis dasawyisSi, 726 wels
mowveuli somxuri eklesiis krebis Semdeg sabolood, srulebiT da abso-
luturad gawyvita kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan, wmida ninom qarTul ekle-
siaSi daiWira Tavisi kuTvnili adgili.
  v. gurgeniZe simon janaSiaze dayrdnobiT werda, rom VI-VII saukuneebSi
sparselTa nebiT qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi moispo, anda srulebiT
gadakeTda istoriuli faqtebi. am dros sruliad SesaZlebeli iyo wmida
ninos Sesaxeb arsebuli istoriuli faqtebis damaxinjeba.
  `saqarTveloSi sparseTis ideologiuri politika miznad isaxavda `somxe-
Tis religiaze~ _ monofizitobaze dayrdnobiT, qarTvel xalxSi moespo Zveli
marTlmadidebluri (diofizituri) sarwmunoeba da iq macxovreblebi Tanda-
TanobiT gadaeyvana TavianT mxareze~.204 aseTi mdgomareoba iyo VI saukuneSi.
  VII saukunis daswyisSi ki `sparselebma ise, rogorc 506 wels q. dvinSi
Catarebul saeklesio krebaze, kvlav ufro mkacrad daakanones Tavis gamge-
blobaSi Semaval yvela xalxisTvis erTiani ideologia _ somxuri (monofiz-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               553
ituri) religia. maTi mtkicebiT, es erTiani religia yvelgan ganavrco
sparselebis naTesavma ganmanaTlebelma grigorim. am aucilebeli ideologiis
miRebis mizniT, yvelgan, maT Soris qarTlSic, `ganwmedil iqna~ da axali
masalebiT Seivso qarTvelTa, albanelTa da somexTa saistorio mwerloba.
swored amitom, rogorc samarTlianad miuTiTebda s. janaSia, werilobiT
wyaroebSi Seubraleblad mospes an Zireulad gadaakeTes sxvadasxva isto-
riuli faqtebi, maTTvis misaRebi enebidan _ somxuridan da asurulidan
xelaxla aTargmnines berZnulidan gadmoTargmnili wignebi, `Seudares~, `Sea-
swores~, zogi ram ki axlad daawerines. yvelaze samwuxarod s. janaSias
miaCnia is faqti, rom am `gasufTavebis~ dros, faqtobrivad `ganadgurda~
Zveli qarTuli saistorio mwerloba da `qarTlis moqcevis~, `juanSeris~
da sxva matianeebSi am mwerlobidan SemorCenilia mxolod damaxinjebuli
fragmentebi~.205 ai, saidan iRebs saTaves iranofiluri da somxofiluri
tendenciebi rogorc qarTul, ise somxur istoriul wyaroebSi. `...rom daepir-
ispirebina erTmaneTisaTvis somxeTi da saqarTvelo, sparseTi droebiT dapy-
robil, Tu romael-bizantielTagan xelSekrulebiT `miRebul~ saqarTvelos
teritoriebs calke administraciul qarTul erTeulebad ki ar acxadebda,
aramed miawerda mas mis mier dapyrobil somxeTs, romlebic TavianT mxriv
Tvlidnen, rogorc somxur teritoriebs da yvelafers akeTebdnen aq mcx-
ovrebi qarTvelebis asimilaciisaTvis...~206
  am dros mimdinareobda gugarqis, mesxeTisa da hereTis qarTvelebis
asimilacia. qarTuli da berZnuli enebi idevneboda RvTismsaxurebidan,
eklesiebidan da inergeboda somxurenovneba. swored aseT dros SeiZlebo-
da qarTuli ena miCneuliyo `mdabal da dawunebul enad~. qarTuli, rogorc
diofizitTa ena, gandevnes eklesiebidan, is aRar ixmareboda samxreT pro-
vinciebSi. amitomac werda mwerali: `damarxul ars enaA qarTuli~, rac
sinamdviles Seefereboda. qarTuli ena dafaruli, gadamaluli iqna mxo-
lod Crdilo provinciebSi, mTianeTSi SeiZleboda qarTul enaze Tavisufa-
li msaxureba, amitomac `ese enaA mZinare ars dResamomdeo~ _ werda, Cans, VI
an VII s.s. dasawyisis avtori. is wuxs _ `ese ena Semkuli da kurTxeuli
saxeliTa uflisaATa~ aris `mdabali da dawunebulio~ (qebaA da didebaA
qarTulisa enisaA).207
  swored am devnis gamo Cven, faqtobrivad, ara gvaqvs VII saukuneSi Seqm-
nili arc erTi qarTuli nawarmoebi (zogierTi gamonaklisis, polemikuri
Txzulebis garda). maSin, roca VIII saukunidan mdgomareoba mkveTrad icv-
leba, didi raodenobiT Cndeba qarTuli Txzulebebi.
  726 wels manaskertis krebaze somxurma eklesiam, sabolood da gadaWriT,
erTaderT swor sarwmunoebad aRiara monofizitoba da uaryo rogorc monoTel-
itoba, ise qalkedonitoba, dagmo kavSiri bizantiur eklesiasTan (da herakle
keisris Semdeg arsebuli `unia~). qarTulma eklesiam, rogorc qalkedonitiz-
mis erTgulma damcvelma, amis Semdeg yovelgvari kavSiri gawyvita somxurTan.
554                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   Zvel qarTul literaturaze Tvalis gadavlebiTac Cans, VIII saukunis
Sua wlebidan qarTuli saeklesio literatura moedineba rogorc wyarosTva-
li. ukve VIII saukunidan grigol xanZTelis (758-860) Semdeg Cndebian sxva
mwerlebic. qarTuli literatura iRviZebs da hyvavis. iwereba iovane sa-
banisZis `wamebaA haboAsi~ (786-790), konstanti kaxis wameba, daviT da kon-
stantines martviloba, juanSeris Txzuleba, leonti mrovelis Txzulebis
nawili da sxva. VIII saukune kulturulad gaTavisuflebis saukunea, Tumca,
politikurad saqarTvelo kvlav gasaWirSia, magram imdenad mniSvnelovani
iyo eris sulieri cxovrebisaTvis somxuri eklesiis gavlenisagan Tavis
daRweva, rom mas Semdgom mohyva kulturuli aRorZineba, sulieri aRfrTo-
vaneba. amis Semdeg saukuneebSi Seuferxeblad viTardeba qarTuli eklesi-
is sulieri saganZuri, Cndebian mwerlebi, eklesiis saWiroebisaTvis saga-
loblebs weren epifane moZRvari (xanZTeli, VIII-IX); makari leTeTeli, xan-
ZTel-sabawmideli (IX); basili (xanZTeli, IX); giorgi merCule (IX-X); miqa-
el modrekili (X); iovane mtbevari (X); ezra (X); iovane qonqozis-Ze (X);
kurdanaA-kYrike (X). am saukuneSi iqmneba avtorwauwereli himnografiuli
Zeglebi-krebulebi (eruSenuli krebuli, opizuri krebuli); iqmneba saga-
loblebi, Zlispirebi. am saukuneebSi moRvaweobdnen _ `ninos I himnografi~
(VIII-IX); `ninos II himnografi~ (IX-X); `konstanti kaxaAs himnografi~ (IX-X);
samoel mgalobeli, mwerali ioane bolneli (IX); `ninoAs III himnografi~
(IX-X); msxemi zedazneli (X); daviT garejelis himnografebi (IX-X); iovane
minCxi (X); stefane Wyondideli (X); `abakurais mleqsavi~ (IX); giorgi
sabawmidel-sineli, ioane zosime; fili pe beTlemeli (X); am saukuneebSi
palestinaSi iqmneba himnografiuli krebulebi: `sagalobelni iadgarni~,
`saweliwado iadgari~ da sxva.208
   qarTuli ena IX-X saukuneebSi sruliad hyvavis da viTardeba, aseT dros
qarTul enas `mdabalsa da dawunebuls~ aravin uwodebda, piriqiT, IX-X
saukunis avtori `ninos II himnografi~ wers: `dRes didebismetyvelebs ena
qarTvelTa~, marTlacda, ratom unda yofiliyo qarTuli ena IX-X saukuneeb-
Si `damarxuli, mZinare, mdabali da dawunebuli~, rogorc wers `qebaAs~
avtori? am dros saqarTvelo ZiriTadad gaTavisuflda arab da yovelgvar
dampyrobTagan, ramac saSualeba misca qarTvel ers, Seeqmna Tavisi saxelm-
wifo erTeulebi _ afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTisa da kaxeT-hereTis samefoebi.
am saxelmwifoTa ena qarTuli iyo, amitomac `qebaAs~ dawera ufro VI-VII
saukuneebSia savaraudo, im dros, roca qarTvelebi gabedulad TavianTi
ganmanaTleblis wmida ninos saxelsac ver axsenebdnen.
   VIII saukunidan, eklesiuri viTarebis Secvlis Semdeg gabedviT weren:
`adide Sen qriste, qarTli... ninoAs ganaxlebuli~, `netarman nino moaqcivna
qarTvelni~, wmidao nino `iqmen Sen qarTlisa mqadageblad~, `nino, mowafeo
macxovrisao da mociqulo CrdiloAsa soflisao, Sen xar moZRuar qar-
Tlisa~.209 nino aris `moZRuari msgavs mociqulTa... sanatreli mociquli~,
wers ninos II himnografi (IX-X); `ninom qarTvelni warudginna qristesa~;
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               555
`movedin `hoi mkvidrno qarTlisano yovelTasa vaqebdeT RmerTs~, rameTu
ninoAs mier kerpTa sacdurisagan gYKsna~.210 `ninos III himnografi~ saqarT-
velosa da CrdiloeTs uwodebs mociqul barTlomes nawils, sadac Rirs
iqmna `moqcevad warmarTTa~ _ `mi-raAxued Rirso nino sazRvrad qarTlisa...
mociqulebr hqadage~.211
   VIII saukunis Semdeg wmida ninom daiWira Tavisi Rirseuli adgili, ise
rogorc asurelma mamebma.
   erTi Tanamedrove mkvlevari werda: `IX saukuneSi qarTvelebma wamoayenes
TavianTi ganmanaTlebeli wmida ninos saxiT~, aseT gancxadebas unda vupasux-
oT, rom qarTvelebma IX saukuneSi ki ar `wamoayenes~ anu, rogorc es mkvle-
vari fiqrobs, `SeTxzes legenda~ wmida ninos Sesaxeb, aramed yovel saukune-
Si, IV saukunis Semdeg, qarTvelTaTvis cnobili iyo, rom wmida nino maTi
ganmanaTlebelia, magram VI saukunesa da VII saukunis garkveul monakveTSi
mis xsenebas eridebodnen politikuri da saeklesio viTarebis gamo.
   rac Seexeba asurel mamebs, isini monofizitebi rom yofiliyvnen, VIII
saukunis Semdeg, roca qarTul eklesiaSi nadgurdeboda yvelaferi, rac ki
monofizitobis saxelTan iyo dakavSirebuli, asurel mamebsac aravin moix-
senebda da maT saxelsac srulebiT aRxocavdnen literaturidan, magram,
piriqiT, swored VIII saukunis Semdeg maTi saxeli xSirad ixsenieba.
   saqarTveloSi asureli mamebis SemosvlisTanave qarTulma eklesiam, arseni
safarelis Tanaxmad, dvinis 551 wlis krebis Semdeg, polemika daiwyo somxur
eklesiasTan, rasac maleve, 570-580-ian wlebSi, mohyva qarTlis antimonofiz-
ituri ajanyeba. am ajanyebas didi warmateba hqonda _ qveyana qalkedonito-
bisaken gadaixara. savaraudoa, rom ajanyebis sulisCamdgmelni asureli mamebi
iyvnen. monofizitobis momxre sparseT-arabTa batonobisas da agreTve bizanti-
asTan somxuri eklesiis `uniis~ dros somxur eklesias gavlena da zemoqmede-
ba hqonda qarTulze da amitom VI-VII saukuneebSi asureli mamebis Rvawli
warmoCenili ar iyo, xolo VIII saukunis Semdgom qarTuli eklesiis gaTavisu-
flebam asureli mamebi ixsna yovelgvari zegavlenisagan.
   amitomac, IX-X saukunis erTi himnografi daviT garejelisadmi miZRvnil
sagalobelSi mouwodebs saeklesio moRvaweebs _ `Zmebs~, romlebic ar
icnoben daviT garejelis moRvaweobas, aucileblad Seiswavlon igi. kerZod,
is wers: `...esreATve daviT Cuenda iqmna, kacno Zmano! umecar nu xarT,
SeiswaveT didi ese...~212 aqedan sruliad aSkarad Cans, daviTis (da asurel
mamaTa) Rvawli ucnobi yofila. mwerali _ msxemi zedazneli iovane zedaznel-
isadmi am droisaTvis daweril galobaSi wers: `mamaA mamaTaA, Rirsi qebi-
saA, iovane idideboden, aTormetTa maT Tana mowafeTa, romelTa mier ganaTl-
da dRes queyanaA ese qarTlisaA~; `samkaul iqmen kaTolike eklesiisa da
mcxeTa qalaqi wmida iqmna swavliTa SeniTa, mamao~.213
   VIII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesia `umecari~ iyo imiT, rom sruliad ar
icoda aTormetTa mamaTa Rvawli, VI-VII saukuneebSi qarTul eklesiaze
556                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
monofizitebisa da monoTelitebis batonobis dros, cxadia, isini Seecde-
bodnen mieCqmalaT qalkedonizmisaTvis mebrZol asurel mamaTa Rvawli,
aekrZalaT maTi xseneba. amitomac VIII-IX saukuneebis avtorebi saeklesio
pirebs acnoben asurel mamaTa Rvawls da mouwodeben: `nu umecar xarT~,
`SeiswaveTo~. marTlac, VI-VII saukuneebSi qalkedonituri aRmsareblobisa
da qarTuli eklesiis TavisTavadobisaTvis brZolis gamo asureli mamebis
damsaxureba miCqmaluli iqneboda.
   unda iTqvas, rom CvenSi ratomRac Seuracxyofad miiReba qarTul ekle-
siaze monofizitTa zegavlenis Sesaxeb saubaric ki. amitomac aseTTaTvis
cnobili unda iqnas, rom saukuneTa manZilze, maT Soris V, VI da VII
saukuneebSic ki, monofizitoba bizantiis imperiasa da mis dedaqalaq kon-
stantinopolSi TiTqmis iseve iyo miRebuli, rogorc qalkedonitoba. bizan-
tiaSi am saukuneebSi monofizitTa da qalkedonitTa Soris daucxromeli
brZola da dapirispireba iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom am brZolaSi arc monofiz-
itebi damarcxebulan da arc qalkedonitebs gaumarjviaT. amitomac, imperi-
is damSvidebis mizniT, bizantiis imperatorebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, V saukunis
bolos wasuliyvnen kompromisze da gamoecaT `henotikoni~, romelic erT-
maneTTan aTanxmebda monofizitebsa da qalkedonitebs. ase rom, aRiarebdnen
orive sarwmunoebriv mimarTulebas. TviT imperatori iustiniane erT peri-
odSi monofizitobisaken ixreboda da mas uWerda mxars. monofizitTa si-
Zlieris gamo VII saukunis dasawyisisaTvis imperatorma heraklem monofizit-
Ta da diofizitTa Tanaarsebobis Teoriac ki moifiqra. Camoyalibda `monoTel-
itoba~, romelmac saukunis bolomde iarseba. mxolod 681 wlis msoflio
krebis Semdeg bizantiis imperiaSi sabolood damarcxdnen monofizitebi da
monoTelitebi, gaimarjva qalkedonitobam. amas gadmogvcems cnobili istori-
kosi kartaSevi Tavis wignSi `msoflio krebebi~. marTalia, bizantiaSi Tanaarse-
bobdnen monofizitebi da qalkedonitebi da xandaxan eklesiisa da saxelmwi-
fos marTvis sadaveebi xelT epyraT, magram mainc, cxadia, bizantia erTguli
iyo, zogadi TvalsazrisiT, qalkedonis krebis anu diofizitobisa.
   aRniSnulis gamo, CvenSi arsebuli mtkiceba, rom arasodes, maT Soris arc
VI da arc VII saukuneebSi, Cvens eklesiaze gavlena ar hqonia monofizito-
basa da monoTelitobas, rom saqarTveloSi ar cxovrobdnen qarTveli monofiz-
itebi da monoTelitebi, seriozuld ar unda CaiTvalos. CvenSi, ise rogorc
bizantiaSi, Tanaarsebobdnen monofizitebi da qalkedonitebi, magram maT
sxvadasxva mrwamsi hqondaT. amis gamo isini mudam ebrZodnen erTmaneTs.
mxolod VIII saukunis Semdeg damarcxdnen saqarTveloSi monofizitebi da
monoTelitebi, rasac xeli Seuwyo iman, rom msgavsi ambavi ufro adre, VI
(681 wlis) msoflio krebis Semdeg daiwyo bizantiaSi. am krebis sapasuxod
726 wels somxeTSi mowveulma krebam dagmo qalkedonitoba da miiRo monofiz-
itoba. qarTulma eklesiam isargebla amiT da sabolood miemxro qalke-
donitobas. VIII saukunis Semdeg qarTul eklesiaSi daiwyo qalkedonitobis
zeimi da monofizitobis damarcxeba.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 557
  VIII saukunis Semdeg Tavisi Rirseuli adgili daiWires wmida ninom da
wina saukuneebSi moRvawe qarTvelma qalkedonitma wmindanebma.
  aRsaniSnavia isic, rom orTodoqs qalkedonitTa mier wmida ninos Rvawli
arc VI-VII saukuneebSi yofila mTlianad daviwyebuli. amis magaliTia am
saukuneebSi Seqmnili `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaA~, sadac wmida
nino da wmida elene, qarTvelTa da `rom-saberZneTis~ ganmanaTlebelni,
erTad moixsenebian xazgasmiT maSin, roca monofizitebi erTad moixseniebd-
nen wmida ninosa da wmida grigols.

             termin `naTesaviT qarTvelis~ Sesaxeb

  cnebebis `naTesaviT qarTvelisa~ (e.i. erovnebiT qarTvelis, gvartomobiT
qarTvelis) da `qarTvelis~ gagebisaTvis moviSvelioT Zveli qarTveli
moRvaweebis, mwerlebisa da istorikosebis gansazRvrebani.
  gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT qarTveli
da `naTesaviT qarTveli~ ewodeba saqarTvelos nebismieri kuTxis Svils.
  `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT egriseli, iseve rogorc hereTisa da
kaxeTis mkvidri, naTesaviT qarTvelia. qarTvelTa saerTo erovnuli erToba,
saerTo qarTveloba yovelTvis naTlad aris gadmocemuli nebismier Zvel
TxzulebaSi. mag. ilarion qarTvelis cxovrebaSi naTqvamia: `ilarion iyo
naTesaviT qarTveli, queyaniT kaxeTiT~, `aRmoscenda ukue netari ese queyan-
iT qarTliT, sazRvarTagan da kerZoTa kaxeTisaTa~.214 wmida ilarion qarTveli
moRvaweobda 822-875 wlebSi; aqedan Cans, rom ilarioni kaxeTis mcxovrebia
anu, dRevandeli terminologiiT, kaxelia. miuxedavad amisa, is `naTesaviT~
kaxeli ki ar aris (im dros ar iyo aseTi gansazRvra), aramed erovnebiT, anu
`naTesaviT~ qarTvelia.
                                 aseve VIII saukunis dasawyisSi egrisis qvey-
                               nis erT-erT `sanaxebSi~, argveTSi, mTavrebi
                               arian daviTi da konstantine (es mTavrebi
                              730 wels wmida mowamis gvirgviniT Seimknen).
                               Tumca, isini egriselebi arian, maT mematiane
                              ar uwodebs `naTesaviT megrels~, aramed uw-
                              odebs qarTvels.
                                 `iyvnes wmidani ese mowameni daviT da konst-
                              antine qarTvelni sanaxebisagan argveTisa
                              didni da didebulni tomebiTa da mTavarni
                              qveynisanni~.215
                                 es rom kerZo gamonaklisi ar aris, Cans
                              Semdegidan: `...IV saukunis cnobili moazro-
                              vnisa da mwerlis evagri pontoelis biograf-
558                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
iaSi aRniSnulia, rom evagri warmoSobiT iyo pontoeli, iberTa qalaqis
mcxovrebi. paladis Semdgom V saukunis istorikosebi aRniSnaven, rom eva-
gri tomiT iberia~.216
   tomiT iberi igive `naTesaviT qarTvelia~, Zveli qarTuli terminologiis
mixedviT. pontoSi mcxovrebi lazebi da megrelebi erovnebiT, anu gvarto-
mobiT `naTesaviT~ qarTvelebad _ `iberebad~ iTvlebodnen.
   ioane mTawmideli mesxi iyo, magram giorgi mTawmidels misi kuTxuri
warmomavloba saerTod ar aRuniSnavs, is wers: `ioane iyo naTesaviT qarTve-
li~. ratom ar aRniSnaven mis mesxobas? anda ilarion qarTvelis kaxelo-
bas? mizezi isaa, rom `mesxi~, rogorc tomobrivi erTeuli anda erovneba im
dros ar arsebobda. arsebobda `mesxeTi~, `kaxeTi~, magram am kuTxeebis
mkvidrni iseve rogorc sxva kuTxeebisa, `naTesaviT qarTvelni~ iyvnen.
   magaliTad, eqvTime aTonelis Sesaxeb naTqvamia, rom iverTa monasterSi
`ganiTqva saxeli misi da pativsa uyofdes berZenni da qarTvelni~. aq
`qarTvelSi~ igulisxmeba yvela kuTxis Svili saqarTvelosi. eqvTime `gamoCnda
samkaulad `naTesavisa Cvenisa~.
   `naTesaviT qarTveli~ _ es termini Zvelad qarTveli eris tomebad
dayofamde (XV saukunemde) aRniSnavda qarTvel ers.
   `naTesaviT qarTveli~ qarTuli eklesiis samwysoa. qarTlis kaTalikosi
`naTesaviT qarTvelTa~ kaTalikosia, e.i. qarTlis kaTalikosi kaTalikosia
ara marto aRmosavleT, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobisac, rad-
ganac dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobac `naTesaviT qarTvelia~.
   qarTlis kaTalikoss iuridiulad ZvelTaganve aRiarebuli kanonieri uf-
leba aqvs mTel qarTvel erze, amitomac afxazeTis kaTalikosi masze dabla
mdgomi mamamTavaria, radganac dasavleT saqarTvelos samwyso `naTesaviT
qarTvelTas~ Semadgeneli nawilia da masze Tavis iurisdiqcias qarTlis
kaTalikosi afxazeTis sakaTalikosos warmoqmnamde axorcielebda, xolo
misi warmoqmnis Semdgom iuridiulad is `umrwemes~ kaTalikosad gaformda.
   `naTesaviT qarTveli~ _ saqarTvelos nebismieri kuTxis Svils erqva
TviT vidre mongolobamde, anu saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifoebriobis
moSlamde (aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelmwifo mTlianobis darRvevis Sedegad
Temobrioba-tomobriobis aRmocenebis Semdgom wm. ilarions ukve `kaxels~
_ `kaxs~ uwodebdnen).217

      `iberia~ _ eTnikuri Sinaarsis matarebeli termini

  afxazeTis samefos warmoqmnamde da zogjer mis Semdegac, evropelebi da
ucxoelebi rogorc dasavleT, ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos uwodebdnen
iberias, xolo mis xalxs _ iberebs.
  cnobili istorikosi, mRvdeli miqel TamaraSvili, romelic brwyinvaled
icnobda ucxour wyaroebs saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, wers: `uwin evropelebi `ibe-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   559
ria~ da `georgia-~s saxeliT xSirad gulisxmobdnen mis dasavleT nawils _
imereT-samegrelosac~.218 Zveli qarTuli mwerloba da wyaroebi sityvebs `ibe-
riasa~ da `ibers~ ar iyenebdnen. es sityvebi araqarTul terminebad iyo
miCneuli. amitomac qarTveli mTargmnelebi am sityvebs Targmnidnen ase (amas
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs): `iberi~ _ `qarTvelia~ `iberia~ _ `qarTvelni~.
   Zvel qarTvel mTargmnelebs, sadac ki SexvedriaT sityvebi `iberi~ da
`iberia~, yvelgan uTargmniaT `qarTvelad~, miuxedavad imisa, Seesabameboda
Tu ara realur viTarebas aseTi Targmna. amis magaliTad SeiZleba moviy-
vanoT espaneTis iberiis Sesaxeb evropuli Txzulebebis ZvelqarTuli Targ-
manebi. aq yvelgan `iberi~ Targmnilia `qarTvelad~.
   ase: `...cnoba dasavleTis iberebis Sesaxeb moipoveba basili kesarielis
(329-379) ...uZveles qarTul TargmanSi. igi Targmnilia VIII-IX saukuneebSi~.219
   qarTvel mTargmnelebs qvemoT moyvanili winadadeba _ `Tavdapirvelad
zRva ar arsebobda, arc is SemaZrwunebeli ufskruli iyo, romelic ekvris
britaneTis kunZulsa da dasavleTis iberias (espaneTs)~, uTargmniaT aseTi
saxiT: `ara iyo zRuaA... arca SesaZrwunebeli igi siRrme,.. romeli igi gare
moadges Walaksa mas britaniaAsasa da qarTvelTa maT dasavalisaTa~.220
   rogorc vxedavT, aq `dasavleTis iberia~ Targmnilia _ `qarTvelTa maT
dasavalisaTad~, anu ucxo sityva `iberia~ iTargmna ase _ `qarTvelni~.
   igive winadadebas giorgi mTawmideli Targmnis Semdegi saxiT: `ara iyo...
ufskruli, romeli gareSeicavs Walaksa da qarTvelTa maT dasavalisaTa~.221
   eqvTime mTawmindelic `kelt-iberebs~ Targmnis _ `kelt-qarTvelni dasaval-
isanni~.
   `Zveli qarTveli mTargmnelebis mier espaneTis iberiis aRsaniSnavad
SemoTavazebulia termini _ `qarTvelni dasavalisani... pirineis naxevarkun-
Zulis iberielebi moxsenebulni arian terminiT `qarTvelni dasavalisani~
`liber generationis~-is qarTul versiaSic~.222
   Tu VIII-IX saukuneebSi da XI saukunis dasawyisSic `iberia~ iTargmneba
rogorc `qarTvelni~, XI saukunis Semdgom ukve `iberiis~ aRsaniSnavad sxva
terminia gamoZebnili.
   amJamad miRebulia, rom `berZnebTan `iberiad~ cnobil qveyanas adgilo-
briv _ `qarTli~ saxeli daumkvidrda~.223
   ismis kiTxva da am kiTxvis pasuxi arsebiTia _ VIII-X saukuneebSi `iberia~
ratom iTargmneba rogorc `qarTvelni~ da ara `qarTli~?
   pasuxi aseTia _ VIII saukuneSi `qarTli~ daiSala da warmoiqmna `afxaze-
Ti~, `qarTli~ (e.i. tao-klarjeTi Sida qarTlTan erTad) da `kaxeT-hereTi~.
magram samive am provinciis mcxovrebni iyvnen `naTesaviT qarTvelni~. er-
Tad aRebul am provinciebs (e.i. aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos
erTad) VIII saukunis Sua wlebamde Seesabameboda termini `qarTli~, anu
`iberia~, VIII saukunidan ki saerTo erTian qveyanas `qarTli~ ukve aRar
560                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ewodeba _ Zveli qarTlis samefos teritoriaze sami erTmaneTisagan
damoukidebeli politikuri erTeulis warmoqmnis gamo, romelTagan erT-
erT provincias SerCa Zveli saxeli, yofili erTiani samefoAsa _ `qarTli~.
  VIII-X saukuneTa qarTvelma mTargmnelebma kargad icodnen, rom ucxouri
termini `iberia~ Seesabameboda ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed
aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTad aRebuls _ Zvel qarTlis same-
fos. amitomac, VIII-X saukuneTa mTargmnelebi termin `iberiis~ Targmnisas
vardebian Zalze uxerxul mdgomareobaSi. Tu isini `iberias~ Targmnian
rogorc `qarTls~, maTi Targmani arazusti da araswori iqneba, radganac
VIII-X saukuneebSi `iberia~ da `qarTli~ ukve aRar udris erTmaneTs, ekviv-
alenturi aRar aris, radganac ucxouri termini `iberia~ kvlav Zvele-
buradve ewodeba aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTad, xolo `qarT-
li~ am saukuneebSi ukve mxolod aRmosavleT saqarTvelos erT nawils
ewodeba. amitomac mTargmnelebi termin `iberias~ ar Targmnian rogorc
`qarTls~, maT termin `iberias~ sxva ekvivalenti gamouZebnes. marTlacda
ra saxeli unda darqmeoda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos erTad
aRebuls? mecnierebi aRniSnaven, rom `saqarTvelo~ am erTobis aRsaniSnavad
jer kidev ar iyo gamoZebnili (igi ixmareba XI s-dan). am terminis gamoZeb-
namde ki aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mTlianobis aRmniSvneli Zve-
li terminis, `qarTlis~ gacveTis gamo, am krebiTobis, erTianobis aRmniSvne-
li sityvis magier VIII-XI saukuneTa mwerlebi xmaroben sityvebs _ `aRmo-
savleTi~ da `CrdiloeTi~.
  Tuki VIII-X saukuneTa mTargmnelebi `dasavleTis iberiis~ Targmnisas
sityva `iberiis~ nacvlad gamoiyenebdnen axladmoZebnil termins `aRmosav-
leTs~, es mxolod gaugebrobas gamoiwvevda. mTargmnelebma airCies sxva
gza. maT geografiuli Sinaarsis termin `iberias~ gamouZebnes eTnikuri
Sinaarsis matarebeli ekvivalenti _ `qarTvelni~. es xerxi mTargmnelebma
gamoiyenes Segnebulad da daamkvidres kidec saukuneTa manZilze, radganac
darwmunebulni iyvnen, rom termini `iberia~ matarebeli iyo rogorc geografi-
uli, ise eTnikuri Sinaarsisac. svidas leqsikonSi aRniSnulia: `iberebi _
tomis saxelia da iberia _ qveyanaa. aris sxva iberiac, dasavleTisa...~
  ucxo sityva `iberia~ VIII-X saukuneebSi gadaiTargmna rogorc `qarTvelni~.
`iberia~ ewodeboda aRmosavleT-dasavleT saqarTvelos erTad, aseve
`qarTvelni~ mosaxleobdnen im dros rogorc aRmosavleT, aseve dasavleT
saqarTveloSi. uZvelesi droidanve, Zveli qarTlis samefos (farnavazis
samefos) Seqmnis Semdgom, dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas iseve ewode-
ba qarTvelni, rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas. VIII saukunis
Sua wlebidan vidre X saukunis dasasrulamde, e.i Zveli qarTlis samefos
oficialuri gauqmebidan vidre saqarTvelos gaerTianebamde, miuxedavad
imisa, rom qveyanaSi sxvadasxva politikuri erTeulebi arsebobda, aRmosav-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              561
leT da dasavleT saqarTvelos nebismier kuTxeSi mcxovreb mkvidr mosax-
leobas qarTveli xalxi warmoadgenda. am mizezis gamo termini `iberia~
gadaiTargmna, rogorc `qarTvelni~. cxadia, VIII-X saukuneebSi aRmosavleT-
dasavleT saqarTvelos erTad `qarTli~ rom rqmeoda, `iberias~ Targmnid-
nen rogorc `qarTls~, magram im dros `qarTli~ ewodeboda aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos erT nawils, amitom `iberia~ iTargmna rogorc `qarTvelni~,
radganac qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli iyo rogorc aRmosavleTi, aseve dasav-
leTi saqarTvelo da `qarTvelni~ ufro zusti ekvivalenti iyo `iberiisa~,
vidre `qarTli~ (VIII-X saukuneebSi).
  Zvel saqarTveloSi terminebs `iberiasa~ da `ibers~ aniWebdnen eTnikur
Sinaarss da miiCnevdnen `naTesaviT qarTvlis~ fard sityvad. amis magali-
Tad SeiZleba moviyvanoT eqvTime mTawmidelis ambavi. man miiRo gadaw-
yvetileba, gamgzavrebuliyo espaneTSi, imis gamo, rom TiTqosda espaneTi
dasaxlebuli iyo qarTveli xalxiT. am Secdomis mizezi imaSi mdgomareob-
da, rom is termin `iberiaSi~ eTnikur Sinaarss sdebda. amitom pirineis
naxevarkunZulis iberebs man, ise rogorc sxva Zvelma mTargmnelebma, uwoda
`qarTvelni dasavalisani~.
  aqedanac Cans, rom `iberias~ hqonda eTnikuri Sinaarsi rogorc am epoqa-
Si, aseve antikur xanaSi. antikur xanaSi `iberias~ Seesabameboda termini
`qarTli~, xolo VIII-X saukuneebSi (SesaZloa VI-X saukuneebSi) Seesabamebo-
da termini `qarTvelni~.
562                                        mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e




                   Tavi VIII


      qarTuli eklesia XI saukuneSi




                       `T u v i s m e s a m a r T l i a n a d e T q m i s , r o m
               T v i T d a iwv n e n d a s x v a s k i gz a ga u n a T e s o ,
               es Cven s mama-papas eTqmis da madlobelni
             Svilni lmobierebiT pir-qve unda davem xoT
                        m a T s a f l a v T a wi n aS e d a v u ga l o b o T
                      d i d e b a d i d e b u l T a d a q e b a q e b u l T a~.

                                                           ilia marTali
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             563

      saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebis politikuri
                 safuZveli XI saukuneSi

  978 wels mefe bagrat III-is dros aRsdga iberiis, anu `qarTlis samefo~.
saqarTvelo gaerTianda.1 amjeradac, iseve rogorc vaxtang gorgaslis dros,
saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi Sedis aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi da samxreTi
saqarTvelo.2 1010 wels bagrat III-m Tavis samefos kaxeT-hereTic Semouer-
Ta,3 amiT restavrirebul iqna farnavaz mefis mier daarsebuli farnava-
zian-xosroianTa iberiis saxelmwifo. saqarTvelos erTian saxelmwifod
aRdgena ganapiroba qarTveli eris Sinaganma mondomebam, arabTa dasustebis
Semdeg, IX-X saukuneebSi, gansakuTrebulad gazrdilma erovnulma TviTSeg-
nebam. Tumca unda iTqvas, rom vaxtang gorgaslis Semdeg, VI-X saukuneebSi,
imdenad didi iyo `qarTlis samefos~ aRdgena-restavraciis survili, rom
VIII saukunemde qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azri ar cnobda erTiani `qarTu-
li samefos~ daSlas da `qarTli~ kvlav erTian qveynad esaxeboda Savi
zRvidan bardavamde. VIII saukunis Semdgom, marTalia, Seiqmna `afxazTa~,
`tao-klarjeTis~, `kaxeT-hereTis~ samefoebi, magram TiToeuli es qarTuli
saxelmwifoebrivi erTeuli cdilobda gaeerTianebina saqarTvelo da aRed-
gina iberiis Zveli samefo.
  `VIII saukunidan saqarTvelos teritoriaze Camoyalibda ramdenime poli-
tikuri erTeuli: egris-afxazeTis samefo, qarTvelTa sakurapalato, kaxeTis
saepiskoposo, hereTis samTavro da Tbilisis saamiro... egris-afxazeTis
samefos ukiduresi zRvari Crdilo-dasavleTiT iyo mdinare da qalaqi
nikofsia. konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT, afxazeTsa da jiqeTs Soris
sazRvari md. nikofsiaze gadioda. mdinare nikofsia Tanamedrove niCep-
suxoa, romelic q. tuafses midamoebSi erTvis Sav zRvas. qalaqi nikofsia ki
afxazeTSi mdebareobda. XI saukunis mwerlis, giorgi mciris TqmiT, `erTi...
mociqulTagani _ simons vityvi kananelsa _ queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars,
afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis~. aRmosavleTi sazRvari afxazTa same-
fosi md. klisura (Tanamedrove kelasuri) iyo... TandaTanobiT xdeba afx-
azeTis politikuri sazRvrebis gafarToeba aRmosavleTiT: leon afxazTa
mefeman `dai pyro afxazeTi da egrisi vidre lixamde~.4
  afxazeTis samefos warmoqmnas Sedegad mohyva am samefoSi avtokefaluri
eklesiis daarseba `afxazeTis sakaTalikosos~ saxelwodebiT. mas avtoke-
falia 750-ian wlebSi mianiWa antioqiis sapatriarqom, efrem mciris mier
gamoyenebuli `antioqiuri qronografis~ da agreTve ucxour wyaroTa Tanaxmad.
am eklesias `qvemo iberiis~ eklesia erqva, radganac iberiis erTiani same-
fos arsebobis dros dasavleT saqarTvelo am samefos nawils Seadgenda.
am eklesiis damoukidebloba, qarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, 830 wels cno
`zemo iberiis~, anu `tao-klarjeTis~ samefom.
564                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   `X saukuneSi tao-klarjeTi erT-erTi uZlieresi iyo saqarTvelos same-
fo-samTavroTa Soris. am saukunis pirvel naxevarSi misi sazRvari md.
araqsis zemo xeobamde aRwevda. tao-klarjeTi kidev ufro gaZlierda da
ufro Sors gadaiWima misi sazRvrebi X saukunis meore naxevarSi daviT
didi kurapalatis dros... 80-ian wlebSi daviTma dai pyro qalaqi manazker-
ti _ vanis tbis Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT. 997 wels man alya Semoartya
cnobil savaWro qalaq xlaTs _ vanis tbis napirze... amrigad, X saukunis
meore naxevarSi tao-klarjeTis samefo moicavda vrcel miwa-wyals, rom-
lis samxreTi sazRvari aRwevda vanis tbasa da qalaq erzinkanamde (axlan-
deli erzinjani). amave dros daviTi Tavis gavlenas avrcelebda Crdilo-
eTiTac, saqarTvelos sxva samefo-samTavroebze. daviT didma kurapalatma
isargebla afxazeTis Sinagani aSlilobiT da Tavisi Svilobili bagrati,
saqarTvelos istoriaSi bagrat III-is saxeliT cnobili, pirvelad qarTlSi
975 wels, xolo 3 wlis Semdeg afxazeTSi mefed dasva. am saqmeSi daviTs
energiulad TanamSromlobda qarTlis erisTavi ioane maruSis Ze~.5
   iahia antioqielis cnobiT, zemo iberis kaTalikoss gavlena da ndoba
hqonda bizantiis samefo karze. es iqidan Cans, rom daviT kurapalats
basili II-sTan `qarTvelTa kaTalikosi~ gaugzavnia molaparakebisaTvis, xolo
mefe giorgi I-is dros basili II-sTan sazavo molaparakebisaTvis midian
sasuliero meTaurebi _ kaTalikosi da episkoposebi.6
   daviT mefemo, _ wers iahia antioqieli, _ `qarTvelTa kaTalikosi saxelm-
wifos sxva mraval didebulTan erTad mefis karze gagzavna. mefem (basili
II-m) maT titulebi Camouriga, mowyaleba uyo da isini daviTTan dabrundnen~.7
   `saqarTvelos teritoriis aRmosavleT nawilSi ori politikuri erTeuli
Camoyalibda: kaxeTis saqorepiskoposo da hereTis samefo... X saukunis meore
naxevarSi kaxeTi da hereTi gaerTiandnen. es gaerTianeba vrceldeboda aragvidan
mdinare axsumde (axsu mtkvris marjvena Senakadia da erTvis mtkvars daax-
loebiT iq, sadac marjvena mxridan araqsi uerTdeba, q. sabirabadis midamoeb-
Si). kaxeT-hereTi 1010 wlis axlo xanebSi bagrat III-m SeuerTa saqarTvelos~.8
   bagrat III-is saxelmwifo gadaWimuli iyo nikofsiidan mtkvar-araqsis SesarTa-
vamde aRmosavleTiT, xolo samxreTiT vanis tbamde. marTalia, daviT kurapa-
latis sikvdilis Semdeg misi samefos vanistbispira miwebi basili II-m mi-
uerTa bizantias, magram es miwebi mainc sadavo teritoriebi iyo bizantia-
saqarTvelos Soris, ramac giorgi I-is dros gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi.
   `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da bagrationTa XI saukunis mematianis, sumbat
daviTis Zis Tanaxmad, bagrat III-is samefoSi Sedioda mTliani kavkasia Savi
zRvidan kaspiis zRvamde. bizantiis imperatorebs axladSeqmnili uzarmazari
qarTuli saxelmwifosi eSinodaTo, _ wers is.
   bagrat III-m `...daipyra yoveli kavkasia TYTmpyrobelobiTa jiqeTiTgan
vidre gurgenadmde. xolo adarbadagani da Sarvani moxarke yo, somxiTsa
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 565
xelmwifebiTa nebierad ganagebda. mefe sparsTa TYs megobrad da erTgul
yo sibrZniTa da ZlierebiTa TYsiTa ufros saxleulTa TYsTasa da berZenT
mefesaca SiSi aqunda amisi yoveladve~.9
   vaxtang gorgaslis msgavsad, bagrat III-m savsebiT gaaerTiana zemo da
qvemo iberia, amitomac is, mematianeTa Tanaxmad, Tavisi didebiT, ZaliT da
gonebiT qarTvel mefeTa Soris erTaderTi iyo msgavsi vaxtang gorgaslisa
(igulisxmeba VI saukunidan XI saukunemde): `...Semdgomad didisa mefisa
vaxtang gorgaslisa aravin gamoCenil ars sxua msgavsi misi didebiTa da
ZaliTa, da yovliTa gonebiTa...~10
   quTaisis taZris kurTxevis droso, _ wers mematiane, _ bagrat III-m Sekriba
`yovelni didebulni zemoni da quemoni, mamulisa da samefosa misisa myofnio~.11
   mkvlevar-istorikosebis v. donduasa da g. wulaias Tanaxmad, `qvemo mam-
ulSi~ da `zemo mamulSi~ igulisxmeba cal-calke dasavleTi da aRmosav-
leTi saqarTvelo. `dasavleT saqarTvelos (afxazeTis) samefo Tavisi
geografiuli pirobebiT warmoadgenda `qvemos~ `zemosTan~ _ aRmosavleT
qarTul qveyanasTan `SefardebiT~.12
   `qvemo~ da `zemo~ iberiis gaerTianebas erTiani `saqarTvelos samefos~
sazRvrebSi, saeklesio kanonebis Tanaxmad, Tan unda mohyoloda `qvemo iberiis~
(anu afxazeTis) sakaTalikososa da `zemo iberiis~ (anu mcxeTis) sakaTali-
kosos gaerTianeba saqarTvelos erTian eklesiad, radganac ZvelTaganve
arsebula da msoflio krebaTa dadgenili kanonebiT eklesiis sazRvari
Tan unda emTxveodes saxelmwifo-administraciul sazRvars.
   marTlac, erTian saqarTvelos samefoSi Seiqmna erTiani saqarTvelos
sapatriarqo. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sazRvrebs SigniT arsebuli ori
sakaTalikososagan Seiqmna erTi sapatriarqo. qarTveli eris ori avtoke-
faluri eklesiisagan da agreTve Crdilo kavkasiis, kaspiiszRvispireTisa
da somxeTis qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiebis gaerTianebis Sede-
gad Seiqmna saqarTvelos sapatriarqo. SeqmnisTanave mis pirvel patriarqs
melqisedek I-s `aRmosavleTis patriarqi~ uwodes mis iurisdiqciisqveSa
teritoriis sididis gamo. ase moixseniebs mas tyoba-ierdis warwera.13
   `patriarqis tituli mcxeTis sakaTalikosom mas Semdeg daimkvidra, rac
saqarTvelos eklesia gafarTovda da SeiZina berZnuli sapatriarqos gar-
egnuli niSnebi da, rogorc Cans, es ar iyo ucxo da sapretenzio arc
bizantiis imperatorebisa da patriarqebisaTvis. melqisedek I, romelmac
pirvelma isargebla am wodebiT, bizantiaSi imperatorebis karze: basilTan
(970-1025), konstantinesTan (1025-28) da romanozTan (1028-34) miRebuli da
dafasebuli pirovneba iyo, maTganve melqisedekma miiRo materialuri dax-
mareba da Sewirulebani mcxeTis sveticxovlis mSeneblobisaTvis, miiRo
soflebi bizantiis teritoriaze da sxva~.14
   amJamad miCneulia, rom saqarTvelos pirveli kaTalikos-patriarqi gamoCnda
mefe giorgi I-is dros, wyaroTa Tanaxmad, pirveli patriarqi erTiani qarTu-
566                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
li eklesiisa, melqisedek I, iyo bagrat III-is naTesavi da misive gazrdili.
is iyo didebulTa Svili. kaTalikos svimeonis gardacvalebis Semdeg bagrat
III-m melqisedeki dasva saqarTvelos patriarqad. saqarTvelos patriarqad
dadgomisTanave melqisedeki maSinve gaemgzavra konstantinopolSi saimper-
atoro karze basili II-sTan, Cans, imisaTvis, rom konstantinopols ecno
qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirseba.
   mematiane wers: `mokuda kaTalikozi sYmon da dasua aman mefeman dide-
bulTa kacTa Svili meyvisi da gazrdili TYsi melqisedek kaTalikoz-
patriarqad. xolo ese wmidaA mefeH warvida berZenTa mefisa basilis
winaSe konstantinopoled, raTa Seewios; rameTu iyo didi ese kaTolike
samociqulo eklesia sveti-cxoveli, romeli vaxtang gorgasals aReSena...~15
   am wyaros miTiTebiT, konstantinopolSi molaparakebisaTvis TviT saqarTve-
los pirveli mefe (VIII saukunis Semdeg) bagrat III Cavida.16 basili II da
bagrat III (an misi warmomadgeneli), cxadia, pirvel rigSi politikur-
saxelmwifoebriv sakiTxebze moilaparakebdnen, magram mematiane aRniSnavs,
rom molaparakebis Tema exeboda qarTuli eklesiis sakiTxebs. kerZod,
sakiTxi exeboda `kaTolike samociqulo eklesia sveticxovels~. qarTuli
wyaroebis Tanaxmad, `kaTolike samociqulo eklesia sveticxoveli~ ewodebo-
da ara saeklesio Senobas mcxeTaSi (cxadia, am Senobasac ewodeboda), aramed
ewodeboda saqarTvelos mTlian eklesias, romlis iurisdiqcia vrceldebo-
da pontos zRvidan darubandis zRvamde. swored asea gadmocemuli wyaroSi:
`kaTalikosi qarTlisa KelqveiT ara ars patriarqTa da ara ikurTxvian
patriarqTagan, rameTu Tavisufali ars da mociqulTa magieri da mociqulTa
taxtsa zeda mjdomi da patriarqi, Tavi yovelTa eklesiaTa: _ wmida kaTo-
like samociqulo eklesia sveticxoveli... da amas samwyso da KelqveiT
qarTli, rani da kaxeTi, ovseTi... pontos zRYdam darubandis zRvamde~.17
   zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom `wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia
sveti-cxoveli~ ewodeba erTiani saqarTvelos eklesias, erTian qarTul
eklesias aseve ewodeboda `wmida mcxeTa~, iseve rogorc amJamad erTiani
bulgareTis eklesias ewodeba `sofiis sapatriarqo~, an `sofiis eklesia~,
ruseTisas _ `moskovis sapatriarqo~, serbeTisas _ `belgradis~ da a.S.
aseve saqarTvelos eklesias ewodeboda `sveticxovelis samociqulo ekle-
sia~ anda ufro xSirad `mcxeTis samociqulo eklesia~. xandaxan qarTul
eklesias simartivisaTvis, ubralod, uwodebdnen `mcxeTas~, xolo saeklesio
pirebs da eklesiisaTvis moRvawe, eklesiaze damokidebul adamianebs _
`mcxeTis Svilebs~. magaliTad, mematiane `mcxeTas~ uwodebs erTian qarTul
eklesias VII saukuneSi: `amis krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesi-
isa saqarTvelosaTYs, romel ars wmida mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa
viTarca wmidani samociqulo kaTolike eklesiani, sapatriarqoni da iyos
kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori patriarqTa Tana...~18
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                567
   amitomac, roca mematiane wers bagrat III (an misi warmomadgeneli mel-
qisedeki) konstantinopolSi gaemgzavra `sveticxovelis kaTolike samo-
ciqulo eklesiis sakiTxebis gadasaWrelado~, gulisxmobs, rom sakiTxi mTlian
saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Seexeboda.19
   im dros samociqulo eklesia ewodeboda ara yvela eklesias, aramed
avtokefalur, damoukidebel eklesias. qarTveli saeklesio moRvaweni mudam
amtkicebdnen, rom qarTuli eklesia samociqulo eklesiaa, radganac aq iqad-
ages andria pirvelwodebulma, svimon kananelma da sxva mociqulebma. da
radganac qarTuli eklesia samociquloa, aqedan gamomdinare, avtokefaluric
aris. es avtokefalia adreve iyo aRiarebuli sxva eklesiebis mier.
   bagrat III bizantiis samefo karze `avtokefalurobis~ dasamtkiceblad
ki ar wavida (es avtokefalia ukve hqonda qarTul eklesias), aramed, raTa
saimperatoro kars eRiarebina qarTuli eklesiis erT administraciul
erTeulad _ sapatriarqod gaerTianeba da eRiarebina pirveli patriarqi
qarTuli eklesiisa _ melqisedek I.
   bagrat III-m jer `patriarqad dasva~ melqisedek I, xolo Semdeg mimarTa
konstantinopols, eRiarebina qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirseba, rad-
ganac aseT didmniSvnelovan movlenas _ axali sapatriarqos daarsebas _
ar SeiZleboda ar mohyoloda saerTaSoriso saeklesio rezonansi, bagrat-
ma izruna, rom rezonansi dadebiTi yofiliyo.
   bagrat III bizantiis samefo karze molaparakebas saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqos iurisdiqciis farglebis gansazRvrisaTvisac awarmoebda, rac iqidan
Cans, rom am dromde saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis mcire nawilze jer
kidev SemorCenili iyo konstantinopolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqcia, xolo
X-XI saukuneTa mijnaze konstantinopolis sapatriarqo kargavs Tavis iuris-
diqcias sabolood saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTze (cnobilia, rom SavizRvi-
spireTis es teritoriebi, romelzedac iurisdiqcia qarTlis sakaTaliko-
sos hqonda, VII saukunis dasawyisSi dai pyro da bizantias SeuerTa herak-
le keisarma, amitomac aq Tavisi iurisdiqcia konstantinopolma ganaxor-
ciela. VIII saukunis Semdeg qvemo iberiis sakaTalikoso ibrunebda am
miwebs Tavis iurisdiqciaSi, magram X saukunisaTvis es procesi dasrule-
buli ar iyo _ bagrat III-is epoqamde).
   bagrat III-is papam (dedis mamam), afxazTa mefe giorgim, `aRaSena saydari
Wyondidisa, Seqmna saepiskoposod~,20 xolo dedis Zmam `leon afxazTa mefem,
`aRaSena eklesia moqYsa da Seqmna saydrad saepiskoposod~.21 TviT bagrat
III-m `aRaSena saydari bediisa, da Seqmna saydrad saepiskoposod, mocvala
mun gudayYisa saepiskoposo~.22 afxazTa mefeebi dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvi-
spireTSi aarsebdnen qarTul saepiskoposoebs konstantinopolis berZnuli
saepiskoposoebis nacvlad. magram aseTi Secvla ar SeiZleba momxdariyo
eklesiaTa SeTanxmebis gareSe. konstantinopolis nacvlad qarTuli ek-
568                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
lesiis iurisdiqciis gavrcelebisas unda arsebuliyo SeTanxmeba am ekle-
siaTa Soris. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli saepiskoposoebis daarseba
konstantinopolis iurisdiqciisqveSa teritoriaze CaiTvleboda qarTuli
eklesiis mtaceblobad, rasac Sedegad mohyveboda qarTuli eklesiis mxriv
saerTaSoriso saeklesio izolacia da misi mwvaleblur eklesiad gamocx-
adeba (aseTi ram, marTlac, moxda, magram ara bagrat III-is, aramed giorgi I-
sa da bagrat IV-is dros. erT-erTi sababi amisi iyo qarTuli eklesiis
iurisdiqciis qveS somxeTis vrcel teritoriaze arsebuli marTlmadide-
beli eparqiebis Sesvla, romelzedac konstantinopoli acxadebda Tavis
pretenzias).
  bagrat III-is dros saimperatoro kars ucvnia, rogorc qarTuli eklesiis
sapatriarqo Rirseba, aseve misi iurisdiqcia SavizRvispireTSi, amitom amis
Semdeg konstantinopolis sapatriarqos arasodes gauxdia sadavod saqarTve-
los SavizRvispireTi da ar CauTvlia Tavis iurisdiqciisqveSa teritori-
ad, ufro metic, konstantinopols saqarTvelos sapatriarqos centris _
sveticxovelis taZris restavraciisaTvis Seuwiravs mdidari monasteri
da 105 sofeli.
  unda davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos sapatriarqos SeqmnisTanave bizantiis
samefo karze irkvevdnen saqarTvelos sapatriarqos sakiTxs da es sakiTxi
konstantinopolSi dadebiTad gadauWriaT. bizantias rom ar ecno saqarTve-
los eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirseba, sapatriarqos centrs _ sveticxovels
da saqarTvelos patriarq melqisedeks saCuqrad ar gadascemdnen monas-
ter kestorias, romelsac 105 sofeli hqonda, da sxva Sesawirs.23
  1031-1033 ww. saqarTvelos pirvel kaTalikos-patriarqs melqisedeks dau-
weria `moxsenebuli mcxeTis saydrisadmi~ (ix. qarTuli istoriuli sabuTe-
bi IX-XIII ss. 1984 w., gv. 22).
  am sabuTidan Cans, rom igi ar miiCnevs Tavs sveticxovlis didebuli
taZris maSeneblad, aramed am taZrisTvis miuSenebia gareTa bWeni, garSemo
Semouvlia (SemouSenebia) `stoani~ da gadauxuravs isini. garda amisa, mas
mTeli taZari Seumkia yovelive saeklesio nivTiTa da samkauliT: `Sevamkev
yovliTave samkaulobiTa, gareTiTa bWiTa da garSemo stoaTa moqmniTa da
zeddaburviTa~ (iqve, gv. 22). melqisedeks rom aeSenebina es taZari, amas
uTuod aRniSnavda, rameTi igi CamoTvlis wignebsa da zogierT wvrilmans,
rac mas am taZrisaTvis Seuwiravs an gaukeTebia. marTalia, amJamad miC-
neulia, rom melqisedekis dros TiTqosda sveticxovlis Zveli, mcire taZris
adgilze aSenda axali da didebuli, magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, es mel-
qisedekis sabuTiT ar dasturdeba. ufro metic, yvela Zveli sabuTi, romel-
ic exeba mcxeTis taZars, miiCnevs, rom igi aSenebulia vaxtang gorgaslis
mier, mxolod XIX s-is bolosa da XX s-Si Seitanes amaSi eWvi da taZari
melqisedekis aSenebulad miiCnies.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 569
                          melqisedeks sveticxoveli marTlac rom brwyin-
                        valed da didis didebulebiT Seumkia `warsamarTle-
                        blad qristianeTa~, kerZod, oqrosa da vercxlis fur-
                        clebiT mouWedia taZarSi myofi `sveticxoveli~, anu
                        saswaulmoqmedi gadaWrili xis adgilze aSenebuli
                        oTxkuTxa sveti. garda amisa, oqro-vercxliTa da Tval-
                        margalitiT SeuWedia `sakurTxeveli~, anu saRmrTo trap-
                        ezi, kankeli da sameufo karebi sakurTxevlisa aseve
                        oqro-vercxliT SeuWedia.
                          ierusalimidan mTels msoflioSi ganawilda im
                        cxovelmyofeli Zelis nawilebi, romelzec jvars
                        acves Cveni ufali da macxovari ieso qriste. maTgan
                        akeTebdnen SedarebiT mcire zomis jvrebs, romelnic
                        iTvlebodnen udides siwmindeebad. maTi qoneba did
ganZad iTvleboda. melqisedeks sveticxovlisaTvis `Seuqmnia~ aseTi jvrebi,
SeuWedavs isini oqroTi da Tval-margalitiT.
  aseve, eklesiis udides ganZad iTvleboda qristesTvis wamebuli da Tavdade-
buli wmidanebis nawilebi. maT didi makurnebeli da saswaulmoqmedi Zala
gaaCndaT. rogorc wesi, romelime wmidanis romelime nawils udidesi osta-
tobiT moWedavdnen da eklesiaSi daasvenebdnen xolme. melqisedeksac svet-
icxovlisaTvis `Seuqmnia~ samartvilo, anu wmida nawilebis dasasvenebeli
adgili (mec minaxavs msgavsi samartvilo aTonze iverTa monastris mTavar
eklesiaSi). melqisedeks `samartvilo~ oqro-vercxliTa da Tval-margalitiT
SeuWedavs, masSi dausvenebia TiTqmis yvela wmidanis nawilebi da zemoaRwer-
ili `Zeli cxovrebisaA~, e.i. ierusalimidan Camosvenebuli jvris nawili.
  rogorc aRiniSna, melqisedek kaTalikos-patriarqi aTeulobiT wlebis gan-
mavlobaSi mravaljer Cavida saimperatoro karze konstantinopolSi, sadac
mas didis didebiTa da pativiscemiT iRebdnen basili II bulgarTmmusvreli,
konstantine da romanozi Cuqnidnen mas mraval saeklesio siwmindes. magal-
iTad, imperator konstantines misTvis uboZebia `oqros xati~, romelic patri-
arqma sveticxovels Seswira. basili II-s oqro-vercxliTa da Tval-margali-
tiT Semkuli RvTismSoblis xati, xolo romanoz `berZenTa mefes~ misTvis
oqroqsovili Sesamoseli uboZebia, isinic Seswira sveticxovels. Tavis mxriv,
cxadia, Cveni eklesiis pirvel patriarqs gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos pirve-
li mefe bagrat III mraval Sesawirs swiravda, aTavisuflebda qarTul ekle-
sias gadasaxadebisagan. `movaxsene gamzrdelsa Cemsa bagrat kurapalats da
Seuvalad gamixadnes~ (iqve, gv. 27), _ acxadebs melqisedeki.
  aRniSnuli sabuTis Tanaxmad, sveticxovlisaTvis melqisedeks Seuwiravs
mooqrouli da Zvirfasi TvlebiT Semkobili macxovris didi zomis xati,
aseve vercxlis, oqrocurvili macxovris xati, naTlismcemlisa da wm. Tev-
570                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
dores xatebi, oqro-vercxliT SeWedilni, sxva xatebi, sul 55 cali. oqros-
agan damzadebuli barZim-feSxumi Semkobili Tval-margalitiTa da minan-
qris xatebiT, oqrosave kovziTa da varskvlaviT (`xuirni~), isinic Tval-
margalitiT Semkulni, oqrosave samweroblebi, anu ri pidebi, isinic Tval-
margalitiT Semkulni, oqrosave sacecxlurebi da sasakmevleebi da sxva
mravali nivTi. wignebi: oTxive maxareblis wignebi cal-calke, maT garda, wm.
oTxTavi, sami cali `saTanao~, anu satarebeli `oTxTavi saxarebaA~, Tval-
margalitiT Semkobili. vercxliT `Sekazmuli~ vercxlisave `Rilkiloiani~,
mowameTa wignebi `zamTari da zafxuli~, anu zogSi zafxulis dReebSi
eklesiaSi moxseniebuli wmidanis cxovreba iqneboda, sxvebSi ki zamTarSi
mosaxsenebelTa cxovreba. isinic vercxliT `Sekazmulni~ da mravali sxva
wigni, sul 25 cali. Seuwiravs agreTve mooqroul-movercxlili `sawigneni~,
e.i. wignebis Casawyobi kolofebi. maT garda, mravali sakelaptre, samRvde-
lo da samRvdelmTavro Sesamoseli, sanawile da sxva mravali nivTi. saqarTve-
los sapatriarqos, anu qarTul eklesias mravali sofeli ekuTvnoda saqarT-
velos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi. maT garda, TviTon kaTalikos-patriarqs, Tavis
mxriv, `mougia~ mravali sofeli, romelic Seuwiravs mTavari sapatriarqo
taZrisaTvis, kerZod, rogorc aRvniSneT, misTvis berZenTa mefe basili II-s
uboZebia didi monasteri `kestori~. am monasters ekuTvnoda 105 sofeli,
romelic gadaucia sveticxovlisaTvis. man iyida da aRaSena soflebi saqarTve-
los yvela kuTxeSi _ taoSi, klarjeTSi, SavSeTSi, javaxeTSi, kolaSi, fara-
vans, Sida qarTlSi, kaxeTSi, hereTSi, kakSi, qvemo qarTlSi, romelnic ekle-
sias Seswira, sul 155. TbilisSi qarTul eklesias didZali simdidre da
Semosavali hqonda. Tbilisis arabma amira alim melqisedekis TxovniT
eklesia gadasaxadebisagan gaaTavisufla.
   melqisedeks augia saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mravali eklesia da
daudgams saeklesio saxli (Sewirul soflebSi). sabuTis aRniSnuli CamonaTva-
lis qvemoT miwerilia `qoronikoni iyo sm (e.i. 781+240=1021 w.).
   am dros melqisedeki jer kidev mxned yofila, moxucebulobis Jams ki mas
Seumzadebia TavisTvis saflavi, augia masze sakurTxeveli da daudgenia
saflavze mlocveli mRvdeli, romelic yovelmxriv uzrunveluyvia, raTa
masa da mis Svilebs Taobidan Taobamde elocaT pirveli patriarqis saflavze
misi sulis saoxad. kerZod, amave sabuTidan Cans, rom melqisedeks Tavisi
saflavi Seumzadebia sveticxovlis taZris sadiakvneSi. aqve man ufro
adre moawyo zemoaRwerili samartvile. rogorc wesi, taZris nawili, romelsac
amJamad sakurTxeveli ewodeba, sam nawilad ganiyofa. centralur, mTavar
nawilSi mowyobilia wmida trapezi, marjvena nawilSi sadiakvnea, marcxena-
Si _ samkveTlo. sveticxovlis am nawilSi (e.w. samkveTloSi) amJamad mcire
eklesiaa gamarTuli, marjvenaSi (sadiakvneSi) mouwyvia melqisedeks mcire
eklesia, gauTxria TavisTvis saflavi, zed daudgams `sakurTxeveli~, anu
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 571
samwirvelo trapezi. am sakurTxevelze wirva-locva daavala Tavis gazrdils
mRvdels iovanes, romelsac gasamrjelod, saxsrad da col-Svilis gamo-
sakvebad saukunod daumkvidra mdidari saeklesio Sesawiri _ 5 glexi
sruli fuZiT, e.i. Tavisi saxl-kariT, miwiT, venaxiT, WaliT da wisqviliT, sxva
mamulebic gadasca. amasTan dakavSirebiT anderZSi Cawera: `aravis aqvs
amas zeda xeli Tvinier xucisa, romeli sakurTxevelsa amas Cemsa zeda
Jamsa wiravdes~ (iqve, gv. 28.). Tavisi saflavis eklesiisaTvisac melqisedeks
Seuwiravs Sesamoseli, barZim-feSxumi da vercxliT namzadi sxva nivTebi.
  melqisedeks Tavis mosaxseneblad aRapi (sulis saoxi wirva-locva zed
mobmuli purobiT) daudgenia 24 ianvars.



           qarTuli eklesiis devna 1021-1054 wlebSi
               bizantia-saqarTvelos omis dros

  bagrat III-is gardacvalebis Semdeg iwyeba omi bizantiis imperiasa da
saqarTvelos Soris. es iyo ara ubralo da epizoduri SebrZolebebi, aramed
didi omi, romelic gagrZelda aTwleulobiT da romelSic uSualod monaw-
ileobdnen bizantiis imperatorebi da saqarTvelos mefeebi. omi daiwyo
basili II-is dros, 1021 wels da mimdinareobda imperatorebis konstantine
VIII-is, romanoz III-is, miqael IV-is, miqael V-is, zoiasa da Teodoras da
damTavrda konstantine monomaqosis dros, 1054 wels. imxanad saqarTvelo-
Si mefobdnen giorgi I da bagrat IV. swored bagrat IV-is dros Sewyda
bizantia-saqarTvelos omi da daido samSvidobo zavi.
  am oms zogadad aseTi saxe hqonda: imperatorebi basili da konstantine
TviTonve ramdenjerme SemouZRvnen TavianT mravalricxovan armiebs
saqarTveloSi qarTveli mefeebis dasamarcxeblad. romanozis dros ram-
denime wliT samSvidobo zavi daido bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris, romelic
male dairRva. amis Semdeg bizantia Tavisi laSqriT, fuliT da sxva saSu-
alebebiT exmareboda da mxars uWerda saqarTveloSive arsebul separatis-
tul Zalebs, saqarTvelosa da qarTveli mefis dasamarcxeblad. bagrat IV-
is dros, 1054-1057 wlebSi, samwliani molaparakeba zaviT damTavrda.
  bagrat III-is mematiane aRniSnavda, rom bizantiis mezoblad saqarTvelos
didi saxelmwifos warmoqmnam, romelic mTel kavkasias eufleboda, SeaSfo-
Ta bizantiis samefo kari. saqarTvelos mefem, wers is, Savi zRvidan kaspiis
zRvamde, `jiqeTidan vidre gurganamde... dai pyra yoveli kavkasia TviTmpyro-
belobiT~, `mefe sparsTa TYs megobrad da erTgul yo sibrZniTa da Zliere-
biTa TYsiTa~. bizantiis mmarTveli wreebisaTvis saSiSi gamxdara saqarTve-
los gaerTianeba: `berZenTa mefeTaca SiSi aqunda amisi yovladveo~.
572                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  amiT iyo gamowveuli is, rom daviT kurapalatis gardacvalebisTanave,
1001 wels, `gamovida basili, berZenTa mefe, da miscnes mas cixeni aznaurTa
ama daviTisTa da dai pyra basili mefeman mamuli daviT kurapalatisa~.24
basili am dros Seecada Camoegdo mtroba da SuRli bagrat III-sa da
mamamiss gurgen mefeT-mefes Soris, magram es ver SeZlo. bagrat III-is
gardacvalebis (1014w.) Semdeg saqarTvelos samefos erTianoba ar darRv-
eula, piriqiT, saqarTvelo kidev ufro Zlierdeboda. amitomac, 1021 wels
basilma axalgazrda giorgi I-is dros wamoiwyo Zalze didi omi saqarTve-
los saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg. oms TviT basili mTavarsardlobda. basili
keisars imedi hqonda, rom mis Setevas saqarTvelos samefo ver gauZlebda
da daiSleboda, rogorc iyo bagrat III-mde. magram qarTveli eri da qarTu-
li eklesia gverdSi amoudga saxelmwifos. eklesia bizantiis mier dapyro-
bil kuTxeebSi saTaveSi Caudga samamulo oms dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg.
  `yovliTa spiTa saberZneTisaTa da ucxoTesliTa uricxYTa~25 SemoWril
basili II-es qarTulma mxedrobam didi winaaRmdegoba gauwia giorgi I-is
meTaurobiT: `egzom gagrZelda maT Soris brZola, romel sivltolad ganemza-
da basili mefe~.26 giorgi mefem ukandaxevis Semdeg gaaZliera Tavisi armia,
amitomac basili iZulebuli gaxda daetovebina saqarTvelos sazRvrebi da
trapizonis maxloblad daezamTrebina. meore wels is kvlav SemoiWra
saqarTveloSi. giorgi I-ma Seutia mters da gaaqcia: `iwyes brZolad da
aotes zogi basilis laSqrisa~.27 damarcxebiT gaognebulma imperatorma
moiTxova: `..Zeli cxovrebisa mandiliTa wmidiTa, da dasca igi qveyanasa
zeda da Tqua esreT, viTarmed: `ukeTu mimec me KelTa mtersaTa, arRara
Tayuanis-gce ukunisamde~ da viTar ese yo da Tqua, myis masve Jamsa iZlivnes
da meot iqmnes spani giorgisani~.28
  basili II mzad yofila RmerTi daegmo, Tu omSi qarTvelebi gaimarjvebd-
nen. mematianis zemomoyvanili azriT, romelic gamoxatavs imdroindel sa-
zogadoebriv azrs, qarTveli mefisa da armiis damarcxeba da bizantielTa
gamarjveba RvTis nebiT momxdara. imdroindeli SexedulebiT, bizantia da
misi imperatorebi iyvnen burjni msoflio qristianobisa. imperatorebs
Tayvans scemdnen, rogorc RvTis nebis aRmsrulebelT. albaT, amiT iyo
gamowveuli is, rom bizantielTa mxareze gadavida qarTuli mosaxleobis
erTi nawili dapyrobil samxreT saqarTveloSi: `...mieqces erni, sofelni
ugunur-ususurni cnobiTa da gonebiTa...~29 aseT dros, roca qristianul
sarwmunoebas qarTveli eris mteri iyenebda qristiani qarTveli eris
dasapyrobad, qarTuli sapatriarqo da samRvdeloeba saTaveSi udgeba sa-
mamulo oms bizantielTa winaaRmdeg dapyrobil samxreT saqarTveloSi.
samRvdeloeba `viTarca erTgulni da WeSmaritni martYlni, saRmrToni Tav-
Ta TYsTa sikudilad ganswirvides, da KorcielTa ufalTaTYs TavTa TYsTa
ganswirvides da sisxlTa dasTxevdes...~30 qarTvel samRvdeloebas bizanti-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               573
asTan omSi qarTveli `wvrili eri~ rom ar gamoefxizlebina, mteri gamoiy-
enebda maT gulubryvilobas, `cnobiT ugunur-ususurobas~ da maT gulwr-
fel qristianobas Tavis sasargeblod. qarTveli samRvdeloeba, eklesia da
sapatriarqo `uqristianes~ bizantiis imperiasTan saqarTvelos brZolis
Jams dadga qarTuli saxelmwifos mxareze. qarTuli eklesiis aqtiurma
poziciam am omSi gamoiwvia bizantiis samefo karisa da konstantinopolis
sapatriaqros risxva qarTuli eklesiis mimarT. bizantiis eklesia qarTu-
li eklesiis winaaRmdeg ganewyo. qarTuli eklesia mwvalebelTa aramarTl-
madideblur eklesiad gamocxadda. daiwyo qarTuli monastrebisa da qarTve-
li berebis devna imperiaSi.
  33-wliani omi bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris iyo omi or qristianul
saxelmwifos Soris, amitomac am or qveyanas Soris mSvidobisa da zavi-
saTvis iRvwian saeklesio pirebi. kaTalikos-patriarqi melqisedeki, wyaro-
Ta Tanaxmad, xSirad Cadioda konstantinopolSi. am dros xSirad mimo-
diodnen saeklesio pirebi bizantiasa da saqarTvelos Soris, mSvidobisa
da SewevnisaTvis. amis Sesaxeb moRweulia aTonis mTawmidis devnili qarTveli
berebis mier dawerili cnoba: `...arca Tu egebis, ravdenni Ruawlni moiT-
minnes, yovelTave TiToeulad aRricxuvaA: mimoslvaA Cueni zRYT da KmeliT
da afxazeTs da qarTls savedrebelTa wignTaTYs berZenTa mefeTa winaSe,
da ravdengzis moviRiT wigni TYTmpyrobelTaA da CamovidiT, da kualad
ginebiTa da SeuracxebiTa wargudevnnian usagzloni da uKamurni Jamsa
RelvaTatexisa da zamTrisasa esreT anu TxoviT aRvidiT kualad sameufod
anu RmrTis-moyuareTa kacTa wyalobiTa da kualad SevstirodiT da vesa-
marTlebodiT mefeTa~.31
  am cnobiT, qarTvel berebs imdenjer umogzavriaT am omis dros bizan-
tiasa da saqarTvelos Soris, rom amis aRricxva SeuZlebeli yofila. maTi
mgzavrobis mizani iyo mieRoT Tavisi mdgomareobis SemsubuqebisaTvis `save-
drebeli wignebi~ saqarTvelos TviTmpyrobel mefeTagan da CaetanaT es
wignebi `berZenTa mefeTa winaSe~. orive SemTxvevaSi mefeebi naxsenebi arian
mravlobiT ricxvSi, ase rom, berebi konstantinopolsa da saqarTvelos
Soris sxvadasxva imperatorebis dros mogzaurobdnen. saqarTvelos mefis
mier gagzavnil wigns konstantinopolSi araviTar yuradRebas ar aqcevd-
nen, piriqiT, berebs ginebiTa da SeuracxyofiT abrunebdnen, isini ki usag-
zlod, fexSiSvelni, mkacr zamTarSi kvlav Camodiodnen saqarTveloSi da
`kualav SevstirodiT da vesamarTlebodiT mefeTa~.
  iverTa monasteri daarsda 980-983 wlebSi basili II-is mniSvnelovani
SesawiriTa da daxmarebiT. basili II am dros kargad iyo ganwyobili
qarTvelebis mimarT, radganac qarTvelebma mas taxti SeunarCunes barda
skliarosis ajanyebis dros (976-979). skliarosis damarcxebis meore welsve
iwyeba iveronis mSenebloba: `mefe basilis, romanozis Zis mefuri wyalobiT,
574                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ioanem aRmarTa sakuTari lavra, romelsac Zvelad klimentioss eZaxdnen,
mogvianebiT ki ivironi ewoda~.32
  basili II barda fokas ajanyebis (987-989) damarcxebis Semdeg qarTvelebis
mimarT ukve aRar iyo kargad ganwyobili ajanyebaSi maTi monawileobis
gamo. es male daetyo iberTa monasters. 1008 wels, gurgen mefeT-mefis
gardacvalebis Semdeg taos qarTvelTa samefo SeierTa bagrat III-m, ramac
bizantiis ukmayofileba gamoiwvia. maleve, 1012 wlidan iverTa monasterSi
daiwyo areuloba _ `sulmokleoba da sigrile~, rasac, Cans, konstantinopo-
li aqezebda. 1021 wlis omis dawyebis Semdeg, 1025 wlidan imperator
konstantines dros iverTa monasterSi namdvili amboxeba dawyebula. iveronis
monastris maSindeli mdgomareoba sarkesaviT asaxavda bizantia-saqarTve-
los urTierTdamokidebulebas. magaliTad, bizantia-saqarTvelos zavis dros,
1030-ian wlebSi, imperatori romanozi kargad ganewyo iveronis winamZRvar
giorgi I-is mimarT, magram zavis darRvevisTanave monastris berebi `Rel-
vasa da mimotacebaSi~ `Cacvivdnen~.
  omis dros bizantiaSi ara marto qarTuli monastrebi da saeklesio
pirebi idevnebodnen, aramed saero pirebic _ saqarTvelos moqalaqeebic _
saqarTvelos moqalaqes `qveynis Cuenis eris kaci~ erqva.33 es iqidanac Cans,
rom grigol bakurianis Zesac ki, romelic erovnebiT qarTveli iyo, magram
saqarTvelos moqalaqe ar yofila, aramed imperiis mTavarsardali iyo,
mZafrad ganucdia qarTveli moqalaqeebisa da berebis devniT gamowveuli
tanjva. is wers: `berZenni... arian bunebiT mZlavrni da angaharni da xelo-
vanni, meSinis, Tu nuTu savnebeli da dasaklebeli raime SeamTxvion monas-
tersa... romeli ese mravalgzis gvixilavs maTgan qmnilad Cuenisa naTesav-
isa umankoebisagan da gulmartiobisagan~.34
  qarTveli berebi antioqiaSic idevnebodnen.
  saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi melqisedek I saeklesio sakiTxebis
gadasaWrelad mravaljer Sexvedria imperatorebs, basils, konstantines,
romanozs. bizantiasTan omis dros saeWvod gamoacxades qarTveli eris
marTlmadidebloba, qarTuli avtokefaluri eklesiis Tavidanve arsebuli
mravali ufleba, amitomac, SeuZlebelia, qarTuli eklesiis meTauri mraval-
jer ar Casuliyo konstantinopolSi saeklesio sakiTxebisaTvis, ris Sesax-
ebac mogviTxrobs `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Teimuraziseuli nusxa. melqisede-
ki iyo meTauri uzarmazari avtokefaluri eklesiisa, romlis iurisdiqcia
vrceldeboda Savsa da kaspiis zRvebs Soris, amitomac araferia gasakviri
imaSi, rom bizantiis imperatorebi angariSs uwevdnen amas da saCuqrad
Sesawiris saxiT melqisedeks aZlevdnen xatebs, jvrebsa da saeklesio nivTebs.
  Tanamedrove terminologiiT rom gamovxatoT, bizantia-saqarTvelos omis
dros am ori qveynis eklesiebi aqtiur ideologiur brZolas eweodnen.
bizantiuri ideologia qarTveli erisa da eklesiis mimarT agresiuli iyo.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             575
maTi propagandistuli manqana avrcelebda sicrues qarTvelebis arama-
rTlmadideblobisa, eklesiis arakanonierebis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, qarTu-
li eklesiis ideologia iyo TavdacviTi. is amtkicebda, rom qarTuli ekle-
sia mudam marTlmadidebluri iyo, im drosac ki, roca bizantiuri eklesia
mwvalebluri iyo, magaliTad, xatmebrZolobis dros. aseve qarTuli eklesia
mudam Tavisufali da avtokefaluri iyo, radganac mociqulTa mier iqna
daarsebulio.35
  bizantias ganzraxuli hqonda, samagaliTod daesaja qarTuli eklesia
omSi dakavebuli antibizantiuri poziciisaTvis. amisaTvis saWiro iyo moe-
ZiaT raime saeklesio-dogmatikur-kanonikuri sababi. sababad gamoiyenes is,
rom qarTulma eklesiam Tavisi Tavi gamoacxada sapatriarqo eklesiad, rac
ewinaaRmdegeboda pentarxiis bizantiur `kanonikur~ Teorias (msoflioSi
mxolod xuTi sapatriarqos arseboba), amitomac aramarTlmadideblurad
gamoacxades qarTuli eklesia da eWvi Seitanes mis avtokefaliaSic ki.
  bizantielebma qarTuli eklesiis marTlmadideblobaSi eWvis misatan
sababad gamoiyenes qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis cnobili saeklesio
kavSiri VI-VII saukuneebSi. Tavis droze, VI saukunis dasawyisSi, qarTvel-
somex-albanelTa erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelma avtokefalurma sakaTali-
kosoebma dvinis gaerTianebul saeklesio krebaze 506 wels dagmes nesto-
rianoba da miiRes `henotikoni~. imperatorebis, zenonisa da anastasis dros
arsebuli bizantiuri Teoria `henotikoni~ icavda imperiis eklesiis er-
Tianobas imiT, rom aerTianebda monofizitebsa da qalkedonitebs. es Teor-
ia aRiares qarTulma da somxurma eklesiebmac da safuZvlad daedo maT
religiur-sarwmunoebriv erTobas. 518 wlis Semdeg, rac bizantiam dagmo
henotikoni, qarTuli eklesiac cdilobda daegmo igi, magram am dros, VI
saukuneSi, saqarTvelo dapyrobili iyo sparsTa mier, sparseTi ki mxars
uWerda da aZlierebda yovelgvar antibizantiur mrwamss _ am SemTxvevaSi
monofizitobas, romelic am saukuneSi TandaTan somxuri eklesiis erovnul
sarwmunoebad gadaiqca. somexi ierarqebi mudamJam ukiJinebdnen qarTvel
ierarqebs, romelTac qalkedonuri pozicia eWiraT, rom qarTvelTa winaprebma
somxebTan erTad dagmes qalkedonitoba da miiRes saerTo sarwmunoeba,
isini gulisxmobdnen henotikons, amitomac qarTvelTa mier qalkedonitobis
aRiareba TiTqosda iyo `mamaTa sarwmunoebis Ralati~.36
  jer sparseTi, xolo Semdeg araboba sastikad devnida qarTul qalke-
donitur eklesias, amis mizezi iyo is, rom es qveynebi mudam eomebodnen
bizantiis imperias da amitomac am imperiaSi arsebuli saeklesio ideolo-
gia _ qalkedonitoba miuRebeli iyo rogorc sparseTis, ise arabobisaTvis.
orive es qveyana xels uwyobda da aZlierebda monofizitobas _ antiqalke-
donitur mrwamss. rogorc sparseTi, ise araboba yovelmxriv xels uwyobda
da xelovnurad aZlierebda somxuri monofizituri eklesiis gavlenas
576                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
albaneTsa da qarTlSi.37 mose kalankatuelis Tanaxmad, arabebma sastikad
dasajes albanuri eklesia Tavisi qalkedonituri mrwamsisaTvis da dau-
qvemdebares is somxur eklesias VI saukunis miwuruls,38 amis gamo albane-
Tis vrcel qveyanaSi saeklesio ena iyo ara albanuri, aramed somxuri.
albaneTis uZvelesi samociqulo avtokefaluri eklesia dampyrobelma spars-
arabebma somxuri eklesiis nawilad aqcies. albanur enaze arsebuli wmida
werili aRar gamoiyeneboda albaneli xalxisaTvis, is somxurenovanma saek-
lesio literaturam Secvala. albanuri anbanis magier albanel xalxs
somxuri anbanis gamoyeneba daaZales rogorc sparselebma, ise arabebma.
kavkasiis erT-erTi yvelaze mravalricxovani xalxi somxurenovani gaxda
saeklesio TvalsazrisiT.
  saqarTvelos did nawilze, gansakuTrebiT ki dasavleT saqarTveloze,
agreTve aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mtkvris CrdiloeTiT moqceul nawilze
sparseTi da araboba Tavis gavlenas naklebad avrcelebda, samxreT
saqarTveloze ki, mtris mier dapyrobil mesxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi, somx-
ur eklesias yovelgvari neba mieca Tavisi gavlenis gavrcelebisa. arabo-
bis Sesustebamde es mxareebi somxuri eklesiis gavlenis qveS iyo, ramac
Tavisi kvali daaCnia qarTul qristianobas _ qarTveli mosaxleobis aram-
cire nawili somxurma eklesiam Tavis mrevlad aqcia. qarTvel monofiz-
itebs, anu `sarwmunoebiT somxebs~ moixseniebs grigol bakuriani: `vinaAca
menebos, naTesavTa CemTa da msaxurTa CemTa, daRacaTu somexni iyvnen sarwmu-
noebiTa~.39 monofiziti qarTvelebi, anu `sarwmunoebiT somxebi~ X saukunis
bolosa da XI saukunis dasawyisSi `inaTlebodnen~ kidec, magram maTi
raodenoba mainc aramciredi iyo. magaliTad, `movida gvirpeli... da moinaT-
la, rameTu somexi iyo~.40
  somxuri eklesia XI saukunis dasawyisSi mwvaleblur eklesiad iTvleboda
bizantiaSi, xolo qarTul eklesias am droisaTvis jer kidev Rrmad etyoboda
somxuri eklesiis gavlenis kvali, swored es gamoiyenes bizantielma ideol-
ogebma qarTuli eklesiis marTlmadideblobaSi eWvis Sesatanad.
  amis Sesaxeb qarTveli beri werda kidec: `...queyanaA Cueni Sors iyo
queyanisagan saberZneTisa da viTarca Teslni ara wmidani Soris Cuensa
daTesul iyvnes borotni igi Teslni somexTani _ gularZnilni da manqanani
da amis mier friad guevneboda~.41
  qarTul eklesias, arsen safarelis Tanaxmad, jer kidev 551 wels (somxu-
ri welTaRricxvis pirvel wels) mowveuli krebis Semdeg gauwyvetia so-
mxur eklesiasTan kavSiri, Semdgom 607 wels, kirionis dros, kvlav saWiro
gaxda msgavsi qmedeba, magram sparseTis mefe xosros mier 614 wels ieru-
salimis aRebis Semdeg sparseTma `somxuri sarwmunoeba~ sparseTis imperi-
aSi mcxovrebi qristianebisaTvis savaldebulo sarwmunoebad gamoacxada.
amis gamo, sparsTagan dapyrobil aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi somxeTis gav-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 577
lena kvlavindeburad grZeldeboda. 632 wels ki bizantiis imperatorma
herakle keisarma `unia~ Sekra somxur eklesiasTan, ramac monoTelitobis
aRorZinebas Seuwyo xeli bizantiis imperiaSi. somxuri eklesia bizantiuri
`monoTelitobis~ erT-erTi burji gaxda, ramac saSualeba misca mas, kvl-
avindeburi gavlena hqonoda amierkavkasiaze. somxuri eklesia, rogorc
Tavis antiqalkedonitobas, ise `monoTelitobis~ magvar sarwmunoebas Tavis
sasargeblod iyenebda.
    mxolod 726 wels mowveuli krebis Semdeg, rac somxurma eklesiam sab-
olood dagmo qalkedonitoba da aSkarad aRiara monofizitoba, qarTulma
eklesiam yovelgvari kavSiri gawyvita masTan. magram Zvel kavSirs ukvalod
ar Cauvlia. `wrfeli da umanko~42 qarTveli xalxisaTvis somexi saeklesio
moRvaweni gamxdaran avtoritetuli pirebi da `...igini reca mizeziTa wesi-
erebisaATa, reca cdunebad guazmnobdes...~43 e.i. avtori amtkicebs, rom somexi
saeklesio moRvaweebi xan gangeb acdendnen, abrkolebdnen qarTvelebs, xan
kidev saeklesio wesebis sisworis momizezebiT nergavdnen araswor wesebs.
garda amisa, somxuri enidan Targmnili saeklesio wignebic yofila qarTul
eklesiaSi, rac sxva SecdomaTa wyaro xdeboda. mTliani winadadeba aseTia:
`...daRacaTu pirveliTganve guqondes werilnica da sarwmunoebaA WeSmariti
da marTali, garna queyanaA Cueni Sors iyo queyanisgan saberZneTisa da
viTarca Teslni arawmidani Soris Cuensa daTesul iyvnes borotni igi
Teslni somexTani, gularZnilni da manqanani, da amis mier friad guevnebo-
da, rameTu naTesavi Cueni wrfeli iyo da umankoA. xolo igini reca mizez-
iTa wesierebisaATa reca cdunebiTa guazmnodes da romelnime wignnica
guqondes maTgan Targmnilni~.44
    IV-V saukuneebis `pirvelTagan Targmnili wmida werili~ VI-VII saukune-
ebSi `wesierebis~ momizezebiT somxuri redaqciebis mixedviT yofila reda-
qtirebuli, anda xelaxla Targmnili; amis gamo XI saukuneSi bizantiam
gangaSi atexa.
    aqamde arc erT qarTvels odnavi eWvic ki ar Sehqonda Tavis marTlma-
dideblobaSi. qarTveloba gaocebuli darCa bizantielTa SemoteviT, radga-
nac, misi azriT, qarTuli eklesia mudam marTlmadidebluri iyo, maSinac ki,
roca bizantiaSi mwvalebloba batonobda. xolo somxuri enidan wignebis
Targmna-redaqtirebas xsnidnen qarTvelebis ubiwoba-umankoebiT da mimn-
doblobiT. amiT isargebles somexma monofizitebma da zogierTi mcire
cduneba Semoitanes CvenSi, risi aRmofxvrac mainc SeiZlebao.
    qarTul eklesiaSi Semotanili somxuri `RvarZlisagan srulad ganwme-
dis~ didi saqme, mematianis Tanaxmad, iTava eqvTime mTawmidelma. es saqme ki
daasrula giorgi mTawmidelma. `RvarZli~ srulebiT `ganiwminda~ ramden-
ime aTeul weliwadSi. sinamdvileSi araviTari `RvarZliT~ ar yofila
Sebilwuli qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia. berZnebma RvarZlad mi-
578                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
iCnies zogierTi wmida wignis Targmna-redaqtireba somxuri enidan, am azrs
ver daveTanxmebiT. ar SeiZleba aramarTlmadideblurad CaiTvalos ekle-
sia im mizeziT, rom is saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis wignebs somxuri enidan
Targmnida.
  mematiane wers: `amaT eseviTarTa mizezTaTYs moxedna mowyalebaman Rmr-
Tisaman naTesavsa Cuensa da aRgYdgina axali oqropiri wmidaA mamaA Cueni
efTYme, da viTarca meaTcameteman mociqulman queyanaA Cueni amaT zemoK-
senebulTa RuarZlTagan sruliad ganwmida mravlad TargmanebiTa wmidaTa
werilTaATa...~45
  eqvTime mTawmidelma didi raodenobiT wigni Targmna 1012 wlidan 1028
wlamde. TargmnasTan erTad igi iRebda ukve arsebul teqsts da udarebda
maT berZnul redaqcias. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Zveli qarTuli Targmani emTxve-
oda berZnuls, eqvTime ucvlelad tovebda Zvel teqsts, Tu mcired sxvaobda,
asworebda mas berZnulis mixedviT da Tu gansxvaveba didi iyo, eqvTime ukve
namdvilad iwyebda Targmnas.
  berZnulis mixedviT Zveli qarTuli teqstebis redaqtireba, anu `Targm-
na~, rogorc maSin uwodebdnen, jer kidev VIII saukuneSi daiwyo sabawmidis
lavraSi. miuxedavad intensiuri muSaobisa, Zvel teqstebSi somxuridan
naTargmnobisa da redaqtirebis kvali ver aRmofxvres, Tumca es arc iyo
saboloo mizani. axali redaqtirebis mizani iyo ara Zveli Targmanebis
lingvistur-filologiuri kvleva, aramed arsebuli teqstis gamarTva berZnuli
redaqciebis msgavsad. Semdgom ki, XI saukuneSi, qarTuli Targmanebi didi
sizustiT dauaxloves berZnuls. miuxedavad amisa, rogorc qarTvelTa, ise
berZenTa Soris yofilan _ `mabralobelni~ da `mayvedrebelni~, romlebic
swunobdnen qarTul Targmanebs im mxriv, rom isini ar mihyvebodnen im dros
gavrcelebul berZnul redaqciebs: `...mecnierni berZnulisani mabralobel
gueqmnebodes gamouZieblad dawerisaTvis sityuaAsa~.46 aq igulisxmebian
berZnuli enis mcodne qarTvelebi, magram yofilan agreTve qarTulis mcodne
berZnebi _ `mayvedrebelni~ _ `...amas guayuedrebdes berZennio~. magaliTad,
ori sxvadasxva sityva grigol RvTismetyvelisa, romelic eqvTime mTaw-
midels, Tavis dros, albaT, cal-calke uTargmnia, viRacas mere SeuerTebia _
meqanikurad gadaubams. es berZnebs SeuniSnavT da qarTvelebi gaukicxavT
aseTi aRrevisaTvis.
  `mabraloblebisa~ da `mayvedreblebis~ gamravleba XI saukunis dasawyis-
Si gamoiwvia bizantia-saqarTvelos omma.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli eklesia, miuxedavad imisa, rom is qalkedoni-
tobis uerTgulesi damcveli iyo, mainc gansxvavdeboda bizantiur-berZnuli
eklesiisagan Tavisi nacionaluri qristianuli kulturiT. mas Semdeg, rac
qarTulma eklesiam kavSiri gawyvita somxur eklesiasTan, `...romelTanac
mas akavSirebda erTi da igive saeklesio wesebi, zne-Cveulebebi da tradicie-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 579
bi~,47 qarTvel ers miuCnevia, rom denacionalizaciis saSineli katastro-
fisagan Tavis daRwevis gza aris `...sakuTari eklesiis frTeTa qveSe nacio-
nalur-qristianuli kulturis gaRviveba~.48 amas Sedegad mohyolia VIII-X
saukuneebSi originaluri saeklesio wesebis mZlavri zrda-ganviTareba.
SemuSavebula nacionaluri agiografia, `dawesebul iqna wmida qarTuli
dResaswaulebi erovnuli wmidanebisa~.49
  qarTvelebs bizantiaSi damkvidrebuli msoflio saeklesio dResaswauleb-
isaTvis `Tavisi erovnuli suli Cauberia, ris gamoc Semdgomi drois (XI
saukunidan) mwerlebs, romelTac maTi warmoSoba ukve naTlad aRar gaege-
bodaT, qarTul dResaswaulebad mounaTlavT. aseTia magaliTad, jvaris
dResaswauli aRdgomis meore dRes... dResaswauli wmida giorgisa 10 noem-
bers... satfureba ierusalimis taZrisa 13 seqtembers~.50
  swored am mxriv qarTuli liturgikuli kalendari gansxvavdeboda berZnu-
lisagan. arsebobda berZnulisagan gansxvavebuli welTaRricxvis qarTuli
sistema da qarTuli `wesi da gangeba saxarebis sakiTxavebisa~, `magram
yvelaze meti Tavisebureba da `qarTveloba~ Cvens winaprebs am xanaSi
liturgikul mwerlobaSi gamouCeniaT... SeuTxzavT sakuTari qarTuli ok-
tioxosi, iadgari, marxuani da zatiki. am araCveulebrivs, istoriaSi erTad-
erT magaliTs gansakuTrebiT Tavi uCenia X saukuneSi...~51
  swored qarTuli eklesiis nacionalur-qristianulma xasiaTma misca sa-
babi berZnebs mwvaleblebad moenaTlaT qarTvelebi, radgan qarTuli ek-
lesiis liturgika gansxvavebuli yofila berZnulisagan. `qarTvelebi dadgo-
mian RvTismsaxurebis sruli gaerovnulebis gzas, ara marto enis mxriv,
aramed SinaarsiTac, magram Semdegma periodma es mimarTuleba Seayena~.52
  qarTuli RvTismsaxurebis srul gaerovnebas XI saukunis pirvel naxe-
varSi win aRudga bizantiis eklesia, romelmac erovnuli niSan-Tvisebebi
mwvaleblobad CauTvala qarTul eklesias da monofizitur somxur eklesi-
asTan Zveli kavSiris damadasturebel sabuTad miiCnia. qarTuli eklesiis
marTlmadideblobis damtkicebas Tavisi Sroma Sealies VIII-XI saukunis
moRvaweebma. isini `...berZnulis mixedviT asworeben Zvel Targmanebs, romelnic
somxuri enidan momdinareobdnen. aseTi Sedareba-Sesworebis gziT war-
moiSva `axali Targmani~...53
  imisaTvis, raTa moespoT berZnebisaTvis qarTvelTa mwvaleblebad gamocx-
adebis sababi, eqvTime, giorgi mTawmidelebi da maTi skola Semdegi saxis
samuSaos asrulebda: `...bibliis manamde arsebul qarTul Targmanebs maqsi-
malurad uaxloeben berZnul wyaros, rom `biwi rame~ ar daswamon maT. sul
raRac naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi bibliuri wignebis Zvelma qarTulma
Targmanma samjer ganicada safuZvliani gadamuSaveba... aseT muSaobas Tavidan
mxolod wminda literaturuli interesebi ki ar gansazRvravda, aramed
ufro mwvave politikur-kulturuli garemoc... es iyo iZulebiTi RonisZieba
580                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qarTuli kulturis kerebis TviTmyofobis SesanarCuneblad didmpyrobe-
luri berZnebis momZlavrebis Jams... V-XI saukuneebSi qarTul enaSi ar
momxdara iseTi didi masStabis cvlileba, rom amis gamo XI saukuneSi
aucilebeli yofiliyo Zvel qarTul TargmanTa redaqciuli gadamuSaveba
da enobrivi modernizacia... mizani iyo ara Zveli teqstebis enobrivi mod-
ernizacia, aramed maqsimaluri daaxloeba berZnul wyarosTan~.54
  aRmoCnda, rom giorgi mTawmideli aris bibliuri wignebis ara mTargmne-
li, am sityvis dRevandeli mniSvnelobiT, aramed redaqtori _ `giorgi rom
bibliur wignebs xelaxla ar Targmnis, es faqtia, romelsac mxolod danax-
va unda da ara mtkiceba... giorgis redaqciuli kalami arsebiTad Seexo
Zveli redaqciis ara gramatikul, aramed Sinaarsobriv-stilistur mxares~.55
`giorgis redaqtoruli muSaobis mizania, rom Zveli qarTuli redaqciis teqs-
ti ufro dauaxlovos berZnul wyaros~... `...efrem mcire ki giorgis nare-
daqciev qarTul Targmans kidev ufro aaxloebs berZnul wyarosTan ara
marto Sinaarsis, aramed struqturis, stilis TvalsazrisiTac. ...raTa qarTuli
Targmani maqsimalurad Seesityvebodes berZnul wyaros azrobrivadac da
enobrivadac... magram es xdeba... qarTuli enis bunebis sawinaaRmdegod~.56
  aseT ukiduresobamde qarTveli mTargmnel-redaqtorebis miyvana gamoiw-
via `mabralobelTa~ da `mayvedrebelTa~ ciliswamebam, TiTqosda qarTul
Targmanebs raRac monofizituri `biwi~ gaaCnda.
  qarTvelma mTargmnel-redaqtorebma mospes qarTuli eklesiis mwvalebe-
lTa eklesiad gamocxadebis sababi da amiT udidesi saqme Seasrules
qarTuli eklesiis ZvelTaganve arsebuli avtokefaliisa (TavisTavadobisa)
da saqarTvelos sapatriarqos aRiarebis saqmeSi.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom miuxedavad qarTuli qalkedonituri eklesiebis Zlierebisa,
X-XI saukuneebSi qarTveli monofizitebi arsebobdnen ara marto qveynis
samxreT nawilSi, aramed maT samefo karzec ki maRali Tanamdebobebi eka-
vaT. magaliTad, bagrat III-is mwignobarTuxucesi eqvTime (efTvime) erovnebiT
qarTveli, magram sarwmunoebiT `somexia~. es mematianes miaCnia erovnul
Ralatad, `Sinagamcemobad~. is efTvimes Sesaxeb wers: `igica Tana-ziari iyo
borotis mis wvalebisa maTisa da Sina-ganmcemi sarwmunoebisa Cuenisa~,
Rrtilas saeklesio krebaze qalkedonitTa da monofizitTa kamaTisas es
`Sinagamcemi~ miemxro somex monofizit somexT-moZRvars sosTens.57
  dinara dedoflamde aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, hereTSi, mosaxleobis
erTi nawili monofizituri yofila, magram qarTveli monofizitebis ricxvi
qveyanaSi X s-is bolosa da XI s-is dasawyisisaTvis mcirdeboda.
  miuxedavad amisa, berZnebi am droisaTvis sarwmunoebrivi motiviT devnian
qarTvelebs, romelnic aseT situaciaSi iZulebulni iyvnen emtkicebinaT,
rom isini `naTesaviT~, gvar-tomobiTa da warmoSobiT qarTvelni arian. grigol
bakurianisZe da, saerTod, XI saukunis moRvaweni kargad ganasxvavebdnen
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 581
erTmaneTisagan erovnebasa da sarwmunoebas, isini amtkicebdnen, rom erovnebiT,
`naTesaviT~ qarTvelebi arian, amave dros ar uaryofdnen erovnebiT qarTve-
li, xolo sarwmunoebiT `somxebis~ arsebobasac.
  basili II-is gardacvalebis Semdeg axalma imperatorma konstantinem
saqarTvelos mimarT Zveli politika ganagrZo. imis miuxedavad, rom basili
ramdenjerme Semoesia saqarTvelos, is mainc pativiscemiT sargeblobda
qarTvel saeklesio moRvaweTa Soris, radganac garkveuli wvlili miuZRo-
da qarTuli eklesiis winaSe. imperatori konstantine ki Zalze mtrulad
da agresiulad iyo ganwyobili qarTuli eklesiisadmi. amitomac misma
sikvdilma qarTul sazogadoebriobaSi TanagrZnoba ki ar gamoiwvia, aramed
sixaruli. misi sikvdili imperatorisaTvis movlenil RvTis risxvad miuC-
neviaT: `ewia risxva umsjavrosa mas mefesa konstantines, msgavsadve iv-
lianes usjulosa, uwyaloebisaTYs bagrat mefisa Cuenisa _ mooKrebisaTvis
mamulisa misisa~.58
  imperator konstantines mier `Relvad aRtexilad igvemeboda~ saqarTve-
lo. bizantiis ganmgebeli qarTuli eklesiis mimarT SurisZiebiT aRavso im
garemoebam, rom bizantia-saqarTvelos omis dros, kerZod, saqarTveloSi
misi SemoWrisas, qarTuli samRvdeloeba da eklesia saTaveSi Caudga sax-
alxo oms mis winaaRmdeg.
  konsantinem gamefebisTanave 1026-1027 wlebSi gailaSqra saqarTveloze.
misi armia ZaliT bevrad aRemateboda basili II-isas. is SemoiWra `miuw-
domelisa ZaliTa laSqriTa TYsisaTa da ganZiTa uricxYTa yovlad uZliere-
sad basili mefisaca. movlo da moaoKra queyanani igi, romelni pirvel
moeoKrnen queyanani basili mefesa, da umetesca~.59
  mefe bagrat IV-m, romelic im dros bavSvi iyo, winaaRmdegoba ver gauwia
berZnebs, xolo zogierTi aznauri gandga misgan da cixeebi dampyrobels
gadasca. mtris winaaRmdeg brZolis iniciativa da meTauroba Tavis xelSi
aiRo eklesiam. `aRaSena simagre saba mtbevar episkoposman, maxlobelad
tbeTis eklesiasa da saxel-sdva mas suetid. da Sekriba maSin man eri TYsi
da Sevides mas Sina TYT saba mtbevar episkoposi, da ezra anCel episkopo-
si~. male mtris winaaRmdeg meomar episkoposebs gverdSi amoudga mosaxle-
oba _ `da SavSeTisa aznaurni da ganZlierda mas Sina~.60
  saba mtbevar episkoposs, romelmac `daiWira queyana SavSeTisa, qmna didi
erTguloba bagrat afxazTa mefisaTYs, pativsca RmerTman da ver waruRes
queyana mterTa~.61
  berZnebma `gamoadgines laSqari suetsa mas tbeTisasa, romeli aRego
saba mtbevar episkopozsa cixed. da hbrZodes Zlierad mravalRoned da
RmerTman ganaZlierna myofni igi suetsa mas Sina madliTa da meoxebiTa
wmidaTa mociqulTaTa da locviTa wmidaTa amaT mRvdelT-moZRuarTaTa da
viTarca erTgulni da WeSmaritni martvilni TavTa TYsTa sikudilad ganswi-
582                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
rvides, egreTve iginica KorcielTa ufalTa TYisTaTYs TavTa TYsTa sikud-
ilad ganswirvides, da sisxlTa dasTxevdes sityYsaebr mociqulTasa da
yovelnive etyodes urTierTsa cixesa mas Sina myofni, romelTa Tana erTo
ezra anCeli, viTarmed: `numca Segvityueben Cuen liqnani da ese da safas-
eni mswrafl warmavalni, aramed movigoT madli erTgulobisa da gYrgYni
axovnebisa~, rameTu mbrZolni igi garemodgomilni maTda hliqnides aRTqmi-
Ta da qadagebiTa keTilTa da safaseTaTa~.62
   saqarTveloSi brZolebis dros imperatorma konstantinem TavisTan daibara
iverTa monastridan eqvTime mTawmideli, imis momizezebiT, rom monasterSi
areuloba daiwyo. areulobas TviT konstantinopoli aqezebda. iverone-
lebma, _ wers mematiane, _ `ukanasknel iwyes Tavxedobad da amboxebad... da
umetes da umetes aRorZindeboda amboxeba maTi, vidremdis sameufod aR-
vides da auwyes konstanti mefesa SfoTisa maTisaTvis~.
   mosalodneli iyo monastris areulobis gamo eqvTimes konstantinopol-
Si upativiscemod miiRebdnen, magram is saxelganTqmuli moRvawe iyo mTel
bizantiaSi, aTanase aTonelis Tanamosagre. eqvTime kvi prosis avtokefaluri
eklesiis meTaurad undoda Tavis droze daeniSna basili II-s.63 eqvTime
cudad ar miuRia konstantines. Cans, imperators gadawyvetili hqonda, gada-
ebirebina wmida eqvTime ise, rogorc gadaibira `baneli episkoposi ioane~.64
   saqarTveloSive konstantines surda Tavis mxareze gadaebirebina saba
mtbevar episkoposi da ezra anCel episkoposi `liqniTa~ da didi Tanxis
micemiT. man es ver SeZlo, samagierod moaxerxa Tavis mxareze gadaebirebi-
na qarTvel aznaurTa, `wvrili erisa~ da samRvdeloebis nawili. konstan-
tinesaTvis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZenda qarTuli eklesiis mimxro-
ba. maSin is advilad SeZlebda bagrat IV-is damarcxebas. SesaZloa, swored
am mizniT is konstantinopolSi kargad iRebs saqarTvelos kaTalikos-
patriarq melqisedek I-s: `Seiwynara mefeman berZenTaman konstantinem da
mosca Sesamkobelni eklesiaTa, xatni da juarni...~65
   konstantinem eqvTime mTawmideli daibara mis sikvdilamde cota xniT
adre, e.i. 1027-1028 wlebSi, maSin, rodesac is uzarmazari armiiT aoxrebda
saqarTvelos, xolo qarTuli eklesia, misi mesveurni saTaveSi edgnen oms
bizantielTa winaaRmdeg, radganac qarTuli eklesiis varskvlavi eqvTime
mxarSi edga bizantielTa mowinaaRmdege samRvdeloebas, amitomac is gana-
rides iverTa monasters, sadac am dros winamZRvrobda berZenT momxre mama,
giorgi I. mematiane wers, rom mama giorgi I _ `berZenTa mieqca~-o, `berZenni
friad raime Seiyvarna da ganamravlna da sruliad maTda mimarT midrka~.66
iseve rogorc baneli episkoposi iovane.
   imperator romanoz III-is gamefebisTanave, saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patri-
arqi melqisedek I `warvida... winaSe romanoz berZenTa mefisa kostantinep-
oled~.67 vizitis mizani, cxadia, iqneboda zavisa da mSvidobis Camogdeba.
romanozma is `Seiwynara da mosca Sesamkobeli eklesiaTani~.68
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               583
  daaxloebiT 1030 wels saxelovani da cnobili di plomati _ mariam
dedofali, deda bagrat IV-isa sagangebo misiiT gaemgzavra `...saberZneTad
Ziebad mSYdobisa da erTobisa~.69 sumbat daviTis Ze wers: `Seimosa simKne
da axovneba... da warvida konstantinepoled winaSe romanoz mefisa, vedre-
bad misa, raTa mSYdoba yos aRmosavleTisaTYs da raTa arRara iyos brZola
berZenTa da qarTvelTa...~70
  imperatorma romanozma ineba dazaveba saqarTvelosTan. qarTveli mefe
imperatoris vasalad aRiarebda Tavis Tavs, rac imiT gamoixateboda, rom
mzad iyo mieRo sakariskaco tituli. berZenTa da qarTvelTa samefo dinas-
tiebi damoyvrdnen. mefe bagrat IV-s colad misces `keisris qali~ _
dedofali elene.
  saxelovani di plomatis, mariam dedoflis viziti warmatebiT dasrulda.
mas imperatorma `aRusrula yoveli saTxoveli sixaruliTa: `mosca ficni
da simtkiceni erTobisa da siyuarulisaTYs. dauwerna oqro-beWedni, mosca
pativi kurapalatobisa, da mosca colad bagratisaTYs elene dedofali~.71
  bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris dadebulma zavma Seamsubuqa qarTuli ek-
lesiis mdgomareoba. zavis dadebamde iveronis berebi ukiduresad Sevi-
wroebulni iyvnen. zavis Semdeg imperatori romanozi iveronis winamZRvar
giorgi I-is (1012-1030) mimarT megobrulad ganewyo, magram es megobroba
didxans ar gagrZelebula, anu gagrZelda manamde, sanamdec bizantiasa da
saqarTvelos Soris megobrul-moyvruli damokidebuleba iyo. bizantieli
`keisris qali~, bagrat IV-is meuRle, male gardaicvala _ qorwilis Semde-
gve: `...Semdgomad mciredisa Jamisa miicvala elene dedofali quTaTiss
Sina da SeirTo colad bagrat mefeman borena dedofali _ ovsT mefisa
asuli~.72 bizantiis damokidebuleba saqarTvelosadmi kvlav daiZaba. gior-
gi mTawmideli iverTa monastris winamZRvris Sesaxeb wers: `JamTa romanoz
mefisaTa didad warCinebul iqna giorgi winaSe romanoz mefisa da didad
sakuTar da pativcemul merme... gandgomilebaA da orguloba daswames... amis
mizezisaTYs eqsoria-iqmna~.73 am dros, daaxloebiT 1031_33 wlebSi `...didsa
Relvasa da mimotacebasa STavcYveniT, rameTu samgzis daityuena monasteri
da, raAca dristi turfaA iyo mamaTa CuenTa mogebuli, yoveli iavar-iqmna, da
egreTve ganZi da kumaSi~74 iverTa monastris winamZRvrad im dros airCies
beri grigoli, berZnebma isic daapatimres da gadaasaxles, ris Semdegac
qarTvelTa mdgomareoba monasterSi savalalo gaxda: `...Jami poves berZenTa,
da viTarca cecxlni aRegznnes Cuen zeda da sruliad aRmofxuraA Cueni
eneba da dapyroba samkYdrebelisa CuenisaA~.75 amis Semdeg iveronis winamZR-
vari gaxda giorgi II. 1035 wels winamZRvari giorgi II xels awers Teoktist
protosis aqtze _ aTonis mTis erT-erT saqmian qaRaldze.76
  am dros damokidebuleba bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris kvlav daZabulia.
`male bizantiam isev daiwyo mtruli moqmedeba saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg,
584                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
1032 wels, bizantielebi SeuCndnen bagratis naxevarZma demetres, isic
keisarTan gaiqca da anakofiis cixe afxazeTSi berZnebs gadasca~.77 winamZRvar
giorgi II-s qarTveli berebi `ukeTurs~ uwodebdnen, radganac is iseve
iqceoda, rogorc winamZRvari giorgi I. `..giorgi ukeTuri, araAT umolxinesi
pirvelisa mis giorgisi~.78
   am dros, daaxloebiT 1035-1036 wlebSi, qarTvelebisaTvis ukve mwvale-
bloba-eretikosoba dauwamebiaT da fizikurad scemdnen kidec. mematiane
wers: `...didsa Wirsa Sina YyveniT da sawunel da saZulel maTda. da
TYToeulad arca Tu SesaZlebel ars yovlisave warmoTqumaA, ravdenni
ginebani, ravdenni Seuracxebani da yuedrebani moiweodes maT mier Cuen
zeda dRiTi-dRe; da cemiTa da guemiTa da mwvalebelad xadiTa Seiwre-
bulni disa urvasa Sina viyveniT. da eseca eneba, raATamca saxelica maSene-
belTaA aRmohKoces~.79
   daaxloebiT 1036-1040 wlebSi iveronis berebze mzrunveli winamZRvrebi
arian `netari mama grigoli~ da `netari arseni~. am wlebSi iveronidan
saqarTveloSi mravalgzis agzavnian berebs mefe-mTavrebTan SewevnisaTvis.
erT-erTi gavleniani didi mTavari saqarTvelosi, romelic karg damokide-
bulebaSi iyo bizantielebTan, iyo li pariti. is exmareboda iveronis be-
rebs da TviTonac berad aRikveca. giorgi mTawmidels, mematianis azriT,
wignis gadaweris saqmeSi, 1055-56 wlebSi, yvelaze metad xeli swored am
pirma Seuwyo: `ufroAs yovelTaAsa didad iRvawa suliTa kurTxeulman
antoni _ li parit-yofilman... wmidasa amas bersa didad pativ-upyra da
nugeSinis-sca da mSvenieri qeba-galoba dawera...~.80 manamde ki, 1030-40 wleb-
Si Zalze gavlenian li parits kargi damokidebuleba hqonda rogorc bi-
zantiis imperatorebTan, aseve bagrat IV-sTan. Cans, li paritis gavleniT
imperator miqael IV-is (1034-41) dros iveronis berebis mdgomareoba odnav
gaumjobesebula, magram mcire xniT: `...RmerTman yovlad Zlierman, saxiere-
biTa TvisiTa lmobier-yo guli miqael qristes-moyvarisa mefisa da wyalo-
bad Cuenda moaqcia...~81
   1039-40 wlebSi bagrat IV-m zavi dado amirasTan. am ambavma li pariti
didad aRaSfoTa. `Seiqmna li parit qvegamxedvarad Tavis patronisagan~.82
bizantiam myisve gamoiyena Tavisi erTguli li paritis ukmayofileba. md-
gomareoba kvlav daiZaba, ris gamoc 1040-41 wlebSi miqael V-is dros
(1041-42) `kvalad aRetynes Cven zeda berZenni da mTa yoveli aRZres,
didebulni yovelni gandriknes~,83 magram miqael mefes qarTvelTa mxare
dauWeria, SesaZloa, li paritis gavleniT.
   mematianis mier Tqmuli `mTa yoveli aRZres~ gulisxmobs imas, rom mTeli
mTawmidis berebi qarTvelTa winaaRmdeg aRZrulan. es gvafiqrebinebs, rom
qarTvelebs, marTlac, mwvaleblobas, anu marTlmadideblobisagan gandrekas
abralebdnen, sxva SemTxvevaSi mTeli mTawmida erTi monastris sawinaaRmde-
god ar aRiZvroda.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              585
   1041-42 wlebSi iverTa monastris winamZRvaria mama svimeoni.84 mis dros
iveroni SedarebiT damSvidebuli iyo, magram gadataniliT SeWirvebul qarTvel
berebs `JamTa svimeon mamisaATasa~,85 dauweriaT mosaxsenebeli, sadac wyev-
lian yvela Sinagamcem qarTvels. maT es sabuTi SudgeniaT ara marto
Tavisi, aramed bizantiis imperiaSi mcxovrebi yvela qarTveli beris saxel-
iTac. Cans, bizantiaSi mcxovrebi yvela qarTveli beri erT dReSi iyo,
qarTvelebi yvelgan idevnebodnen: `...erTiTa erTobiTa amas vityYi viTarca
erTisa piriTa yovelTa qarTvelTa Tana, romelni sadaca arian aRmosavle-
Tisa da Savisa mTisa da ierusalemisaTa da sadaca arian Zmani Cuenni~.
   mTel imperiaSi qarTuli eklesia devnilia; igi bizantiis imperiasTan
mebrZoli xalxis eklesiaa, amitomac miiCneva `mwvalebelTa~ eklesiad; misi
avtokefalia saeWvoa, sapatriarqo Rirseba _ miuRebeli, xolo am eklesiis
wevrebi _ devnili.

            qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirsebis
                 aRiareba 1054-1057 wlebSi
   X saukunis Sua wlebidan bizantiis imperia, ganicdida ra aRmavlobas,
saqarTvelosa da misi eklesiis mimarT amJRavnebda agresiul zraxvebs.
swored am periodSi man arabebs waarTva zemo mesopotamia, mcire aziis
nawili, siria, kreta da kvi prosi; 1018 wels dai pyro dasavleT bulgare-
Tis samefo; mas emoCileboda, agreTve, balkaneTis naxevarkunZuli dunaimde.
aseTi Zlierebis dros imperiam Tavis gverdiT ver igua saqarTvelos
gaerTianebuli samefo da misi sapatriarqo.
   XI saukunis meore naxevarSi sruliad Seicvala bizantiis rogorc sa-
gareo, ise saSinao mdgomareoba. am dros imperia kriziss ganicdida. gam-
wvavda brZola qveynis SigniT provinciel didebulebsa da dedaqalaqis
warCinebulebs Soris. gauaresda imperiis sagareo politikuri mdgomareo-
ba. mTavrobas erTdroulad uxdeboda paWanikebisa da Turq-seljukebis
mogerieba. 1071 wels mancikertis brZolaSi bizantiis damarcxebis Semdeg
Turq-seljukebma mcire aziis didi nawili miitaces, didi danaklisi ganic-
ada bizantiam dasavleTSic.86
   swored amiT iyo gamowveuli, rom XI saukunis 50-ian wlebSi bizantiis
imperiam gadasinja Tavisi damokidebuleba saqarTvelos saxelmwifosadmi,
radganac msoflio politikis arenaze gamosulma axalma Zalam _ Turqul-
ma tomebma, mkveTrad Secvala saerTaSoriso viTareba. am tomebma gadale-
kes bizantiis aRmosavleTi qveynebi, dai pyres irani, xelSi Caigdes somxe-
Tis udidesi nawili, Seesivnen da dai pyres bizantiis qalaqebi da dasax-
ldnen iq. yvelaferi es xdeboda sul ramdenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi,
XI saukunis dasawyisidan, ris gamoc 1074 wlis xelSekrulebiT biza-
586                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
tielebma aRmosavleTis qveynebis udidesi nawili, romelic maT mflobelo-
baSi imyofeboda, Turq-seljukebs dauTmes.
  Turq-seljukebi bizantiis imperias walekviT emuqrebodnen. XI saukunis
50-ian wlebSi es ukve naTlad gamoikveTa, amitomac, Tu am dromde bizantia
varaudobda, rom Turqebs TviTve gaumklavdeboda da moigeriebda mis Se-
motevas, axla ukve naTeli gaxda, rom bizantias sWirdeboda Tavis mezo-
blad Zlieri qristianuli saxelmwifo, romelic imperias daicavda Crdil-
oeTisa da aRmosavleTis mxridan araqristian TurqTa Semotevisagan. es
iyo mizezi saqarTvelos mimarT bizantiis damokidebulebis Secvlisa. Tu
XI saukunis dasawyisSi bizantia eomeboda da asustebda saqarTvelos, 50-
iani wlebidan is momxrea saqarTvelos gaZlierebisa. aman gadawyvita mTa-
var li parit erisTavis bedi, rogorc politikuri moRvawisa, romelsac
Tavis droze imperia aZlierebda saqarTvelos samefos daZabunebis mizniT.
  brZola bagrat IV-sa da erisTav li parits Soris 10 welze met xans
gagrZelda. li paritma berZnebis daxmarebiT Zalze daasusta saqarTvelos
mefe, miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo Zlierdeboda da far-
Tovdeboda. 1045 wels mas anisi SeuerTda. `...ganZlierda bagrat mefe ...
anisi mosces dedasa bagratisasa~,87 1046 wels saxelmwifos droebiT Tbilisic
SeuerTda.
  liparitTan omSi dauZlurebulma bagrat IV-m gadawyvita bizantiasTan
Serigebisa da samSvidobo molaparakebisaTvis TviTve Casuliyo konstanti-
nopolSi. mas Tan axlda dedamisi mariami _ saxelovani di plomati. am
dros imperatori iyo konstantine monomaxi (1042-1055).
  konstantine monomaxs qarTveli mefe da dedofali didebiTa da pativiT
miuRia, magram bagrat IV 3 wlis manZilze ukan ar gamouSves. `...dayo mun
sami weliwadi didsa didebasa da pativsa Sina~.88
  giorgi mTawmidelis cxovrebidan Cans, rom konstantine monomaxTan bagrat
IV-sa da mariam dedofals Zalze axlo, TiTqmis ojaxuri urTierToba aqvT.
imperatori am dros konstantinopolSi myof giorgi mTawmidelis mimarTac
kargad iyo ganwyobili. mefem misi TxovniT iveronis mTavari taZari tyviiT
gadaaxurvina.
  axal epoqaSi bizantias sWirdeboda erTguli, masze damokidebuli, misi
gavlenis qveS myofi qveyana. Turqebis gamoCenis gamo bizantiasTan dazave-
ba saqarTvelos interesebsac Seadgenda.
  samwliani molaparakeba 1054-1057 wlebSi damTavrda samSvidobo zaviT,
romelic aRarasodes darRveula Semdgom saukuneTa manZilze. amis Semdeg
saqarTvelosa da bizantiis urTierTdamokidebuleba megobrulia da gansx-
vavdeba XI saukunis I naxevrisagan, rodesac 1021 wels dawyebuli omi,
1030-1031 wlebamde mimdinareobda da gaxsnili iyo fronti samxreT saq-
arTveloSi. maSin bizantia exmareboda saqarTvelos erTianobis mtrebs.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              587
li parits yoveli SebrZolebisas mefis, bagrat IV-is, winaaRmdeg imperia
uWerda mxars: `...berZenTa mefisa ganZi da laSqari Semwe iyo~, 89 anda
liparitma `...naxa berZenTa mefe, da moirTo berZenTa mefisagan Zali...~90
magram zavis dadebisa da bagratis saqarTveloSi dabrunebisTanave, li pariti
Seipyres da dasajes. molaparakebis Semdeg berZnebi mas aRar exmarebod-
nen. TviTon bagrat IV ki konstantinopolma `...wamoavlina didiTa didebiTa
da niWiTa~.
  molaparakebas, romelsac awarmoebda bagrat IV konstantinopolSi, gan-
sakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda saqarTvelos sapatriarqosaTvis. saqarTve-
los saxelmwifos meTaurTa mizani molaparakebis dros bizantiasa da
saqarTvelos Soris urTierTobis normalizaciis garda iyo saqarTvelos
eklesiis sapatriarqo uflebebis cnoba, rogorc bizantiis saxelmwifos,
aseve konstantinopolis sapatriarqos mier.
  saqarTvelos delegacia molaparakebisas friad warmomadgenlobiTi iyo.
konstantinopolSi `bagrat afxazTa mefe da deda misi mariam~ CabrZandnen
`mTavrebisa da warCinebulebis~ TanxlebiT. delegacias saeklesio saqmee-
bic unda moegvarebina, amitomac aTonis mTidan Camovida im drois yvelaze
didi avtoriteti eklesiisa _ giorgi mTawmideli, romelmac monawileoba
miiRo delegaciis muSaobaSi: `mas Jamsa odes RvTismsaxuri bagrat afxazTa
mefe da deda misi mariam dedofali samefod qalaqad movides, aRvida
wmidaca ese mama Cueni winaSe RvTismsaxurTa maT mefeTada~.91
  pirveli warmateba, rasac delegaciam miaRwia, iyo is, rom Sewyda qarTve-
li berebis sastiki devna konstantinopolis sapatriarqoSi, kerZod ki,
iveronSi. am dros giorgi mTawmidelma `yovelive saqme monastrisa, raAca
undoda, yoveli keTilad iurva...~92
  bizantiis saimperatoro kari, gansxvavebiT konstantinopolisa da sxva
sapatriarqoTagan, princi pulad arasodes yofila winaaRmdegi qarTuli
eklesiis sapatriarqo eklesiad gamocxadebisa.
  wina wlebSi, bizantiisa da saqarTvelos, rogorc mSvidobian, ise daZabul
periodebSic, imperatorebi iRebdnen da Rirseul pativs scemdnen saqarTve-
los pirvel kaTalikos-patriarq melqisedek I-s. 1054-57 wlebis molapar-
akebis dros saqarTvelos sapatriarqo ukve TiTqmis naxevari saukunis isto-
rias iTvlida; saukunis dasawyisidan qarTul eklesias patriarqebi marTavd-
nen. amitomac, im dros qarTuli eklesiis Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis
aRiareba TavisTavad niSnavda faqtobrivad ukve arsebuli sapatriarqo Rirse-
bis iuridiul cnobas. saqarTvelos es moTxovna bizantiis mxares gauTval-
iswinebia da daukmayofilebia.
    konstantine monomaxis dros, 1054 wels, antioqiaSi petres patriarqobi-
sas, delegaciis ori wevri, mariam dedofali da giorgi mTawmideli, saekle-
sio sakiTxebze molaparakebisaTvis konstantinopolidan gaemgzavrnen an-
tioqiisa da ierusalimis sapatriarqoebSi.
588                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   konstantine monomaxi dainteresebuli iyo dadebiTad gadaWriliyo yove-
li sadavo da maT Soris saeklesio sakiTxi or qveyanas Soris. amitomac
man `sameufo brZaneba~ gagzavna antioqiaSi.
   mariam dedofalma antioqiis sapatriarqo karze winaswar waradgina
giorgi mTawmideli, romelsac unda Seemzadebina sapatriarqo kari deleg-
aciis misaRebad.
   imperatoris miTiTebiT antioqiis sapatriarqoSi mariam dedofali same-
fo didebiT miiRes. patriarq petre III-s dedofalma warugdgina impera-
toris sagangebo miTiTeba. antioqiis patriarq petre III-Tan molaparakebis
Semdeg dedofali ierusalimis sapatriarqoSi unda gamgzavrebuliyo. amis
Sesaxeb icoda imperatorma da dedoflis usafrTxo mgzavrobisaTvis zrunva
daavala antioqiis patriarq petre III-s. `...mariam dedofali, deda bagratis
mefisa sameufoAT qalaqad antioqiad movida... aqunda brZaneba sameufo
Tavadsa Tana da patriarqsa antioqiisa...~, xolo amis Semdeg `...eguleboda
warsvla wmidad qalaqad ierusalimad...~ nabrZanebi iyo, rom antioqiis
sapatriarqodan is `...yovliTa didebiTa da pativiTa wargzavnon~.93
   qarTuli delegaciis wevrebi antioqia-ierusalimSi rom Cavidnen mola-
parakebisaTvis, iqidanac Cans, rom antioqiis patriarq petre III-s giorgi
mTawmidelTan sagangebo saubrebi hqonda `kanonTaTYs saeklesioTa~ da agreTve
`sarwmunoebisaTYs marTlisa~. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT qarTuli eklesiis im-
droindel devnas, saubari swored mis sxvadasxva uflebebs Seexeboda.
   swored antioqiis patriarq petre III-is dros qarTuli eklesiis sxvadasx-
va uflebis aRiareba cnobili iyo mravali ucxoeli mkvlevarisTvis. magal-
iTad, XVII saukunis ierusalimeli patriarqebis Tanaxmad, antioqiis sapatri-
arqom avtokefalia mianiWa qarTul eklesias. magram maTi msjeloba qarTu-
li eklesiis istoriis mcodneTaTvis sruliad miuRebelia, radganac, rogorc
dosiTeosi, ise xrisanfi fiqroben, rom petre III-is dros avtokefalia miiRo
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos eklesiam, xolo dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesias
igive uflebebi ganumtkicda gacilebiT adre, VIII saukuneSio.94
   sinamdvileSi araTu aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, aramed mTliani saqarTve-
los (mcxeTis) eklesia, antioqiis sapatriarqosTan mokamaTe giorgi mTaw-
midelis Tanaxmad, avtokefaluri iyo mociqulTa mier daarsebisTanave, I-II
saukuneebidan. giorgi mTawmidelis azriT, qarTul eklesias ar esaWiroeba
aravisagan avtokefaliis dasturi, piriqiT, samociqulo qarTuli eklesia
Tavad iyo ucxoeTis eklesiaTa episkoposebis makurTxebeli, magaliTad, gu-
TeTis episkoposisa ioanesi VIII saukuneSi.
   XI saukunes, mravali mkvlevari qarTuli eklesiisaTvis avtokefaliis
miniWebis saukuned Tvlis, radganac ician, rom am dros antioqiaSi petre
III-is patriarqobisas Catarda kreba, romelmac aRiara qarTuli eklesiis
ufleba, magram am dros qarTul eklesias avtokefalia ki ar mianiWes,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                589
aramed aRiares misi sapatriarqo Rirseba. aseTi azri jer kidev adreve
gamouTqvamT, magaliTad, korolevskis, romelTan dakavSirebiTac sardeli
mitropoliti maqsime wers: `antioqiis eklesiis mier qarTuli eklesiis
mimarT avtokefaliis gansazRvra warmoiSva im mizeziT, rom erT-erTma
kaTalikosma TviTneburad miikuTvna patriarqis pativi~.95
   cxadia, qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis aRiareba TavisTavad niSnavda
ukve arsebuli sapatriarqo Rirsebis cnobas, magram 1054-1057 wlebSi biz-
antiis sapatriarqoebSi Catarebuli krebebi Seexeboda ara qarTuli eklesi-
is avtokefaliis aRiarebas, aramed am krebebze gadawyda, Sewyvetiliyo qarTuli
eklesiis ukanono devna, qarTveli berebis aramarTlmadideblebad da mwvale-
blebad gamocxadeba. krebebma aRiares qarTuli eklesiis yvela ufleba,
romelic ki mas gaaCnda winaT, am devnis dawyebamde, maT Soris sapatriarqo
Rirsebac.
   antioqiaSi molaparakebis Sedegebma qarTvel di plomatebs uCvena, rom
aRar iyo saWiro ierusalimSi umaRlesi xelisuflis _ dedofal mariamis
gamgzavreba. ierusalimis sapatriarqoSi giorgi mTawmidelis Casvlac sak-
marisi aRmoCenila. patriarqma petre III-m sTxova dedofal mariams, ar
gamgzavrebuliyo mahmadianebis mier dapyrobil qalaqSi: `...patriarqman da
mTavarman ganizraxes da gaigones TanazraxviTa mamisa giorgisaTa, viTarmed
_ `ara keTil ars, aRmosavleTisa mefeTa deda raATamca sasarkinozeTs
warvida _ vinaATgan codvaTa CuenTagan igini ufleben queyanasa mas~.96
   patriarqma petre III-m da antioqiis mTavarma TavianTi Txovna `...moax-
senes dedofalsa da wasvlisagan daacxvres...~97
   ierusalimSi saeklesio sakiTxebze molaparakebisaTvis gaemgzavra gior-
gi mTawmideli, mariam dedofalma amasTanave giorgi mTawmidelis xeliT
didZali Tanxa-Sewirulebani gagzavna _ daafinansa jvris qarTuli monas-
tris mSeneblobac.
   giorgi mTawmideli ierusalimSi `mSvidobiTa da uvneblad miiwia~, Sexv-
da eklesiis mamebs, `wmidaTa mamaTa locva miiRo~.
   giorgi mTawmidelis dabrunebis Semdeg antioqiasa da ierusalimSi mola-
parakebebis SedegebiT mariam dedofali Rrmad kmayofili yofila, deleg-
aciis warmatebebma `RvTismsaxuri igi dedofali ganamxiarula~.
   antioqiis sapatriarqoSi vizitis Semdeg mariam dedofali saqarTvelo-
Si dabrunda _ `...mamulad TYsad sameufod Zisa TYsisa Tana bagrat mefisa
warvida~.98
   giorgi mTawmideli darCa antioqiaSi da gaagrZela molaparakeba patri-
arq petre III-sTan. am wmida mamis antioqiaSi darCena miznad isaxavda
qarTuli eklesiis sakiTxebis safuZvlian da saboloo mogvarebas antioqi-
is sapatriarqoSi. giorgi aTonelma es SeZlo 1056-57 wlebSi.
   Seqmnili rTuli viTarebis gamo msoflio qristianoba dasustebuli iyo,
ramac 1054 wels gamoiwvia romisa da konstantinopolis mimdgom berZnul
590                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
eklesiebs Soris ganxeTqileba. amas Tan daerTo muslimanTa Semosevebi
aRmosavleTidan. ganxeTqileba da dabneuloba sufevda berZnul sapatri-
arqoTa Sorisac, aseve erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegebodnen bizantiis imperator-
Ta kari da konstantinopolis patriarqi. aseT dros sapatriarqoebSi xSirad
iRebdnen urTierTgamomricxav dadgenilebebs, amitomac mosalodneli iyo
mariam dedofalTan Sexvedrisas miRebuli dadgenileba antioqiis sapatri-
arqoSi Secvliliyo. aseT viTarebaSi giorgi mTawmideli xSirad xvdeba
antioqiis patriarq petres. `...euwya moqalaqoba misi netarsa patrearqsa
antioqiisasa, mouwoda da ezraxa saRmToTa werilTagan mraval-saxed: pirvelad
sarwmunoebisaTYs marTlisasa da kanonTaTYs saeklesioTa...~99
   giorgi mTawmidelsa da petre III-s hqondaT msjeloba `saeklesio kanon-
Ta~ Sesaxeb. saeklesio kanonebSi Sedis mravali saeklesio sakiTxi, maT
Soris sakiTxi romelime eklesiis sapatriarqo eklesiad wodebis Rirsebis
Sesaxeb. im dros qarTuli sapatriarqo Tavisi arsebobis TiTqmis naxevar
saukunes iTvlida. amitomac Seqmnili situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT unda
vigulisxmoT, rom `saeklesio sakiTxebze~ msjelobisas saubari exeboda
ara romelime ganyenebul, aramed aqtualur Temas. uTuod wmida mama gior-
gi icavda saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Rirsebas. moRweul wyaroTa gaanali-
zebis Sedegad, Cven SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom saubrebi ar Seexeboda qarTuli
eklesiis avtokefaliis sakiTxs, radganac giorgi mTawmidelis Tanaxmad,
qarTuli eklesia avtokefaluri iyo mociqulTa mier misi daarsebisTanave
I-II saukuneebidan. is avtokefaliis sakiTxze msjelobisas Zalze lakonur,
mokle da amomwurav pasuxebs aZlevda da am Temaze ar saubrobda xangr-
Zlivad. amitomac, petre III-sTan misi xangrZlivi saubrebi swored qarTuli
eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirsebas Sexeboda. garda amisa, maT msjeloba hqoni-
aT `marTali sarwmunoebis~ Sesaxeb. im droisaTvis, TiTqmis 30 wlis man-
Zilze, berZnebs eWvi SehqondaT qarTvelebis marTlmadideblobaSi.
   giorgi mTawmidels, mas Semdeg, rac petre III daurwmunebia, rom qarTuli
sapatriarqos Seqmna ar ewinaaRmdegeboda `saeklesio kanonebs~ da rom am
axali sapatriarqos SeqmniT ar darRveula `marTali sarwmunoeba~, antio-
qiis patriarqi TavisTan iaxloebs. patriarqi moxiblula giorgi mTawmide-
lis sulieri simaRliTa da codniT, amitomac is antioqiis sapatriarqos
saqmeebis mogvarebasac ki qarTvel bers andobda, Tavis pirad cxovrebasac
mas uziarebda: `...yoveli cxovreba Tvisi mas Sehvedra da mas hkiTxavn
gulisityuaTa da yovelsave saeklesioTa saqmeTa~.100 petre III Zlieri `siy-
varuliTa da sarwmunoebiTa aRsavse~ yofila giorgi mTawmidelis mimarT.
   antioqiis mTavari taZris dawvis Semdeg, Zlier damwuxrebul patriarq
petre III-isTvis erTaderTi uaxloesi megobari da nugeSinismcemeli gior-
gi mTawmideli yofila. `...swavliTa sulieriTa yoveli mwuxareba da glova
misi ganaqarva~. madlier patriarqs berisTvis uTqvams: `ukueTumca siwmide
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               591
Seni ara momaSural iyo, hoi wmidao mamao kninRamca da mwuxarebaTa mier
jojoxeTad STasul iyo suli Cemi~.101
  antioqiis patriarq petre III-sa da giorgi mTawmidelis aseT damokide-
bulebas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo
Rirsebis aRiarebis drois gansazRvrisaTvis. swored antioqiis patriarqis
petre III-is dros antioqiis sapatriarqom iuridiulad cno qarTuli sapa-
triarqos faqtobrivi arseboba. amis Sesaxeb arsebobs arapirdapiri mo-
nacemebi, cnobilma kanonistma balsamonma icis is, rac mas mousmenia: `am-
boben, rom maSin, rodesac RvTaebrivi qalaqis, didi antioqiis uwmides
patriarqad iyo ufali petre, gamotanili iqna krebis dadgenileba, rom
iqnes Tavisufali da avtokefaluri eklesia iberiisa, romelic maSin eqvem-
debareboda antioqiis patriarqs~.102
  mkvlevarebi varaudoben, rom radganac balsamons es ambavi mousmenia,
amitomac es kreba balsamonamde arcTu didi xnis winaT Catarebula, radga-
nac am moRvawis uaxloesi patriarqi petres saxeliT iyo petre III. amito-
mac miiCneven, rom balsamonis mier aRwerili kreba gulisxmobs 1056 wlis
krebas. 381 wlis msoflio krebis me-2 kanonis komentaris dros balsamoni
wers ramdenime eklesiis da maT Soris iberiis eklesiis avtokefaliis
Sesaxeb. balsamonis Tanaxmad, romis imperiaSi IV saukunisaTvis avtoke-
faluri iyo yvela provinciisa da diocezis eklesia, e.i. balsamonis Tanax-
mad, romis imperiaSi 100-mde avtokefaluri eklesia iyo, radganac aseTive
iyo provinciaTa ricxvi.103 `istoria naTelyofs, rom II msoflio krebis
dros TavisTavadni, avtokefalurni iyvnen eklesiebi romis yvela provin-
ciaSi Tu ara (aseTi provincia iyo 100), yovel SemTxvevaSi, imperiis 14
diocezSi mainc (imperiaSi 14 diocezi iyo).104
  balsamonis Tanaxmad, iberiis eklesia avtokefaluri iyo IV saukuneSive,
radganac misi azriT, yvela saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulis eklesia am drois-
aTvis avtokefaluri iyo. TviT imperiaSic ki, provinciaTa eklesiebi avtoke-
falurni iyvnen, miT umetes, imperiis gareT myofi damoukidebeli saxelmwi-
fos eklesia avtokefaluria. II msoflio krebis me-2 kanonic imperiis gareT
myof `barbarosuli~ qveynebis eklesiebs avtokefalias aniWebda: `...xolo
barbarozebrTa warmarTTa Soris myofTa eklesiaTa RmrTisaTa gangebaA jer
ars mamaTa mier damtkicebulisaebr Cveulebisa~,105 es kanoni saerTod ekle-
siaTa erTmaneTisagan damoukideblobasa da avtokefalias icavda.
  Cans, balsamons iberiis eklesia avtokefalur eklesiad miaCnda II msof-
lio krebis droisaTvis, amitomac am krebis me-2 kanonis komentirebisas is
wers qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad amisa, man icis,
rom antioqiis patriarq petres dros am sapatriarqos krebam imsjela
qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb. mas ar SeeZlo efiqra, rom qarTul
eklesias avtokefalia mianiWa petre III-m, radganac misi azriT, XI saukuneSi
592                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia ukve iTvlida ramdenime saukunes. magram
balsamons gaugonia, rom XI saukuneSi antioqiis sapatriarqoSi Catarebu-
la raRac kreba, romelsac qarTuli eklesiis erTi raRac ufleba iuridi-
ulad ucvnia. marTlac, 1056 wels petre III-is dros Catarebulma antioqiis
saeklesio krebam aRiara qarTuli eklesia WeSmaritad marTlmadidebelTa
eklesiad, amitomac Sewyvita qarTuli eklesiisa da misi berebis devna.
garda amisa, am dros aRiarebul iqna qarTuli eklesiis yvela ufleba, maT
Soris sapatriarqo Rirsebac.
  petre III-is dros Catarebuli saeklesio krebis Sesaxeb mravali istori-
kosi miuTiTebs. mravals es kreba miaCnia qarTuli eklesiisaTvis avtoke-
faliis miniWebis krebad, rac arasworia. am krebam Sewyvita qarTuli ek-
lesiis 30-wliani ukanono devna da aRiara misi uflebebi.
  am krebis Semdeg petre III-s didxans ar ucocxlia. is 1057 wels
gardaicvala. giorgi mTawmideli Sexvda axal patriarq Teodores (Teodo-
si) (1057-1076). am dros bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris samwliani sazavo
molaparakeba (1054-57 wlebisa) jer kidev damTavrebuli ar iyo da qarTveli
mefe bagrat IV jer kidev konstantinopolSi imyofeboda, Tumca bizantiis
samefo karma 1054 welsve ineba Sewyvetiliyo qarTuli eklesiis sazogado
devna, rac daadastura 1056 wlis antioqiis krebam. magram am devnis
recidivebi 1057 wlisaTvis mainc arsebobda, radganac qarTvelebs mwvale-
blobas, kerZod ki, monofizitur mwvaleblobas swamebdnen da TiTqmis 30
wlis manZilze devnidnen. amitomac zavis dadebisas bizantia-saqarTvelos
Soris molaparakebis periodSi zogjer inerciiT kvlav meordeboda es
movlenebi. ase momxdara 1057 wels antioqiaSi mdebare svimonwmidis mon-
asterSi, sadac berZnebTan erTad qarTvelebic moRvaweobdnen. qarTvelebis
devna im dros, kerZod 1056 wlis antioqiis krebis Semdeg akrZaluli iyo,
amitomac TavianT moqmedebas berZnebi ase asabuTebdnen: `ar vuwyiT, Tu
qarTvelni arian anu somexni~,106 e.i ar viciT diofizitebi arian Tu monofiz-
itebio. aq `qarTvelnSi~ da `somexnSi~ igulisxmebian ara erovnebiT qarTvelebi
da somxebi, aramed sarwmunoebrivad `qarTvelebi~ da sarwmunoebrivad `somx-
ebi~ anu diofizitebi (marTlmadideblebi) da monofizitebi (mwvaleblebi).
marTaliao, ambobdnen svimonwmideli berZnebi, ucxo berebi `...qarTvelebad
saxel-idebdnen TavTa TYsTa, da ara uwyiT Tu rasa zraxven, anu raA ars
sarwmunoeba maTi...~107 e.i. ucxoeli berebi erovnebiT, marTalia, qarTvelebad
acxadebdnen Tavian Tavs, magram sarwmunobiT SeiZleba `somexni~ ariano.
erovnebiT qarTveli, magram sarwmunoebiT `somexi~, anu monofiziti qarTvelebis
monasterSi saeWvo yofnis Sesaxeb moaxsenes antioqiis axal patriarqs,
Teodores. is darwmunebuli yofila qarTvelebis marTmadidebloba-diofiz-
itobaSi, amitomac am braldebis mosmenas Zlier gauocebia da ukiTxavs: `da
viTar egebis ese, raTamca qarTvelni ara marTlmadidebelni iyvnes?~108
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   593
magram svimonwmidelebi arwmunebdnen mas da magaliTic mouyvanes: `...verca
xucesi maTi Jamsa wiravs monastersa Sina Cuensa~, marTlac, Turme im
dromde mcire xniT adre, avtoris cnobiT, qarTuli wirvis wesi gansxvavebu-
li yofila berZnuli wirvis wesisagan. kerZod, qarTvelebi wiravdnen qalam-
niTa da sabeWuriT, samRvdelo Sesamoslis gareSe.109 magram ara monofiz-
itobis gamo, aramed qarTuli eklesiis gaerovnulebisa da eklesiaSi uZve-
lesi wesebis SemorCenis gamo. aseTi yofila wirvis Zveli wesi, romelic
berZnuli Targis Sesabamisad, SeusworebiaT XI saukunis dasawyisSi, magram
saqarTvelos `soflur adgilebSi~ kvlav Zveleburi wesi darCenila. roca
patriarqs gaugia, rom qarTuli wirvis wesi gansxvavdeboda berZnulisagan
anu `marTlmadideblurisagan~, Zlier gancvifrebula. gancvifrebuli pa-
triarqisaTvis kvlav mravali araswori cnoba miuwvdiaT da daueWvebiaT
kidec qarTvelTa aramarTlmadideblobaSi. amis mizezi isic yofila, rom
`axal-Semosuli~ patriarqi `...wuT umecar iyo naTesavisa Cuenisa...~. swored
am mizeziT sapatriarqo karze miiwvies giorgi mTawmideli.
  patriarqma Teodorem icoda, rom giorgi mTawmideli antioqiaSi qarTu-
li eklesiisa da mefis wargzavnili diplomati iyo. icis, rom is mefes
werilebs swers da mefe misi rCevis Sesabamisad iqceva. patriarqi eubneba
mas: `...gismens mefe Tqueni, ukeTu miuwero da auwyo umjobesi...~.110 patriarqi
gaesaubra mas da darwmunda mis Rrma ganswavlulobaSi, ris gamoc Tqva:
`daRacaTu naTesaviT qarTveli xar, sxviTa kula yovliTa swavlulebiTa
sruliad berZeni xar~.111 marTalia, aq `berZeni~ erovnebiT berZens niSnavs,
magram xSirad `berZeni~ marTlmadideblis identuri iyo. patriarqis azriT,
giorgi mTawmidels sruli marTlmadidebluri (`berZnuli~) swavla aqvs.
  roca antioqiis patriarqi darwmunda giorgi mTawmidelis marTlmadi-
deblobaSi, misca aseTi SekiTxva: `...miTxar naTesavisa SenisaTYs: arsa raA
naklulevanebaA marTlisa sarwmunoebisa maT Tana, gina urTierTas ganyo-
filebaA marTlisa sarwmunoebisa maT Soris da Cuen Soris?~112
  kiTxvidan Cans, rom patriarqi qarTvelebs miiCnevs `marTali sarwmunoe-
bis~ mqone erad, magram hgonia, rom qarTvelTa marTlmadideblobas gaaCnia
raRac nakli da cdilobs gaerkves amaSi, kerZod, xom ar aris TviT qarTvelTa
Sorisve (`urTierTas~) sarwmunoebrivi gansxvaveba, anda xom ar gansxvavde-
ba qarTvelTa da berZenTa aRmsarebloba.
  giorgi mTawmindelma warmoTqva mrwamsi, romelsac im dros aRiarebda
qarTuli eklesia: `...iwyo warmoTqumad marTlisa sarwmunoebisa esreT, romel
ganakYrva msmenelni...~
  patriarqi da masTan myofi episkoposebi darwmundnen, rom qarTvelTa
sarwmunoeba unakloa. patriarqma ganacxada: `...vieTnime naklulevanebasa
swamebdes qarTvelTa da aha esera mravalTa saxiTa uzeSTaes i povnes
Cuensa da ufroAs xolo qalwulebiTa, romeli igi maRlad upyries maT~..113
594                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   qarTvelTa marTlmadideblobaSi darwmunebulma patriarqma ciliswame-
bad gamoacxada svimonwmideli berZeni berebis moqmedeba. maT 1056 wlis
krebis Semdeg akrZaluli hqondaT qarTveli berebis devna, amitomac 1057
wels maT mier xelaxla aRorZinebuli devnisaTvis isini patriarqma dasa-
ja: `xolo patrearqman cudis-mzraxTa maT da amaoTa kacTa sYmeonwmidel-
Ta friad Sehrisxna da kanonsa queSe saeklesiosa Seyarna da sxuasaca
mravalsa ZYrsa uTqumida~.114
   Tu, 1054 wlamde, mTeli bizantiis imperiaSi qarTveli berebis devna
bunebrivad iTvleboda, 1057 wels igive qmedeba mkacrad isjeba.
   mcire xnis Semdeg antioqiis patriarqi kvlav aRiZra qarTuli eklesiis
sawinaaRmdegod. axla ukve saqme Seexo ara sarwmunoebriv aRmsareblobas,
aramed qarTuli eklesiis Tavisufleba-avtokefalias. patriarqs surs,
gaerkves qarTuli eklesiis sxvadasxva uflebebSi.
   am sakiTxis gasarkvevad kvlav miiwvies giorgi mTawmideli. aqedan Cans,
rom giorgi mTawmidelis di plomatiuri misia antioqiaSi kvlav grZelde-
boda. qarTuli eklesiis mowinaaRmdegeebma patriarq Teodosis moaxsenes:
`viTar ese meufeo, romel eklesiani da mRvdelTmoZRvarni qarTlisani ara
romlisa patreaqisa xelmwifebasa queSe arian da yovelni saeklesioni
wesni maT mier ganegebian da TYT daismen kaTalikozTa ebiskopozTa da ara
samarTal ars ese, rameTu aTormetTa mociqulTagani aravin misrul ars
queyanasa maTsa da jer ars... raATa xelmwifebasa queSe antioqieli patrear-
qisas imwysodin da aqa ikurTxeodis kaTalikosi maTi da viyvneT Cuen erT
samwyso da erT mwyems~.115
   aqedan aSkarad Cans, rom cdebian is mkvlevarebi, romlebic qarTuli
eklesiis avtokefalias aTariReben XI saukunis 50-iani wlebiT. am drois-
aTvis qarTuli eklesia ar eqvemdebareba arc erT ucxoeTis patriarqs da
ar aris romelime sapatriarqos xelmwifebis qveS. qarTuli eklesia sruliad
damoukidebelia da avtokefaluri, rac imiT gamoixateba, rom nebismieri
saeklesio wesi TviT qarTuli eklesiis mierve ganegeba, TviT qarTveli
episkoposebi saqarTveloSive irCeven da svamen qarTvel mamamTavars, rac
patriarqisadmi moxsenebuli cnobidan Cans.
   qarTul eklesias 1056 wels, petre III-is dros rom mieRo avtokefalia,
1057 wels patriarq Teodosis srulebiT sxvagvarad warudgendnen am
sakiTxs, kerZod, moaxsenebdnen, rom qarTulma eklesiam erTi wlis win, petre
III-is dros miiRo avtokefalia, rac Secdoma iyoo. Teodosis dros ki
qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia Camoyalibebulia, rac Cans avtoris monaTxro-
bidan. garda amisa, avtori, marTalia, sakmaod dawvrilebiT saubrobs petre
III-is Sesaxeb, magram arafers ambobs mis mier qarTuli eklesiisaTvis
avtokefaliis miniWebaze.
   is, rac patriarq Teodosis moaxsenes qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis
Sesaxeb, mTlianad emTxveva `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ moTavsebul, qarTuli
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 595
eklesiis mdgomareobis VII saukuniT daTariRebul aRweras. VII saukunis
bolos qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia yofila aseTi saxisa: `...kaTalikozi
qarTlisa xelqveiT ara ars patriaqTa da ara ikurTxevian patriaqTagan,
aramed TYsisa samwysosa mitrapolitTa da mTavarefiskopozTa da efisko-
pozTagan ikurTxevian, rameTu Tavisufali ars da mociqulTa magieri da
mociqulTa taxtsa zeda mjdomi da patriaqi~.116
  qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis es gansazRvreba Zalze msgavsia imisa,
rac patriarq Teodosis moaxsenes.
  XI saukuneSi berZnebs SeuTxzavT Teoria, romlis mixedviTac avtokef-
aluri mxolod is eklesia SeiZleboda yofiliyo, sadac mociqulma iqadaga.
antioqielTa azriT, saqarTveloSi ar uqadagnia arc erT mociquls, amito-
mac qarTuli eklesia romelime sapatriarqos unda daeqvemdebaros, umjobe-
sia antioqiis sapatriarqos, radganac teritoriulad axlosaa
saqarTvelosTan. aRsaniSnavia, rom ar amboben winaTac antioqias eqvemde-
bareboda qarTuli eklesia da axlac daeqvemdebaroso, aramed teritoriu-
li siaxlove miaCniaT mizezad.
  patriarqma Teodosim giorgi mTawmidels ganucxada: `...jer ars romel
eklesiani da mRvdelT-moZRuarni Tquenni Kelsa queSe samociqulosa amis
saydrisasa imwysodin...~,117 e.i. upriani da samarTliani iqneba qarTuli ekle-
sia rom antioqiis samociqulo eklesiis mier imwysebodeso: `...da hmarTebsca
esreT mizeziTa maxlobelobisaATa da ese Sengan SesaZlebel ars, rameTu
uwyi, viTarmed gismens mefe Tqueni, ukueTu miuwero da auwyo umjobesi...~118
  amis Semdeg patriarqi emuqreba, rom kvlav gaagrZelebs mTel bizantiis
imperiaSi qarTuli eklesiis devnas: `...xolo ukueTu ara isminos, miuwero
oTxTave patriaqTa saydris modgamTa CuenTa da vauwyo TYT-rCuloba da
qedficxloba naTesavisa Tquenisa da viTarmed TYnier samociquloAsa kanonisa
TYT imwysian da mociqulTagani aravin misrul ars queyanasa maTsa da
esreT mravalsa Ruawlsa SegTxine vidre ara TYT mefe Tqueni winaSe
Cuensa movides da xelmwifebasa Cuensa daemorCilos~.119
  e.i. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saqarTvelos mefe ar ganaxorcielebs Sengan miwode-
bul azrs qarTuli eklesiis antioqiaze daqvemdebarebis Sesaxeb, me amas
msoflios oTxive patrarqs (maT Soris romis papsac gulisxmobs) vauwyeb da
mivwer, rom qarTveli eri urCia, radganac samociqulo kanonebis nebadau-
rTvelad avtokefalurad acxadebs Tavis eklesias. es ki dauSvebelia, rad-
ganac arc samociqulo kanonebiT da arc mociqulTa mier es eklesia ar
daarsebula da iseT saerTaSoriso izolaciaSi movaqcev saqarTvelos da
iseT devnas daviwyeb qarTuli eklesiisas, rom TviT Tqveni mefe mova Cems
winaSe da ara marto eklesias damiqvemdebarebs, TviTonac damemorCilebao.
  giorgi mTawmidels Tavis pasuxSi ugunurebad gamoucxadebia antioqiis
survili qarTuli eklesiis damorCilebisa da ukiTxavs: `...vin-me arian
596                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ugunurni igi ganmzraxni Senni... raAsaTYs-me esreT advilad Kel-hyav did-
isa amis da maRlisa saqmisa mogonebad da aRsrulebad?~120
  `didi da maRali saqme~ qarTuli eklesiis saukunovani avtokefaliisa
antioqiis patriarq Teodoss `advilad xeluyvia~, riTac ara marto Tavisi
`ugunureba~, aramed Tavisi mrCevlebis `ugunurebac~ gaumJRavnebia.
  Zalze didmniSvnelovania azri, romelic qarTuli eklesiis avtokefali-
is Sesaxeb gamoTqva giorgi mTawmidelma antioqiis patriarqis winaSe.
giorgi mTawmidelis Tanaxmad, qarTul eklesias avtokefalia arc V sauku-
neSi miuRia, arc VIII-Si da miTumetes, arc XI-Si, aramed qarTuli eklesia
daarsebisTanave avtokefaluri yofila, radganac igi mociqulTa mier daarse-
buli da amitomac samociqulo yofila.121 I-II saukuneebSi mociqulTa mier
daarsebuli qarTuli samociqulo eklesia daarsebisTanave avtokefaluria,
amitomac mis avtokefalias arc vinmes dasturi esaWiroeba da arc sxva
romelime eklesias aqvs qarTul eklesiaze batonobis ufleba.
  giorgi mTawmidelis pasuxi sruliad uaryofs im Tanamedrove mecnierTa
mosazrebebs, romelnic fiqroben, rom qarTulma eklesiam avtokefalia XI
saukuneSi miiRo. giorgi mTawmideli patriarqis winaSe imas ki ar ambobs,
rom qarTul eklesias avtokefalia petre III-m mianiWa 1056 wels, erTi
wlis wino, aramed medgrad da siamayiT acxadebs _ qarTuli eklesia
avtokefaluri aris I saukunis bolodan da II saukunis dasawyisidan, rad-
ganac Cveni eklesia andria pirvelwodebulma daaarsa, xolo simon kanane-
li Cvens qveyanaSi aris dakrZalulio.
  Tavisi mtkicebis dasasabuTeblad giorgi mTawmidelma moiTxova wigni _
`mimosvla andrea mociqulisa~. wignis wakiTxvis Semdeg patriarqi da mas-
Tan myofi episkoposebi darwmundnen, rom qarTuli eklesia dauarsebia
andria pirvelwodebuls, rac imas niSnavda, rom qarTuli eklesia samoci-
quloa. amis Semdeg giorgi mTawmidelma patriarqs uTxra: `wmidao meufeo,
Sen ityY, viTarmed Tavisa mis mociqulTasa petres saydarsa vzio, xolo
Cuen pirvelwodebulisa da Zmisa Tvisisa mwodebelisa nawilni varT da
samwysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganaTlebulni; da erTi wmida aTormetTa
mociqulaTagani _ simons vityvi kananelsa, queyanasa Cuensa damarxul ars
afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis. amaT wmidaTa mociqulTa ganaTle-
bulni varT. da vinaATgan erTi RmerTi gvicnobies, arRara uar-gYyofies da
arca odes wvalebisa mimarT midrekil ars naTesavi Cueni da yovelTa
uarismyofelTa da mwvalebelTa SevaCuenebT da davswyevT. amas safuZvelsa
zeda marTlmadideblobisasa da mcnebaTa da qadagebaTa zeda wmidaTa maT
mociqulTasa mtkice varT. wmidao meufeo, Suenis esreT, raATa wodebuli igi
mwodebelsa mas daemorCilos, rameTu petresi jer-ars, raATa daemorCilos
mwodebelsa TYssa da Zmasa andreas da raATa Tquen Cuen daguemorCilneT~.122
  giorgi mTawmidelis pasuxi imave logikiT iyo agebuli, rogoriTac pat-
riarqis moTxovna. patriarqma ganacxada, saxarebis Tanaxmad, unda iyos
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              597
erTi mwyemsi da erTi samwyso, radganac antioqiis patriarqi zis mociqul-
Ta Tavis, wmida petres taxtze. amitomac misi mwyemsmTavrobis qveS unda
iyos sxva eklesiebic, kerZod ki, qarTuli eklesiao. mTawmidelma upasuxa,
radganac erTi mwyemsi da erTi samwyso unda arsebobdes, umjobesia, Tqven
daemorCiloT wmida mociqul andria pirvelwodebulis saydars, radganac
wmida andriam mouwoda wmida petres, rasac petre daemorCila da ufal
ieso qristes am mowodebiT daemowafa, amitomac axlac wmida petres taxti
wmida andrias taxts unda daemorCiloso, anu antioqiis sapatriarqo saqarTve-
los sapatriarqos unda daemorCiloso.
   aseTi pasuxiT giorgi mTawmidelma agrZnobina antioqiis patriarqs, Tu
ra araseriozuli da araeklesiuri iyo antioqielTa moTxovna. antioqiis
sapatriarqoSi jer kidev XI saukuneSi yofila Teoria, romelsac amJamad
ewodeba `aRmosavluri papizmi~.
   amis Semdeg giorgi mTawmidelma ganacxada: `wmidao meufeo, romelni-ege
Cuen umecarad da subuqad guxedavT da Tavni Tquenni brZen da mZime
giyofian, iyo Jami, romel yovelsa saberZneTsa Sina marTlmadidebloba ara
i poeboda da ioane guTel episkoposi mcxeTas ikurTxa ebiskoposad, vi-
Tarca sweria didsa svinaqsarsa~.123
   VIII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesia, am pasuxis Tanaxmad, ara marto avtoke-
faluria, aramed sxva qveynis eklesiis meTaursac ki akurTxebs. aseTi
ufleba mxolod sapatriarqo eklesiebs hqondaT.
   patriarqi savsebiT daukmayofilebia giorgi mTawmidelis pasuxs da mas-
Si keTilganwyoba aRuZravs. patriarqs xumrobiT daumTavrebia es Sexvedra
qarTvel wmida berTan: `...ganiRima patriarqman da hrqua mRdel-moZRuarTa
maT da ersa: `xedavTa bersa amas viTar marto esodensa simravlesa guer-
evis? ekrZaleniT... ara xolo Tu sityYT, aramed saqmiT guamxilos Zleule-
ba Cueni da dagYmrwemnes da dagumrmelnes~.124
   aRsaniSnavia, rom am Sekrebis Semdeg araviTari werilobiTi dokumenti
ar SeudgeniaT qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis cnobis Sesaxeb, kreba damTavr-
da xumrobiT, amitomac is mecnierebic cdebian, romelnic varaudoben, rom
qarTul eklesias avtokefalia mianiWa 1057 wels patriarq Teodosis
dros zemoT aRwerilma krebam. am Sekrebaze qarTuli eklesiis avtoke-
faliaze iyo saubari. es iyo ara di plomatiuri molaparakeba, aramed
patriarqis mier qarTuli eklesiis zogadi sakiTxebis garkveva. am dros
jer kidev ar iyo damTavrebuli 1054-57 wlebis sazavo molaparakeba
bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris. amitomac, rogorc petre III-is, ise Teodosis
mier qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb simarTlis rkveva sazavo molaparakebis
dros, bunebrivia.
   1056 wels petre III-is dros antioqiis sapatriarqom aRiara qarTuli
eklesiis yvela ufleba, maT Soris sapatriarqo Rirsebis ufleba, ris
Semdegac Sewyda qarTuli eklesiis devna.
598                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  1054-57 wlebis samSvidobo molaparakeba bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris Zalze
sasargeblo iyo qarTuli eklesiisTvisac.
  qarTuli eklesiis saqmeebis sruli mogvarebis Semdeg giorgi mTaw-
midelma Tavisi di plomatiuri misia amowura antioqiaSi. bagrat IV-sa da
dedofal mariams surdaT moesminaT antioqiaSi am wmida mamis Sromis
angariSi: `...raATa namuSakevi igi misi RmrTivmoniWebuli ixilon da aRivs-
nen sixaruliTa~, amitomac maT misweres antioqiis patriarqs Teodosis
ezruna giorgi mTawmidelis ukan dabrunebaze. `...dawerna wignni patreaqsa
Tana da duksa antioqiisasa wargzavnisa CuenisaTYs...~125 aqedan Cans, rom
giorgi mTawmideli saxelmwifos wargzavnilia, romelic molaparakebas
awarmoebs antioqiaSi, radganac mis uflebamosilebaze TviT imperatori da
mefe zrunavs, antioqiis dukasTan _ `mTavarTan~ erTad (antioqiaSi Casvlis
dros qarTul delegacias imperatoris werili hqonda: `...aqunda brZanebaA
sameufoA Tavadsa Tana da patreaqsa antioqiisasa~).126
  aRsaniSnavia, rom giorgi mTawmidelis biografi giorgi mcire mTlianad
ar aris informirebuli qarTuli delegaciis vizitis mizezebis Sesaxeb
antioqiis sapatriarqoSi. SeiZleba mas ar umxeldnen mefesa da impera-
tors Soris molaparakebis wvrilmanebs. magaliTad, giorgi mTawmideli
1055 wels gaTavisuflda iverTa monastris winamZRvrobisagan da 1056
wels is ukve antioqiaSi molaparakebazea patriarqTan. biografis azriT,
wmida giorgi winamZRvrobisagan gaTavisuflda, raTa Tavisuflad eTargmna
wmida werili _ `Targmanebad wmida werilTa~, magram antioqiaSi giorgi
mTawmideli ar Cerdeba da 1057-58 wlebSi saqarTveloSi Camodis, saidanac
is maleve brundeba iveronSi. Tu mTawmidelis mizani iyo wignebis Targmnis
gamo gaTavisufleba winamZRvrobisagan, is unda darCeniliyo antioqiis
qarTvelTa savaneSi da daewyo es saqmianoba, magram is iq ar rCeba da
saqarTveloSi miemgzavreba, sadac mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobisaTvis gac-
ilebiT mZime pirobebi iyo, vidre iveronsa da Sav mTaze. aqedan SeiZleba
davaskvnaT, rom giorgi mTawmideli winamZRvrobisagan gaTavisuflda ara
marto mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobisaTvis, aramed amis ZiriTadi mizezi iyo
moegvarebina qarTuli eklesiis saerTaSoriso mdgomareoba, rac man SesZlo
1054-57 wlebSi. aseve mariam dedofali ara marto salocavad gaemgzavra
ierusalimisaken, aramed sqem-monazons qarTuli eklesiis sakiTxebis sab-
oloo mogvareba surda,127 risTvisac Sexvda kidec antioqiis patriarq
petre III-s. konstantinopolSi ki patriarqs mravaljer Sexvdebodnen es
wmidanebi bagrat IV-sTan erTad, molaparakebisas konstantine monomaxTan da
dedofal TeodorasTan.
  1054-57 wlebSi bizantiurma sapatriarqoebma aRiares qarTuli eklesiis
sruli marTlmadidebloba. zavis dadebis Semdeg Sewyda qarTuli eklesiis
ukanono devna, sapatriarqoebma cnes qarTuli eklesiis yvela ukve faqto-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               599
brivad arsebuli ufleba da maT Soris ufleba _ qarTuli eklesia wode-
buliyo sapatriarqo eklesiad.

           saqarTvelos sapatriarqos struqtura da
                   iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi

  saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sedioda ramdenime sakaTalikoso. `saqarTve-
los patriarqis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda marTlmadidebeli somxuri epar-
qiebi, `somxeTis mitropolitis~ meTaurobiT, `afxazeTis~ (dasavleT saqarTve-
los) anu `biWvintis kaTalikosi~, romelic Tavis mxriv dasavleT saqarTve-
los calkeul saepiskoposoebs iqvemdebarebda~.128 saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqos Seqmnis Semdeg sakaTalikosoebi ar gauqmebulan, isini arsebobas
ganagrZobdnen iseve, rogorc somxur eklesiaSi ramdenime sakaTalikoso
arsebobs. sakaTalikosoebi erTiani saqarTvelos sapatriarqos arsebobis
dros iseTive funqcias asrulebdnen, rogorsac asrulebdnen samitropoli-
toebi berZnul sapatriarqoebSi.
  saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi, wyaroTa Tanaxmad, Sedioda: 1. qarTlis sakaTal-
ikoso; 2. afxazeTis sakaTalikoso; 3. somxeTis samitropolito; 4. Crdilo
kavkasiis qristianebi.
  Tavis mxriv, yovel sakaTalikosoSi Sedioda saepiskoposoebi. dasavleT
saqarTvelos saepiskoposoebi uSualod eqvemdebareboda afxazeTis kaTa-
likoss, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos saepiskoposoebi ki _ qarTlis kaTaliko-
ss. qarTlis kaTalikossa da afxazeTis kaTalikoss Soris umcros-ufroso-
biTi damokidebuleba arsebobda.
  saqarTvelos sapatriarqos meTaurad _ patriarqad yovelTvis qarTlis
kaTalikoss svamdnen, anu qarTlis kaTalikosi imave dros saqarTvelos
patriarqi iyo. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos meTaurs oficialurad ewodebo-
da _ `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa patriarqi da qarTlisa kaTalikosi~.129 qarT-
lis kaTalikosi rom imave dros saqarTvelos patriarqi iyo, amis dasamt-
kiceblad SeiZleba moviyvanoT amonawerebi Zveli dokumentebidan, romelT-
ac xels aweren qarTuli eklesiis meTaurebi TavianTi sruli titula-
turiT. am amonawerebis moyvanamde unda iTqvas, rom sityva `patriarqi~ _
Sua saukuneTa saqarTveloSi iTargmneboda da ixmareboda misi qarTuli
Targmani `mamamTavari~. Zveli aRTqmis patriarqebsac ki saqarTveloSi
uwodebdnen ara patriarqebs, aramed `mamamTavrebs~. magaliTad, `...mamaT-
mTavari iakob egvi ptes aRsrulebuli~; `mamaT-mTavarica didi ioseb mona
iyo~.130 saqarTvelos sapatriarqos meTaursac zogjer tradiciis Sesabamis-
ad uwodebdnen `mamaT-mTavars~ _ qarTul Targmans berZnuli sityva _
`patriarqisa~.
600                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  1103 wlis dokumentSi patriarqs ase moixsenieben _ `iovane wmidisa
kaTalikosisa da yovlisa saqarTveloAsa yovlad Rirsisa mamaT-mTavrisa
mravalni arian welni~.131
  VIII saukunis dokumentSia _ `...wmidisa mamaTmTavarsa Cuensa arsenis
qristes mier qarTlisa kaTalikozsa...~132
  1610 wlis _ `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa mamaTmTavarTmTavarman kaTalikozman
patronman zebedem~.133
  `yovlisa aRmosavlisa da CrdiloAsa didman mamamTavarman, kaTalikozman
patronman zebedem~.134.
  1616 wlis _ `yovlisa saqarTvelosa didman mamaTmTavarTmTavarman,
qarTlisa kaTalikozman patronman iovanem~.135
  aq yuradReba unda mieqces, rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs ewodeba
saqarTvelos mamamTavari, anu patriarqi da qarTlis kaTalikosi. saqarTve-
lo da qarTli XI saukunis Semdeg erTi da igive cnebebi ar aris, saqarTvelo
ewodeba qveyanas `nikofsiidan darubandamde~, xolo qarTli _ lixis mTis
aRmosavleTiT mdebare provinciebs ewodeboda, amitomac roca qarTuli
eklesiis meTaurs uwodeben saqarTvelos patriarqsa da qarTlis kaTali-
koss, Cven iseve unda gavigoT, rogorc weren _ is mTeli, sruliadi, `yoveli~
saqarTvelos patriarqia da amave dros aris kaTalikosi qarTlisa.
  1629 wlis dokumentSia _ `yovlisa saqarTvelosa makurTxevelman did-
man mamaT-mTavarman qarTlisa kaTalikozman zaqaria~.136 _ es aris sruliad
saqarTvelos patriarqi da amave dros qarTlis kaTalikosi.
  1634 wlis _ `didman mamaTmTavarman qarTlisa kaTalikozman patronman
evdemoz~.137
  `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa didman mamaTmTavarman qarTlisa kaTalikozman
evdemoz~.138
  1638 wlis _ `saqarTveloAsa didman mamamTmTavarman, qarTlisa kaTal-
ikozman patronman evdemon~.139
  1660 wlis _ `yovlis saqarTveloAs didman mamaTmTavarman, kaTalikozman
domentim~.140
  1670 wlis _ `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa makurTxevelman mamaTmTavarman,
qarTlisa kaTalikozman amilaxoris Zeman nikolaoz...~141
  `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa didman mamaTmTavarman, qarTlisa kaTalikozman
batoniSvilman patronman domenti...~ (1672 weli),142
  1678 w _ `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa didman mamaTmTavarman, qarTlisa kaTa-
likozman amilaxorisSvilman patronman nikoloz...~,143
  1689 weli _ `yovlisa saqarTveloAsa didman mamaTmTavarman, qarTlisa
kaTalikozman diasamiZem patronman iovanem...~144
  1694 weli _ ``yovlisa saqarTveloAsa didman mamaT-mTavarman qarTlisa
kaTalikozman, amilaxorisZeman patronman nikoloz...~145
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                601
  zemoT moyvanili amonawerebidan aSkarad Cans, rom sruliad saqarTve-
los patriarqi imave dros aris qarTlis kaTalikosi, anu saqarTvelos
mamamTavari aerTianebs or taxts _ qarTlis kaTalikosisas da saqarTve-
los patriarqisas. is ori taxtis mpyrobelia. afxazeTis kaTalikossa da
qarTlis kaTalikoss Soris damokidebuleba Tu rogori saxis iyo, garkveulia
mecnierTa mier _ `mcxeTis patriarqi, afxazeTis kaTalikosisaTvis gaxda
`mama~, TviT afxazeTis kaTalikosi `umrwmesi~ (umcrosi) kaTalikosi~.146
  rogorc vTqviT, saqarTvelos patriarqi imave dros qarTlis kaTaliko-
sia da is `uxucesi~, `mama~, anu ufrosia afxazeTis kaTalikosze. sapatri-
arqoSi, rogorc adre aRvniSneT, Sedioda agreTve somxeTis samitropoli-
to. somxeTis mitropoliti uSualod eqvemdebareboda qarTlis kaTaliko-
ss. xolo sapatriarqoSi aseve Semavali Crdilo kavkasiis qristianebi da
Crdilo kavkasiaSive mdebare xunZeTis kaTalikosi uSualod saqarTvelos
patriarqs eqvemdebareboda.147 aRniSnulTa gamo saqarTvelos sapatriarqos
struqturas grafikulad aseTi saxe eqneba:


        saqarTvelos sapatriarqo

    saqarTvelos patriarqi, anu mamaTmTavari


  afxazeTis                   qarTlis                Crdilo kavkasiis
sakaTalikoso               sakaTalikoso                 qristianebi
                                                   xunZeTis sakaTalikoso

                               somxeTis
                           samitropolito

  saqarTvelos patriarqs uSualod eqvemdebarebodnen agreTve istoriuli
albaneTis CrdiloeTis mxareebis qristianebi, romlebic wina saukuneebSi
albanTa kaTalikosis samwysos warmoadgenda. amis Sesaxeb visaubrebT saqarTve-
los sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis aRmosavleTis sazRvrebis gansazRvris
dros, xolo rac Seexeba xunZeTis sakaTalikosos, unda aRiniSnos, rom
`xunZeli kaTalikosi oqropiri~ moxsenebulia sinas mTis XV saukuniT
daTariRebul xelnawerSi, magram Crdilo kavkasieli qristianebi gacilebiT
adre eqvemdebarebodnen saqarTvelos patriarqs, amaze miuTiTebs tyoba-
ierdis XI saukunis warwera.
602                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  afxazeTis sakaTalikosos Sesaxeb unda aRiniSnos, rom is arc XV sauku-
nis saqarTvelos erTiani samefos daSlis Semdeg daarsebula, rogorc
hgonia sardel (berZen) mitropolit maqsimes Tavis gamokvlevaSi qarTuli
eklesiis avtokefaliis Sesaxeb148 da arc XIII saukuneSi, rogorc adre
fiqrobdnen. axali monacemebiT dadgenilia: `afxazeTis sakaTalikoso _
dasavleT saqarTvelos sakaTalikosoa. mis daarsebas zogi mkvlevari VIII
saukunes, zogi ki X saukunis meore naxevars miakuTvnebs. afxazeTis sakaTa-
likosom Secvala konstantinopolis sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebuli lazikis
samitropolito da abazgiis saarqiepiskoposo eparqiebi. afxazeTis kaTa-
likosis sakaTedro taZari, romelic andria mociqulis saydrad iwodeboda,
biWvinTaSi iyo. afxazeTis kaTalikoss `biWvinTis kaTalikossac~ uwodebd-
nen. ierarqiulad igi saqarTvelos kaTalikoss eqvemdebareboda~.149
  afxazeTis sakaTalikoso saqarTvelos sapatriarqos (XI saukuneSi) daarse-
bamde arsebobda da Sevida sapatriarqoSi. amis gamo XI saukuneSi, sapatri-
arqos daarsebis Semdegac, saqarTveloSi ramdenime kaTalikosi iyo erT-
droulad, afxazeTis kaTalikosi da qarTlis kaTalikosi, amitomac es sity-
va ixmareboda TiTqmis yovelTvis mravlobiT ricxvSi. werdnen xolme _
`kaTalikosTa~, `kaTalikosni~ da ara `kaTalikosi~. SeiZleba aseTi magali-
Tis moyvana. XI saukunis 50-ian wlebSi _ `...iwyo RvTismsaxurman mefeman
bagrat da Zeman misman, dedofalTa da kaTalikosTa wvevad~...150 giorgi
mTawmidelisa saqarTveloSio, wers biografi. forma `dedofalTa~ gasage-
bia, giorgi mTawmidels iwvevdnen mefis deda _ mariami, mefis meuRle da
rZali _ Zis coli, aseve `kaTalikozTaSi~ igulisxmeba, rom giorgi mTaw-
midels iwvevdnen afxazeTisa da qarTlis kaTalikosebi (ucxoeTidan
saqarTveloSi). saqarTveloSi mosvlis Semdeg ki, roca giorgi mTawmideli
gadavida aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, anu sakuTriv qarTlSi, masTan kavSiri
aqvs erT kaTalikoss, dasavleT saqarTvelodan `qarTlSi~ gadasul giorgi
mTawmidelis winaSe `...iwyes aRsarebad da sinanulad TviT mefeman, kaTali-
kozman... mRvdelTa, diakonTa, monazonTa...~.151
  miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli eklesia im dros Sedgeboda ori mTavari
sakaTalikososagan, es eklesia erTi qveynis eklesiaa. giorgi mcire dabejiTe-
biT amtkicebs imas, rac Tavis droze giorgi mTawmidelma antioqiis patriarqs
moaxsena _ mTliani saqarTvelo mociqulebma andriam da simon kananelma
moaqcies da daafuZnes aq erTi eklesia. amitomac saqarTvelo, anu rogorc
maSin uwodebdnen `aRmosavleTi~ _ nawilia am mociqulebisa. andriam mTeli
saqarTvelo `movlo~. xolo svimon kananelma sruliad daimkvidra es qveyana.
giorgi mTawmidelmao, wers biografi _ `...yoveli aRmosavleTi gananaTla da
nawili igi andria mociqulisa da simon kananelisa kualad ganamtkica, rameTu
andria mociqulman movlo qveyana Cveni, xolo svimon kananelman sruliad
daimkvidra, rameTu nikofss arian nawilni misni wmidani~.152
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              603
  swored am ideologiur safuZvelzea damyarebuli saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqos Seqmna _ saqarTvelo erTi qveyanaa, erTi saxelmwifoa. saqarTvelos
sxvadasxva kuTxeebs sxvadasxva ganmanaTleblebi ki ar hyavdaT, aramed
erTiani, mTliani saqarTvelos ganmanaTleblebi arian aq Camosuli mo-
ciqulebi _ andria pirvelwodebuli da svimon kananeli, amitomac eklesia
erTi unda hqondes da ara ramdenime. erTian saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi
Seiqmna erTi didi eklesia-sapatriarqo, xolo am sapatriarqoSi XI sauku-
neSive Sedioda ori sakaTalikoso _ ori administraciuli erTeuli, anu
saeklesio samTavro _ saeklesio provincia. es Seesabameboda saxelmwifos
politikur dayofas erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmnis Semdeg oficialurad
calkeuli `samefoebi~ ar gauqmebulan, isini kvlavindeburad arsebobdnen,
amitomac, erTiani saxelmwifos mefes ewodeboda _ mefe afxazTa, qarTvelTa,
ranTa, kaxTa da somexTa, SahanSa da SarvanSa. `sanam kaxeT-hereTi gaer-
Tianebuli saqarTvelos farglebs gareT imyofeba, saqarTvelos mefeebi
iwodebian `afxazTa da qarTvelTa~ mefeebad, sadac `afxazTa~ dasavleT
saqarTvelos gulisxmobs, xolo `qarTvelTa~ istoriul aRmosavleT saqarTve-
los (qarTl-mesxeTs kaxeT-hereTis gareSe)... afxazTa da qarTvelTa mefes
emateba ranTa (e.i. hereTis) da kaxTa mefis tituli, rac am provinciebis
SemoerTebas asaxavs. daviT (aRmaSeneblis) mefis titulebSi Cndeba `somex-
Ta~ mefis wodeba... (rac lores samefos SemoerTebas ukavSirdeba da ara
anisis SemoerTebas, romlis mefeni SahanSas tituls atarebdnen... qarTvel
mefeTa titulebSi rogorc `SahanSa~, aseve `SarvanSa~ daviTis dros unda
iyos Sesuli, radgan anisis samefoc da Sarvanic daviT aRmaSeneblis dros
SemouerTda saqarTvelos.153
  sapatriarqo ori saeklesio samTavrosagan, `saeklesio mitropoliisagan~
_ qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTalikosoebisagan Sedgeboda. TandaTan saqarTve-
los saxelmwifos gafarToebasTan erTad sapatriarqoSi Sevida sxva `saek-
lesio samTavroebic~.
  marTalia, sapatriarqoSi sakaTalikosoebi arsebobdnen, magram XI-XIII
saukuneebSi sakaTalikosoebis TviTmmarTveloba da uflebebi SezRuduli
iyo, amitomac afxazeTis kaTalikoss am drois wyaroebi TiTqmis aRarc
axsenebdnen Tavisi tituliT. XIII saukuneSi monRolTa mier erTiani saxel-
mwifos orad gayofam afxazeTis sakaTalikosos imereTis samefoSi avtori-
teti moupova. iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, XIII saukunis Semdgom axlo xaneb-
Si `...afxazeTis kaTalikosoba winandeburad aRsdga~.154
  imis gamo, rom qarTlis kaTalikosi avtomaturad iTvleboda saqarTve-
los patriarqadac, qarTlis kaTalikosis saxeli ufro xSirad moixsenieba
afxazeTis kaTalikosTan SedarebiT.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom XV saukuneSi erTiani saqarTvelos samefos daSlis
Semdeg yvela provinciis mefe Tavis Tavs miiCnevda erTiani, sruliad
saqarTvelos erTaderT kanonier mefed. erTiani saxelmwifos daSlas Tan
604                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
mohyva erTiani saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daSla, magram miuxedavad amisa,
rogorc qarTlis, ise afxazeTis kaTalikosebi ar cnobdnen erTiani eklesi-
is daSlas da TavianT Tavs uwodebdnen `sruliad saqarTvelos kaTaliko-
ss~, an mamamTavars. magaliTad, afxazeTis kaTalikosi grigoli XVIII sauku-
nis dasawyisSic ki Tavis Tavs uwodebda ara afxazeTis, anu dasavleT
saqarTvelos kaTalikoss, aramed sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikoss. amiTaa
gamowveuli, rom Sewirulobis wigns biWvinTisadmi afxazeTis kaTalikosi
1712 wels artyams beWeds warwera-zedweriliT: `grigol mwyemsi qristesmier
yovlisa saqarTvelos kaTalikozi~.155
  ufro xSirad ki dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTalikosebi TavianT Tavs
`qvemo iveriis~, anu afxazeTis kaTalikoss uwodebdnen,156 xolo aRmosavleT
saqarTvelosi _ `zemo iveriis~ anu `zemo saqarTvelos~ kaTalikosebs.157
  `qarTlis cxovreba~ qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTalikosoebs `samTavroebs~
uwodebs. sityva `samTavro~ uamravjer gvxvdeba `did sjuliskanonSi~. saekl-
esio olqis, saeklesio provinciis, eparqiis, mitropoliis mniSvnelobiT,
romelsac aqvs Tavisi saepiskoposoebi. saeklesio `samTavros~ didi sjulis-
kanonis Tanaxmad, hyavs Tavisi pirvelierarqi, romelsac am samTavros episko-
posebi emorCilebian. `qarTlis cxovrebaSia~ _ `Semokrbes orisave samTav-
rosa episkoposni...~158 aq sityva samTavros qveS swored saeklesio da ara
saero-saxelmwifo-administraciuli samTavro igulisxmeba. es iqidan Cans,
rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifoSi Sedioda ara `ori samTavro~, aramed `Svi-
di samefo~ _ provincia: `afxazeTis, qarTlis, ranis, kaxeTis, somxeTis, anisis
da Sirvanis samefoebi~ da ori saeklesio `samTavro~ _ afxazeTisa da
qarTlis sakaTalikosoebi. Crdilo kavkasiis qristianebs saqarTvelos sapa-
triarqos cxovrebaSi umniSvnelo roli eniWeboda, xolo somxeTis samit-
ropolito qarTlis sakaTalikosoSi Sedioda.

           a. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis
                   Crdilo-dasavleTi sazRvari

  XI saukuneSive saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sedioda `nikofsia~, dRevande-
li tuafse, sadac qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli simon kananeli iyo dakrZalu-
li da romelic giorgi mTawmidelis Tanaxmad, `queyanasa Cuensa _ afxazeTs~
mdebareobda. es iyo provincia jiqeTis centrSi, es provincia ki qerCamde
aRwevda. rogorc wyaroebi uCveneben, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Crdilo-
dasavleTis sazRvari aRwevda xersonesamde. ase magaliTad, 1525-1550 wlebis
biWvinTis iadgarSi afxazeTis sakaTalikosos Crdilo-dasavleTis sazRvrad
dasaxelebulia punqti `kafa~, CrdiloeTis sazRvrad ki _ `ruseTis samzR-
vari~. punqti `kafa~ mdebareobda xersonesTan _ `kaTalikozis sakurTxi aris,
samwyso _ lixsa da kafas Sua da ruseTis samzRuarsa da WaneTs Sua~.159
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             605
    saerTod xersonesi da kafas naxevarkunZuli pirvel saukuneebSive dakav-
Sirebuli iyo saqarTvelosTan, magaliTad _ `kardinal baroniusis azriT,
ax.w.aR-is 100 wels imperator traianes mier xersonesSi gandevnili papi
wm. klimentis mecadineobis Sedegad kolxeTsa da iberiaSi qristianoba
gavrcelda. arqanjelo lamberti kardinal baroniusis am mosazrebis Sesaxeb
iqve miuTiTebs, rom `... kolxeTi xuTasi miliTaa daSorebuli xersonesidan~,
...arqanjelo lamberti im azrs icavs, rom kolxeTsa da iberiaSi qris-
tianoba wm. andream da wm. barTlomeom gaavrceles~.160
    `qalaqi kaffa mdebareobs 17 verstis daSorebiT karagozidan... emxroba
kafis yuris dasavleT nawils... am qalaqma yirimis aRebis Semdeg miiRo
Tavisi Zveli saxeli _ `Teodosia~, amJamad ki isev ewodeba Tavisi winande-
li saxeli kaffa~, magram adre TaTrebi eZaxdnen aseve _ quCuk _ stambuls.
qalaqs uWiravs Zalze moxerxebuli da xelsayreli mdgomareoba vaWroba-
Si. is iyo Zalze mniSvnelovani yvela punqts Soris, romlebic genuelebma
daiWires yirimSi~.161
    afxazeTis sakaTalikosos Crdilo-dasavleTis sazRvari aris punqti kaffa,
yirimSi, xersonesTan. afxazeTis sakaTalikosos saqarTvelos sapatriarqo-
Si Sesvlis gamo saqarTvelos sapatriarqos sazRvari kaffamde aRwevda.
xersonesis gaTxrebis dros aRmoCnda qarTuli taZari, rogorc es gamoikv-
lia kaTalikos-patriarqma kirionma. manve gamoTqva azri, rom VIII saukune-
Si goTeTis upirvelesi episkoposis iberiaSi xeldasxmis Semdeg goTeTis
eklesia qarTul eklesias daeqvemdebara.162 kaffa goTeTTan mdebareobda.

          b. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis
                    CrdiloeTis sazRvari

  V saukuneSive vaxtang gorgasalis mier daarsebuli niqozis saepiskopo-
sos samwysoSi Sediodnen Crdilo kavkasielebi, dval-osebi, aseve dasavleT
saqarTveloSi glola-Rebis sanaxebi _ `ars niqozs eklesia... gorgasal hyo
saepiskopozod da dasua episkopozi, zis dResac, mwyemsi kavkasianTa, dual-
Ta da aw oseTad wodebulisa, glola RebiTurT~.163 `qarTlis cxovrebis~
Tanaxmad, VIII saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis sazRvari aRwevda `...Cerqezis
sazRvramdis sruliad ovseTisa...~164 `...pontos zRvidam darubandis zRvam-
de~.165 XVI saukuneSi afxazeTis sakaTalikosos CrdiloeTis sazRvari emTx-
veoda ruseTis saxelmwifos samxreTis sazRvars, romelic jer kidev ar
iyo moaxloebuli kavkasias _ `ruseTis samzRvarsa da WaneTs Sua~-o, _ wers
`biWvinTis iadgari~. XVIII saukuneSic ki afxazeTis sakaTalikosos Tavis
samwysod miaCnda `pontos~, anu Savi zRvis CrdiloeTiT mdebare miwebi _
`ponto CrdiloiT~.166
  XI saukuneSi, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Seqmnis dros qarTul eklesia-
Si rom Sedioda CeCneTi, inguSeTi, oseTi, avareTi _ mTiani daRestani, amis
606                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
Sesaxeb miuTiTebs axali gamokvlevebi.167 Crd. kavkasiaSi qristianuli re-
ligiisa da kulturis sivrcesa da siRrmeSi gavrceleba-SeRweva X sauku-
neSi iwyeba. feodaluri saqarTvelos srul gaerTianebamde Crdilo-dasav-
leT imierkavkasiaSi qristianobis gamavrcelebeli bizantiasTan erTad
dasavleT qarTuli samefo _ afxazeTia, centralur imierkavkasiaSi (dva-
leTi, CeCneT-inguSeTi) _ qarTl-kaxeTis samTavro, xolo gaerTianebis Sem-
deg _ saqarTvelos centraluri xelisufleba. calke aRiniSneba qarTuli
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis roli. rogorc Cans, saqarTvelos sakaTali-
koso-sapatriarqos status kvos da Crdilo kavkasiis qveynebSi saqarTve-
los kaTalikos-patriarqis iurisdiqcias gamoxatavs XI saukunis damdegs
saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqis, melqisedek I-is moxsenieba `aRmosavle-
Tis patriarqad~ imierkavkasiis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi qristianuli Zeglis
tyoba-ierdas (inguSeTis) taZarze... avareTSi qristianuli kulturisa da
saqarTvelo-daRestnis kulturul-istoriul urTierTobaTa gasaSuqeblad gan-
sakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania umTavresad xunZaxsa da mis SemogarenSi Zv-
elqarTuli damwerlobis ZeglTa arseboba... es unikaluri Zeglebi naTlad
da utyuarad migviTiTeben Sua saukuneTa avareTSi qarTuli damwerlobisa
da enis gavrcelebaze, iqaur eklesia-taZrebSi qarTuli RvTismsaxurebisa da
qarTul grafikul sistemaze agebul adgilobriv damwerlobaze... X-XIV
saukuneTa avareTSi qristianobis intensifikacia kargad Cans werilobiTi
monacemebiTac _ ...1310 wlis maRalaSviliseuli saxarebis minawerSi (giorgi
brwyinvales dros) dadasturebulia daRestanSi ramdenime eparqiis arsebo-
ba (xunZaxis, anwuxisa da waxurisa) da bolos aRvniSnavT, mecnieruli Tval-
sazrisiT uZvirfases cnobas sinas erT-erTi qarTuli monastris XV sauku-
nis saaRape wignidan _ `xunZeli kaTalikosi oqropiris~ Sesaxeb, romelsac
korneli kekeliZe mitropolitTan aigivebda da riTac daRestanSi qarTuli
marTlmadidebluri eklesiis samitropolitos arsebobaa dadasturebuli~.168
  Crdilo kavkasiaSi saqarTvelos sapatriarqos erT-erTi samitropoli-
tos arseboba xunZeTis sakaTalikosos saxelwodebiT, werilobiTaa dadas-
turebuli.

    g. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos aRmosavleTis sazRvari

  jer kidev V saukuneSi mose xoreneli werda, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebel-
ma wmida ninom iqadaga `klarjeTidan _ masquTTa qveynamdeo~.
  masquTTa qveyana mdebareobda kaspiis zRvis piras, axlandeli derbendis
siaxloves, TviT mose xoreneli Tvlida, rom mis dros V saukuneSi qarTu-
li eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda vrceli miwebi klarjeTidan kaspiis
zRvamde, rasac eTanxmeba qarTlis cxovreba _ qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiq-
ciaSi aRmosavleTiT Sedioda _ kaxeTi, Saqi, Sirvani da midgmiT _ warmov-
liT mTisa adgilni,169 `pontos zRvidan darubandis zRvamde~.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                    607
  1310 wlis werilobiT cnobaSia _ `odes sanatrelman man patriarqman
Cuenman eqvTime moixila kaxeTs anwuxisa saepiskoposo da mieriTgan gardam-
ovida waxurs, kak-elisens da movlo saydarni: kasri samebisa, yumi RvTismSob-
lisa, leqarTs wm. mociqulTasworisa ninosi, zars wm. mTavarmowamisa gior-
gisa, vardians wm. habosi, ganuxs arCilisi, qiS-nuxs RvTismSoblisa, bardaSens
eliasi... kvalad saydarni xunZTa,naxCTa, ToSeTisa,nekresisa, laguTisa,belqanisa,
maj-fifineTisa, ferijan-muxax-mamreTisa da yovlisa vakisa, e.i. ars Zvelisa
movakanisa da elisenisa, verxvianT zeganiT gamo ivris mdinaris CasarTavam-
de, alazansa da sanatrelman eqvTime mibrZana qurmuxisa mTavar episkopossa
da yovlisa mTeulisa winamZRvarsa kirile donaursa...~170
  am amonaweridan Cans, rom uSualod saqarTvelos patriarqs eqvemdebare-
ba albaneTis sakaTalikosos is samwyso, romelic ar SeuerTda somxur
eklesias.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom hereTis qristianebi qarTulenovanni iyvnen. maTi dedae-
na iyo qarTuli ena. isini V saukuneSi mcxeTis eklesias eqvemdebarebodnen.
rogorc `SuSanikis wamebidan~ Cans, Semdgom, raRac mizezis gamo, hereTis
qristianebi ierarqiulad daeqvemdebarnen albaneTis sakaTalikosos. VI
saukunidan rogorc albaneTis, ise qarTlis sakaTalikosoebi somxuri ek-
lesiis mZlavr zegavlenas ganicdidnen sparsTa saxelmwifos nebiT. uTuod
amis gamo, albaneTis sakaTalikosoSi, miuxedavad mcdelobisa, saeklesio
enad dainerga ara mSobliuri qarTuli da albanuri enebi, aramed eklesie-
bSi wirva-locvisaTvis gamoiyeneboda somxuri ena. amis mizezi sparsTa zemo-
qmedebis garda, albaneTis xalxTa mravalerovneba iyo. albaneTSi gavrcele-
buli iyo rogorc sparsuli, aseve Turquli da kavkasiuri enebi, am qveynis
Crdilo-dasavleTiT ki hereTis mosaxleobis dedaena iyo qarTuli ena.
  VII saukunis bolos, movses kalankatuacis Tanaxmad, albaneTis eklesiam
sabolood dakarga avtokefalia da is SeuerTda somxur eklesias.171 amis
gamo albaneTis nawil hereTSic somxuri eklesiis mecadineobiT gavrcelda
monofizitoba. es mwvalebloba hereTSi aRmoufxvria dinara dedofals X
saukuneSi. amis Semdeg hereTi da aRmosavleTis mxareebi kvlav Tavis deda
qarTul eklesias daubrunda. XI saukuneSi sapatriarqos Seqmnis Semdeg,
hereTsa da mis aRmosavleTiT mdebare qveynebze iurisdiqcias saqarTvelos
patriarqi axorcielebda, rogorc zemoT moyvanili amonawerebidanac Cans.

           d. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciis
                      sazRvari samxreTiT
  imperator konstantine porfirogenetis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos samxre-
Tis sazRvari mdinare arezamde Cadioda, mdinare araqsis `...marcxena mxar-
eo, _ wers is, _ iberiisaken mimarTuli epyraT iberebs, xolo marjvena, rac
Teodosiopolisaken aris, rogorc cixeebi, ise soflebi iyves Cveni meufebis
608                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qveS ise, rom maSasadame orive sazRvrad mdinare iqneba~-o.172 `mesxeTis
Zireul nawils Seadgenda mcire moculobis seqtorebi mezobeli araqsisa
da dasavleT evfratis xeobebisa~.173
  araqsisa da evfratis saTaveebSi qarTvelebi X saukuneSi konstantine
porfirogenetis dros ki ar dasaxlebulan, aramed saerTod es mxareebi
uZveles dros iyo qarTveli xalxis Tavdapirveli samSoblo, amitomac jer
kidev qristeSobamde aTasi wliT adre aq, am mxareebSi warmoiqmna qarTve-
li xalxis pirveli saxelmwifoebi _ diaoxi da kolxa. diaoxisa da kolx-
asagan momdinareoben am mxareebSi gavrcelebuli toponimebi _ `tao~ da
`kola~. moses xorenacis Tanaxmad, am mxareebSi armenielebis Semosvlis
dros qristemde VI-V saukuneebSi, armenielebs aq adgilobrivi mosaxleoba
daxvedria, romelTa asimilaciac maSinve dawyebula. xorenelis Tanaxmad,
armenielTa erT mefes aukrZalavs adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis mSobli-
ur enaze laparaki da neba daurTavs armenielTa enaze laparakisa. _
`amasTanave aramma ubrZana iqaur mkvidrT, SeeTvisebinaT somxuri ena da
laparaki~.174 xoreneli mravalgzis aRniSnavs _ `sakvirvelia mematianis
naTqvami, rom Cvens qveyanaSi mraval adgilas gafantulad mkvidrobda
mcirericxovani xalxi, Cveni Zireuli winapris, haikis mosvlamde~,175 anda
`matianeSi aqac aRniSnulia, rom velis samxreT nawilSi, erT wagrZelebul
mTasTan adridanve cxovrobdnen mcireodeni kacni, romlebic nebiT damor-
Cildnen gmirs~,176 anda `...ar SemiZlia vTqva dabejiTebiT, STamomavalia igi
haikisa Tu haikis (mosvlamde) am qveyanaSi mcxovrebi xalxisa, romelTa
arsebobaze miuTiTeben Zveli Tqmulebebi~.177 xorenelis mTargmneli da
komentatori al. abdalaZe amis Sesaxeb wers _ `xorenacis am da msgavs
cnobebSi asaxulia istoriuli sinamdvile imis Sesaxeb, rom e.w. `didi
somxeTis~ miwa-wyalze somexTa mosvlamde mkvidrobdnen sxva xalxebi, maT
Soris qarTuli modgmis tomebic~.178
  qarTvelTa asimilacia armenielTa mier `didi somxeTis~ miwa-wyalze
warmatebuli iyo somxeTis aRmosavleT nawilSi, magram dasavleT somxeTSi
arezisa da evfratis siaxloves mcxovrebma qarTvelebma didxans SeinarCu-
nes ena imis gamo, rom maT mezoblad mdebare kapadokia da ponto qarTule-
novani iyo (igulisxmeba, rom am elinizebuli qarTvelebis saojaxo, saSinao
ena iyo qarTuli ena). agreTve, qristemde IV-III saukuneebSi Seqmnili iberi-
is saxelmwifo am mimarTulebiT sazRvrebs ifarToebda xolme, gansakuTre-
biT I-II saukuneebSi. Semdgom saukuneebSi somxeTis gaZlierebam daaCqara
somxeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis nawilobrivi asimilacia. n. maris azriT,
mesxeTis aborigenuli mosaxleoba yofila lazuri an megruli _ `am raio-
nis aborigenebi... romelime lazuri an megruli tomia~.179
  saqarTvelos sapatriarqos warmoqmnis dros e.w. `didi somxeTis~ terito-
riaze cxovrobda uamravi qarTveli, adgilobrivi mcxovrebi, maTTvis daarse-
buli iqna saepiskoposoebi, romelTa sazRvrebi aRwevda raxsisa da evfrat-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              609
is xeobebamde. `XIII saukuneSi monRolTa batonobis drosac ki mesxeTis
mTavris kuTvnili qveyana iwyeboda taSiskaridan da grZeldeboda, `aRmarT,
vidre karnu qalaqamde~. XIV saukuneSic taSiskaridan vidre basianamde
`mesxTa qveSe dawesebuli qveyana iyo~... XVII saukunis antioqieli patriar-
qi makari adasturebs, rom adre saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvari iyo mdinare
evfrati da evfratis aqeTa teritoriebi sul saqarTvelod iTvleboda.
saqarTvelos sazRvari rom evfratamde Cadioda, amas amowmebs Celebic.
mdinare arezis aqeTa mxaresa da arzrumis midamoebs didxans SemorCa
qarTuli mosaxleoba. XVII saukuneSi arzrumis midamoebSi gamovlilma
arqanjelo lambertim ramdenime qarTuli sofeli naxa,romelTac arzrumelad
wodebuli qarTveli mwyemsmTavari ejdaT arzrumSi~.180
   amis gamo iyo, rom saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sedioda _ anisis, yarsis,
valaSkertisa da sxva saepiskoposoebi.
   cnobilia, rom osmaleTis mTavrobam Tavis qveyanaSi mcxovrebi qristiane-
bi dauqvemdebara konstantinopolis berZen patriarqs, anda konstantinopo-
lis grigorian patriarqs. amis gamo osmaleTSi mcxovrebi marTlmadide-
blebi ganixilebodnen rogorc `berZnebi~, is qristianebi, romelnic grigo-
rian patriarqs daumorCiles, iTvlebodnen _ `somxebad~. am qveyanaSi cx-
ovrobdnen agreTve `frangebi~, anu kaTolike qristianebi.
   amis Sesaxeb rumineli profesori wers _ `rogorc viciT, raRac drois
Semdeg da TiTqmis Cvens saukunemde marTlmadidebeli qristianis wodeba
xSirad gaigivebuli iyo berZnul erovnebasTan, ase rom, is, vinc Tavis Tavs
Tvlida marTlmadideblad, amave dros Tavis Tavs berZens uwodebda... kon-
stantinopolis patriarqi iyo amave dros eTnarqic, e.i. erovnul-poli-
tikuri meTauri `yvela berZenisa~ TurqeTis imperiaSi~.181
   aRniSnulis gamo, samxreT saqarTvelos mrevlis ZiriTadi nawili, romel-
ic TurqeTis imperiaSi moeqca, an `gaTaTrda~, an `gaberZnda~ an `gasomxda~,
an `gafrangda~.182
   saqarTvelos sapatriarqos arsebobis dros ki misi samxreTis sazRvari
gadioda mdinare araqssa da evfratze.

           qarTul eklesiaSi miRebuli Tvalsazrisi
             saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebis
                 kanonikuri uflebis Sesaxeb

  saukuneTa manZilze qarTul eklesiaSi gabatonebuli iyo Teoria, romlis
Tanaxmadac, qarTulma eklesiam sapatriarqo eklesiad wodebis Rirseba
miiRo VII saukuneSi, 681 wels Catarebul msoflio saeklesio krebaze.
  `qarTlis cxovreba~ wers _ `...iqmna kreba meeqvse, 170 (r~o) wmidaTa
mamaTa konstantinopolis Sina, meaTasammetesa welsa poRonati konstanti-
610                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
nes mefobisasa, romeli iyo mama iustinianesi, romlisa winamZRuar iyvnes
Teodore da giorgi xucesni da ioane diakoni, adgilis-mcvelni aRaTon
romTa papisani da giorgi konstantinopoleli, Teofane antioqeli. amis
krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmidisa eklesiisa saqarTvelosaTYs, romel
ars wmida mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa viTarca wmidani samociqulo
kaTolike eklesiani sapatriarqoni. da iyos kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori
patriarqTa Tana, da akurTxevdes, mwysides da ganagebdes simarTliT mTa-
varepiskoposTa, .mitropolitTa da episkoposTa, da samwysosa TYssa... `misTYs
migYTvlia saqarTvelos eklesiani, mas hmonebden da mis Kel queSe iyvnen,
da sjulsa missa erCden, da misgan imwyseboden. mogYcemia Kelmwifeba
Sekvrisa da ganKsnisa: ...xolo pirveliTgan antioqiis krebisa mier ganpa-
tiosnebul iyo, da am krebisa mier dagYmtkicebia patriaqad... xolo ukeTu
vinme ikadros kaTalikosisa winaaRdgoma, mTavarepiskoposman gina mitro-
politman, anu episkoposman, anu dai pyras xarisxi da eklesia ZaliTa, kaTa-
likosisa ukiTxavad da Seundobelad, anu ikurTxos mefe gina mTavari, anu
mTavarepiskoposni da mitropolit-episkoposni, _ ganikueTen. xolo odesca
enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva mironisa, akurTxos TYssa eklesiasa~.183
  es cnoba, erTi `martviluri xelnaweris~ Tanaxmad, moTavsebuli yofila
konstantinopolur `taqtikonSi~. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ zemoT moyvanil cnobaSi
naTqvamia, rom VI msoflio krebam mxedvelobaSi miiRo is garemoeba, rom
qarTuli eklesia `...pirveliTgan antioqiis krebisa mier ganpatiosnebuli
iyo...~ amis Sesaxeb daculia ufro srulfasovani da amomwuravi cnoba
`qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ _ antioqiis saeklesio krebamo, wers is, aRiara
qarTuli eklesiis sruli avtokefalia, amitomaco, weria iq _ `amieriTgan
ganTavisuflda, rameTu kaTalikozi qarlisa KelqveiT ara ars patriaqTa
da ara ikurTxvian patriaqTagan, aramed TYsisa samwysosa mitrapolitTa da
mTavarefiskopozTa da efiskopozTagan ikurTxvian, rameTu Tavisufali ars
da mociqulTa magieri da mociqulTa taxtsa zeda mjdomi da patriaqi,
Tavi yovelTa eklesiaTa, wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia sveti cxove-
li, da aqvs uaRresoba da Kelmwifeba kaTalikozsa yovelTa zeda, da mis
mierve miecemis yovelTa madli da kurTxeva Sekvrisa da ganKsnisa da
ikurTxeoden mefeni da mTavarni, mTavarefiskopozni da mitrapolitni, episko-
pozni da amas samwyso... pontos zRYdan darubandis zRvamde~.184
  es ufleba sapatriarqo eklesiad wodebisa qarTul eklesias miuRia VII
saukunis 30-40-ian wlebSi antioqiis sapatriarqo krebis mier, xolo 681 wels
VI msoflio krebas daudasturebia qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirseba.
  qarTul enaze Semonaxuli cnoba qarTuli eklesiisaTvis sapatriarqo
Rirsebis miniWebas miawers VI msoflio krebas. cnobaSi naTqvamia, rom es
moxda imperator konstantine pogonatis (668-685 ww.) dros.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 611
    VI krebas kanonebi ar SeumuSavebia, amitom krebis dadgenileba mxolod
dainteresebulma mxarem _ qarTulma eklesiam Semoinaxa. am cnobaSi naTqvamia,
rom kreba Catarda konstantines mefobis me-13 wels, rac savsebiT sworia.
konstantine 668 wels avida taxtze da misi mefobis me-13 weli aris 681 w.
    680-681 wlebSi Catarebul msoflio saeklesio krebaze qarTvelTa daswreba,
vaxtang goilaZis azriT, romelmac Tavis naSromSi es sakiTxi gamoikvlia,
ivaraudeba 681 wlidan.
    `qarTuli wyaroebis (zemoT moyvanil) cnobaSi yvela monacemi sworia,
kerZod is, rom konstantine pogonati iyo iustinianes (685-695) mama. iustinia-
neze miTiTeba imis maniSnebelia, rom es cnoba daiwera iustiniane II-is
dros da im drois mkiTxvelisaTvis cnobili iyo swored iustiniane, roml-
is mamis drosac es kreba Catarda.
    am cnobaSi Zalze zustadaa dasaxelebuli krebaze damswre pirebic. VI
krebis I sxdoma 680 wlis 7 noembers Sedga. krebaze damswre 153 episkopos-
sa da presviters Soris iyvnen konstantinopolis patriarqi giorgi, antioqi-
is patriarqi makariosi, aleqsandriis patriarqis warmomadgeneli presvit-
eri petre, ierusalimis patriarqis warmomadgeneli presviteri Teodore da
agaTon romis papis warmomadgenlebi: Teodore, giorgi da ioane diakoni.
    qarTuli cnoba msoflio krebaze damswre antioqiis patriarqad asax-
elebs ara makarioss, aramed antioqiis patriarq Teodores, marTlac, am
krebam makariosi gadaayena da Teodore airCia, amitomac qarTuli wyaro ar
asaxelebs makarioss. v. goilaZis azriT _ `swored es gansxvaveba sZens
qarTul cnobas sandoobas da gvarwmunebs, rom igi krebaze miRebuli dad-
genilebis zusti asaxvaa~.185
    wmida krebam 18 sxdoma gamarTa da TiTqmis erT wels gaagrZela muSaoba.
ZiriTadad, monoTelitebis sakiTxi ixileboda. makarios antioqieli krebis
monoTelitTa jgufs meTaurobda. krebis dasawyisSi mas giorgi konstantino-
polelic TanaugrZnobda, riTac agaTon romis papis marTlmadideblobas ewi-
naaRmdegeboda, Semdeg giorgi konstantinopoleli marTlmadidebelTa mxareze
gadavida, ramac gamoiwvia makarios antioqielis damarcxeba. krebam makariosi
mwvaleblad gamoacxada, patriarqobidan gadaayena da anaTemas gadasca. makar-
iosis nacvlad antioqiis patriarqad qarTul cnobaSi moxsenebuli Teofane
iqna arCeuli da krebis Semdgom muSaobaSic is monawileobda.
    daaxloebiT 681 wlis 5 aprilidan gamodioda Teofane antioqiis patri-
arqis tituliT da qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirsebis sakiTxi _
`...konstantinopolis VI msoflio krebam, Cans, 681 wlis 5 aprilidan 16
seqtembramde gamarTul sxdomebze ganixila~.186 krebaze makariosis gaday-
enebis Semdeg marTlmadideblebma brZola gaagrZeles sxva mwvaleblebTan.
bolos Camoayalibes marTlmadidebluri dogmati, romelic imperatorma
daamtkica 681 wlis 16 seqtembers da dasacavad gadaeca saimperatoro
612                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
kars. rac Seexeba kanonebs, igi 680-681 wlebis krebas ar SeumuSavebia.
magram qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxeb am krebis dadgenileba Sesula dokumen-
tSi, romelsac ewodeba `konstantinopoluri taxtikoni~.
  VI msoflio krebis gadawyvetilebis dedani dReisaTvis ucnobia. krebis
dadgenilebiT, qarTvelebi iyvnen dainteresebulni da maT Semoinaxes ara
mxolod zemoT moyvanili variantiT. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa
Txzuleba `sityvis gebad laTinTa mimarT Cven marTlmadidebelTa mier~,
romelic e. TayaiSvilma `martvilis xelnawerebSi~ aRwera. am Txzulebis
bolo nawilSi ikiTxeba: `rameTu esreT Sesaswavebel ars taxtikonsa Sina
konstantinopolissasa, viTarmed mas Jamsa Sina wmida meequse krebasa kon-
stantine poRonatisasa da aRaTon romTa papisa, giorgi konstantinepolel-
isa da Teofane antioqielisasa da maT Tana asormocdaaTTa mamaTagan
gapatiosnda kaTalikozi qarTlisa da yves mamamTavrad da Tavisufal da
uflad yovlisa zeda saqarTveloAsa... aRaravisagan xel qveS ars, aramed
Tavisufal da mamamTavari (e.i. `patriarqi~) ars~.
  v. goilaZe wers _ `Tu T. balsamoni qarTul eklesiaze saubrisas wyaros
ar asaxelebs, samagierod, `martviluri xelnaweri~ wyarod `konstantinopo-
lur taqtikons~ asaxelebs, romelSic ueWvelia is dokumenti unda ig-
ulisxmebodes, romelic 681 wlis 16 seqtembers saimperatoro kars gadae-
ca Sesanaxad~.187
  am `taqtikonSi~ naTqvami yofila, rom 681 wlis krebis Semdeg qarTuli
eklesia iTvleba samamamTavro eklesiad, anu sapatriarqo eklesiad, rom is
srulebiT Tavisufalia da arc erT patriarqs ar eqvemdebareba _ `rameTu
aRaravisagan xel qveS ars, aramed Tavisufal ars~, imave cnobas imeorebs
berZeni kanonisti maTeos blastari _ kerZod, rom `... iberiis eklesia arc
erT patriarqs ar eqvemdebareba, rom iberielTa eklesiis mRvdelmTavrebi
Cveulebriv xelT isxmebodnen sakuTar episkoposTagan~ _ ueWvelia maTeos
blastari `konstantinopolis taqtikonis~ msgavsi wyarodan sargeblobs.
marTalia, blastari qarTul eklesiasTan kavSirSi ar axsenebs VI msoflio
krebas, radganac is avtokefaliis Sesaxeb saubrobs da ara sapatriarqo
Rirsebis Sesaxeb, avtokefalia ki, misi azriT, qarTul eklesias antioqiis
krebisagan miuRia, cxadia, am dromde adre.
  iustiniane II rinotmatis mefobis dros, 692 wels, konstantinopolis
trulis darbazSi kvlav Sesdga saeklesio kreba. am krebam gaiTvaliswina
wmida mociqulTa kanonebi. aseve I, II, III, IV msoflio krebaTa da adgilo-
brivi krebebis kanonebi, zogic axali daumata da isini erTiani saxiT
gamosca. Tumca, am kanonebSi wina krebebis zogi kanoni da dadgenileba ar
iqna Setanili. aseTebi, Teodore balsamonis sityviT, mis dros, e.i. XII
saukuneSi jer kidev bevri iyo. 692 wlis me-2 kanonisadmi darTul komen-
tarSi igi wers, rom aseTi wignebi man araerTxel naxa didi Tanamdebobis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                613
moxeleTa xelSi da afrTxilebda maT, rom Zveli kanonebi ar gamoeyenebi-
naT. rogorc Cans, SemdegSi aseTi kanonebi da dadgenilebebi TandaTan
xmarebidan gamodioda da radgan xmarebaSi ar iyo, cxadia, aRarc gadaiw-
ereboda. gamoricxuli araa, aseT wignebSi moxvedriliyo VI krebis dadge-
nileba qarTuli eklesiis sapatriarqo Rirsebis Sesaxeb.
  VII saukunis 80-ian wlebSi qarTvelebi aqtiurad ebrZodnen bizantiis
mtrebs.
  `686 wels qarTlis erismTavarma nerse I-ma did somxeTSi mdgari arabTa
sardali baraba daamarcxa da arabebi gandevna. am xanebSi bizantias Zlier
esaWiroeboda qarTvelTa samxedro mxardaWera, amitom VI msoflio kreba-
ze qarTuli eklesiisaTvis sapatriarqo Rirsebis miniWebas saimperatoro
karic dauWerda mxars~.188
  `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da sxva cnobiT, 681 wels qarTul eklesias mieniWa
sapatriarqo Rirseba. saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi im dros dasavleT saqarTve-
los zogierTi provinciac Sedioda. 720-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqo orad gaiyo _ qarTlisa da afxazeTis sakaTalikosoebad. X saukuneSi
saqarTvelos saxelmwifos gaerTianebis Semdeg gaerTianda afxazeTisa da
qarTlis sakaTalikosoebi _ kvlav Seiqmna erTiani saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqo. XI saukuneSi saqarTvelos sapatriarqos arseboba ueWvelia.
  rogorc aRiniSna, XI saukuneSi qarTulma eklesiam sapatriarqo Rirseba
TviTneburad ki ar miikuTvna, aramed mas hqonda kanonikuri safuZveli
sapatriarqo ewodebina qarTuli eklesiisaTvis _ safuZveli VI msoflio
krebis dadgenileba iyo.

                           diptixis Sesaxeb

  diptixi aris marTlmadidebelTa RvTismsaxurebis dros adgilobriv ek-
lesiaTa meTaurebis moxsenebis rigiToba, anu msoflios marTlmadidebel
eklesiaTa meTaurebis moxsenebis rigi. is warmoadgens gamoxatvas sulieri
da kanonikuri erTobisa adgilobriv marTlmadidebel eklesiaTa Soris.
marTalia, msoflio marTlmadidebel eklesias ar gaaCnia erTiani adminis-
traciuli centri, magram yoveli damoukidebeli, avtokefaluri adgilo-
brivi eklesiis meTauri da misi diakoni RvTismsaxurebis dros moixsenebs
sxva adgilobrivi eklesiebis meTaurebs, amiT is gamoxatavs, rom yvela
marTlmadidebeli eklesia, erovnebisagan damoukideblad, Seadgens erT, wmi-
da, kaTolike da samociqulo eklesias. yvela adgilobrivi eklesia erT-
maneTis mimarT Tanabaria da Tanaswori. ar arsebobs pirvelxarisxovani da
meorexarisxovani, upiratesi da umciresi eklesia. mravalricxovneba, an
teritoriis sidide ar aniWebs upiratesobas romelime eklesias meore
mcire eklesiis winaSe. mamaTa kanonebis Tanaxmad, yoveli eklesiis Tavisufle-
614                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ba mopovebulia ufal ieso qristes sisxliT. III msoflio kreba me-8 kanon-
Si werda, rom yoveli eklesiis damoukidebloba da Tavisufleba `...TYsiTa
sisxliTa moguaniWa Cuen ufalman Cuenman iesu qristeman, ganmaTavisufle-
belman yovelTa kacTaman~.189 RvTis sityvis Tanaxmad, qristes eklesiaSi ar
aris arc elini, arc iudeveli, arc barbarosi, arc skviTi. mociqulTa 34-e
kanoni yvela eTnikuri olqis eklesias TavisTavadobas aniWebs. is ar
aZlevs romelime eklesias upiratesobas, amitomac Tanamedrove di ptixSi
eklesiaTa meTaurebis moxseniebis dros, erTi eklesiis meTauris sxva ek-
lesiis meTauris win Tu ukan dayeneba, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT erTisaTvis
`upiratesobis~ miniWeba meoresTan SedarebiT, ar Seesabameba qristianobis
arss, Tumca Tavisi tradicia aqvs. istoria naTelyofs da mociqulTa 34-e
kanoni uCvenebs, rom im di ptixis winasaxe, romelsac Cven dResdReobiT
viyenebT, Camoyalibda qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad aRiarebis
Semdeg da ar arsebobda qristianobis pirvel saukuneebSi (imperatorTa
gaqristianebamde). di ptixi arsebobda mxolod aRmosavleT romis imperiis
SigniT myofi eklesiebis saWiroebisaTvis. di ptixi bizantiur eklesiaSi
ixmareboda. dasavleT romis imperiis eklesiaSi ki RvTismsaxurebis dros
arasodes ar ixmareboda di ptixi. aseve, radganac iberiis saxelmwifo
arsebobda bizantiisagan damoukideblad, qarTuli avtokefaluri eklesiis
meTauri bizantiur di ptixebSi Setanili ar yofila. di ptixi sWirdebodaT
imperiis SigniT, imperiaSi Semaval eklesiebs TavianTi saWiroebisaTvis.
di ptixi iyo gansazRvruli wesrigi kaTedrebis meTaurebis rangebis mixed-
viT ganawilebisas. di ptixi sazRvravda eklesiaTa Soris damokidebulebas.
di ptixis Seqmna moiTxova imperiis erTianobisa da dauSlelobis saWiroe-
bam, raTa imperiis farglebSi myof erTmaneTisagan damoukidebel eklesiaTa
Soris, aseve episkoposTa Soris ar dawyebuliyo dausrulebeli kamaTi,
winaaRmdegoba eklesiaTa da kaTedraTa Rirsebisa da pativis xarisxis
gansazRvrisas. diptixis Seqmnis Semdegac ki erTi eklesiis, an kaTedris
meTauris mier meoris dawyevlis an anaTemaze gadacemis dros erTi ekle-
sia meore eklesias amoSlida xolme Tavisi di ptixidan. imperiaSi moTavse-
bul avtokefalur eklesiaTa da kaTedraTa meTaurebs saxelmwifoSi eWiraT
didi administraciuli Tanamdebobebi. di ptixis Seqmna upirvelesad am
eklesiaTa surviliT iyo gamowveuli, raTa ganesazRvraT pativis xarisxi
eklesiaTa meTaur mRvdelmTavarTa Soris, Tu romeli eklesiis meTauri, anu
saxelmwifos moxele idga pativiT sxva mRvdelmTavar-moxeleze maRla.
radganac iberiis eklesiis meTauri ar iyo da arc SeiZleboda yofiliyo
bizantiis saxelmwifos moxele, cxadia, iberiis eklesiis meTauris imperi-
aSi Semaval sxva mRvdelmTavrebTan pativis gansazRvris araviTari saWiroeba
ar arsebobda. amitomac iberiis eklesia bizantiur di ptixSi ar Sedioda.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                615
   uZveles dros sxvadasxva eklesiebs sxvadasxva diptixebi hqondaT. di p-
tixis Sedgenas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqca IV saukunis Semdeg kon-
stantinopolis episkoposis adgilis gansazRvrisas. trulis krebaze gan-
isazRvra ukve V-VI saukuneebSi arsebuli urTierTdamokidebuleba imperi-
is eklesiaTa Soris _ pirveli iyo romis saydari, meore _ kostantinopo-
lisa, mesame _ aleqsandriisa, meoTxe _ antioqiisa, mexuTe _ ierusalimisa.190
am xuTi patriarqisagan damoukidebeli iyo kviprosis eklesia.
   saeklesio wesebis Tanaxmad, romis papi yovelTvis pirveli iyo yvela
mRvdelmTavarTa Soris (igulisxmeba VI s-dan). qalkedonis krebis 28-e
kanonis Tanaxmad, konstantinopolis episkoposs meore adgili mieniWa ro-
mis papis Semdeg, rac gaimeora trulis krebam 36-e kanonSi.191 qarTuli
eklesiis di ptixi eyrdnoboda msoflio krebaTa kanonebs, amitomac pirvel
adgilze romis saydars ayenebda XIII saukuneSic ki, Tumca marTlmadide-
blobis centrad `berZnul~ eklesias Tvlida.192
   VI-VII saukuneebSi di ptixebi iqcnen oficialur dokumentebad romis
imperiis mTavari qalaqebis episkoposTa Soris upiratesobis gansazRvri-
sas. iberiis avtokefaluri eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Semavali qalaqebi ar
Sediodnen imperiaSi, amitomac iberiis qalaqTa episkoposebi ar iyvnen
di ptixSi Seyvanilni VII saukunemde. VII saukunis dasawyisSi herakle
keisarma qvemo iberiis, anu dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispira miwebi Camo-
arTva iberiis saxelmwifos da SeuerTa bizantiis imperias. amis Semdeg VII
saukuneSi saqarTvelos dapyrobili SavizRvispira qalaqebis fasisisa (foTi)
da petronis (cixisZiri) episkoposebi Seyvanil iqnen bizantiur diptixSi. V
trulis krebis kanonebs xels aweren fasisisa da petronis episkoposebi _
`Teodore uRirsman episkoposman fasoAsaman sofelsa Sina megrelTasa gan-
vasazRvren da warvweren...~193 (`fasoA-foTsa ityvis~ _ naTqvamia qarTveli
mTargmnelis SeniSvnaSi). aseve xels awers _ `ioane uRirsman episkoposman
qalaqisa petronisaman queyanasagan megrelTaAsa ganvasazRvre da warvwere~.194
   aRsaniSnavia, rom trulis krebis kanonebs xels ar awers iberiis dedaqala-
qis episkoposi da arc iberiis eklesiis warmomadgeneli, xolo iberiis im
qalaqebis episkoposebi ki, romelnic bizantiis imperiaSi Sediodnen, Seyva-
nilni arian bizantiur di ptixSi da am krebis kanonebsac xels aweren.
   ierusalimeli patriarqebi dosiTeosi da xrisanfi weren _ lazikis eparqia-
Si Semavali fasisisa samitropolitos konstantinopolis sapatriarqos dip-
tixSi eWira 27-e adgili, xolo trulis krebas lazebis qveynidan (e.i. qvemo
iberiidan) eswrebodnen Teodore faziseli da ioane petronis episkoposio.195
   aqedan aSkarad Cans, rom di ptixSi Setanili iyo bizantiis qarTuli
qalaqebis episkoposebi, xolo bizantiis gareT myofi qarTuli qalaqebis
episkoposebi ki _ ara. e.i. di ptixi bizantiuri saxelmwifos saWiroebi-
616                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
sTvisaa Sedgenili, amitomac iberiis avtokefaluri eklesiis warmomad-
genelTa mouxsenebloba Zvel di ptixSi imis niSani ki araa, rom aseTi
avtokefaluri eklesia ar arsebobda, aramed piriqiT, arsebobda da ar
eqvemdebareboda imperiaSi Semaval sapatriarqoebs _ WeSmaritad avtoke-
faluri iyo.
  aRmosavluri (bizantiuri) di ptixis axali gaxsenebaa parizis kodeqsi
XV saukunisa, sadac ixsenieba msoflio (konstantinopolis) patriarqi, aleqsan-
drieli, antioqieli da ierusalimeli patriarqebi, magram am kodeqsze
ufro mniSvnelovania XV saukunis 30-ian wlebSi Semdgari `msoflio~ saek-
lesio (ferara-florenciis) krebaze daculi di ptixi, radganac am krebas
eswrebodnen msoflios xuTive sapatriarqosa da im dros arsebuli yvela
avtokefaluri eklesiis warmomadgenlebi. am krebis oqmebs patriarqebma
da maTma warmomadgenlebma xeli moaweres. marTalia, es kreba `yaCaRuri~
kreba iyo da mis oqmebs iberiis eklesiis warmomadgenelma xeli ar moaw-
era, magram kreba `yaCaRuri~ iyo sarwmunoebis sakiTxebSi da ara di ptixis
sakiTxSi. am `msoflio~ krebaze daculi iyo wina msoflio krebaTa kanonebi
eklesiaTa ganlagebis Sesaxeb. XV saukunis am krebis di ptixi aseTi iyo: _
romis eklesia, konstantinopolis msoflio sapatriarqo, aleqsandriis, an-
tioqiis, ierusalimis sapatriarqoebi, ierusalimis Semdeg VI adgilze dgas
iberiis eklesia. aqedan Cans, rom Zvel di ptixSi iberiis eklesias eWira
VI adgili, magram aseTi saxis diptixi mxolod mTeli msoflios eklesias
Seexeboda. konstantinopolis da bizantiur di ptixebSi XVI saukunemde
Setanis ufleba mxolod oTxi aRmosavleli patriarqis privilegia iyo.196
marTalia, XVI saukuneSi ruseTis sapatriarqos daarsebis Semdeg moskovis
patriarqs neba mieca di ptixSi da TaTbirebze mdgariyo ierusalimis sapa-
triarqos Semdeg, magram maleve, roca ruseTSi daarsda wmida sinodis
mmarTveloba, yvela aRmosavleTis sapatriarqos di ptixebSi mxolod oTxi
aRmosavleTis patriarqi moixseneboda.197
  bizantiur (aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebis) di ptixebSi Setanili ar iyo
bulgareTis arqiepiskoposi, roca mas 1234 wels konstantinopolma patri-
arqis tituli mianiWa, di ptixSi ar iyvnen Setanilni, agreTve, avteke-
faluri arqiepiskoposebi arqidisa, kvi prosisa, iberiisa (ori _ iberiaSi
`zemo~ da `qvemo~) da pekiisa.198
  XIX saukunis Sua wlebamde wmida di ptixSi ixsenieboda mxolod aRmo-
savleTis oTxi patriarqi, mxolod am saukuneSi da Semdgom axali avtokefa-
luri eklesiebis (eladis, serbeTis, rumineTis, poloneTis da albaneTis)
daarsebis Semdeg msoflio konstantinopolis patriarqma isini daavalde-
bula, diptixSi moexseniebinaT oTxi patriarqis garda sxva episkoposebi
da eklesiebi.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              617

                saqarTvelos sapatriarqos adgili
                    marTlmadideblur diptixSi

   X da XI saukuneTa mijnaze saqarTvelo gaerTianda, risTvisac saukuneTa
manZilze iRwvoda iberiis eklesia. sxvadasxva qarTuli politikuri erTe-
ulebis gaerTianebam erTian mZlavr saxelmwifod gamoiwvia saqarTvelos
hegemonoba mTel kavkasiaSi. aRmosavleTis eklesia gansakuTrebiT savalde-
bulod xdida samoqalaqo-saero dayofis gadaRebas saeklesioSi, ase rom,
yovel cvlilebas saeroSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebi unda mohyoloda saekle-
sioSi. amitomac, saxelmwifos gaerTianebas Tan mohyva qarTuli eklesiis
gaerTianeba. aqamde afxazeTis samefoSi arsebobda `afxazeTis sakaTaliko-
so~. qarTlis samefoSi ki _ `qarTlis sakaTalikoso~. samefoTa gaerTianeb-
is Semdeg gaerTianda eklesiebic da erTian qarTul saxelmwifoSi warm-
oiqmna erTiani eklesia saqarTvelos sapatriarqos saxelwodebiT. saqarTve-
los sapatriarqo, garda afxazeTisa da qarTlis sakaTalikosoebisa, Seicav-
da agreTve saqarTvelos saxelmwifos gavlenis sferoSi Semaval Crdilo
kavkasiis qristianebs, agreTve somxeTisa da yofili albaneTis marTlma-
didebel mosaxleobas. Crdilo kavkasiis qristianebi uSualod saqarTve-
los patriarqs eqvemdebarebodnen, rasac mowmobs epigrafikuli masala,
xolo XV saukunisaTvis Crdilo kavkasiis aRmosavleTiT Seqmnili iyo
xunZeTis sakaTalikoso, romelic iberiis sapatriarqoSi Sedioda. saqarTvelos
sapatriarqoSi Sevida somxeTis samitropolito, romelic istoriuli saqarTve-
los sazRvrebs gareT mdebareobda _ somxeTis (anisis) yofil samefoSi.
saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Seqmnis Semdeg sakaTalikosoebi ar gauqmebu-
lan, isini arsebobas ganagrZobdnen ise, rogorc bizantiur sapatriarqoSi
arsebobdnen samitropolitoebi. rogorc wesi, patriarqi imave dros mcxe-
Tis, anu qarTlis kaTalikosic iyo, mas sveticxovlis patriarqic ewodebo-
da sasaydro taZris mixedviT.
   saqarTvelos sapatriarqo kavkasiis masStabiT Zalze didi eklesia iyo.
is moicavda ara marto kavkasiis marTlmadideblobas, aramed Zalze scilde-
boda kavkasiis sazRvrebs CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis mimarTulebiT. samxreTiT
saqarTvelos sapatriarqos esazRvreboda vanis tba da teritoriebi, romelic
daviT kurapalatma Seiyvana qarTvelTa samefoSi.
   saqarTvelos sapatriarqos warmoSobamde ar arsebobda qarTuli ekle-
siis meTauris Rirsebis bizantiel ierarqebis RirsebasTan Sedarebis saWiroe-
ba, amitomac, albaT, qarTul eklesiaSi di ptixi ar gamoiyeneboda. viTareba
Seicvala sapatriarqos Seqmnis Semdeg. axalma mdgomareobam warmoSva
sakiTxi, Tu patriarqTa rigSi romel adgilze unda daeyenebinaT, anda
romeli patriarqis Semdeg unda exsenebinaT axali patriarqi _ qarTuli
eklesiis meTauri. marTalia, im dros zogierT aramarTlmadidebluri ekl-
618                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
esiis meTaurs hqonda patriarqis tituli, magram msoflio marTlmadide-
blur eklesiaSi mxolod xuTi patriarqi arsebobda, rasac msoflio saek-
lesio krebebic adasturebda. im dros gadaxedes arsebul patriarqebis
rigs da daadgines, rom axali qarTveli patriarqi iyo meeqvse patriarqi _
romis papis, konstantinopolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiis da ierusalimis
patriarqebis Semdeg. ase Sedga qarTuli eklesiis di ptixi. qarTuli ek-
lesiis di ptixi ukve arsebobda saeklesio gamoyofamde romsa da konstan-
tinopols Soris, da amitomac am ganyofamde ukve arsebuli di ptixi sauku-
neebis manZilze ucvlelad gadadioda sabuTidan sabuTSi. XVIII saukunis
dokumentSic aseTi di ptixia daculi: `...Cuenca, glaxaki, qristes mier,
Semdgomad xuTTa patriarqTa da upirveles maTsa... suetiscxovlis meequsi-
sa patriarqis da qristes mier yovlisa saqarTvelos kaTalikozi nikoloz
vamtkiceb da warvswer...~199
    aqedan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs di ptixis patriarqTa rigSi
VI adgili uWiravs, magram mas Tavisi Rirseba arc erTi patriarqis Rirse-
baze naklebad ar miaCnia.
    di ptixSi qarTvel patriarqs VI adgilze XI saukunis dasawyisSive rom
ayenebdnen, es Semdegidan Cans: saqarTvelos sapatriarqo Seiqmna msoflio
qristianobis kaTolikebad da marTlmadideblebad gayofamde, rac 1054
wels moxda. amis Semdeg qarTuli eklesia marad marTlmadidebelTa didi
ojaxis wevri iyo, amitomac gayofis Semdgom Sedgenil qarTul sabuTebSi
romis papi aRar ixsenieboda marTlmadideblobasTan da marTlmadidebel
patriarqebTan kavSirSi. gamonaklisia qarTuli eklesiis di ptixi, masSi
romis papis sxva aRmosavleli patriarqebis gverdiT dayeneba miuTiTebs
imaze, rom qarTuli eklesiis di ptixi Sedgenilia saeklesio ganxeTqile-
bamde, xolo Semdgomi saukuneebis sabuTebSi diptixis Seucvlelad gada-
tana miuTiTebs saeklesio tradiciulobaze, romelic gansakuTrebiT iyo
daculi qarTul eklesiaSi. garda amisa, qarTuli eklesia mudamJams erTgu-
li iyo saeklesio krebaTa kanonebisa, gansakuTrebiT ki qalkedonis krebisa,
qalkedonis krebam ki Tavis 28-e kanonSi daadgina, rom konstantinopolis
patriarqi unda mdgariyo ara pirvel adgilze, aramed meoreze. pirveli
adgili romis patriarqs unda daekavebina. konstantinopoli `...meore iyo
Semdgomad missa...~200 igive daadastura iustinianem Tavis 131-e novelaSi,
kerZod, `saeklesio kanonebis gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad, uwmidesi papi Zveli
romisa iyo pirveli yvela mRvdelmTavarTa Soris. axali romisas ki eqneba
meore adgili Zveli romis wmida samociqulo saydris Semdeg, magram adg-
ils daiWers sxva saydrebis maRla~.201 trulis saeklesio krebis 36-e kanonmac
gaimeora Zveli kanonebi da sapatriarqoTa adgilebi ase gansazRvra _
`...ganvasazRvrebT, raATa saydarsa konstantinepolisasa swori pativi aqundes
hromisa saydrisaA da viTarca igi gandidnebis saeklesioTa Sina saqmeTa,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              619
meore iyos ese Semdgomad missa, romlisa Semdgomad iyavn aleqsandrielTa
didisa qalaqisaA da Semdgomad missa ierusalemelTa qalaqisaA~.202 tru-
lis krebam, gaimeora ra konstantinopolis saydarTan dakavSirebiT II
msoflio krebis me-3 kanoni da 28-e kanoni IV msoflio krebisa, gansazRvra,
rom pirveli yofiliyo romis saydari, meore _ konstantinopolisa, mesame _
aleqsandriisa, meoTxe _ antioqiisa da mexuTe _ ierusalimisa.
  mcxeTelis (saqarTvelos) sapatriarqo saydari dadga ierusalimis say-
dris Semdeg. qarTuli di ptixis Sedgenisas gaTvaliswinebuli iqna II msoflio
krebis me-3, qalkedonis 28-e, trulis 36-e kanonebi da miiRo aseTi saxe:
  1. romis saydari;
  2. konstantinopolis saydari;
  3. aleqsandriis saydari;
  4. antioqiis saydari;
  5. ierusalimis saydari;
  6. mcxeTis (sveticxovlis) saydari.
  qarTuli di ptixis mixedviT, saqarTvelos eklesiis meTaurs sxva avtoke-
faluri eklesiebis meTaurTa rigSi eWira me-6 adgili.
  qarTuli eklesiis meTauris me-6 adgilze moxseniebas qarTul eklesiaSi
saukuneebis manZilze hqonda istoriul-tradiciuli mniSvneloba da iseve
Seucvlelad iTvleboda, rogorc saeklesio krebaTa da mamaTa kanonebi.
  di ptixis zemoT moyvanili saxe miuTiTebs imaze, rom is Sedgenilia
saeklesio ganyofamde.
  bizantiis imperiaSi gabatonebuli iyo `pentarxiis Teoria~, msoflioSi
xuTi avtokefaluri eklesiis arsebobis Sesaxeb. es Teoria iyo gamonagoni
bizantiis saimperatoro da sapatriarqo karisa. TviT imperiaSive arsebob-
da meeqvse avtokefaluri eklesia kvi prosisa, xolo iustinianem daaarsa
axali avtokefaluri eklesia `pirveli iustinianes~ saxelwodebiT, imperiis
gareT ZvelTaganve iberiis (saqarTvelos) avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda,
miuxedavad amisa, aRmosavleTis eklesiebSi da maT Soris saqarTveloSic,
icnobdnen pentarxiis Teorias da masSi koreqtivebic SehqondaT.
  saqarTveloSi gabatonebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, xuTi msoflio patri-
arqis Semdgom idga saqarTvelos, anu mcxeTis kaTalikos-patriarqi. saqarTve-
los sapatriarqos daarsebidan mcire xnis Semdeg, 1057 wels mefe bagrat
IV-is Sewirulebis sigels SiomRvimisadmi aqvs qarTuli eklesiis meTauris
minaweri, romlis Tanaxmadac is dgas meeqvse adgilze msoflios xuTi
patriarqis Semdeg. vinc es sigeli daarRvioso, wers is _ `...krulmca ars...
xuTTa patriarqTa juariTa... da Cem glaxakisaca juariTa~.203
  1245-1250 wlebis dawerils SiomRvimisadmi aqvs minaweri: `...xuTTa pa-
triarqTa juariTa, wmidisa samociquloAsa kaTolike eklesiisa madliTa
da raodenni mas Sina wmidani qarTlisa kaTalikozni sxdomil arian da
620                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
dasxdebian maT yovelTa juariTa~.204 wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia
iyo qarTuli eklesiis saxelwodeba da yovelTvis am formuliT moixsenie-
boda is. es sigelic xuTi msoflio sapatriarqo saydris Semdeg qarTul
eklesias asaxelebs.205
  1259 wlis Sewirulebis dawerils rkonis monastrisadmi amtkicebs
saqarTvelos eklesiis meTauri _ `...Cuenca, Semdgomad xuTTa patriarqTa...
meequsisa patriarqis... vamtkiceb...~206
  zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom ukve XI saukuneSive, saqarTvelos sapatri-
arqos CamoyalibebisTanave, saqarTvelos patriarqs marTlmadideblur di p-
tixSi eWira meeqvse adgili xuTi patriarqis Semdeg.
  marTalia, qarTuli eklesiis di ptixSi qarTvel patriarqs eWira me-6
adgili, magram cnobdnen Tu ara amas msoflios sxva sapatriarqoebi, aRi-
arebdnen Tu ara isini qarTveli mamamTavris saydars meeqvse adgilze?
Cven dabejiTebiT unda vTqvaT, rom rogorc romis papebi, ise aRmosavleTis
oTxi patriarqi cnobda iberiis eklesias meeqvse adgilze ierusalimis
sapatriarqos Semdeg. amas miuTiTebs ferara-florenciis saeklesio krebis
di ptixi. am krebaze qarTul eklesias eWira VI adgili romis, konstanti-
nopolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiisa da ierusalimis saydrebis Semdeg. es
rom SemTxveviT ar iyo da eklesiaTa adgilebis ganawilebas am krebaze, ise
rogorc `XII msoflio~ krebaze, sagangebo yuradReba eqceoda, iqidanac Cans,
rom florenciis krebam 1438 wels uniis Sesaxeb dekretSi daadgina: `kon-
stantinopolis patriarqi iqneba meore wmida romis papis Semdeg aleqsan-
drieli mesame, Semdeg meoTxe antioqieli da mexuTe _ ierusalimeli...~207
marTalia, am krebas ar gamoucia dokumenti, Tu rogor unda ganawilebu-
liyo Semdegi adgilebi, radganac kreba exeboda ara di ptixis sakiTxs,
aramed sarwmunoebis sakiTxs, magram saerTod eklesiaTa (kaTedraTa) adg-
ilebis ganawilebas Zalze didi yuradReba rom eqceoda, zemoT moyvanili
dadgenilebidanac Cans.
  qarTuli, anu iberiis eklesiis warmomadgenels am krebaze eWira VI
adgili. 1438 wlis 5 Tebervals feraraSi gaxsnil da florenciaSi gagr-
Zelebul `msoflio~ saeklesio krebas, sadac erTmaneTs Sexvdnen aRmosav-
leTisa da dasavleTis warmomadgenlebi da romlis aqtebsac aRmosavle-
Tis sapatriarqoebma xeli moaweres, _ `Tanabari uflebiT eswreboda iberi-
is mitropoliti~.208
  `iberiis mitropoliti ijda marTlmadidebelTa mxares mexuTe adgilze
konstantinopolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiisa da ierusalimis warmomadgen-
lebis Semdeg. _ `pirveli kardinalis pirdapir idga patriarqis savarZe-
li... patriarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen... ierusalimis
patriarqis warmomadgeneli menziis arqiepiskoposi da iberiis mefis war-
momadgeneli iberiis mitropoliti~.209
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   621
  krebis monawileni isxdnen Semdegi rigis mixedviT: centridan Tanabar
manZilze idga ori taxti _ romis imperatorisa da berZenTa imperatorisa.
sasuliero pirebi ganlagebulni iyvnen Semdegi rigis mixedviT: erT mxares
isxdnen laTinTa warmomadgenlebi, meore mxares isxdnen marTlmadide-
belTa warmomadgenlebi. CvenTvis saintereso marTlmadidebelTa rigi iyo
Semdegi saxisaa: marTlmadidebelTa rigSi pirvelad idga _ 1. konstanti-
nopolis patriarqis savarZeli (patriarqi am sxdomas ar eswreboda); pa-
triarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen _ 2. aleqsandriis patri-
arqis warmomadgeneli _ arqiepiskoposi; 3. antioqiis patriarqis warmomad-
geneli _ arqiepiskoposi; 4. ierusalimis patriarqis warmomadgeneli _
arqiepiskoposi; 5. iberiis patriarqis (dokumentSia _ `mefis~) warmomad-
geneli mitropoliti. amis Semdeg di ptixis mixedviT isxdnen sxva marTl-
madidebeli episkoposebi.
  `nawyveti florenciis wmida msoflio saeklesio krebis oqmidan... sasu-
liero pirebis ganlagebis Sesaxeb... pirveli kardinalis pirdapir idga
patriarqis savarZeli (patriarqi, SeuZlod yofnis gamo, im dRes krebas ver
eswreboda)... patriarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen _ herakli-
is arqiepiskoposi, romelsac aleqsandriis patriarqis kanonieri mandati
hqonda da misi adgili ekava; antioqiis patriarqis mier gamogzavnili _
efesiis arqiepiskoposi; ierusalimis patriarqis warmogzavnili _ meneziis
arqiepiskoposi da iberiis mefis warmomadgeneli _ iberiis mitropoliti;
amaT Semdeg isxdnen trapezuntis, rizes, nikeis... arqiepiskoposebi... mitrop-
olitebi... berebi, TavianTi wesis mixedviT~.210
  florenciis krebaze ara marto eklesiaTa warmomadgeneli sasuliero
pirebi isxdnen `wesis~, anu di ptixis mixedviT, aramed saero pirebic aseve
(wesis mixedviT) isxdnen.
  ferara-florenciis `msoflio~ saeklesio krebidan Cans, rom qarTuli
eklesiis meeqvse adgili msoflio eklesiaTa rigSi, xolo V adgili mar-
TlmadidebelTa rigSi aRiarebuli da cnobili iyo rogorc romis papis,
aseve msoflio (konstantinopolis) patriarqis da sxva aRmosavleTis pa-
triarqebis mier, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi iseT, Tavisi droisaTvis Zalze
mniSvnelovan krebaze, romelic msoflio eklesiis gaerTianebas isaxavda
miznad, romisa da aRmosavleTis qristianebi erTmaneTTan uTanxmoebaSi ar
Sevidodnen iberiis eklesiis adgilis ZiebisaTvis. iberiis eklesiis adg-
ili di ptixSi ZvelTaganve cnobili iyo, amitomac man am `msoflio~ kreba-
ze yovelgvari davis gareSe Tavisi adgili daikava.
  XV saukunis pirveli naxevris di ptixi, daculi ferara-florenciis kre-
baze, aseTia: 1. romis papi; 2. msoflio (konstantinopolis) patriarqi; 3.
aleqsandriis; 4. antioqiis; 5. ierusalimis; 6. iberiis; 7. trapezuntis; 8.
rizes; 9. nikeis; 10. lakedemoniis; 11. nikomediis; 12. trivoniis; 13. amasiis;
622                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
14. mitilenis; 15. tolozinos; 16. stavropolis; 17. tustricis; 18. garinis;
19. melentinis; 20. aqilis; 21. muldulis patriarqebi da arqiepiskoposebi.211
   marTalia, am krebaze ase isxdnen eklesiis ierarqebi, magram maTgan
avtokefalur eklesiad miiCneoda mxolod xuTi eklesia: konstantinopolis,
aleqsandriis, antioqiis, ierusalimisa da iberiisa, amitomac am avtoke-
falur eklesiaTa warmomadgenlebs am krebaze eWiraT gansakuTrebuli,
sxvebisagan gansxvavebuli skamebi krebis monawileTa pirvel rigSi, xolo
iberiis mefis elCi, romelsac agreTve trapezuntis imperatoris mandati
hqonda, papis Tanmxlebi piris pirdapir ijda.212
   aseTi saxis iyo `msoflio~ eklesiis di ptixi. marTlmadidebluri di p-
tixidan ki amoiRes romis papis moxsenieba, magram amas araviTari gavlena
ar mouxdenia qarTuli eklesiisaTvis kanonikurad miCneul meeqvse adg-
ilze. kerZod, marTalia, marTlmadidebluri di ptixidan gavida romis pa-
pis moxsenieba, ramac vakanturi adgili warmoSva adgilobrivi eklesiebis
meTaurTa eqvseulSi, magram male vakanturi adgili daiWira ruseTis ekle-
siam msoflio sapatriarqosa da sxva sapatriarqoTa gadawyvetilebiT, rac
cno qarTulma eklesiam.
   `konstantinopolis patriarqma genadi sxolarim (1453-1460) sxva aRmo-
savlel patriarqebTan erTad cno rusuli eklesiis damoukidebeli arse-
boba da gansazRvra CaTvliliyo avtokefaluri rusuli mitropolia Tavisi
RirsebiT ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg, e.i. mexuTe adgilobriv marTl-
madidebel eklesiaTa di ptixSi~.213
   aqamde qarTul eklesias di ptixSi adgili ierusalimis patriarqis Sem-
deg eWira, amis Semdeg ki man Tavisi tradiciuli meeqvse adgili daiWira
(ruseTis eklesiis Semdeg).
   1589 wels ruseTis sapatriarqos daarsebis Semdeg misma patriarqma
di ptixSi maRali adgili daikava. `roca didma krebam 1593 wels gan-
sazRvra moskovis sapatriarqos mdgomareoba, mas gamoeyo ufro maRali
adgili, vidre maSin arsebul arqiepiskoposebs avtokefalur da TviTm-
marTvel eklesiebisa _ arxidiisas, kvi prosisas, iveriisas da pekiisas, ma-
gram ara aleqsandriis patriarqis Semdeg, rogorc surda ruseTis mefes,
aramed mxolod ierusalimis patriarqis Semdeg, imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom
krebis mamebma Sesabamis mimarTvaSi ganacxades wmida mamaTa kanonebis
Seucvleloba~.214
   ruseTis mefes surda da aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebic ar iyvnen winaaRm-
degni ruseTis patriarqs di ptixSi daeWira adgili aleqsandriis patri-
arqis Semdeg, magram radganac wina saukuneebSi wmida mamaTa mier dadgeni-
li iyo di ptixSi aleqsandriis sapatriarqos Semdeg antioqiisa da ieru-
salimis patriarqTa xseneba, rac dadasturebuli iyo trulis krebis kano-
niT, amitomac aRmosavleTis patriarqebma gadawyvites ruseTis patriarqis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              623
adgili marTlmadideblur di ptixSi yofiliyo ierusalimis patriarqis
Semdeg. es adgili ruseTis sapatriarqom miiRo Tavisi ara marto sididisa
da ekonomikuri siZlieris gamo, aramed imitomac, rom im dros mahmadianur
qveynebSi arsebuli aRmosavleTis yvela patriarqi ruseTis qristianul
saxelmwifos imedis TvaliT Sescqeroda. aseve iyo saqarTveloSic. amito-
mac qarTulma eklesiam cno da aRiara ruseTis sapatriarqos adgili
ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg, magram di ptixSi VI adgilze kvlav
qarTuli eklesia unda yofiliyo.
  qarTulma eklesiam ruseTis patriarqis adgili ierusalimis patriarqis
Semdeg rom aRiara, amas miuTiTebs saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarq ant-
onis mimarTva ruseTis imperatrica elisabedisadmi. 1757 wels anton I,
sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi werda: _ `...yovelsa, rasaca
aRiarebs da daamtkicebs, Seiwynarebs da miiRebs dRes wm. eklesia aRmosav-
leTisa, romel ars konstantinepolisa, aleqsandriisa, antioqiisa da ieru-
salimisa da yovlisa ruseTisa _ meca aRviareb...~215 aqedan Cans, rom ukve
XVII saukunis Semdgom, qarTuli eklesiis di ptixi aseTi iyo: 1. konstanti-
nopolis msoflio sapatriarqo; 2. aleqsandriis; 3. antioqiis; 4. ierusal-
imis; 5. ruseTis sapatriarqoebi; 6. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo.
  amJamadac, marTlmadideblur di ptixSi qarTul eklesias uWiravs isto-
riul-tradiciuli meeqvse adgili, rac savsebiT kanonieria.

       qarTuli eklesiis VI adgili ferara-florenciis
               `msoflio~ saeklesio krebaze

  `msoflio~ saeklesio krebebma XV saukunis pirvel naxevarSi Tavisi
ganviTarebis umaRles dones miaRwies. isini saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobis
organoebs warmoadgendnen da ganixilavdnen ara mxolod sasuliero, aramed
saero da politikur sakiTxebsac. magaliTad, saeklesio krebis kompeten-
ciaSi Sedioda saimperatoro taxtze kandidaturebis SerCeva, imperatore-
bis gadayeneba, germanel mTavarTa urTierTobis mowesrigeba, samxreT-aRmo-
savleTi evropis qveynebis TurqeTis agresiisagan dacva da a.S.
  XV saukunis saeklesio krebebi ar warmoadgendnen ubralo iaraRs pape-
bis xelSi, rogorc es XII-XIII saukuneebSi iyo. es saeklesio krebebi
damoukidebel politikas atarebdnen da acxadebdnen pretenziebs umaRles
avtoritetze saeklesio da saero saqmeebis gadawyvetis dros. isini iTvisebd-
nen agreTve papebis kontrolisa da gasamarTlebis uflebas~.216
  1389 wels Turqebma kosovos velze evropuli qveynebis koalicia daama-
rcxes da serbeTi dai pyres, xolo 1393 wels _ bulgareTi. 1430 wels
sulTanma murad II-m Tesalonike daikava, amieridan bizantia Sedgeboda
TviT konstantinopolisagan. imperiis dReebi daTvlili iyo. bizantiis im-
624                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
peratorebi aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis eklesiebis gaerTianebis fasad
romisagan elodnen daxmarebis miRebas. mZime mdgomareobam aiZula bizanti-
is imperatorebi manuil II da ioane VIII miemarTaT romis papisadmi wi-
nadadebiT, kaTolikuri da marTlmadidebluri eklesiebis SeerTebis Taoba-
ze. aseTi Zalze mniSvnelovani saqmis gadawyveta miandes msoflio saekle-
sio krebas. es kreba unda yofiliyo Zalze warmomadgenlobiTi da moecva
msoflios yvela qristianuli eklesia. 1436 wels imperatorma dagzavna
Tavisi elCebi marTlmadidebel qveynebSi da moiwvia maTi eklesiebis me-
Taurebi saeklesio krebaze bazelSi. bizantiis imperatorTan da patri-
arqTan erTad italiaSi aRmosavleTis eklesiis 22 warmomadgeneli gaemgza-
vra, maT Soris ori qarTveli. 1436 wels imperatorma ioanem saqarTvelosa
da trapizonSi saeklesio krebaze elCebis Camosayvanad gagzavna andronike
iagrini. siropulosi wers, rom `man iberiidan waiyvana ori episkoposi, erTi
elCi da iberiis mefeTa gansakuTrebuli senatorebi~. isini konstantinopol-
Si Cavidnen da aqedan patriarqis amalasTan erTad italiaSi gaemgzavrnen.217
   `laTinur enaze Seqmnil erT TxzulebaSi, romelic am epoqas Seexeba,
sxva qveynebs Soris moxsenebulia iberiac. igi aq daxasiaTebulia, rogorc
uzarmazari qveyana, romelsac Tavisi ena da mwerloba gaaCnia, mimdevaria
berZnuli eklesiisa, magram amave dros aRmasrulebelia sakuTari Cveuleb-
isa da hyavs erovnuli samRvdeloeba. 1438 wlis 10 TebervliT daTariRebu-
li erT-erTi saistorio wyarodan irkveva, rom veneciis navsadgurSi Semo-
sulan romis papis galerebi. erT maTgans Camouyvania saberZneTis impera-
tori Tavisi amaliT, meores ki _ amave qveynis patriarqi da mravali
warCinebuli piri... somxeTidan, saqarTvelodan da ruseTidan~.218
   wyaroebidan Cans, rom saqarTvelos eklesia sxva warmomadgenlebs Soris
am saeklesio krebaze pativiscemiT sargeblobda. es gamowveuli iyo, rogorc
ekonomikuri ZlierebiT, aseve mis mier marTlmadideblobis mtkice dacviT.
   1437-1439 wlebis ferara-florenciis saeklesio krebis aqtebi moRweulia
ori redaqciiT. pirveli maTgani warmoadgens saeklesio krebis kaTolikur
versias. pirobiTad mas uwodeben `aqta latinas~. aqtebis meore redaqcia
gadmogvcems berZenTa delegaciis prolaTinurad ganwyobili nawilis Tval-
sazriss. mas uwodeben `akta graekas~. mesame da ZiriTad wyaros warmoad-
gens diakvnisa da didi eklesiarxis silvesteros siropulosis memuarebi.
CvenTvis sainteresoa konstantinopolis didi eklesiis eklesiarxis siro-
pulosis cnoba iberiis eklesiis meTauris Sesaxeb. is mas aRmosavleTis
patriarqs uwodebs. siropulosi gadmogvcems aseT ambavs: krebisaTvis saWiro
iyo Tanxebis gamoZebna, imperatorma iberiis eklesiis meTaurs mosTxova
30 000 _ `iberiis arqiepiskoposma gulmodgined izruna da imperators
Seacvlevina 30 aTasi fuli 20 aTasze. mas uxvad aqvs simdidre. masTan
arqieli mivida da misgan mxolod oci miiRo, radgan igi mTeli aRmosavle-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               625
Tis patriarqia da mahmadianTa mflobelobis qveS imyofeboda. is sulTans
aZlevs aTas florins imisaTvis, rom patriarqad ekurTxos. misTvis fulis
gadaxda mZime ar aris~.219
  siropulosis Sroma gamoxatavs marTlmadidebluri mimarTulebis Tval-
sazriss. siropulosi italiaSi Cavida patriarq ioseb II-is anturaJSi. is
iyo TviTmxilveli da mravali ambis monawile, romelic krebaze xdeboda.
man TviTve moawera krebis aqtebs xeli. amitomac, misi Tvalsazrisi qarTu-
li eklesiis sapatriarqo wodebis (Rirsebis) Sesaxeb aris konstantinopo-
lis eklesiis Tvalsazrisi, radganac siropulosi patriarqTan daaxloebu-
li piri iyo, konstantinopolis mTavari eklesiis eklesiarxi. is qarTuli
eklesiis meTaurs `aRmosavleTis patriarqs~ uwodebs ise, rogorc saqarTve-
los sazRvrebs gareT tyoba-ierdSi aRmoCenili warwera XI saukunisa.
siropulosis mixedviT, iberiis eklesia sulTans garkveul Tanxas aZlevda,
rom misi mamaTmTavari patriarqad kurTxeuliyo.
  zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesia ferara-florenciis kre-
baze monawileobda rogorc sapatriarqo eklesia. swored amiTaa gamowveu-
li is, rom iberiis eklesiis warmomadgeneli di ptixSi daayenes sapatri-
arqoTa rigSi ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg.
  krebaze konstantinopolis patriarqis savarZlis Semdeg oTx skamze
isxdnen sapatriarqoTa warmomadgenlebi, xolo maT Semdeg raime gansakuTre-
buli gamoyofis gareSe isxdnen sxva arqiepiskoposebi. konstantinopolis
patriarqis Semdeg oTx gansakuTrebul skamze isxdnen aleqsandriis, anti-
oqiis, ierusalimisa da iberiis sapatriarqoTa warmomadgenlebi _ herakli-
is arqiepiskoposi, romelsac aleqsandriis patriarqis kanonieri mandati
hqonda da misi adgili ekava, antioqiis patriarqis mier gamozavnili efesi-
is arqiepikoposi, ierusalimis patriarqis warmomadgeneli _ menziis ar-
qiepiskoposi da iberiis mefis warmomadgeneli _ iberiis mitropoliti.220
  papis protonotariusi andrea di santa kroCe Tavis SromaSi florenci-
is krebis Sesaxeb (romelic Semdeg vatikanis bibilioTekarma horacio
justinianom Seavso) marTlmadidebeli eklesiis ierarqebis CamoTvlis dros
saqarTvelos warmomadgenels V safexurze ayenebda.221 (`aqtaLlatina~, gv.
72) konstantinopolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiis da ierusalimis patriarqe-
bis Semdeg, romlebic msoflio patriarqebad iTvlebodnen. es maRali adg-
ili saeklesio ierarqiaSi maCvenebelia imisa, rom saqarTvelos eklesia am
dros erT-erT Zlier da gavlenian organizacias warmoadgenda, amasve
miuTiTebs marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mesveurebisadmi gagzavnili papi evgenis
werili, romelSic 4 msoflio patriarqis Semdeg moxsenebulia saqarTve-
los mefe da trapizonis mitropoliti da mxolod Semdegaa dasaxelebuli
ruseTis, moldo-vlaxeTisa da sxva mitropolitebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTve-
los elCebs Cabarebuli hqondaT trapizonis imperatoris mandati da maTi
saxeliT moqmedebis ufleba hqondaT.222
626                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   sxva bulaSi, aRmosavleTis eklesiebisadmi mimarTvis dros, papi uwodebs
`aRmosavleTis rCeul xalxebs _ berZnebs, rusebs, qarTvelebs da valaxebs~.223
   ufro metic, am krebis laTini mwerlebi saqarTvelos araTu me-6 adg-
ilze, aramed xandaxan me-3 adgilze moixsenieben, me-5 adgilze ki am krebis
di ptixSi laTini istorikosebi mudam ixsenieben qarTul eklesias.
   am krebis prolaTinurad ganwyobili berZeni samRvdeloeba TavianT `aqta
graekaSi~ saqarTvelos yvela warmomadgenlis CamoTvlis Semdeg moixsenie-
ben da dasZenen _ `iyvnen agreTve iberiidanac mitropoliti da erTi
episkoposi~. saqme isaa, rom am prolaTin berZen avtorebs ar moswondaT
iberiis eklesiis mier marTlmadideblobis mtkice dacva. 1439 wlis ivl-
iss marTlmadidebeli eklesiis warmomadgenelTa umravlesobam xeli moaw-
era eklesiebis gaerTianebis aqts, qarTulma eklesiam xeli ar moawera
krebis dadgenilebas eklesiaTa gaerTianebis Sesaxeb. amiT man prolaT-
inurad ganwyobili berZeni samRvdeloebis ukmayofileba gamoiwvia, rac
aisaxa kidec `aqta graekaSi~.
   uniis mowinaaRmdege saqarTvelos elCi TavisTan miiwvia molaparakebi-
saTvis romis papma. papi mis mimarT iCenda pativiscemas, radganac is
ganaTlebuli yofila da marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebis sakiTxebSi Seu-
ryeveli. iberiis elCma paps upasuxa: `Cveni eklesia mosawonia da Cvens
dogmebs vemorCilebiT, Cveni eklesia Zalian mtkiced icavs TiToeul cnebas
Cveni uflis ieso qristesi, aseve wmida mociqulTa tradiciebs... eklesiis
saxelganTqmuli maswavleblebis swavlas maSinve gadmoviRebT xolme Cvens
enaze. amisgan arasodes ar gadagvixvevia, araferi ar dagvimatebia. romis
eklesiam ki mravali ram daumata da sabolood wmida mamebis swavlebis
sazRvrebi gadalaxa. amis gamo Tqvens eklesias Cven CamovSordiT da orive
gayris gziT wavediT~... amis Semdeg iberma paps urCia xeli ar exlo
barbarosul enebze arsebuli dogmebisaTvis, romelTa ZaliT warTmeva da
maT nacvlad Tavisis danergva surs. papma pasuxi faruli simwariT moismi-
na da gancvifrebuli gaCumda~.224 swored amitom qarTulma delegaciam
uaryo uniis miReba.
   iberiidan krebaze gagzavnili yofila sami warmomadgeneli: ori sasuli-
ero piri _ Tbileli episkoposebi grigoli da ioane, agreTve gamoCenili
samoqalaqo piri.225
   aRsaniSnavia, rom krebaze warmodgenili marTlmadidebeli eklesiebis
umravlesobam cno unia da xeli moawera krebis aqtebs gaerTianebis Sesax-
eb. dekrets gaerTianebis Sesaxeb xeli moaweres berZenTa imperatorma,
patriarqma da berZnuli eklesiis wevrebma.226
   evropeli mecnierebi, mag. d. jila, am krebas msoflio krebas uwodeben.
jila, kerZod, werda _ `rac ar unda iTqvas, es iyo msoflio kreba, romel-
mac Seafasa da gadawyvita doqtrinis sakiTxebi~.227
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  627
  marTalia, rusuli Tanadrouli wyaroebi uaryofiTad afaseben am krebas,
magram mainc mas `merve krebas~ uwodeben. agreTve `msoflio krebis~ sax-
eliTac moixsenieben (erTi rusuli wyaro `yaCaRurs~ uwodebs).228
  ferara-florenciis saeklesio krebam gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcia
di ptixis sakiTxs. krebam uniis Sesaxeb dekretSi, romelsac xeli moaweres
berZenTa imperatorma da aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebma, daadgina, Tu rogori
unda yofiliyo rigiToba msoflio patriarqebisa saeklesio di ptixSi.229
  rogorc vTqviT, ferara-florenciis `msoflio~ saeklesio krebaze qarTul
eklesias diptixSi mudam VI adgili eWira, romis, konstantinopolis, aleqsan-
driis, antioqiis da ierusalimis sapatriarqoebis Semdeg, amitomac dabejiTebiT
unda iTqvas, rom XV saukunisaTvis bizantiis imperatori, romis papi, konstanti-
nopolis msoflio patriarqi, aleqsandriisa, antioqiisa da ierusalimis sapa-
triarqoebi aRiarebdnen da cnobdnen qarTuli eklesiis VI adgils diptixSi.

                qarTuli eklesiis Sinagani diptixi
                   ( j d o m i s a d a d g o m i s w e s i ) 230
  qarTul eklesiaSi episkoposebi wirva-locvis Tu darbazobis dros isxdnen
saepiskoposoebis Rirsebis mixedviT. amis Sesaxeb daculia cnobebi uZvele-
si droidan vidre XVIII saukunis CaTvliT.
  darbazobis Tu romelime ceremonialis dros mRvdelmTavrebi _ `arian
mdgomareni: ...TYsTa xarisxTa Sina... viTarca-igi ganwesebul ars samRvdelo-
Ta dasTaTYs~.
  samRvdelo dass hqonia Tavisi `ganweseba~, romlis Tanaxmad, Tavisi xarisxis
Sesabamisad unda dadges mRvdelmTavari, da ara marto mRvdelmTavari, aramed
TavianTi ganweseba aqvT samRvdeloebas _ `dekanozebs, kandelakebs da krebuls~.
  di ptixs ZvelqarTulad ewodeboda _ `samRvdeloTa dasTa wyobileba~, an
`wesdeba da garigeba~ da aseve `zeviT da qveviT dgomis wesi~.
  `samRvdeloTa dasTa wyobileba~ erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos ar-
sebobis dros sxvagvari yofila, xolo samefos daSlis Semdeg `samRvdelo-
Ta dasTa wesdeba da garigeba~ Secvlila. di ptixSi Zveli wesebis Secvla
gamouwvevia imasac, rom axali saepiskoposoebi gaCenila, xolo zogierTi
Zveli gamqrala. am mdgomareobas gamouwvevia di ptixis aSla da amis gamo
_ `zeviT da qvemoT dgomaze mravali cileba da ganxeTqileba ars mRvdelmTa-
varTa, arximandritTa, protopapTa da samRudeloTa dasTa Soris~.231
  erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos arsebobis dros di ptixis rigi mt-
kiced yofila gansazRvruli da aRwerilia rogorc samefo matianeebSi,
aseve saeklesio sabuTebSi _ `...odes saqarTuelo iyo sruliad erTsamefo,
maSin samRudeloTa dasTa wyobileba da xarisxni iyunen sruliad mis-missa
xarisxsa Sina wesdgomiT, viTa ixilvebis qarTlis aRwerisa matianesa Sina
da egreTve mcxeTisa werilsa Sina xucursa~.232
628                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom di ptixis, anu wesdg-
omis rigic Seicvala _ `xolo odes saqarTvelo ganiyo da sam sameufod
gansqda: qarTlad, kaxeTad da imereTad da agreTve xuT samTavrod, e.i.
saaTabagod, sadadianod, sagurielod, saafxazod da sasvaneTod, maSin yovelTave
mefeTaca da mTavarTaca TYs TYsad sardrebi ganiweses... egreTve didebis-
moyuarebisaTYs romelTame axalni episkoposni dasxes, romelime saepisko-
poso avis drosagan moiSala, romelime damdablda, romelime amaRlda da
arRara ars adrindeli wesdeba da garigeba...~233
  samRvdeloTa dasTa Zveli wesdebisa da garigebis moSlis gamo, rogorc
aRvniSneT, eklesiaSi arev-dareva Seqmnila.
  qarTl-kaxeTis samefoSi erT-erTi samgloviaro ceremoniis dros, XVIII
saukuneSi, `samRvdelo dasTaTYs ganweseba da dawyobileba~ ase yofila
gansazRvruli ceremonmaistris mier _ `uwmidesi kaTalikos-patriarxi, piru-
elni mitropolitni, arxiepiskoposni, episkoposni, pirvelni arximandritni...
xolo Semdgomad sxvani mRudelni, viTa maTni mRudelmTavarni iyunen mdgo-
mareni, egreT maTni dekanosni, kandelakni da krebulni iyunen mdgomni
TYsTa xarisxTa Sina. egreT hsdgen viTa igi ganwesebul ars werilTa Sina
samRudeloTa dasTaTYs~.234
  dokumentSi, romelsac ewodeba `kurTxeva mironisa~ da romelsac XIII
saukuniT aTariReben, saqarTvelos (Cans aRmosavleT saqarTvelos) mRvdel-
mTavrebi darbazobis dros sxdebodnen Semdegi saxiT _ `gangeba darbazo-
bisa _ raJams ikurTxos mefe da dajdes taxtsa zeda, efiskoposni am wesiTa
dasxden: 1. brZanos qarTlisa kaTalikozman da dajdes marjueniT mefisa,
taxtsa zeda mokidebiT, natiTa da baliSiTa; 2. Semovides Wyondideli da
dajdes marcxeniT mefisa, natiTa da baliSiTa; 3. Semovides didisa somxe-
Tisa mitropoliti da dajdes kaTalikozisa quemoT, natiTa da baliSiTa; 4.
Semovides mTavarefiskopozi da dajdes mitropolitsa quemoT, natiTa, ubal-
iSod; 5. Semovides mawyuereli da dajdes mTavarefiskopozsa quemoT, nati-
Ta, ubaliSod; 6. Semovides amba alaverdeli da dajdes Wyondidelsa
quemoT natiTa, ubaliSod; 7. Semovides qisiyeli da dajdes amba alaver-
delsa quemoT unatod; 8. Semovides kumurdoeli da dajdes qisiyelsa
quemoT; 9. Semovides ninowmideli arqimandriti da dajdes qisiyelsa que-
moT; 10. Semovides iSxneli da dajdes kumurdoelsa quemoT; 11. Semovides
anCeli arqimandriti da dajdes ninowmidelsa quemoT; 12. Semovides mtbe-
vari da dajdes anCelsa quemoT; 13. Semovides wurwyabeli da dajdes
mtbevarsa quemoT; 14. Semovides wyaroAsTveli da dajdes wurwyabelsa
quemoT; 15. Semovides eruSneli da dajdes wyaroAsTvelsa quemoT; 16.
Semovides mangleli da dajdes eruSnelsa quemoT; 17. Semovides winw-
yaroeli da dajdes manglelsa quemoT; 18. Semovides rusTveli da dajdes
winwyaroelsa quemoT; 19. Semovides wilkneli da dajdes rusTvelsa que-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                629
moT; 20. Semovides kawareli da dajdes wilknelsa quemoT; 21. Semovides
urbneli da dajdes kawarelsa quemoT; 22. Semovides mrueli da dajdes
urbnelsa quemioT; 23. Semovides samTavneli da dajdes mruelsa quemoT;
24. Semovides niqozeli da dajdes samTavnelsa quemoT; 25. Semovides
valaSkerteli da dajdes niqozelsa quemoT; 26. Semovides bolneli mamaT-
mTavari da dajdes valaSkertelsa quemoT; 27. Semovides kareli mamamTa-
vari da dajdes bolnelsa quemoT; 28. Semovides xarWaSneli da dajdes
karelsa quemoT; 29. Semovides tfileli da dajdes xarWaSnelsa quemoT;
30. Semovides walkeli da dajdes tfililsa quemoT; 31. Semovides baneli
da dajdes walkelsa quemoT; 32. Semovides Werem-qalaqeli da dajdes
banelsa quemoT; 33. Semovides dmaneli da dajdes Werem-qalaqelsa quemoT;
34. Semovides dadaSneli da dajdes dmanelsa quemoT; 35. Semovides giSe-
li da dajdes dadaSnelsa quemoT. modgnen yovelTa monasterTa moZRuarni
da winamZRuarni da maTiTa wesiTa winamoisxdnen efiskoposTa~.235
  aqedan Cans, rom darbazobisa da sxva oficialuri Sekrebis dros episko-
posebi sxdebodnen sagangebo wesiT, maTi kaTedrebis Rirsebis mixedviT.
imave Sekrebis dros samRvdeloebac sagangebo wesis mixedviT sxdeboda
Tav-Tavisi episkoposebis win _ TavianTi wodebisa da Rirsebis mixedviT.
  es dokumenti, rogorc sxvagan gvqonda aRniSnuli, xelT hqoniaT erekle II-sa
da kaTalikos antons da amis mixedviT ganusazRvravT ninowmidelis pativi da
adgili. es dokumenti ereklesa da antons miaCndaT im Zvel dros Sedgenilad,
roca qalaqi tfilisi ar iyo samefo, anu sataxto qalaqi, aramed _ nisani da
quTaTisi, amis gamoo, _ weren isini, _ Tbileli episkoposis pativi da Rirseba
SedarebiT mcirea da is dgas episkoposTa rigis boloSio~.236
  am dokumentis gadamwers erT-erT mTavar nusxaSi amba alaverdelis
gaswvriv marcxena kideze miuweria _ `Semovides cixe-gojeli da dajdes
bediels quemoT~.237 bolneli mamamTavris gaswvriv marjvena kideze gadam-
wers miuweria _ `Semovides aneli da dajdes bolnelsa quemoT~.238
  minaweridan _ `Semovides cixe-gojeli da dajdes bediels quemoT,~ Cans,
rom arsebula ara marto aRmosavleT saqarTvelos episkoposTa pativisa
da Rirsebis adgilis ganweseba, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos, anu afxaze-
Tis sakaTalikosos `wesdgoma~.
  motanili nawyvetidan Cans, rom pativiT cixe-gojeli ufro qvemoT dgas
bedielze.
  saerTod, aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos arsebobi-
sas darbazobis dros mefis marjvniv isxdnen, anda idgnen qarTlis sakaTa-
likosos episkoposebi, xolo mefis marcxniv afxazeTis sakaTalikosos episko-
posebi. amaze migviTiTebs sabuTi _ `wesi da gangeba mefed kurTxevisa~,
romelsac XIII saukuniT aTariReben. aq aRniSnulia _ `marjuene Keli
kaTalikozTa eWiros, xolo marcxene Keli afxazeTisa kaTalikozsa...~239 e.i.
630                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
mefis marjvniv qarTlis kaTalikosi dgas, xolo marcxniv _ afxazeTis
kaTalikosi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu afxazeTis kaTalikosi ar eswreboda mefis
kurTxevas, misi adgili mefis marcxniv SeeZlo daeWira Wyondidels mTa-
varepiskoposs anda iSxnels, ceremoniis moTxovnilebaTa mixedviT. mefis
daburvis Rirseba mefis kurTxvis dros hqonia afxazeTis kaTalikoss, an
mTavarepiskoposs. xolo qarTl-kaxeTis samefos bolo wlebSi samRvdeloe-
ba ceremoniis dros orad iyofoda _ marjvniv mcxeTis samRvdeloeba
dgeboda, xolo marcxniv alaverdis samRvdeloeba. e.i. qarTlisa da kaxeTi-
sa. _ `...marjueniT mcxeTisa, xolo marcxeniT alaverdisa...~240
   mefis marcxniv adgili Zveli erTianobis dros afxazeTis sakaTaliko-
sos episkoposebs unda daeWiraT, magram samefos daSlis Semdeg marcxena
adgili alaverdelma episkoposma daiWira.
   1745 wels Teimurazis mefed kurTxevis dros, darbazobisas, mefis mar-
jvniv dajda saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi _ `xolo vinaATgan arca
samegreloAsa da imeriTisa episkopozni arcaRa mesxni iyunes mun, sxvadasx-
vaTa mier mizezTa, da saydarica somxiTisa mitropolitisa moSlil iyo
Zveladve, da ganeCinaT yoveli pativi somxiTis mitropolitisa amba-alaver-
delisad, dajda marcxeniT mefisa amba alaverdeli... somxiTisa mitropoli-
tisa pativisa Rirsqmnili mefisa leon I-is mier, adgilsa Wyondidelisasa,
marcxeniT mefisa~.241
   e.i. leon I-is dros amba alaverdelma miiRo somxeTis mitropolitis
pativi, xolo darbazobis dros mieniWa Rirseba Wyondidelis adgilze
jdomisa _ mefis marcxniv.
   sanam ganvixilavdeT mefis marcxniv `afxazeTis sakaTalikosos~ episko-
posebis `wesdgomas~, manamde unda iTqvas, rom erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwi-
fos Seqmnis Semdgom, XI saukunidan, saqarTvelos patriarqi (anu rac igivea
_ qarTlis kaTalikosi), afxazeTis kaTalikosi, Wyondideli da moZRvarT-
moZRvari xdebian saxelmwifos moxeleebi, isini Sedian umaRles sakanonmde-
blo sabWoSi, romelSic mefesTan erTad Sedioda agreTve sami veziri.
   `darbazis kari~ Sedgeboda `oTxi berisagan~ da `sami vezirisagan~. `oTxi
beri~ arian _ 1. moZRvarT-moZRvari; 2. patriarqi; 3. afxazeTis kaTalikosi;
4. Wyondideli. `sami veziri~ arian _ 1. aTabagi (mogvianebiT, manamde, albaT,
sxva saxeli iyo); 2. amirspasalari; 3. mandaturT-uxucesi.
   `...darbaziT aTqs oTxTave: moZRvarT-moZRvarsa, kaTalikozTa, Wyondidelsa
da samTave vezirTa: aTabagsa, amir-spasalarsa da mandaturT-uxucessa~.242
   `amirejibi _ kaTalikozTa, moZRvarT-moZRvarsa, Wyondidelsa _ amaT win
tablas dasdgamen... es oTxive adgebian... aTabagsa, amir-spasalarsa da man-
daturT-uxucessa tabaks ejibi daudgams, adgebian. gamgeT-uxucesi monazonT
oTxTave sam-samis jamiT, egreTve samTa vezirTa iTvalavs...~243
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                631
   darbazis kari _ umaRlesi saxelmwifo organo _ Sedgeba oTxi mona-
zonisagan, anu oTxi berisagan da sami vezirisagan.
   `oTxi berisagan~ Seqmnili sabWo, romelic arsebobda mefesTan, Cans, war-
moadgenda qarTuli eklesiis sinods, radganac darbazis kars ufleba
hqonda mieca kanoni eklesiebisaTvis _ `kanons darbazis kariT miiRebdnen~
eklesia-monastrebio, _ weria erT dokumentSi. Semdeg saukuneTa dokument-
ebSic es oTxi beri, anu oTxi monazoni moCans.
   darbazobis dros moZRvarT-moZRvari mefis marjvniv dgeboda, an jdebo-
da. moZRvarT-moZRvari Zalze sapatio monazonia. mas mefe darbazobis dros
ufro meti pativiT xvdeboda, vidre kaTalikosebsa da Wyondidels. mefe
noxispirze miegebeboda moZRvarT-moZRvars, e.i. mis win dafenil noxs mefe
mTlianad gaivlida, xolo kaTalikosebisa da Wyondidelis misalmebis dros
mefes survilisamebr SeeZlo gaevlo noxis mesamedi, anda saerTod ar
gaevlo, adgilzeve darCeniliyo. aseTive wesiT egebeboda mefe samive vezirsac,
e.i. moZRvarT-moZRvris pativi aRemateboda, rogorc darCenili monazvnebis,
aseve samive veziris pativsac.
   `moZRvarT-moZRvari Sevides da eTayvanos mefesa da merme mefeca eTay-
vanos... mefe noxTa pirsa moegebeis da moesalmos: `moaxsne~, brZanoso.
wavides [moZRvarT-moZRvari] da marjveniT gardadges axlo... kaTalikozi,
romelic movides egreTve eTayvanos... gina noxsa zeda mesamedi warmoiaros
da miTve wesiTa Wyondidelsa da samTa vezirTa awvios~.244
   mefesTan darbazis karis Sekrebis dros mefis marjvniv adgils iWeren
mwignobarTuxucesi da qarTlis kaTalikosi, xolo mefis marcxniv _ Wyon-
dideli da afxazeTis kaTalikosi. xolo darbazobis dros mefis marjvniv
qarTlis kaTalikosis qvemoT sxdebian aRmosavleT saqarTvelos episko-
posebi Tavisi wesis mixedviT, xolo mefis marcxniv afxazeTis kaTalikosis
qvemoT sxdebian dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposebi.
   moZRvarT-moZRvris pativis gadidebiT odnav Semcirebulia saqarTvelos
patriarqis (qarTlis kaTalikosis) pativi, xolo Wyondidelis pativis ga-
didebiT Semcirebulia afxazeTis kaTalikosis pativi, anu eklesiis TviTm-
marTveloba SezRudulia saxelmwifos mier. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom saek-
lesio kanonmdebelia ara patriarqi, aramed oTxi berisagan Seqmnili sabWo,
romelic darbazis karze arsebobs.
   dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTedraTa Soris erT-erTi sapatio yofila qu-
TaTelis kaTedra. quTaTelis pativi iseTive yofila, rogoric iSxnelisa.
Tu ra didi iyo iSxnelis pativi, iqidanac Cans, rom darbazobis dros
iSxnelis misalmebisas mefe or-sam nabijs gadadgamda, xolo sxva episko-
posTa misalmebisas adgilidanac ar daiZvroda _ `ra sworad episkoposni
mividnen imieriT: iSxneli, mawyvereli, anCeli, mtbevari da golgoTeli, maT
raA eTayvanen... iSxnelisaTYs ufro mdablad da ori anu sami biji warmo-
iaros da miesalmos; da am sxuaTaTYs sworad nu daiZvris~.245
632                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   iSxnelisa da quTaTelis pativi Tanabari yofila _ `da miT erTob
sabatio aris [quTaTeli} da iSxnelis swori pativi marTebs~,246 e.i. quTaT-
elis misalmebis drosac mefe or-sam nabijs warmodgamda.
   didi pativi hqonia agreTve bediis episkopossac, radganac `...bedieli
mosaflavea [mefisa] da quTaTeli [makurTxevelica] da mesaflavec aris~.247
   aqedan Cans, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposebis `wesdgoma~ iqnebo-
da aseTi saxisa: 1. mefis marcxniv dgeboda afxazeTis, anu biWvinTis kaTa-
likosi; 2. mefis marcxniTve iyo adgili Wyondidelisa, magram ara afxaze-
Tis kaTalikosis qvemoT, aramed mis gverdiT. maTi pativi Tanabari iqneboda,
radganac Wyondideli mefis moxelea _ `Wyondideli mama ars mefisa~;248 3.
afxazeTis kaTalikosis qvemoT adgili ekuTvnoda quTaTel episkoposs, rad-
ganac dasavleT saqarTvelos kaTedraTa Soris mxolod quTaisis taZarSi
akurTxebdnen mefes. quTaisis taZarSi inaxeboda mefis skiptra da gvirgvi-
ni. `...[quTaTelis saydarsa Sina] mefeni dailocvian... quTaTelman ase Tqua,
Tu: `aw, orjer-samjer Cems saydarsa Sigan orni mefeni dalocvilan da ar
memarTlebi, gYrgYni anu ski ptra Cems saydarsa Sigan ar dasdva~. da merme
vezirT da erTobilT laSqarTa Tqves Tu `quTaTeli umarTlea~ da skipt-
ra quTaTels gauCines...~249 4. quTaTeli episkoposis qvemoT adgili ekuTvn-
oda bediel episkoposs, radganac `...bedieli mosaflavea [mefisa]... didi
giorgi, romelman basili berZenTa mefe gaaqcia misisa [bedielis] saydarsa
Sigan ars...~250 5. Cans, erT dros bedielis qvemoT adgili eWira cixe-gojel
episkoposs, amaze gvaqvs pirdapiri miTiTeba _ `Semovides cixe-gojeli da
dajdes bediels quemoT~.251 danarCeni dasavleT saqarTvelos episkoposeb-
is adgilis gansazRvra darbazobis dros Znelia.
   maSasadame, afxazeTis sakaTalikosoSi `wesdgoma~ aseTi unda yofiliyo:
   1. afxazeTis kaTalikosi;
   2. Wyondideli;
   3. quTaTeli;
   4. bedieli;
   5. cixe-gojeli...
   erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom didi pativi mieca
alaverdis saepiskoposo kaTedras, gansakuTrebiT erekle II-is dros.
   `q. Cuen, sruliad saqarTvelos mefeman iraklim ese ganaCeni davdeviT am
rigaT: Zveladganve CvenTa CamomavlobaTa mier maTi yovlad samRvdelooba
arxiepizkopozi alaverdisa didad gapatiosnebuli aris sxvaTa saqarTveloTa
yovlad samRvdeloTa zeda da umetesi pativi miscemies~.252
   erekle II-m gazarda aseve ninowmideli episkoposis adgili da pativi.
   erekle II-is dros saqarTvelos eklesiis Sina di ptixi aseTi iyo (aRmos-
avleT saqarTveloSi):
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  633
   1. `zemoAsa saqarTveloAsa mamaTmTavari kaTalikos-patriarxi~;
   2. arqiepiskoposi amba-alaverdeli _ somxiTisa mitropoliti;
   3. mitropoliti qisiyeli;
   4. mitropoliti Tbileli;
   5. mitropoliti ninowmideli;
   6. mangleli;
   7. rusTveli;
   8. wilkneli;
   9. kawareli, urbneli, mroveli, nekreseli, samTavneli, niqozeli, bolneli,
xarWaSneli, walkeli, dmaneli, giSeli _ moSlili saepiskoposoebi.
   erekle II ninowmidelis adgils 1749 wlis dokumentiT sazRvravs Tbilelis
qvemoT _ `amisaTvis, Semdgomad qisiyelisa da tfilelisa mitropolitTa
aqvndes adgili mitropolitobiT mieriTagan yovelTa yovlad-samRudelo-
Ta ninowmidelTa...~253
   `...miveciT ninowmidelsa mRudelmTavarsa adgili krebasa Sina dgomisa
anu jdomisa, uzemoes manglelisa, rusTvelisa da walkelisa da Tu same
iqmnes ganaxleba kawarelisa... urbnelisa da mrovelisa, nekreselisa, samTavnel-
isa, niqozelisa... bolnelisa... xarWaSnelisaca... walkelisaca da dmanelisa...
giSelisaca... TYT Tbilelisaca uzemoes aqunda adgili krebasa Sina yov-
lad-samRudelosa ninowmidelsa, viTar igi weril ars ganCinebasa Sina
mefeTa gvirgvinosan-yofiTa da darbazobisaTa... samefo qalaqi ara iyo
Tbilisi droTa mas Sina, aramed nisani da quTaTisi... papaman Cuenman irakli
pirvelman... tfileli episkopozi... mitropolit hyo... eseve saydari samit-
ropolito tfilelisa Rirsad... qvemo qisiyelis mitropolitisa saydrisa,
vqmeniT ara ugangebod. amisTvis, Semdgomad qisiyelisa da tfilelisa mit-
ropolitTa aqvndes adgili mitropolitobiT... ninowmidelTa...~254
   aqedan Cans, rom ereklesa da antonis ganCinebiT, erT dros ninowmidelis
adgili TviT Tbilelis maRla yofila, rac imiT yofila gamowveuli, rom
Tbilisi Zveli darbazobis ganCinebis dros samefo qalaqi ar yofila. Semdgom,
roca tfilisi dedaqalaqi gamxdara, Teimuraz II-s TbilelisaTvis miuniWebia
mitropolitobis pativi da darbazobis dros TbilelisaTvis ganuCeniaT
adgili _ `qvemo qisiyelisa~, e.i. qisiyelis qvemoT dajdeboda Tbileli, xolo
ninowmidels adgili ganusazRvres qisiyelisa da Tbilelis qvemoT.
634                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e




                      Tavi IX


`gaqarTvelebis ~ moZvelebuli
          Teoria



                          `q a r T v e l m a T a v i s i s a rwm u n o e b i s a T v i s
      j v a r c m u l m a , i c i s p a t i v i s x v i s s a rwm u n o e b i s a c .
                                         a m i t o m a c C v e n s i s t o r i aS i a r
                   a r i s m a ga l i T i , r o m q a r T v e l s s u r v e b i y o s
                     o d e s m e s x v i s a s a rwm u n o e b i s d a C a gv r a d a
        d e v n a . s o m e x n i , e b r a e l n i , T v i T m a h m a d i a n ni c a ,
                            C v e n s S o r i s m c x o v r e b n i , a m aS i C v e n
                                      v e r a f e r s v e r wa g v a y v e d r e b e n~.
                                                             ilia marTali
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                                             635

    Teoria qarTuli eklesiis mier saqarTvelos kuTxeTa
                `gaqarTvelebis~ Sesaxeb

                                             ..... s a q a r T v e l o a r i s i s q v e y a n a , s a d a c
                                   m e c n i e r u l i az r i a r Z v e l d e b a , m i T u m e t e s ,
                           Tu mas patroni hyavs. Cveni me cnierebi erTxel,
                                               o d e s R a c ga m o T q m u l az r s xS i r a d v e r
                           e l e v i a n ; a r a d a , we s i T y v e l a m e c n i e r u l i az r i
                                   a r S e i Z l e b a i y o s m a r a d i u l i , z o gi u n d a
                               Z v e l d e b o d e s . r a d ga n az r i T u ar m o Z v e l d a ,
                                     a r c p r o gr e s i i q n e b a , y o v e l S e m T x v e v aS i ,
                                          ga n s x v a v e b u l az r s m a i n c u n d a m i v c e T
                                                                          a r s e b o b i s u f l e b a~.

                                                                        arCil sulakauri
  VIII-X saukuneebi qarTuli eklesiis istoriaSi mniSvnelovani yofila
imiT, rom am dros Turme mimdinareobda qalkedonuri sarwmunoebis mqone
somxebis gaqarTveleba. gaqarTvelebula somexTa didi raodenoba, imdenad
didi, rom amas uzarmazari danaklisi miucia somexi xalxisaTvis da am
procesis Sedegad somxeTs daukargavs erovnuli teritoriebis nawili,
saqarTvelo ki gamdidrebula miwebiT, romelzedac mosaxle gaqarTvelebu-
li somxebi saqarTvelos kulturul cxovrebaSi brwyinavdnen TavianTi
umaRlesi xarisxis mwarmoeblurobis Sedegad (n. mari).
  qarTuli eklesia uSualo kavSirSi aRmoCenila somxeTis am tragedia-
sTan, radganac gaqarTvelebulan qalkedoniti somxebi, qarTuli eklesia ki
sazogadod am mimarTulebisaa. ufro metic, qarTuli eklesia Turme iWre-
boda somxeTis miwa-wyalze da somexi samRvdeloebis namoRvaw da namuSakev
adgilebze qarTul eklesia-monastrebs awesebda (i. abulaZe).
  mainc somxeTis romel teritoriebzea saubari, sad iyo im somxebis miwa-
wyali, romlebic kargavdnen erovnebas da qarTveldebodnen?
  zogierTi mecnieris azriT, mesxeTi (tao, klarjeTi) da saerTod saqarTve-
los samxreTi nawili istoriuli somxeTia, romelic saqarTvelos SemouerTda
aq mosaxle `somxebis gaqarTvelebis~ Sedegad, garda amisa, qvemo qarTlic
somxeTis nawili yofila, romelic aseve gaqarTvelebula~.
  ufro metic, maTi azriT, X saukunemde `araqarTuli~ qveynebi yofilan
hereTi da dasavleT saqarTveloc. mesxeTis msgavsad, X saukuneSi hereTi
gaqalkedonebula da amiT herebi gaqarTvelebulan, xolo amave droisaTvis
dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTulenovani wirva-locvis SemoRebis Sedegad
es mxarec gaqarTvelebula.
636                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   aseTia daskvnebi zogierTi mecnierisa.
   maS sadRa iyo saqarTvelo, sad cxovrobda qarTveli xalxi? aleqsandre
abdalaZec am kiTxvas svams somxur enciklopediaSi dabeWdil r. xonelias
statiis ganxilvis Semdgom: _ `...r. xonelias rom kacma yuri ugdos (vai, rom
hyavs mas sakmaod mravalricxovani auditoria!) qarTlis elementi X sauku-
neSi aramcTu dasavleT, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic ar yofila. Zalian main-
teresebs r. xonelias azriT, rodis da saidan gaCndnen qarTvelebi?!~1
   `...gamovida kidev erTi wigni `azerbaijanis istoriuli geografia~, romel-
sac 1987 wlis TariRi uzis... am wignSi gatarebulia azri, rom albanelebi
azerbaijanelTa uSualo winaprebi arian, xolo ingiloebi _ gaqarTvelebu-
li albanelebi... aseve `gaqarTvelebulia~ kaxeTis didi nawili, hereTi da
a.S. xom xedavT, sanamdis midis saqme?~ _ wers r. miminoSvili (ix. lit. saq.
24 ivnisi, 1988 w. `dRes an arasodes~). ramdenadac cnobilia, n. maris
gavleniT istorikosebis mier SemuSavebuli Teoriis Tanaxmad, erTiani qarTve-
li xalxis Camoyalibeba dasrulda XI saukunisaTvis.2
   n. maris Teoriebze dafuZnebuli Sromebis Tanaxmad, `qarTebis~ toms
didZali mosaxleoba Seemata sxvadasxva tomebis gaqalkedonitebisa da
maTTvis qarTulenovani wirva-locvis danergvis Sedegad, riTac TiTqosda
safuZveli daedo erTiani qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebas.
   `qristianobis gavrceleba aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi maT qarTizacias
ganapirobebda. rac Seexeba das. saqarTvelos... das. saqarTveloSi gabaton-
da qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda,
ramac didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTvelos qarTizaciis process~ (q.s.e. t
`saq. ssr~, gv. 61).
   saerTod, termini `qarTi~ niko maris SemoRebulia. cxadia, misganve mom-
dinareobs idea aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis da das. saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis `qarTizaciis~ Sesaxeb. xelovnuria termini da idea. sinamd-
vileSi, ZvelqarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad, arc mTianeTisa da arc dasavleT
saqarTvelos mosaxleobas `qarTizacia~ ar esaWiroeboda, radganac ZvelT-
aganve da farnavaz mefis drosac, rogorc mTielebi, ise egriselebi qarTve-
li xalxis ZiriTad nawilad ganixilebodnen. ise, rogorc saqarTvelos
sxva kuTxeTa mcxovrebni.
   niko maris mier SemoRebuli Teoriis Tanaxmad, erTiani qarTveli xalxi
qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg Camoyalibda imiT, rom `qarTis~ tomma
qristianobis meoxebiT moaxerxa sxvadasxva tomebis `qarTizacia~, ramac
ganapiroba qarTveli xalxis Seqmna. sinamdvileSi ki, erTiani qarTveli
xalxi jer kidev qristianobamde arsebobda erTiani saxelmwifoTi.
   Zveli qarTveli istorikosebi ki Tvlidnen, rom qarTveli xalxi ukve
arsebobda pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Seqmnis dros qristemde
IV-III saukuneebSi. aseTive Sexedulebis iyo didi ilia WavWavaZe da misi
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 637
drois qarTveli istorikosebi (d. baqraZe, m. TamaraSvili, i. gvaramaZe, T.
Jordania, m. janaSvili da sxvebi), mxolod n. maris Semdgom iqna uaryofili
es Tvalsazrisi.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom n. mari aRzrdili iyo profesor patkanovis mier, amit-
omac n. mari aviTarebda patkanovis saistorio Sexedulebebs.
  patkanovis saistorio skolas kritikis qarcecxlSi atarebda didi ilia.
patkanovio, _ werda ilia marTali, `... xels iwvdis taoskarze, exlandel
Woroxis xeobaze~.3
  `me patkanovis Segirdi varo, iZaxis TavmowonebiT b-ni mari... Tumca pat-
kanovisamebr oinebSi jer Tavi ar uCenia... sxvafriv ki imis gzaze damdgara~.4
  marTalia, ilias am werilis daweris dros, n. mars patkanovisamebr oineb-
Si jer Tavi ar eCina, magram XX saukunis damdegs Woroxis xeobaze (taosa
da klarjeTze) manac `xeli gaiwoda~ da Tavi gamoiCina: _ `n. maris daskvniT,
Tumca klarjeTi, taosTan erTad SemoerTebuli iqnao saqarTvelosTan VIII-
IX saukuneebSi, magram mosaxleobis SemadgenlobiT igi, viTomc amis Semde-
gac somxuri darCa.
  klarjeTi, ise rogorc tao, dasaxlebuli iyoo somxebiT, romlebic sarw-
munoebiT qalkedonitebi (e.i. marTlmadideblebi) iyvneno. klarjeTisa da
taos mosaxleobas viTomc aerTebda saqarTvelosTan mxolod es sarwmunoe-
brivi erToba (marTlmadidebloba-qalkedonitoba). am sarwmunoebrivi er-
Tobis niadagze moxdao TandaTan daaxloeba klarjeTis da taos somxobisa
qarTvelobasTan da Semdeg TandaTan maTi gaqarTvelebao...
  amrigad, n. maris mtkicebiT, klarjeTisa da taos mosaxleoba TviT Semdgom
xanaSic, iyvnen araqarTvelebi, aramed ZiriTadSi gaqarTvelebuli somxebi~.5
  n. mari sastikad sayvedurobda did ivane javaxiSvils, roca is dasavleT
saqarTvelos mosaxleobas, maT Soris svanebs, Wanebsa da megrelebs X s-mde
qarTvelebs uwodebda. ivane javaxiSvilma safuZveli Cauyara Teorias qarTve-
li xalxis qristianobamde Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb, kerZod, daamtkica, rom
arsebobda saerTo (yvela qarTul tomTaTvis) sarwmunoeba da arsebobda
kultmsaxurebisaTvis saWiro yvela qarTul tomTaTvis saerTo ena, magram
mis dros arsebuli gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi viTarebis gamo mas ar
gauRrmavebia es Teoria, xolo n. maris Teoria qarTveli xalxis eTnikuri
araerTgvarovnebisa da am xalxis gvian xanaSi Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb waxa-
lisebuli iyo imdroindel xelisufalTa mier.
  `... mniSvnelovania is garemoeba, rom carizmis rusifikatoruli politika
sagangebod iTvaliswinebda ruseTis ganapira mxareebis erovnul-uflebrivi
interesebis Selaxvas, aTanabrebda eTnografiul da erovnul niSnebs da am
gziT cdilobda daenawevrebina erTiani erovnuli sxeuli, win aRdgomoda
Cagruli xalxebis TviTSegnebis gamoRviZebas, yovelmxriv Seeferxebina eris
konsolidacia. am politikis uSualo anarekli iyo is faqti, rom 1886 wlis
638                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
mosaxleobis ojaxobrivi siebis Sedgenisas calke erovnebebad aRnusxes
qarTlelebi, xevsurebi, imerlebi, gurulebi, megrelebi, samurzayanoelebi da
qarTveli xalxis sxva eTnografiuli jgufebi... erovnul kuTvnilebas xSirad
aigivebdnen sarwmunoebriv da eTnografiul niSnebTan~.6
    aseTi moTxovnis dros maSindeli xelisuflebisTvis srulebiT miuRebe-
li iqneboda ZvelqarTuli istoriografiuli Sexeduleba erTiani qarTve-
li xalxis jer kidev qristianobamde arsebobis Sesaxeb. n. maris Teoriac
swored carizmis Sesabamis politikas uWerda mxars. n. mari carizmisaTvis
Tavisi erTgulebis damtkicebas rom cdilobda, gamoCnda iv. javaxiSvili-
sadmi damokidebulebaSi 1905 wlis revoluciis dros. am dros cnobilma
rusma akademikosebma, profesorebma da ivane javaxiSvilma gamoaqveynes
werili, sadac amxeldnen mTavrobis uxeS politikas ganaTlebis sistemaSi.
amis gamo, 1905 wlis 25 ianvars n. mari wyeniT swers iv. javaxiSvils:
`...Tqveni gancxadeba gazeTSi _ `naSi dni~ sabolood CemTvis savsebiT
naTels xdis, rom Cven ar SegviZlia gulwrfelad viaroT erTi da imave
mecnieruli gziT, rom Cven ar SegviZlia xelixelCakidebuli da adrinde-
li axlo TanamSromlobiT viaroT... Cemi Rrma rwmenaa, rom mecnieri profe-
soris monawileoba partiul-politikur brZolaSi safrTxes uqmnis mec-
nierebis akademiur Tavisuflebas...~7
    carizmis damxobis Semdeg ki n. mari droebiT mTavrobaSi yvelafers
akeTebs Tavisi uzarmazari avtoritetis moSveliebiT, raTa CaSalos Tbi-
lisSi qarTuli universitetis gaxsnis saqme _ `is, rac niko marma 1917
wlis seqtember-oqtomberSi dawera da warmoTqva droebiTi mTavrobis sax-
alxo ganaTlebis uaRresad reaqciul komisiaSi, man saWirod CaTvala gamoeqvey-
nebina 1918 wels~.8 am werils kinaRam sabediswero roli Seusrulebia
qarTuli universitetis gaxsnis saqmeSi (iqve).
    droebiTi mTavrobis damxobis Semdeg n. mari sruliad axal mimarTulebas
iwyebs enaTmecnierebaSi. am droisaTvis igi erT-erTi xelmZRvaneli partiu-
li muSakia da niko maris Teoriebis kritika srulebiT SeuZlebeli gaxda.9
    am statiaSi naTqvamia, rom mravali WeSmaritad didi mecnieris sicocx-
le Seiwira `marizmma~, _ ase uwodebs avtori n. maris samecniero mimdinar-
eobasa da mis skolas.
    im xanebSi SeiZleboda am Teoriis gaRrmaveba... magaliTad, 1937 wels i.
abulaZem sajaro sxdomaze waikiTxa moxseneba, romelSic ganaviTara da
gaaRrmava n. maris adrindeli Sexedulebebi, kerZod, qarTuli eklesia
angrevda somxur eklesiebs, wvavda jvrebs da a.S. `eklesiaTa ngreva da
jvarTa wva kidev imas unda moaswavebdes, rom erTi eklesia iWreba meoreSi
da maT gverdiT, Tu maT naamagarze Tavisas afuZnebs. esec araa ucxo ambavi
im droisaTvis. somxeTis miwa-wyalze ara erTi da ori `qarTvelTa~ savane
ixsneba am dros. termini `qarTveli~, rogorc akademikosma n. marma daamt-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               639
kica, diofiziturs niSnavs am droisaTvis da iqneba igi martooden qarTvelTa
da somexTa elementebisagan Sedgenili~.10
  es i. abulaZem sajarod warmoTqva 1937 wlis miwuruls, 17 dekembers,
man am wlis mware gakveTiliT icoda, risi Tqma SeiZleboda am dros da
risi _ ara. iTqva is, rac mosawoni iyo im droisaTvis. marTlac, esaa
gaRrmaveba n. maris adrindeli gamonaTqvamisa am Temaze. n. mari werda:
  `somxuri antiqalkedonuri eklesiis nacionalizaciasTan dakavSirebiT
(somex) qalkedonur garemoSi mimdinareobs sapirispiro procesi, saxeldo-
br, `denacionalizacia~, romelmac somex xalxs miayena uzarmazari danakar-
gi ricxobrivad da moralurad... am procesis wyalobiT somex qalkedonite-
bis denacionalizaciiT, saqarTvelo gamdidrda ori umaRlesi xarisxis
mwarmoebluri olqiT, saqarTveloSi pirdapir brwyinvale kulturuli cx-
ovrebis mqoneni, sityva exeba taos da klarjeTs... IX saukunis dasawyisSi
somexi qalkedonitebis mdgomareoba somxeTSi... iyo jer kidev mtkice, rom
isini batonobisaken miiswrafodnen. Crdilo-dasavleTi somxeTi olqebiT
klarjqiT (klarjeTi) da taiqiT (tao), am dros iyo maT xelSi. qalkedoni-
toba aq poulobda mxurvale mxardaWeras ara marto berZnebSi, aramed
qarTvelebSic. artanujeli bagratidebi, mxaris mflobelebi, ukve qalkedo-
nitebi iyvnen da es xels uwyobda qalkedonizmis zeims am kuTxeSi... aq
(klarjeTsa da taoSi) efuZnebian qarTveli ber-monazvnebi yvelani daqvrive-
bul somxur nagebobebze... am epoqaSi IX-X saukuneebSic ki, qarTveli berebi
iyvnen garemoculni. marTalia, erTmorwmune, magram mainc ucxo somxuri
mosaxleobiT da miuxedavad qarTvelTa politikuri batonobisa, uflebas am
mxaris qarTulad wodebisa isini afuZnebdnen masze, rom eklesiebSi wirva-
locva tardeboda qarTul enaze~.11
  rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, i. abulaZis azriT, termini `qarTveli~
Turme eTnikurad qarTvels ar aRniSnavda, radganac es `qarTvelebi~ Sedgebian
`qarTvelTa da somexTa elementebisagan~, e.i. qarTveli qarTveli ar aris,
xolo n. maris azriT, samxreTi saqarTvelo saerTod somxeTis miwa-wyalia.
  pavle ingroyvam damajereblad uaryo aseTi Teoriebi, magram miuxedavad
amisa, amJamad TiTqmis yvela qarTveli mecnieri (istorikosebic da sxva dar-
gis specialistebic), rogorc wesi, VI-XI saukuneebis mimoxilvis dros xmarobs
termins `gaqarTveleba~ an `gaqarTeba~ e.i. aRiareben da emxrobian n. maris
Teorias somexTa, herTa da dasavleT saqarTvelos `gaqarTvelebis~ Sesaxeb.
  eyrdnoba Tu ara aseTi didmniSvnelovani Teoria faqtebs, romelTa WeS-
mariteba ueWvelia?
  ara, aseTi faqtebi ar arseboben. magaliTad:
  1. IX-X saukuneebSi dasavleT saqarTvelos `gaqarTvelebis~ damadas-
turebel faqtad miaCniaT `grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ arsebuli wi-
nadadeba, rom qarTlad is qveyana iTvleba, sadac wirva-locva qarTul
640                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
enaze mimdinareobso. sinamdvileSi es winadadeba ar SeiZleba amis damamtki-
cebel faqtad CaiTvalos, radganac srulebiT gansxvavebuli viTarebis gad-
mosacemad mohyavs is mis avtors. am faqtis garda sxva raime damajerebeli
faqti ar gaaCniaT (Tu ar CavTvliT abo Tbilelis viTomda `gaqarTvelebas~).
   2. hereTis `gaqarTvelebis~ damamtkicebel faqtad miaCniaT `qarTlis
cxovrebaSi~ gadmocemuli cnoba, rom hereTi qalkedonituri gaxda dinara
dedoflis wyalobiT. es cnoba araa gaqarTvelebis faqti, radganac is
gadmogvcems, rom herebi, anu rac igivea hereTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi,
dinara dedoflamde iyvnen qarTvelebive, magram ara qalkedonitebi, aramed
monofizitebi. isini dinara dedoflis dros ki ar gaqarTveldnen, aramed
gaqalkedonitdnen. herebma, anu qarTvelebma qristianobis erTi mimarTule-
ba meoriT Secvales.
   3. faqtad iTvleba, qvemo qarTlSi, anu gugarqSi mcxovrebi somxebis
`gaqarTveleba~ kirion kaTalikosis mier maTTvis eklesiaSi qarTulenovani
wirva-locvis danergvis Sedegad. sinamdvileSi ki qvemo qarTli erT peri-
odSi kirionamdec, da ZiriTadad, kirionis Semdegac XI saukunemde somxeTi-
sa da somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda da aq swored is
procesi mimdinareobda, rac albaneTSi, kerZod, adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis
(e.i. aq qarTvelebis) armenizacia. kirionma isargebla xelsayreli poli-
tikuri viTarebiT da am armenizebuli qarTvelebisTvis eklesiaSi somx-
urenovani wirva-locvis gverdiT qarTulenovani wirva-locva daawesa, ami-
tomac somxebi ki ar gaqarTveldnen, aramed qarTvelebi armenizaciis gav-
lenisagan gaTavisufldnen. qarTvelebs dedaenaze wirva-locvis saSualeba
miecaT, magram samwuxarod, sul ramdenime wlis (kerZod, e.w. `sparsuli~
krebisa (614 w.) da gansakuTrebiT ki, bizantiur-somxuri eklesiebis `uniis~)
Semdeg, es mxare kvlav somxuri eklesiis gavlenis qveS moeqca. swored es
iyo safuZveli am mxareSi taSiris kvirikianTa somxuri samefos daarsebisa
da misi arsebobisa TiTqmis XII saukunemde. amitomac, somxebi ki ar `qarTvelde-
bodnen~, aramed mimdinareobda sapirispiro procesi _ qarTvelebi somxde-
bodnen. araviTari faqti qvemo qarTlSi somxebis `gaqarTvelebisa~ ar
arsebobs. am mxaris mosaxleoba qarTuli iyo uxsovari droidan TviT
taSiris kvirikianTa samefos arsebobis drosac.
   4. mesxeTis mxareebi, TviT niko maris azriTac ki, uZvelesi droidan
dasaxlebuli iyo qarTvelebiT (`Tubal-kainuri tomebiT~), magram xSirad
VIII saukunemde es mxareebi somxeTisa da somxuri eklesiis gavlenis
sferoSi Sedioda. amitomac, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba, niko maris azriT,
gasomxebula, xolo VIII-X saukuneebSi es `somxebi gaqarTveldnen~.
   marTalia, samxreT saqarTvelos zogierTi mxare VIII saukunemde somxeTi-
sa da somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoebSi Sedioda, magram moxda misi
mosaxleobis kulturuli da ara eTnikuri armenizacia. eTnikurad qarTvelebi
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   641
qarTvelebadve darCnen, xolo kulturuli armenizacia imiT gamoixata, rom
msgavsad albanelebisa, maTTvis saeklesio da kulturis enad gaxda somx-
uri ena. amas xels uwyobda is, rom VIII saukunemde somxuri eklesia ar iyo
nacionalizebuli, aramed es eklesia Tavis mSobliur (araeTnikuri aramed
sarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT) eklesiad miaCndaT sxvadasxva erebs: al-
banelebs, qarTvelebs, sirielebsa da sparselebsac ki (arsebobs sparseli
qristianebis mimarTvebi somxeTis kaTalikosisadmi).
  rogorc ki 726 wlis Semdeg daiwyo somxuri eklesiis nacionalizacia, es
eklesia miatoves mesxeTis qarTvelebma. am dros arsebiTi iyo ara sarwmunoe-
brivi, aramed eTnikuri momenti (kartaSevs msgavsi sarwmunoebrivi ganxeTqilebis
warmomSob mizezad miaCnia ara dogmatikuri uTanxmoeba, aramed eTnikuri momenti).
  VIII saukunemde `uniis~ dros, somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi yofni-
sas, mesxeTis zogierT regionSi dainerga somxuri wirva-locva, aqaurma
qarTvelma samRvdeloebam SeiTvisa somxuri ena da damwerloba (ise, rogorc
albanelebma). VIII saukunis Semdgom saWiro gaxda qarTulenovani wignebi,
amitomac kulturulad armenizebul qarTvelTa mier qarTuli wignebis
Targmnis an redaqtirebisas SeimCneva armenizmebis kvali. es bunebrivia,
kulturulad armenizebuli mweral-redaqtorebis mier redaqtirebuli wignebi
ver acda armenizmebs.
  am faqtis (armenizmebis arseboba) garda sxva raime damajerebeli faqti
ar gaaCniaT.
  n. maramdec somxur (da aqedan evropul) mecnierebaSi iyo azri, rom tao
da qvemo qarTli istoriuli somxeTis miwebia.12
  n. mari, aRzrdili patkanovisa, aviTarebda somxuri saistorio skolis
Tvalsazriss, romelsac srulebiT ewinaaRmdegeboda mesxeTSi VIII saukunis
Semdgom arsebuli kulturul-eTnikuri viTareba, amitomac n. marma SeuTanx-
ma erTmaneTs somxuri samecniero Tvalsazrisi da mesxeTSi VIII saukunis
Semdgomi realuri viTareba, kerZod, tao-klarjeTis kultura (e.i. VIII
saukunis Semdeg) marTalia, qarTulia, magram qveyana mainc somxuria, radga-
nac am kulturis Semoqmedi aris gaqarTvelebuli adgilobrivi somxuri
mosaxleoba da ara qarTvelebio.
  `...am Semcdarma da tendenciurma koncefciam farTo gavrceleba miiRo.
es Sexeduleba ganmtkicda rusul da evropul specialur literaturaSi.
  am Sexedulebebis mimdevrebi da damcvelebi gamoCndnen qarTvel mkvle-
varTa Sorisac... korneli kekeliZe imeorebs am azrs, rom klarjeTi (taosTan
erTad) viTomc ukavSirdeba saqarTvelos mxolod VIII saukunis Semdeg, rom
es mxare, klarjeTi, eTnikurad viTomc ar iyo qarTuli qveyana~.13
  am koncefciaze dayrdnobiT n. tokarskis Tavis wignSi `Zveli somxeTis
arqiteqtura~, taoSi mdebare oSki, xaxuli, iSxani, klarjeTis opiza, forTa-
xanZTa, SavSeTis, tbeTis taZrebi somxuri arqiteqturis Zeglebad gamoucx-
642                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
                                    adebia.14 mixankova Tvlis, rom Woroxis
                                    xeobis es provinciebi (tao, SavSeTi, klar-
                                    jeTi...) ar iyo qarTuli qveyana, qarTuli
                                    eniTa da kulturiT, aramed mxare, romel-
                                    ic politikurad da agreTve eTnikura-
                                    dac, ZiriTadSi dakavSirebuli iyo somx-
                                    eTTan. mixankova Tvlis, rom n. maris kon-
                                    cefcia tao-klarjeTis istoriisa, es aris
                                    uryevi istoriuli WeSmariteba.15
                                       `TviT aseTi kargad orientirebuli da
                                    miudgomeli avtori, rogoric aris a. ia-
                                    kobsoni, dajerebulia, rom mesxeTis ter-
                                    itoriebi QWoroxis xeobisa gaxda qarTu-
                                    li mxolod am gvian xanaSi. aseTia gav-
                                    lena n. maris koncefciisa mesxeTis mx-
                                    areTa istoriis Sesaxeb, romelic dRem-
                                    de erTgvar dogmad iyo miCneuli~.16
  marTali iyo didi ilia WavWavaZe, roca patkanovis Sesaxeb werda. is `...
xels iwvdis taoskarze, exlandel Woroxis xeobaze~, aseve moiqca misi
Segirdi n. maric.
  saqarTveloSi kargad icodnen, rom n. mari antiqarTul poziciebze idga
da istoriul-filologiur mecnierebaSi aviTarebda yovelive qarTulis
sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas. amitomac jer kidev III kursze studentobisas
ivane javaxiSvili gaafrTxila mamamisma aleqsandrem, rom yvelafrisaTvis
Seexeda sakuTari TvaliT da ara n. maris TvaliT: `1898 wlis 22 oqtomb-
ers aforiaqebuli mama swerda: `Svilo, rogorc mama, girCev, Seni sakuTari
da WeSmariti kritikulis TvaliT Sexedo yvelafers da ara miepyro maris
qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas~.17
  roca iv. javaxiSvili `ar miepyro maris qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mima-
rTulebas~ da saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis Svilebs _ qarTlelebs,
kaxelebs Tu megrelebs sazogadod qarTveli uwoda da qarTveli eris
Semadgenel jgufebad miiCnia, mas winaaRmdegoba gauwia n. marma.
  n. mari `mecnierulad asabuTebda~ erTiani qarTveli eris ararsebobas.
man qarTveli eris sxvadasxva eTnografiul jgufebs `iafeturi~ xalxebi
daarqva, xolo qarTvelur da mis monaTesave enebs `iafeturi~ Tu `Tubal-
kainuri~. man yvelaferi gaakeTa imisaTvis, raTa `daesabuTebina~, rom TiTqosda
megrelebi ar iyvnen qarTvelebi. erTi wyaros araswori komentirebiT man
qarTvel mecnierebs miaRebina dogma, TiTqosda `qarTebis~ tomma kultu-
rul-eklesiuri zemoqmedebis saSualebiT megreli `xalxi~ `gaaqarTvela~
IX-X saukuneebSi. ivane javaxiSvilma pasuxi gasca am yalb Teorias da
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  643
daasabuTa, rom qarTuli ena araTu IX-X saukuneebSi iqna dasavleT
saqarTveloSi kultmsaxurebis enad, aramed TviT warmarTobis drosac ki
dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ samegrelosa da svaneTSi, warmarTuli kultm-
saxureba qarTul enaze aResruleboda.
  pavle ingoroyvam ki daasabuTa, rom samxreT saqarTveloSi qarTuli
mosaxleoba uwyvetad arsebobda da es mxareebi yovelTvis qarTuli iyo
eTnikuri SemadgenlobiT.
  ivane javaxiSvilma gamoarkvia, rom saqarTveloSi adgili arasodes hqo-
nia ucxo mosaxleobis arc sarwmunoebriv, arc rasobriv-eTnikur devnas.
  qarTveli xalxi rjuliT da tomiT Semwynarebelia.
  n. maris azriT ki, piriqiT, qarTvelebs araTu SeuviwroebiaT sxva tomebi,
aramed maTTvis deda ena da vinaobac ki dauviwyebiaT. somxebi, herebi da
sxvebi gauqarTvelebiaT qarTuli eklesiis meoxebiT.
  qarTuli eklesia Turme `wvavda~ sxvaTa eklesiebs, `iWreboda~ sxva ucxo
erTa eklesiebSi, maT `namoRvawev namonastralebze~ Tavisas afuZnebda, qarTu-
lenovani wirva-locvis danergviT sxva xalxebs `aqarTvelebda~. es yove-
live ciliswamebaa. qarTuli eklesia yovelTvis saTno da Semwynarebeli
iyo sxvaTa mimarT.
  sinamdvileSi rogori politikuri viTareba iyo VIII-X saukuneebSi saqar-
TveloSi? saqarTvelos guli _ Sida da qvemo qarTli arabTa da maT mier
waxalisebul somexi naxararebisa da samRvdeloebis gavlenis qveSaa. es ki
pirobas qmnida araTu ucxoTa gaqarTvelebisaTvis, aramed qarTvelebis
erovnul mdgradobasac ki safuZveli Seerya, rogorc es `abo Tbilelis
wamebidan~ Cans.


           somxuri eklesiis istoria, monoTelitoba
              da xatmebrZoloba masTan kavSirSi
                    a. kartaSevis mixedviT

   a. kartaSevis wignSi `msoflio krebebi~ (parizi, 1963, rus. enaze) gad-
mocemulia mizezebi, romlis gamoc somxuri eklesia Camoscilda msoflio
sayovelTao (kaTolike) eklesias.
   am avtoris azriT, somxuri eklesia msoflio eklesias ganSorda ara
sarwmunoebrvi, aramed erovnuli motivis gamo: rom berZenTa imperiaSi
mcxovrebi patara erebi, imisaTvis, rom aecilebinaT did erSi asimilacia,
iRebdnen ara centrSi aRiarebul, aramed gansxvavebul sarwmunoebas.
   imperiis patara erebma _ koptebma, asirielebma, somxebma da sxvebma miiRes
monofizitoba da sxva sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebebi gaberZnebisa da `garo-
maelebis~ Tavidan acilebisaTvis. Cans, amasTan erTad sxva mizezebic arsebobda.
644                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   qveTavi am wignisa _ `ganyofa marTlmadideblobisagan erovnuli motivis
gamo~ ganixilavs, patara erebis eklesiebTan erTad, somxuri eklesiis ganyofas
msoflio eklesiisagan.
   qalkedonis krebis droisaTvis (451 w.), roca mezobelma imperiebma gan-
sakuTrebiT moindomes somexTa asimilacia, somexi xalxi TiTqmis aTaswlo-
vani istoriuli warsulis mqone eri iyo, erovnuli mobilizeba misTvis
Zneli ar iyo, amitomac mezobeli saxelmwifoebis mxridan mravali cdis
miuxedavad, maT ver SeZles somxebis verc gasparseleba da verc `garo-
maeleba~, anu gaberZneba, rac imiT moxerxda, rom somxebma ar miiRes sparselTa
sarwmunoeba _ cecxlTayvanismcemloba, xolo qristianobaSi is mimdinareoba
miiRes, romelic gansxvavdeboda konstantinopolis sarwmunoebisagan. ra Tqma
unda, sarwmunoebis arCevaze laparaki Znelia, magram kartaSevisa da sxvaTa
dakvirvebis Tanaxmad, bizantiis imperiaSi mcxovreb patara erebs swored is
sarwmunoebrivi mimarTuleba miaCndaT swor, WeSmarit da erTaderT marTal
sarwmunoebad, romelic gansxvavebuli iyo konstantinopolSi aRiarebulisagan.
   saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom saukuneTa manZilze (aq igulisxmeba IV-X
saukuneebi) somxuri eklesia iyo Zalze Zlieri organizacia, romelsac an-
gariSs uwevdnen rogorc sparseTis Sahebi, ise bizantiis saimperatoro kari.
bizantiaSi monofizitTa da monoTelitTa gavlenis gavrcelebis dros mniS-
vnelovan rols TamaSobda somxuri eklesia da somxuri elementi. saimpera-
toro karze myofma somxebma, kartaSevis Tanaxmad, didi gavlena iqonies bizan-
tiaSi xatmebrZolobis eresis rogorc gavrcelebis, ise misi ganadgurebis
dros. aRsaniSnavia, rom ara marto sparseTis da bizantiis samefo kari, aramed
arabebic angariSs uwevdnen somxur eklesias, aZlierebdnen da m. kalankatua-
cis Tanaxmad, sxva (albaneTis) qalkedonitur eklesiazec abatonebdnen mas.
amgvari viTarebis gamo, swori ar unda iyos qarTul mecnierebaSi miRebuli
Teoria `qalkedoniti somxebis gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb~, im mizezis gamo, rom
es Teoria am sakiTxs ar ixilavs globaluri TvalsazrisiT.


            a.                              ganyofa
                 kartaSevi Tavisi wignis qveTavSi _ `

      marTlmadideblobisagan erovnuli motivebis gamo ~,                  wers:

  kamaTma qalkedonis krebaze moamzada saeklesio ganyofa somxebisa. am
SemTxvevaSi saqme exeboda im teritoriebs, romelnic bizantiis imperiaSi
Sediodnen (bizantiasa da sparseTs somxeTis miwa-wyali gayofili hqond-
aT). bizantiis imperatorTa mxridan ufro yuradRebian politikas ucxo
eris mimarT SeeZlo Seenelebina es ganyofa.
  somxeTs uxdeboda politikurad or orientaciaze TamaSi _ bizantiursa
da sparsulze. momentis Sesaferisad, an erT an meore Zlier mezobels
unda mimxrobodnen.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               645
   Tavisi pirveli arqiepiskoposis miRebisas kesaria-kapadokiisgan somxeTs
Tavisi warmomadgeneli hyavda I msoflio krebaze _ grigor ganmanaTle-
blis Svili _ arqiepiskoposi aristakesi, magram arqiepiskopos nerse I-is
(374) Semdeg, romelsac kaTalikosi ewoda, wamoyenebuli iqna azri avtoke-
faliis Sesaxeb. kaTalikosi uwoda Tavis Tavs, radganac miiCnevda, rom
somxuri eklesia mociqul Tomasagan aris warmoSobili. somexTa mefis
sasaxleSi wamoyenebul iqna azri avtokefaliis Sesaxeb. nersesis memkvi-
dre iusiki somxeTis mefe-papma ukve aRar gaagzavna xeldasasxmelad ke-
sariaSi, aramed uwoda arqiepiskoposi Tavissave qveyanaSi. amgvarad, somxe-
Tis eklesiis avtokefalia damkvidrda arakanonikuri gziT, wers kartaSevi.
kesaria aprotestebda somxeTis aseT moqmedebas. II msoflio krebaze berZnebma
somxebi ar miiwvies, xolo cnobebma am dadgenilebaTa Sesaxeb somxeTamde
miaRwia mogvianebiT.
   somxuri eklesia izrdeboda da Zlierdeboda. am eklesias 397 wlidan
448 wlamde marTavda grigoris STamomavali didi sahaki (isaaki), reforma-
tori somxuri eklesiisa da mTargmneli wmida werilisa somxur enaze. am
dros berZnebi flobdnen somxeTis erT naxevars, sparselebi ki _ meores.
Semdeg berZnebma gadasces mTeli somxeTi sparselebs. imperatorma Teodo-
si II-m xelaxla daibruna berZnuli naxevari somxeTisa, magram mTeli am
drois manZilze berZnebi aRizianebdnen somxebs (igulisxmeba nacionaluri
TvalsazrisiT) da somexTa simpaTiebi sparselebis mxares iyo. male somxe-
bi gaTavisufldnen sparselebisagan da ocnebobdnen berZnebisagan gaTa-
visuflebas. isaaki (sahaki) droebiT somxeTis saero mmarTveli gaxda (aR-
saniSnavia, rom daaxloebiT am dros `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, qarTuli
eklesiis meTauri arqiepiskoposi glonoqori saqarTvelos (qarTl-here-
Tis) saero mmarTvelad (erisTavad) iyo daniSnuli). isaaki berZnebs ise
uyurebda, rogorc erovnul mtrebs. mas ar undoda kurTxeuliyo kesaria-
kapadokiaSi da roca mcire azia kanonikurad daeqvemdebara konstantinop-
olis patriarqs (e.i. 451 wels), somxebma konstantinopolsac zurgi Seaq-
cies ise, rogorc kesaria-kapadokias.
   400 wels wmida ioane oqropirma somxeTSi gagzavna konstantinopolis
krebis dadgenileba qristeSobisa da RvTisgancxadebis cal-calke dResaswau-
lis Sesaxeb _ romauli wesis Tanaxmad. isaakma arc ki upasuxa. somxeTis
eklesia darCa Zvel Cvevaze _ dRemde. sparselebi mtrulad eqceodnen
berZnul kulturas somxeTSi da iq anadgurebdnen somxebisaTvis gaxsnil
berZnul skolebs. im dros somxebs wirva-locva da RvTismsaxureba hqondaT
ara somxur, aramed berZnul enaze, somxuri anbanis ararsebobis gamo.
   sparsuli orientaciis dros somxebma gadawyvites gaTavisuflebuliyvnen
berZnuli gavlenisagan saeklesio sferoSi. amaSi mdgomareobda paTosi
didi nacionaluri reformisa somxur eklesiaSi isaak didis dros _
somxuri anbanis gamogoneba da wmida werilis Targmna. aqamde ki inerciiT
RvTismsaxureba sruldeboda berZnulad.
646                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   kesaria-kapadokiis mitropolitebi somxebs mwvaleblebad miiCnevdnen
eklesiuri damoukideblobisaTvis.
   III msoflio krebaze somxebs, Cans, ar gaugzavnes miwveva da efesoSi
somxuri eklesiidan aravin iyo. 435 wels somxurma eklesiam dagmo nesto-
rianoba da amiT berZnebTan erTad wavida win. amis Sedegad somxurma
eklesiam aRiara da miiRo samive msoflio kreba (I, II, III). am droisaTvis
somxeTi mTlianad sparsTa qveS iyo. somex aristokratiaSi midioda propa-
ganda cecxlTayvanismcemlobis sasargeblod. Semdeg movida brZaneba qris-
tianobis uaryofis Sesaxeb. somex episkoposTan krebam sparsTa mefes sakadrisi
pasuxi gaugzavna da daadgines _ iaraRiT xelSi daecvaT sarwmunoeba.
krebis dadgenileba JRers gadamwyvetad:
   `dae aRimarTos Zmis xeli Zmaze, Tu is uaryofs uflis mcnebas, da mama
Sebralebis gareSe wavides Svilze da Svili mamaze, nuRar eSinia cols
xelis aRmarTvisa urjulo qmarze da aRdges msaxuri batonze~.
   somxebma Svela Txoves berZnebs, magram arc Teodosi II-s da arc marki-
anes (imperatorebs) ar gaaCndaT Zalebi sparsTa sawinaaRmdegod. somxeTi
ajanyda. 451 wels ajanyeba damarcxda. is sparselebma CaaxSes. am wels
Catarda qalkedonis msoflio kreba. ajanyebis beladi varTan I da sxvebi
kanonizebul iqnen. qalkedonis krebisas berZnebs didad ar SeuwuxebiaT
Tavi somexTa mimxrobisaTvis. formalurad berZnebs is amarTlebda, rom
somexi episkoposebi ucxoeTis da ara imperiis episkoposebi iyvnen, xolo
krebebi iyo `imperiisa~ da imperia ki msoflio eklesia ar aris (ig-
ulisxmeba, rom `msoflio krebebi~ iyo ekumenuri, anu berZnul-romauli
samyaros krebebi, romelSic, faqtobrivad, imperiis18 SigniT arsebul kaTe-
draTa episkoposebi monawileobdnen). garda amisa, somxebs mianiSnes, rom
isini berZnuli TvalsazrisiT Sedian kesaria-kapadokiis mitropoliaSi,
amitomac araa saWiro maTi gansakuTrebuli miwveva msoflio krebaze.
   somxeTi siriis gziT win aRudga `qalkedonitebs~.
   am dros TviT saimperatoro karzec mimdinareobda sarwmunoebrivi WeS-
maritebis Zieba (bizantiaSi).
   491 wels somxeTis krebam dedaqalaq vaRarSapatSi miiRo henotikoni
zenonisa da Tanabrad dagmo nestoric da evtixic. uaryo agreTve qalkedo-
nis kreba, romelmac TiTqosda daamtkica `ori saxe~. 491 wlis vaRarSapa-
tis dadgenileba ase JRers: `Cven, somxebi da berZnebi, qarTvelebi da
albanelebi, romlebic vaRiarebT erT WeSmarit sarwmunoebas, gadmocemulT
wmida mamebis mier sam msoflio krebaze, uarvyofT iseT RvTissagmob sity-
vas (e.i. rom qristeSi ori gansxvavebuli saxea) da erTsulovnad gada-
vcemT anaTemas yovelive msgavss~. esaa is sarwmunoeba, romelic im dros
bizantiaSi iyo gavrcelebuli saimperatoro karis mier (zenonis henotiko-
ni) da is aRiares berZnebma, somxebma, qarTvelebma da albanelebma.
   `kreba gaxda istoriuli gamyofi berZnul marTlmadideblobasa da somx-
ur grigorianul aRmsareblobas Soris. droebiT ganSorda berZnul mar-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             647
Tlmadideblobas qarTuli eklesiac. vaRarSapatis krebaze monawileoba
miiRes mezobelma kaTalikosebma saqarTvelosa da alvaneTisa~, _ wers
kartaSevi, magram am krebis dokumenti xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom im dros
qarTvelebsa da berZnebs erTiani sarwmunoeba hqondaT, sxva xalxebsac
aseve. `527 wlis dvinis axalma krebam kidev ufro gaaRrmava gansxvaveba-
ganyofa berZnul marTlmadideblobasa da somxur grigorianul aRmsare-
blobas Soris. krebam moiTxova eRiarebinaT qristeSi erTi buneba(!). imis-
aTvis, rom es erTbunebianoba ufro kargad warmoeCinaT, daadgines, erT dRes
edResaswaulaT Soba da RvTis gancxadeba 6 ianvars. dadginda rom evqaris-
tiis (ziarebis) saidumlo SeesrulebinaT aufuebeli puriT da mxolod
wyalgaureveli RviniT. aqve `samwmidaos~ galobas Tan daurTes monofiz-
ituri sityva-damateba: `romelic CvenTvis jvars ecvi~. am dros aekrZa-
laT somxebs ierusalimSi salocavad gamgzavreba da berZnebTan urTier-
Toba. es kreba, 527 wels, nakarnaxevi iyo antiberZnuli ganwyobilebiT, rac
gamowveuli iyo Semdegi garemoebiT:
  518 wels, iustine I-is gamefebis Semdeg, konstantinopolSi daiwyo zeimi
(aRorZineba) qalkedonitobisa. manamde monofizitebs imperiaSi mtkice po-
ziciebi ekavaT. imperatorma vasiliskom uaryo qalkedoniis kreba. aleqsan-
driaSi, siriasa da palestinaSi monofizitebi Zlierdebodnen da devnidnen
qalkedonitebs... TviT imperiis mTavar taZarSi konstantinopolis aia-sofi-
aSi 512 wels Seitanes monofizituri samwmidao galoba _ `jvars ecvi~.
qalaqSi daiwyo brZolebi morwmuneTa Soris. 518 wels axalma imperatorma
monofizituri galoba akrZala, moiwvia kreba. `romis sarwmunoeba~, anu
qalkedonitizmi aRsdga.
  im mizezis gamo, rom konstantinopolis imperiam 518 wlidan sruliad
aRadgina qalkedonitoba, somxebma sparsTa gavleniT, Tavis sarwmunoebad
antikonstantinopoluri sarwmunoeba _ monofizitoba miiRes 527 wels. am
droisaTvis sparselebi Sinagani aSlilobis gamo Zalian aamebdnen da ufrTx-
ildebodnen somxebs, gaafarToves maTi TviTmmarTvelobis formebi. 518 wels
erovnuli mTavrobac ki dauniSnes, misces erovnebiT somexi mTavari (aRsani-
Snavia, rom swored am dros sparselebma qarTlSi mefoba gaauqmes).
  `TiTqosda qalkedonis krebis paralelurad (451 w.) dvinis krebam (igu-
lisxmeba 527 w.) somex kaTalikosebs mianiWa patriarqis tituli, radganac
qalkedonis krebaze patriarqebi uwodes _ romael, konstantinopolel,
aleqsandriel, antioqiel da ierusalimel mRvdelmTavrebs~.19


           b. somxeTi iustinianedan ereklemde
  a. kartaSevi ganagrZobs: _ `iustinianes hqonda gamaerTianebeli _ Semr-
igeblur-kompromisuli politika (igulisxmeba qalkedonitTa da monofizitTa
648                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
Soris). aman aRZra imedi somxebis SemoerTebisa. somxur eklesiaSi ga-
Zlierda moZraoba berZnul eklesiasTan SesaerTeblad. iustiniane xazgas-
miT efereboda da pativs scemda somxeTis berZnul nawils. aSenebda somx-
eTis berZnul nawilSi eklesiebsa da monastrebs, sjida berZen Cinovnikebs
xelisuflebis borotad gamoyenebisaTvis, amyarebda wesrigs, 553 wels mar-
Talia, V msoflio krebas somxuri eklesia ar eswreboda, magram igulisxme-
boda igi iyo berZnebTan kavSirSi. 571 wels somxeTis ajanyebam sparsTa
winaaRmdeg vardan II-is meTaurobiT gaaZliera simpaTiebi berZnebis mimarT.
marTalia, ajanyeba sparselebma CaaxSes, magram 589 wels is gadaizarda
somxebisa da berZnebis samxedro kavSirSi, radganac imperatori mavrike
ereoda sparsTa Sinaur saqmeebSi da taxtze dasva Sahi xosro. xosrom
berZenTa imperator mavrikes dauTmo somxeTis nawili da naxevari saqarTvelo.
am dros aRiZra moZraoba berZnebTan SesaerTeblad. daiwyo kamaTi, krebebi.
Sedegad berZnebisadmi daqvemdebarebul somxeTis nawilSi gaimarjva mar-
Tlmadideblobam. somxeTis berZnul nawilSi somxebma airCies marTlma-
didebeli kaTalikosi ioane III, romelic marTavda qalkedonitur somxur
eklesias 616 wlamde. am wels is tyved Caigdo xosrom da waiyvana, maSin
xosrom mTeli mcire azia dai pyro.
   `qarTveli kaTalikosi kirioni, anu kironi aseve gadavida berZnuli
marTlmadideblobis mxares da amiT mospo TiTqmis 70-wliani yofna Tavisi
eklesiisa monofizitobaSi mezobeli somxebis gavlenis qveS~.20
   magram sparseTis somxeTis kaTalikosebma moiwvies kreba da dawyevles
qalkedonis kreba da akurTxes Tavisi vaRarSapatis 491 wlis da dvinis
527 wlis krebebi. qarTuli eklesiis berZnebis mxareze gadasvlis gamo,
somxebma 596 wels moiwvies kreba dvinSi da daadgines, ganSorebodnen
qarTvelebs saSineli wyevliT. es kamaTi somxebTan daexmara qarTvelebs
ganmtkicebuliyvnen berZnul marTlmadideblobaSi.
   611-617 wlebSi xosrom didi warmatebiT Seutia bizantias, daiwyo misi
gamarjvebuli svla bizantiis miwebze, dai pyro somxeTis berZnuli nawili.
xosro somexTa kaTalikosebma aRiares megobrad, radganac somexi kaTali-
kosebis msgavsad, xosro qalkedonitobis mteri iyo.
   sparselebma aiZules yvela somexi (yofil berZnul somxeTSi mcxovreb-
ni) mieRoT monofizitoba da uareyoT qalkedonitoba, amisaTvis xosrom
Tavis sasaxleSi moiwvia sagangebo kreba, ris Sedegadac aiZula da daavalde-
bula yvela somexi mieRoT monofiziti kaTalikosebis rwmena.
   magram erekle keisarma male daamarcxa xosro da amiT gaaTavisufla
qalkedonitTa sindisi. ereklem Caatara sawinaaRmdego politika da droe-
biT SeierTa somxebi.21
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             649

     g. erekles religiuri politika da somxuri
             eklesiis nawilis SeerTeba
  bizantiis imperator erekles TvalsazrisiT imperiis erTianoba miiR-
weoda rwmenis erTianobis saSualebiT. konstantinopolis patriarqi ser-
gei erekles koronaciis (610 w.) Semdeg daumegobrda erekles.22 is iyo misi
mrCeveli. 626 wels erekle iyo lazikaSi, qalaq fazisSi (foTSi). aq man
molaparakeba daiwyo fazisis mitropolitTan _ kirTan. `kiri aq iyo mezo-
blad qarTuli eklesiisa da meTaurobda berZnulenovan marTlmadide-
blebs. TviT kirma icoda siriuli ena da SeiZleba siriidanac iyo. kiri
dainteresda marTlmadideblebis monofizitebTan kompromisiT. patriarqma
sergim kirs gaugzavna saRvTismetyvelo gasaRebi. kirs uxaroda qarTvelTa
dabruneba marTlmadideblobaSi da imedi hqonda somxebze imoqmedebda
kompromisiT (monoenergizmiT). irakli kmayofili iyo da gadawyvita kiri
aleqsandriis kaTedraze aeyvana.23
  somxuri eklesiis nawilis SeerTeba berZnebTan (sarwmunoebrivad) moxda
kaTalikos ezras erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebiT. ezra Tavis banakSi gam-
oiZaxa imperatorma ereklem. aq ezra eziara da swira, aqve somexTa kaTali-
kosma gadawyvita SeerTeboda berZnul ierarqias. ezra cxovrobda somxe-
Tis berZnul nawilSi da ebrZoda mis mowinaaRmdege kaTalikos qriste-
fores. iraklis mier rwmenis aRmsarebloba miwodebuli iyo somxebisaTvis
misaRebi saxiT.
  amis Semdeg somxebis am teritoriaze (e.i. berZnul somxeTSi) somxuri
eklesiisa da berZnul-marTlmadidebluri eklesiis erToba gagrZelda 85
wels _ 6 kaTalikosis dros. am dros somxur eklesiaSi SemoiRes afuebu-
li puri da Tbilwyaldamatebuli Rvino (ziarebisas) da agreTve 25 de-
kembers aRniSnavdnen Sobas. magram sxvaobis garkveuli odenoba arsebobda
da darCenili iyvnen disidentebi.
  berZnebma sirieli iakobitebi SeierTes 630 wels da aleqsandrieli
monofizitebi _ 632 wels.
  634 wlidan palestinaSi Sevidnen muslimani arabebi. meore xalif omar-
is (634-644) dros aiRes damasko da ierusalimi (638 w.). siriis qalaqebi
advilad bardebodnen arabebs da siamovnebiT debdnen maTTan xelSekrule-
bas. disidentebi (igulisxmeba berZnuli sarwmunoebis mowinaaRmdegeni) six-
aruliT xvdebodnen musulmanebs, berZenTa zizRis gamo. erekle gardaicva-
la 641 wlis 11 Tebervals.24
650                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e

                      d. VI msoflio kreba
   VI msoflio krebam dagmo monoTelitoba (681 w.).
   `monoTelitoba-monoenergizmi, VII saukuneSi aRmosavleTis qristianul
eklesiaSi gabatonebuli moZRvrebaa. monoTelitobis mixedviT, qristeSi ori
bunebaa mocemuli, magram misi neba da qmedeba erTia _ RmerTkacuri. am
dogmaturi formulis mizani iyo diofizitebisa da monofizitebis gaer-
Tianeba orive mimdinareobisaTvis garkveuli daTmobiT da bizantiis im-
periisaTvis aRmosavleTis monofizituri provinciebis Semomtkiceba. monoTel-
ituri dogmati Camoyalibda 620-iani wlebis kavkasiaSi herakle keisris,
sergi konstantinopolelisa da kiros fasiselis TaTbirisa da mimoweris
Sedegad. xolo 633 wels gamoaqveyna aleqsandriis patriaqris saydarze
gamosulma kiros fasiselma. monofizitebma monoTelituri unia Tavis gam-
arjvebad miiCnies, xolo qalkedonelebi mas sofron palestinelis meTau-
robiT win aRudgnen. bizantiis samefo karma da eklesiam ukan daixia. 638
wels gamoqveynda `sarwmunoebis gardamocema~, romliTac aikrZala kamaTi
qristes `qmedebaTa~ Sesaxeb, xolo ZalaSi darCa dogmati qristes `erTi
nebis~ Sesaxeb. savaraudoa, rom VII saukuneSi kavkasiis eklesiebis ofi-
cialuri mrwamsi monoTelituri iyo. 680-681 wlebSi VI msoflio saekle-
sio krebam monoTelitoba mwvaleblobad gamoacxada, dawyevla da yvela
monoTelituri Txzuleba dawva~.25
   monoTelitoba kvlav aRadgina imperatorma vardan fili pikma, romelic
erovnebiT somexi iyo, monoTeliti.
   kartaSevi ganagrZobs _ VI krebis dros, `680 wlis 7 noembridan 681
wlis 16 seqtembramde Sesdga sul 18 sxdoma. krebis monawileTa raodeno-
ba izrdeboda da bolos miaRwia 174-s. makari antioqielis dakiTxvis
Semdeg krebaze aRar darCnen monoTelitebi. makaris bedi gadawyda. is
jiutobda, magram gadaayenes. makaris nacvlad antioqielma samRvdeloebam
airCia Teofani.
   makarTan kamaTis Semdeg waikiTxes warsulis werilebi _ sofronis epis-
tole, `Tavebi~ kirisa, sergis werilebi, gonoris pasuxi. sofronis epis-
toles garda yvela gadasces anaTemas. es iyo me-13 sxdomaze _ 28.03.681 w.
   daiwera _ `unda aRixocos eklesiidan saxelebi: sergisa, romelmac pirve-
lad dawera am upatiosno swavlebis Sesaxeb, kir aleqsandrielisa, pirosi-
sa, pavlesi da petre konstantinepolelisa da Teodore faranelisa _
yvelas gadavcemT anaTemas. maTTan erTad papi gonoria...~
   me-14 sxdoma 5 aprils mTlianad mieZRvna msjelobas jer kidev adre
aRmoCenili falsifikatis Sesaxeb V msoflio krebis aqtebSi. saarqivo Ziebam
aCvena, rom V krebis aqtebSi patriarq makaris mwerlis, giorgi beris xeliT
damatebuli iyo falsifikati, aseve sxva falsifikati _ krebam anaTemas gada-
sca Cammateblebi. bolo me-18 krebas daeswro 174 episkoposi.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              651
  konstantine poRonatis Svili, iustiniane II (rinotmiti _ 685-695 da 705-
711 ww.) simkacriT yvelas aWarbebda. misi imperatorobis pirveli periodis
Semdeg taxtze avidnen leonti (695-698) da tiberi (609-705). tiberi Camo-
agdo iustiniane rinotmitma, romelic xersonesSi iyo gadasaxlebuli. xer-
sonesi xalxmravali savaWro forposti iyo bizantiisa, romelic mas akav-
Sirebda sarmatebTan da skviTebTan. xersonesis mcxovrebni iyvnen xelisu-
flebismoyvareni da avtonomiuri mmarTveloba gaaCndaT. bizantia Zalze
afasebda xersoness _ egvi ptis dakargvis Semdeg purs skviTebidan iRebda.
gadasaxlebis dros xersoneselebi iustinianes moepyrnen arastumarTmoyvru-
lad, amitomac taxtis dabrunebis Semdeg iustinianem gadawyvita mkacrad
daesaja xersoneselebi. man 100 aTasi jariskaci dasxa flotze da gagza-
vna TavridaSi brZanebiT, moespoT yvela mcxovrebi xersonesisa. dampyrob-
lebma mTeli maRali fena gaanadgures, bavSvebs ar klavdnen, danarCenebma
Tavs gaqceviT uSveles... iustinianem roca gaigo, rom yvelas ar klavdnen,
moiTxova xersoneseli tyveebi masTan mieyvanaT. qariSxalSi daiRupa 73 aTa-
si tyve. momdevno 711 wels iustinianem xersonesSi gagzavna axali floti
brZanebiT _ moespoT yvela cocxali adamiani da gaenadgurebinaT qalaqi.
floti ajanyda. mas sxva bizantielebic miemxrnen. amoirCies bizantiidan
xersonesSi gadasaxlebuli vardani da gamoacxades imperatorad _ saxeliT
filipike. iustiniane da misi vaJi mokles. somexma imperatorma vardane
filipikem fuZe daudo isavrosTa _ bizantiel imperatorTa dinastias.
  erovnebiT somexma imperatorma fili pike-vardanem uaryo VI msoflio
kreba da trulis kreba. man gamoacxada monoTelitoba. filipike-vardane iyo
aRzrdili stefanesi, romelic iyo mowafe makari antioqielisa, monoTelitTa
burjisa VI krebaze. 712 wels fili pikem moiwvia konstantinopolSi kreba,
romelmac VI msoflio kreba anaTemas gadasca da aRadgina monoTelitoba.
  713 wels filipike Camoagdes. axalma imperatorma anastasi II-m marTlma-
dideblobis mxare daiWira.26

         e. somxuri eklesia monoTelitobis dros
  632 wels ezra kaTalikosis mier ereklesTan dadebuli unia ar iyo
saxalxo, amitomac mudam wyvetili saxisa iyo. berZnebi TviTon iyvnen damna-
Saveni da somxebs aSinebdnen TavianTi monoTelitobiT, _ wers kartaSevi.27
erekle, romelmac 638 wels gamosca Tavisi ektezisi, ar iyo TanxmobaSi
qalkedonis krebasTan. somxeTSi Tavi wamoyo antiqalkedonitTa partiam,
romelic popularuli iyo, xolo ti posis gamocemis (648 w.) Semdeg somxebi
sabolood alaparakdnen, rom sakiTxi qalkedonis Sesaxeb sakamaToa TviT
berZnebTan, rom somxebs ara aqvT mizezi, Secvalon grigoris sarwmunoeba
`levis~ sarwmunoebaze. kaTalikosi iyo nerses III, aRzrdili saberZneTSi
652                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
da qalkedonis momxre, magram is iZulebuli gaxda 648 wels moewvia kreba
dvinSi, man gamosca epistole monofizituri swavlebiT. imperatorma konsta
II-m (641-668 ww.) daarwmuna somxebi, ar daetovebinaT berZnebi. imperatori
jariT Sevida karinSi (somxeTSi), mivida dvinSi nersesTan, daniSna mSvi-
dobis liturgia. wirvis dros nersesma aRiara qalkedonis kreba.
   663 wels somxeTi moeqca arabTa Zalauflebis qveS da daiwyo kvlav
Tavisi gancalkevebuli saeklesio cxovreba, magram unias formalurad kv-
lav ar uaryofda. somxebma yuradReba ar miaqcies trulis krebis im
kanonebs, romelnic sagangebod somxuri Cveulebebis sawinaaRmdegod iyo
mimarTuli. am dadgenilebebs mxedvelobaSi hyavdaT somxeTis marTlma-
didebluri nawili alvaneTis kaTalikosis meTaurobiT, es iyo (700 wels)
nerses-bakuri. is locvebSi moixseniebda berZenTa mefes. amis gamo misma
konkurentma, mTavarma kaTalikosma, isaak (sahak) III egiam (iliam) (713-717)
daabezRa is arabTa winaSe, rogorc arabTa moRalate. xalifam gagzavna jari
da moiTxova, nersess uareyo berZnuli rwmena: sahak-ilia alvaneTSi Cavida
xalifas moTxovniT, nersesis kaTedralur qalaq bardavSi. nersesi ar daemor-
Cila, is Sei pyres, daades borkilebi da borkilebSi gardaicvala.
   maSin Seadgines sagangebo aqti, romelSic uaryofdnen marTlmadideblo-
bas da aRiarebdnen monofizitobas (707 w.), yvelam xeli moawera, xolo
somxuri erTiani monofizituri eklesia aRdga.28

      v. VII msoflio kreba _ xatmebrZoloba. 787 w.
   a. kartaSevi ganagrZobs _ jer kidev 713 wels bizantiis somexi impera-
tori filipike-vardane apirebda gamoeca kanoni xatebis Tayvaniscemis winaaRm-
deg. is ase iyo ganwyobili Tavisi monoTelituri ideologiiTac da Tavisi
adgilobrivi somxur-pavlikianuri (eretikuli) aRzrdiTac, romelic mtrobda
saeklesio kults, magram xatmebrZoloba daiwyo imperator lev isavrosis
(717-741 ww.) dros. igi iyo frigiis samxedro gubernatori (warmoSobiT
sirieli _ semiti). iq aRizarda da mieCvia xatmebrZolobas, romelic
saerTod miRebuli iyo rogorc somxeTSi warmoSobil pavlikianobaSi, ise
frigiul montanistebsa da novatianebSi. 717 wels arabebma alya Semoav-
les konstantinopols. imperia mxolod dedaqalaqisagan Sesdgeboda. erTi
wlis Semdeg, 718 wels arabebma alya moxsnes, dakarges 150 aTasi kaci da
male berZnebs arabebma waarTves somxeTi, kapadokia, biTvinia. levma daama-
rcxa arabebi frigiaSi 740 wels. amas levma miaRwia Zveli armiis reorga-
nizaciiT. Tavisi mmarTvelobis me-10 wels is xatTa winaaRmdeg gamovida _
754 weli. bizantiis TiTqmis yvela episkoposi (ricxviT 338) gamovida
xatebis winaaRmdeg (isavria-siriaSi hyvaoda xatmebrZoluri pavlikianoba
da massalianoba).
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               653
  levi mtrulad iyo ganwyobili papis mimarT... aqamde Zveli `didi sabe-
rZneTi~, e.i. italiis samxreTi (apulia, kalabria, sicilia), sadac cxovrobd-
nen berZnebi da am droisaTvis TavianT berZnul enaze laparakobdnen, da
agreTve mTeli balkaneTis naxevarkunZuli (axaia, epiri, Tesalia, iliria,
makedonia, dakia, mezia, dardania) imperiis Zvel imperatorTa mier dayofis
Sesabamisad, iTvleboda dasavleT romis imperiis provinciebad da amitom
romis patriarqis saeklesio kuTvnilebad, magram iq saeklesio cxovreba,
saeklesio ena, wesi da Cveuleba mimdinareobda ara laTinur, aramed berZnul
enaze (e.i. marTalia, balkaneTis naxevarkunZuli samxreT italiasTan erTad
papis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, magram aq saeklesio ena iyo ara laTinuri,
aramed berZnuli). laTinuri Cveuleba da ena is-is iyo iwyebda berZnuli
enis Seviwroebas italiis samxreTsa da ukidures dasavleTSi (axaiesa da
makedoniaSi). imperatorma levma, papis siZulvilis gamo, krebebis gareSe,
Secvala sapatriarqoTa sazRvrebi romisa da konstantinopolisa. man ZaliT
waarTva iurisdiqcia am vrcel teritoriaze da aseulobiT eparqia da
saepiskoposo dauqvemdebara konstantinopolis arqiepiskoposs (e.i. balka-
neTis naxevarkunZuli sxva teritoriebTan erTad CamoarTva papis iurisdi-
qcias da gadasca konstantinopols), ramac gaaRiziana romi. swored es
gaRizianeba romsa da konstantinopols Soris safuZvlad daedo patriarq
fotis (IX s.) dros eklesiaTa momaval ganxeTqilebas.29 (aRsaniSnavia, rom
bizantiis saxelmwifo ena VII saukunis dasawyisamde iyo ara berZnuli,
aramed laTinuri). berZnuli ena aq saeklesio ena iyo... kartaSevi ase
aRwers bizantiaSi laTinuri saxelmwifo enis Secvlas berZnuli eniT _
imperatori mavriki (582-602) kapadokieli iyo da cudad esmoda laTinuri
ena. man sabolood oficialur saxelmwifo enad SemoiRo berZnuli ena
laTinuri enis nacvlad (e.i. ukve dawyebuli procesi sabolood daasrula).
`es detali asimbolizirebda aRmosavleT romis imperiis (bizantiis) wasv-
las dasavleT romis imperiis batonobisagan~.30
  imperator levis politikis gamgrZelebeli iyo misi Svili konstantine
V (741-775), romelmac xatmebrZoloba devnamde miiyvana. mas uwodebdnen
`kopronims~ (nexvians). qarTulad ki, rogorc es matianedan Cans, `skore~
erqva (amJamadac `skore~ _ frinvelis ganavals qvia). mas aujanyda misi dis
qmari, somexi ardavazdi (romelic mxedarTmTavari iyo somxeTSi arabTa
winaaRmdeg). ardavazdi Cavida konstantinopolSi, xelSi aiRo xelisufleba
da gamoacxada xatTayvaniscema. erTi wlis Semdeg imperatorma konstantinem
xelisufleba daibruna. 754 wels Catarda xatmebrZolTa kreba. daiwyo
eklesiebidan xatebis gamotana. xatTayvanismcemeli berebi midiodnen emigra-
ciaSi _ Savi zRvis Crdilo sanapiroze, yirimSi, xersonesSi, arabTa mier
dapyrobil antioqiasa da aleqsandriis sapatriarqoebSi, sadac ar iyo devna.
ber-monazvnoba gamocxadda danaSaulad, maT awamebdnen da klavdnen.
654                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  garda konstantinopolisa, sxva sapatriarqoebSi, romelnic im dros imperi-
is gareT mdebareobdnen, srulebiT wynarad uyurebdnen bizantiur kamaTs.
  irines mefobisas (Tavis Svil konstantine VI-sTan erTad (780-790) xat-
Tayvaniscema aRsdga. berebi ukan brundebodnen, magram es politika frTx-
ilad tardeboda.
  VII msoflio kreba (787 w.) Catarda nikeaSi, romelic axlos iyo
dedaqalaqTan _ irinesa da konstantines dros. Catarda 8 sxdoma. I nik-
eaSi 24.09. bolo 787 wels 24.10. konstantinopolSi. mas eswreboda 350-368
wevri. xatTayvaniscema aRsdga. dadginda: `safuZveli xatTayvaniscemisa _
esaa eklesiis gadmocema; ukamaTo saxe (nimuSi) _ jvris Tayvaniscema...~
  788 wels irinem gadawyvita ganeSorebina 18 wlis konstantine sacolis-
agan da misTvis misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod SeerTo somexi maria. konstan-
tines simkacrem SeTqmulTa mimarT TviT somxeTSi ajanyeba gamoiwvia (793).
konstantine gaSorda somex marias.
  irine 797-802 ww-Si erTmmarTveli gaxda. misi Camogdebis Semdeg 802
wlidan 860 wlamde basili I makedonelis (860) gamefebamde saimperatoro
taxtze avida ori arabi, erTi arabcoliani berZeni, erTi somexi da sami
frigieli; maTTvis xatebis Tayvaniscema ucxo iyo. xatTayvaniscema ufro
`elinur~ dasavleTis provinciebSi (sicilia, samxreT italia, aqaia-aTenSi)
iyo gavrcelebuli. jari, ZiriTadad, somxuri provinciebidan iyo da somxur
provinciebSi daqiravebuli jariskacebisagan Sedgeboda, romlebic xatTay-
vaniscemas kerpTayvanismcemlobasTan aigivebdnen.
  imperatorebis nikoforesa (802-811) da mixail I rangaves (811-813) (romelic
yofili ministri _ kurapalati iyo sasaxleSi), Semdeg imperatori gaxda
lev V somexi (813-820) _ xatmebrZoli. 815 wels Catarda meore xatme-
brZoluri kreba. am krebam Zala daubruna 754 wlis xatmebrZolur krebas,
xolo 787 wels xatTayvanismcemluri kreba Zaladakargulad gamocxadda.
  imperatori mixeil II travli (820-829) pavlikiani iyo, romelsac ewode-
boda aTigani. zogierTi bizantisti aigivebs maT `cignebTan~. is religiuri
sindisis damcveli iyo, amitomac xatTayvanismcemlebs ar devnida. 822-823
ww. ajanyda Toma slavi, man miimxro spars-somex-qarTvel-kavkasielebi.
  imperatori Teofile (829-842) xatmebrZoli iyo. man SeirTo naxevrads-
omexi Teodora. qmris sikvdilis Semdeg Teodora gamefda. mas hyavda Ze _
38 wlis mixail III. saxelmwifos marTavda mcire jgufi somxebisa _ Teodo-
ras naTesavebi. mmarTvelebi erovnebiT somxebi logoTeti Teokrite, barda,
Teodoras Zma da magistrosi manuili _ gvardiuli korpusis meTauri _
Teodoras biZa. saxelmwifoSi iseTi atmosfero iyo, rom yvela regentma
gadawyvita aRedginaT xatebis Tayvaniscema da SeewyvitaT devna. gadasaxlebu-
lebi gaaTavisufles. 843 wlis 11 marts, didmarxvis pirvel kviras erisa
da samRvdeloebis saerTo wirvaze aRsdga xatebis Tayvaniscema Teodorasa
da misi regentebis mier. es aris saeklesio dResaswaulis _ `marTlmadi-
deblobis zeimis~ dRe.31
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             655

        z. somxuri eklesia VIII-X saukuneebSi
  707 wels xalifas gulis mosagebad somxurma eklesiam kavSiri gawyvita
(formalurad) berZnul eklesiasTan da gaagrZela Tavisi erovnul-monofiz-
ituri cxovreba. kaTalikosma ioane oZunelma (717-729) moiwvia kreba siri-
el iakobitebTan erTad manaskertSi da anaTemas gadasca eretikosebi (e.i
marTlmadideblebi), aikrZala berZnuli Cvevebis darCenili saeklesio naS-
Tebi, aikrZala afuebuli puri(!), aikrZala Sobis dResaswauli 25 dekembers,
gancalkevebiT gancxadebisagan (6 ianvrisagan) aikrZala didmarxvis yvela
dReebSi Tevzis, Rvinisa da zeTis gamoyeneba. male somxuri eklesia mivida
Tavis xatmebrZolobamde. xatebi im dros somxebs ar hqondaT, magram Tay-
vans scemdnen jvrebsa da nawilebs. xatebs eklesiebSi dekoraciuli mizniT
kidebdnen, amitomac eklesiebs TiTqmis ar xatavdnen. moxatavdnen xolme
arabeskebiTa da CitebiT, xanac srulebiT ar xatavdnen. roca X saukunis
bolos kaTalikosma vaganma gamoiCina siyvaruli berZnuli ikonostasebis
mimarT, is taxtidan Camoagdes.32
  zemoT moyvanilidan naTlad Cans, rom V-X saukuneebSi somxuri eklesia
iyo mZlavri organizacia, romelic Tavisi gavlenis sferoSi moicavda
istoriuli somxeTis gareT myof teritoriebsac (alvaneTs VII-X saukuneeb-
Si, taosa da samxreT saqarTvelos VI-VII saukuneebSi da qvemo qarTls IX-
X saukuneebSi). TviT somxur eklesias angariSs uwevdnen bizantiis imperi-
aSi. saimperatoro karze didi gavlena hqondaT somxebs. sparseTis Sahebi-
saTvis somxuri eklesia srulebiT misaRebi iyo da pativcemuli. arabebic
aseve aZlierebdnen somxur eklesias, amitomac amgvar situaciaSi gac-
ilebiT ufro SesaZlebeli iyo qarTvelebs mieRoT imperiebis mier pa-
tivcemuli somxuri sarwmunoeba da gadaqceuliyvnen somxuri eklesiis
samwysod, vidre is, rom somxebs mieRoT qalkedonitoba da amis gamo isini
`gaqarTvelebuliyvnen~. miT umetes, rom TviT somxur eklesiaSi qalkedoni-
turi frTa Zlieri iyo IX-X saukuneebSic ki.

            somxuri eklesiis pretenziebi qarTuli
                   eklesiis dauflebisaTvis
  somxuri eklesia sparsTa da arabTa imperiebma usazRvrod ganadides,33
gaaZlieres, somxebs daumorCiles sxva arasomexi xalxebi, sxva qristianu-
li eklesiebi, kerZod, istorikos sebeosis Tanaxmad, sparselebma VII sauku-
nis 10-ian wlebSi somxur eklesias daumorCiles sxva arasomexi qristian-
uli eklesiebi imiT, rom sparseTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi qristianebi aiZu-
les mieRoT `somxuri sarwmunoeba~, amasve aRniSnavs mose kalankatuelic,
arabTa xalifam somxebs ierarqiulad dauqvemdebara albaneTis eklesia,
656                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
riTac am eklesiis avtokefalia gauqmda. amis Semdeg srulebiT moispo
albanTa eklesiis nacionaluri saxe da is gasomxda. am eklesiis gasomxeba,
kerZod, imiT gamoixata, rom xmarebidan ganidevna albanuri damwerloba,
romlis adgili aq daiWira somxurma anbanma (anu, rac igivea, mesrop maSto-
cis anbanma). aq dainerga somxuri wirva-locvis wesi da alvanTa eklesia
daemorCila `wmida grigoris taxts~, anu dvinis sakaTalikosos somxeTSi.
sruli ufleba gvaqvs, imdroindeli saerTaSoriso situaciidan gamomdinare,
vifiqroT, rom am dros (VI-VII ss.) dampyrobelma imperiebma (sparselebisa
da arabebisam) saqarTvelos im miwa-wyalzec gaavrcela somxuri eklesiis
gavlena, romelic somxeTis mezoblad mdebareobda.
   cnobilia, rom berZnul-bizantiuri da somxuri eklesiebi erTmaneTs Seu-
kavSirdnen erekle keisris dros, ufro metic, somxuri eklesiis erTi naw-
ili saerTod SeuerTda berZnul eklesias. kerZod, somxeTis is nawili,
romelic bizantiiis imperiis sazRvrebSi arsebobda. berZnul-somxuri ek-
lesiebis erToba gagrZelebula 85 wels, vidre VIII saukunis dasawyisamde,
rogorc a. kartaSevi wers: _ `somxuri eklesiis nawilis SeerTeba berZnebTan
(sarwmunoebrivad) moxda kaTalikos ezras erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebiT.
ezra Tavis banakSi gamoiZaxa imperatorma iraklim. aq ezra eziara da
swira, aqve somexTa kaTalikosma gadawyvita SeerTeboda berZnul ierarqias.
ezra cxovrobda somxeTis berZnul nawilSi da ebrZoda mis mowinaaRmdege
kaTalikos qristefores. iraklis mier rwmenis aRmsarebloba mowodebuli
iyo somxebisaTvis misaRebi saxiT.
   maSasadame, VII saukunis dasawyisamde berZnul somxeTSi SeiZleba iTqvas,
arsebobda marTlmadidebluri qalkedonuri eklesia. ziarebisas gamoiyene-
boda afuebuli puri da wyalgareuli Rvino (rogorc qarTul eklesiaSi).
cnobilia, rom tao (da mesxeTis zogierTi nawili) politikuri Tval-
sazrisiT VII saukuneSi somxeTis SemadgenlobaSia. taos (da mesxeTis sxva
nawilebs) miiCneven bizantiur somxeTSi Semaval teritoriad, amitomac
taos da mesxeTis zogierT nawilSi bizantiur-somxuri eklesiebis `erTo-
bis~ dros batonobda marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba, oRond aq eklesieb-
Si wirva-locvis dros gamoiyeneboda somxuri ena. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ara
marto berZnul somxeTSi, aramed saerTod somxeTSi, somexTa kaTalikos
eliamde ase Tu ise qalkedonuri sarwmunoeba arsebobda.
   somxeTSi 663 wlis Semdeg arabTa Zalaufleba damyarda. somxebma ar
uaryves `unia~ berZnebTan. magram imis Semdeg, rac arabTa xelisuflebasTan
somexma samRvdeloebam daamyara megobruli urTierToba, xolo 681 wels VI
msoflio krebam dagmo monoTelitoba, somxeTma TandaTanobiT gawyvita saek-
lesio urTierToba bizantiasTan, arabTa xelisuflebac amis msurveli iyo.
   arabebTan axlo urTierToba daamyares somexTa kaTalikosebma sahak III
Zoraforecma (677-703); ilia (elia) I-ma (703-717); hovhanes oZnecma (717-728).
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             657
swored maT dros somxurma eklesiam uaryo erToba berZnul eklesiasTan
da sabolood daubrunda monofizitobas.
  kaTalikos sahak III-s arabTa sardali Sehpirebia `...Sevasruleb da gava-
keTeb yovelives, rasac werilSi iTxov Cemgan da dae, Seni RvTisnieri
locva-kurTxeva aRsruldes Cems mimarT~. sahak kaTalikosis Tanmxlebma
pirebma arabi sardlis `werilobiTi fici wamoiRes da dabrundnen somexTa
qveyanaSi~. somxebma irwmunes es fici da `amis Semdeg monuri morCilebiT
emsaxurebodnen ismaitelebs~, _ wers istorikosi Revondi.34
  cnobilia, arabTa mxardaWeriT Tu rogor sastikad dasaja somexTa kaTa-
likosma eliam albaneTis avtokefaluri eklesia da misi kaTalikosi bizan-
tiuri orientaciis gamo.
  elias Semdgomi kaTalikosi hovhanesic arabTaTvis sasurveli kacia.
TviT arabTa xalifam masTan xelSekruleba dado. arabebma somxuri eklesi-
is saxiT dasayrdeni SeiZines somxeTsa da dapyrobil amierkavkasiaSi. ara-
bebs iseTi kargi urTierToba hqondaT somex samRvdeloebasTan, rom leg-
endac ki Seqmnila, TiTqosda TviT winaswarmetyvel muhameds daudevs xe-
lSekruleba somxebTan.
  `hovhanesi Turme imdeni uqiaT xalifa omar II-saTvis (717-720), rom mas
saocrad mondomebia exila es sakvirveli pirovneba da TavisTan miewvia
kidec... kaTalikosma sTxova xalifas, rom somexTaTvis rwmenis Tavisufleba
mieniWebina da gadasaxadi ar moeTxova somxuri eklesiisaTvis. xalifam
daakmayofila hovhanesis Txovna, riTac arabTa xelisufleba dasayrdens
iZenda somxeTSi... somexTa Soris bolo xanebamde SemorCenilia gadmoceme-
bi arabTa mfarvelobiT hovhanes oZnecis brZolis Taobaze qalkedoniano-
bisa da bizantiis winaaRmdeg... erTi somxuri Tqmulebis mixedviT, viTomc
TviT islamis fuZemdebels, winaswarmetyvel muhameds daudvia xelSekruleba
somxebTan, romliTac rwmenis Tavisufleba miuniWebia maTTvis, amasTanave
mRvdlebi, aznaurebi da mxedrebic gauTavisuflebia gadasaxadebisagan. ar-
abebTan zavis dasamyareblad wasul somexTa zemoxsenebul kaTalikos sa-
hak III-s, TiTqos xelT hqonda aRniSnuli xelSekruleba~.35
  arabebi gansakuTrebiT devnidnen qarTvel mefeTa samefo saxls. dasces
igi, xolo amave dros somxeTSi mefoba aRadgines. `matiane qarTlisaAs~
Tanaxmad, romelic cnobilia, rogorc umetes SemTxvevaSi sinamdvilis sima-
rTliT aRmweri Txzuleba, arabebi devnidnen xosroian-gorgaslianTa qarTul
samefo saxls. _ `xolo amieriTgan iwyo Semcirebad mefobaman didTa mefe-
Ta xuasroanTman. pirvelad, ufleba sarkinozTa gandidna da mierTagan
mieca yoveli ese qveyana JamiTi-Jamad rbevasa da oxrebasa. meored iqna
simravle mTavarTa qveyanasa qarTlisasa da Seeria brZola, iqmnes mter
urTierTs da ukeTu vinme gamoCndis SvilTa Soris vaxtangisTa, romelimca
Rirs iyo mefed, iqmnis Semcirebul sarkinozTagan. rameTu dai pyres qalaqi
658                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
tfilisi agarianTa, Seqmnes saxlad sayofelad Tvisad, miiRebdes xarksa
qveyanasa amisgan, romelsa hqvian xaraja, rameTu gangebiTa RmrTisaTa sim-
ravlisaTvis codvaTa CvenTasa gandidna naTesavi agarianTa~.36
  qarTveli mefeebis gandevnisa da samefo saxlis ganadgurebis Semdeg
arabebma somexi mefe aSot I cnes qarTvelTa mefedac. aSot I da misi
memkvidreebi wyaroebSi ixsenieba rogorc `somexTa da qarTvelTa mefeebad~.
aSot erkaTi somexTa da qarTvelTa SahinSahis tituliTac ixsenieba.
  somexi mefeebi, romelnic arabebma `qarTvelTa mefeebadac~ gamoacxades,
ar cnes kaxeTis, dasavleT saqarTvelos da tao-klarjeTis qarTvelebma. am
somex mefeebs xeli miuwvdebodaT mxolod Sida da qvemo qarTlze IX-X
saukuneebSi, XI saukunis dasawyisSic. xolo qvemo qarTlSic saerTod Seiqmna
somxuri, e.w. kvirikinTa samefo.
  saqarTvelos centrSi qvemo da Sida qarTlSi somxurma eklesiam gavle-
na moi pova, gansakuTrebiT qvemo qarTlSi. swored saqarTvelos gulSi
qarTuli eklesiis gavlenis Sesustebis dros, qarTvelebma igrZnes, rom
qarTveli xalxis gamaerTianebeli Zala iyo qarTuli eklesia. amitomac
qarTvelebi tao-klarjeTSi, dasavleT saqarTvelosa da hereTSi mWidrod
erTiandebian qarTuli eklesiis irgvliv. taosa da mimdebare provinciebis
qarTveloba VIII saukunis Semdeg, dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTveloba VIII-
X saukuneebSi da hereTis qarTveloba X saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis
erTguli mrevli xdeba. amave dros ki swored saqarTvelos gulSi, Sida da
qvemo qarTlSi, xeli naklebad miuwvdeba qarTul eklesias, aq somxuri
eklesiis (gansakuTrebiT qvemo qarTlSi) gavlena vrceldeba arabTa xe-
lSewyobiT.
  `bizantiis sazRvarze, e.w. sasazRvro zonaSi, saxelmwifos yuradReba up-
irvelesad sam qveyanazea mi pyrobili. esenia: asureTi, ufro sworad, misi
Crdilo nawili, zemo SuamdinareTi (jazira) da somxeTi _ amis gamo saxal-
ifo xelisufleba yoveli RoniT cdilobda somxeTSi Tavisi Zalauflebis
ganmtkicebas. somxeTis eklesiisa Tu saero zedafenis erTi nawilis saxiT
SedarebiT saimedo dasayrdeni gaiCina. amgvari viTarebis Sedegia, rom
somexi bagratunebi xSirad saxalifos keTilganwyobilebiT sargeblobdnen
da maTi Zalauflebac TandaTan mtkicdeboda somxeTSi... swored amgvar
pirobebSi moxda, rom saxalifos nebiTa Tu TanxmobiT somxeTis mTavari
aSot I jer 862 wels somxeTis mTavarTa-mTavari gaxda, xolo 884/85 wels
aRdgenil iqna V s-is pirvel mesamedSi (428 w.) gauqmebuli, dacemuli
somxeTis samefo. saxalifos nebarTviT aRdgenili somxeTis samefos taxtze
igive aSot I aiyvanes... xalifebi somex xelisufalTa gamoyenebiT, maTi
meSveobiTac apirebdnen somxeTSi arsebul, centraluri xelisuflebisagan
gandgomis mosurne arabuli saamiroebis daqvemdebarebas. vfiqrobT, swored
ase unda gavigoT is faqti, rom aSot I-is xelisuflebas saxalifos nebiT
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              659
unda damorCilebodnen istoriuli somxeTis teritoriaze mdebare arabu-
li saamiroebic... aseT viTarebaSi savsebiT mosalodnelia, saxalifo kars
somexTa xelisufali aSot I qarTlis mTavradac ecno. marTlac, rogorc
zemoT aRvniSneT, aSot I SedarebiT mogviano xanis somxur wyaroebSi ixse-
nieba ara marto somexTa, aramed `somexTa da qarTvelTa mTavarTa-mTavrad~.
aseve aSot I da misi memkvidreebi somxur wyaroebSive `somexTa da qarTvelTa
mefeebad~ iwodebian. dReisaTvis araerTi mkvlevaria im azrisa, rom `somex-
Ta da qarTvelTa mTavarTa mTavris~ tituli aSot I-s swored xalifam
uwyaloba. aseve, 922 wels xalifas unda eboZebina somexTa mefe aSot
erkaTisTvis ara marto somexTa, aramed `somexTa da qarTvelTa SahinSahis~
tituli... rac 862 wels aSot I-s saxalifom `mTavarTa mTavris~ tituli
uboZa, misTvis qarTlze meTvalyureobac unda miendo... radgan xalifebma
somex xelisufalTa gamoyenebac scades somxeTis orguli amirebis dasaqvem-
debareblad, bunebrivia, Tbilisis saamirosa da sazogadod `mourjulebel~
qarTlze aSot I-isTvis daekisrebinaT Tvalyuris devneba... arc aSot I-s da
mis memkvidreebs ar SeswevdaT Zala mTeli qarTlis dasamorCileblad,
Tumca, am mimarTulebiT maT erTgvar warmatebas mainc miaRwies. somexma
mefeebma SesZles esargeblaT qarTvel xelisufalTa Soris arsebuli winaaRm-
degobiT, kerZod, guram mamfalis saxlis ganadgurebiT, agreTve Tbilisis
amirebis sisustiT da TandaTan qvemo qarTlis mniSvnelovani nawili
daisakuTres. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom arabTa batonobis Sesustebis Jams
somxeTi TiTqmis erTian qveyanas, erTian saxelmwifos warmoadgenda~.37
  Tu Tbilisis saamiro da qvemo qarTli somex mefeebs daemorCila, maT
qarTlis umetes nawilzec (igulisxmeba Sida qarTli) gavlena eqnebodaT.
Cans, am mizeziTac iyo gamowveuli is, rom kaxeTis, egris-afxazeTis Tu tao-
klarjeTis konsolidaciisa da am kuTxeebSi centralizebuli qarTuli sax-
elmwifoebrivi erTeulebis gaCenis Semdeg Sida qarTli kvlav daSlil-
dayofili iyo ramdenime sagvareulos Soris, xolo qvemo qarTlSi saerTod
qarTul-erovnuli mmarTvelobiTi institutis nacvlad somxur-qarTuli samefo
warmoiqmna (qarTuli imdenad, ramdenadac am kuTxis mosaxleoba eTnikurad
qarTvelebs warmoadgenda, grigorianuli sarwmunoebis mqones anu `somxebs~).
  somxeTis samefos aRdgenis Semdeg somex mefeTa mTel samflobeloSi
vrceldeba `somxuri sarwmunoeba~. aRsaniSnavia, rom TviT arabi mmarTvelebic
ki xels uwyobdnen somxuri sarwmunoebis gavrcelebas. im mizezis gamo, rom
qvemo qarTli somexi mefeebis xelqveiT moeqca, aq intensiurad vrceldeba
grigorianoba. somex istorikos drasxanakertcs daculi hqonda cnoba, rom-
lis Tanaxmadac, erTi arabi rjulismoZRvari amxelda, Turme arab mmarTv-
els somxuri sarwmunoebis gavrcelebis xelSewyobis saqmeSi. erTi mahmadi-
ani rjulis moZRvari Turme ase mimarTavda arab mmarTvels: ganZis guli-
saTvis somex qristianTa `moZRvrebis gavrcelebas ratom uwyob xels?~38
660                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
    somex mefeebs, romelTac `somexTa da qarTvelTa SahinSahis~ tituli
hqondaT arabTagan miRebuli, albaT, xeli unda SeewyoT maTi gavlenis
sferoSi moqceuli mezobeli qveynebis, maT Soris, Sida da qvemo qarTlSi
`somxuri sarwmunoebis~ gavrcelebisa da qalkedonuri, anu `qarTuli sar-
wmunoebis~ devnisaTvis.
    `naTelia, rom somexi mefe-mTavrebi Tu somxuri eklesiis mesveurebi
qrTamiT bevr rames aRwevdnen arabTa xelisuflebasTan. am saSualebiT
`somxuri qristianobis~ (grigorianobis) gavrcelebasac ki axerxebdnen me-
zobel mxareebSi. vfiqrobT, SesaZlebelia vivaraudoT, rom aSot I-ma da
misma memkvidreebma _ sumbat I-ma da aSot II erkaTma aramarto somexTa,
aramed `somexTa da qarTvelTa mTavarTa mTavrisa~ Tu mefis, anda SahinSa-
his titulebi rom miiRes arabTagan, aSot I-s arabebma rom miandes meTvaly-
ureoba qarTlzec, xsenebul somex xelisufalT am saqmeSic unda daxmare-
bodaT qrTami, Zvirfasi saCuqrebi, saxalifos karis moqrTamva, mosyidva.
sxvaTa Soris, aSot I-s 862 wels `mTavarTa mTavris~ tituli somxeTis
arabi mmarTvelis, warmoSobiT somexi ali ibn iahia al-armanis xalifas
winaSe SuamdgomlobiT mieniWa... imis gamo, rom bagratunebi mTel kavkasiaSi
gabatonebaze ocnebobdnen, isini am mimarTulebiT pirvel rigSi qarTlis
daqvemdebarebaze fiqrobdnen, rameTu qarTli ara marto saqarTvelos guls,
aramed mTeli kavkasiis bunebriv centrsac warmoadgenda... sakuTriv qarTlSi
Zlieri qarTuli politikuri erTeuli arc IX saukunis dasasrulisaTvis
da arc momdevno xanebSi ar arsebobda, calkeuli qarTuli samefo-samTavroe-
bic erTmaneTs ebrZodnen pirvelobisaTvis da TiTqmis erTiani somxeTis
mefeebma, somexma bagratunebma, rogorc ukve iTqva, moaxerxes droebiT es-
argeblaT amiT, IX-X saukuneTa mijnaze somexTa mefe pretenzias rom acxa-
debda TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloze, saxeldobr, qarTlsa da darialzec, amis
Sesaxeb araerTi cnoba moi poveba drasxanakertcis `somxeTis istoriaSi~...
`...am dros egrisis mefem konstantinem... Sekriba jari da gaemarTa... raTa
gugarTa qveyana da alanTa karis axlos mcxovrebi mosaxleoba erTxelve
Tavis xelqveiT daemorCilebina, radgan es xalxi sumbat mefes hyavda damor-
Cilebuli da xelqveiTad qceuli~...39
    drasxanakertci gugars uwodebs mTel qarTls.40 misi azriT, somxeTs
emezoblebian Semdegi xalxebi _ berZnebi, egriselebi, gugarelebi da utiele-
bi.41 utielebi alvanelebi iyvnen, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebs (Sida
da qvemo qarTlis mosaxleobas) ki gugarelebs uwodebs.
    gugarTa qveyana, misi azriT, somxeTis mefes emorCileba. gugarelebi, (anu
mTeli aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, qarTvelebi) somexi mefis xe-
lqveiTia, maTze araviTari ufleba ara aqvs egris-afxazeTis mefes _ ase
fiqrobs es istorikosi, romelic somxuri eklesiis meTauri _ kaTalikosi iyo.
    somexTa am kaTalikoss, cxadia, miaCnia, rom mas, iseve rogorc somexTa
mefes, sruli ufleba aqvs mTel aRmosavleT saqarTveloze. Cans, es qveyana
Tavis samwysod miaCnda.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             661
  swored aseTi Tvalsazrisi edo safuZvlad somxur eklesias, roca is
qarTuli eklesiis daqvemdebarebaze pretenzias acxadebda.
  `sazogadod, somxuri eklesiis didi pretenziebi mecnierebisaTvis kar-
gadaa cnobili. marTalia, somxuri eklesiis mesveurTa miswrafebebs, ierar-
qiulad somxurisadmi daeqvemdebarebinaT qarTuli eklesiac, praqtikulad
TiTqmis araviTari Sedegi ar mohyolia, magram Sexla-Semoxla saukuneebis
manZilze grZeldeboda. drodadro qarTul-somxuri eklesiebis urTierTo-
ba metismetad, ukiduresobamde mwvavdeboda. qarTlis mimarT somxuri ek-
lesiis pretenziebis `dasasabuTeblad~ somxur garemoSi araerTi legenda
warmoiqmna.
  somxuri eklesia qarTuli eklesiis daqvemdebarebaze pretenzias ste-
fane mtbevaris xanaSic acxadebda, maSin, rodesac qarTuli eklesia aSkar-
ad aRmavlobis, gaZlierebis gzaze idga.42 _ `somxuri eklesiis didi pre-
tenziebi adridanve dasturdeba mas Semdeg, rac VII saukunis damdegs
qarTul-somxur eklesiebs Soris ganxeTqileba moxda, qarTuli eklesia
TandaTan mWidrod daukavSirda bizantias, berZnul eklesias, xolo somx-
uri eklesia kvlavindeburad da kidev ufro mkveTrad dapirispirebuli
aRmoCnda bizantiis eklesiasTan. sasanidTa iranis msgavsad, arabTa xelisu-
flebam ganizraxa esargebla amiT da somxuri eklesia Tavis Tanamdgomad
eqcia bizantiis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi~.43
  a. abdalaZe wers: _ `sxvaTa Soris, IX saukunesa da X saukunis naxevar-
Sic ki SeimCneva somxuri eklesiis erTgvari pretenzia ara marto mTels
amierkavkasiaze, aramed Crdilo kavkasiazec~.44
  Sida da qvemo qarTlisaTvis brZolisas, qarTvel xelisufalTa da somex
mefeTa Soris, cxadia, qarTuli eklesia qarTvel xelisufalTa mxares iyo,
radganac somexi mefeebis gabatonebas qarTlSi Sedegad mohyveboda qarTu-
li eklesiis an ganadgureba, anda somxuri eklesiisadmi daqvemdebareba am
kuTxeSi. nawilobriv es asec moxda, qvemo qarTlSi somex mefeTa gabatoneb-
is Semdeg adgilobrivi mkvidri qarTveli mosaxleoba somxuri eklesiis
mrevlad iqca.
  `somex bagratun da lixsiqeTis mefeebs Soris qarTlisaTvis gaCaRebul
brZolaSi qarTvelTa kaTalikosebi, mcxeTis sakaTalikoso taxti, ra Tqma
unda, lixsiqeTis mefeebs dauWerda mxars, xolo somexTa mefeebs, rac ki
SeeZlo, yovelgvari saSualebiT aRudgeboda win, rasac didi mniSvneloba
unda hqonoda brZolis bedis lixsiqeTis mefeebis sasargeblod gadawyveti-
saTvis. sxva rom ara iyos ra, qarTlSi somex bagratunTa SemoWras mohyvebo-
da mTeli kavkasiis mimarT didi pretenziebis mqone somxuri eklesiis
gaZliereba, misi SemoRweva qarTlis olqebSi, rac qarTuli eklesiis Tavka-
cebs aramc da aramc ar endomebodaT. ...somexTa mefeebTan WidilSi qarTuli
eklesia uyoymanod unda damdgariyo lixsiqeTis mefeebis mxareze...45
662                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   SeiZleba gamoiTqvas mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom SesaZloa, IX-X saukune-
Ta periodSi qarTlis (mcxeTis) kaTalikosi ijda ara mcxeTaSi (qalaqSi),
aramed jer guaram mamfalis `samamfloSi~, xolo Semdgom daviT kurapala-
tis `qarTvelTa samefoSi~. SeiZleba sakaTalikoso kari droebiT, gansa-
kuTrebuli viTarebis gamo qalaq mcxeTaSi ar imyofeboda, Tumca ki mainc
kaTalikoss `mcxeTeli mamamTavris~ tituli hqonda, mcxeTas uSualod eme-
zobleboda Tbilisis saamiro. am saamiroze ufleba, rogorc zemoT iyo
naTqvami, miniWebuli hqondaT somexTa mefeebs. saerTod, mTel qarTlze somexi
mefeebi (da eklesia) pretenzias acxadebdnen. aseve, mcxeTis uSualo mezo-
beli hereTic, somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi iyo moqceuli. grigol
xanZTelis cxovrebidan Cans, rom mis dros qarTuli eklesiis kreba, romel-
sac mravali episkoposi eswreboda, Catarda ara mcxeTaSi, aramed javaxeT-
Si. am krebas axali kaTalikosi unda gamoerCia da taxtze daesva, amitomac
mosalodneli iyo am krebis mcxeTaSi, anu sakaTalikoso qalaqSi Catareba,
magram mcxeTel kaTalikoss javaxeTSi irCeven. saqme is unda yofiliyo,
rom IX saukuneSi qarTlis samxreT miwebze arsebobda politikur-adminis-
traciuli erTeuli samamflos saxelwodebiT. samamflo moicavda samcxes,
javaxeTs, TrialeTs, artaans, taSirs da abocs. samamflos damaarsebeli iyo
aSot didi kurapalatis Ze _ guaram mamfali. guaramis sikvdilis Semdeg
(882 w.) samamfloc daiSala da misi erTi nawili gasomxda. swored am
samamfloSi unda yofiliyo gadasuli mcxeTis kaTalikosi arab-somexTa
Tbilisisaken moZalebis Jams guaram mamfalis dros. amas TiTqosda miu-
TiTebs is, rom giorgi merCules mier mocemuli cnobis Tanaxmad, mcxeTis
kaTalikosis arCeva-dadgenaSi swored upiratesad samcxisa da javaxeTis
(anu samamfloSi Semavali provinciebi) eriskacni da samRvdeloni monawi-
leoben. agreTve monawileobda guaram mamfali, romelsac giorgi merCule
did mamfals da did xelmwifes uwodebda. samcxe da TrialeTi samamflos
ZiriTadi olqebi iyo. guaram mamfali gansakuTrebul yuradRebas rom aqcevda
samcxes, iqidanac Cans, rom aq augia cixeebi _ oZrxe, jvaris cixe da
lomsianTa. mcxeTeli kaTalikosis karis droebiT samamfloSi yofnas Sei-
Zleba miuTiTebdes is, rom `samcxis ers~ da samcxel xelisufal mirians
Zala SeswevT daadginon axali kaTalikosi. giorgi merCule wers... `aramed
qarTlisa episkoposni mirvani arsenis mamisaTvis friad gulwyebul iyvnes
amis mizezisaTvis, rameTu Tvinier ganzraxvisa maTsa mZlavr samcxisa eri-
Ta ZeA Tvisi daadgina kaTalikosad TandgomiTa da kurTxeviTa mciredTa
episkoposTaATa~.46
   guaram mamfals ki surda, samcxisve episkoposi efrem mawyvereli daedg-
ina kaTalikosad. orive sakaTalikoso kandidati efremica da arsenic, sam-
cxelebi arian. `didi efrem uwinares mravliT wliT arsenisa iqna episko-
pos awyurisa saydarsa `samcxes~,47 magram `samcxis eris mZlavrobiT sakaTal-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 663
ikoso taxtze ukve auyvaniaT arseni, arsenis mamis, mirvan samcxeli xel-
isuflis survilis Tanaxmad. guaram mamfals surda gadaeyenebina sakaTa-
likoso taxtidan arseni da mis magier efremi daedgina. am mizezis gamo, is
unda cdiliyo saeklesio kreba (romelsac ufleba hqonda amgvari moqmede-
bisa) Caetarebina rac SeiZleba samcxedan Sors, raTa `samcxis ers~ ar
hqonoda krebaze zemoqmedebis saSualeba. marTlac, krebas iwveven javaxeT-
Si. ratom ar iwveven krebas mcxeTaSi an sxvagan? Cans, swored imis gamo,
rom samamflo aris is politikuri olqi, sadac Tavisufalad moqmedebs
qarTuli eklesia. Cans, mcxeTaSi, Sida qarTlsa da sxva kuTxeebSi arab-
somexTa mZlavrobis gamo qarTuli eklesia Tavisuflad ver moqmedebs.
cnobilia, rom VIII saukunis Sua wlebSi mcxeTa ise iyo dangreuli, rom iq
arCil mefe ver dajda egrisidan dabrunebis Semdeg. _ `xolo garyvnili
iyo sayofelad mcxeTa. gardamovida arCil egrisiT da dajda nacixarsa
xidrisasa~.48 mcxeTaze ukeTesi samyofeli xidris nacixari yofila, sadac
arCili dajda, magram, Cans, aqac yofna SeuZlebeli iyo da is kaxeTSi
gadavida, Tumca mainc awames. SeiZleba imis Semdeg, rac qarTlis erismTavrebma
(bagrationebma) datoves Sida qarTli da miaSures samxreT saqarTvelos,
kaTalikosis taxtic droebiT maT gahyva. albaT amitomacaa, rom guaram
mamfali Tavis qveyanaSi iwvevs saeklesio krebas `da swrafad brZana
Sekreba episkoposTa da udabnoAsa mamaTa. da yovelni Semokrebs javax-
eTs...~ (aRsaniSnavia, rom klarjeTSi am dros saeklesio mSenebloba mim-
dinareobda, romelic dasrulebuli ar iyo. mcxeTaSi mogvianebiT patriarq
melqisedeks aRudgenia taZari da qalaqi (X saukunis bolos da XI sauku-
nis dasawyisSi).49 es imas ar niSnavs, rom qarTul eklesias aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi realuri Zalaufleba ar hqonda, magram radganac es mxare
am dros iyo Zalze xSiri omebis asparezi arab-somexTa da qarTvelTa
(afxaz, tao-klarjel da kaxel mflobelTa) Soris. amitomac SeiZleba
sakaTalikoso kari samamfloSi iyo, xolo samamflos daSlis Semdeg kaTa-
likosi SeiZleba tao-klarjeTSi daviT kurapalatis karze imyofeboda.
iahia antioqieli wers: daviT kurapalatma elCad berZenTa imperatorTan
kaTalikosi gaagzavnao.
   Cven zemoT moyvaniliT mxolod imis Tqma gvsurda, rom qarTuli eklesi-
is centri ise dasustebuli iyo arab-somexTa Sida da qvemo qarTlze
batonobisas, rom mas araviTari Zala ar Seswevda qarTuli qristianoba
gaevrcelebina hereTSi, dasavleT saqarTvelosa da taoSi da es mxareebi
qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi moeqcia. magram radganac centris amg-
vari krizisuli yofis drosac ki qarTuli qristianoba mainc gaZlierda
hereTSi, dasavleT saqarTvelosa da taoSi, gviCvenebs, rom am provinciebSi
qarTulma eklesiam gaimarjva ara garedan Zaldataneba-iZulebis Sedegad,
aramed Sinagani moTxovnilebis ZaliT. magaliTad, qarTuli eklesiis cen-
trs Zala ar Seswevda hereTis vrceli mxare moeqcia qalkedonitobaze,
664                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
magram radganac hereTi gaqalkedonitda, miuTiTebs, rom es procesi aq iyo
Sinagani moTxovnis Sedegi (e.i. qarTvel xalxTan, qarTul eklesiasTan dab-
runebis moTxovna) da ara garedan Zaldatanebisa. aseve iTqmis taosa da
dasavleT saqarTvelozec. hereTSi, taosa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTul-
ma eklesiam gaimarjva am kuTxeebis adgilobrivi qarTuli mosaxleobis
TviTSegnebisa da TviTSemecnebis gazrdis Sedegad. hereTma da taom uaryves
somxeTis eklesia da daubrundnen deda eklesias (romelic am dros dasus-
tebuli iyo), xolo dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebma uaryves berZnuli
eklesia da daubrundnen qarTul eklesias.
  qarTuli eklesia amiT gaZlierda da is gaZlierda periferiebis dab-
runebis Semdeg. cxadia, hereTisa da taos dakargvam VII-X saukuneebSi
gaaRiziana somxuri eklesia, xolo berZnuli eklesia gaaRiziana dasavleT
saqarTvelos dakargvam (VIII-X saukuneebSi), aman TiTqosda SeakavSira bi-
zantiel-somexi ierarqebi qarTuli eklesiis sawinaaRmdegod. konstanti-
nopolis patriarqs nikoloz mistikoss (901-907, 911-925) werili miuweria
somexTa kaTalikos-patriarqisaTvis:
  `...Seni RvTismoyvareobisaTvis vgoneb ar aris gaugebari Cveni gulis
didi wuxili da daunelebeli tkivili somexTa, qarTvelTa da alvanelTa
Sendami rwmunebuli erToblivi samwysosaTvis mware Wiris gamo, romelic
Tavs dagatydaT ismaitel moZaladeTgan. ...aw Tu Tqveni uwmidesoba marTebu-
lad miiCnevs, upirvelesad yovlisa saWiroa... RmerTis mimarT vedreba somexTa,
qarTvelTa da alvanelTa Seni sawymsosaTvis... werili gamougzavneT mag
kurapalatsac (qarTvelTa mefe `adarnases~) da afxazTa meTaursac da
vurCevdiT, rom maT esminaT Tqveni darigeba...~50
  xazgasmiT aRsaniSnavia is, rom bizantiis imperia gansaxilvel periodSi
VIII_X saukuneebSi da saerTodac, gacilebiT ufro rbilad da loialu-
rad epyroboda somxur eklesias, vidre erTmorwmune qarTul eklesias.
amis damamtkicebel erT-erT magaliTad gamodgeba imperator basil bul-
garTmmusvrelis damokidebuleba qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebisadmi. mar-
Talia, basili erT periodSi barda skliarosis ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg,
madlobis niSnad ekonomiurad daexmara qarTvel samRvdeloebas, magram
swored mis dros daiwyo bizantiaSi qarTuli eklesiis sawinaaRmdego is
totaluri devna, romelic XI saukunis Sua wlebamde gagrZelda.
  qarTuli matianis Tanaxmad, saqarTvelos mefe giorgi I-is winaaRmdeg
mebrZolma imperatorma basilim cxovelmyofeli jvaric ki dasca miwaze
da SehRaRada _ aRar gcem Tayvans, Tu qarTvelebi damamarcxebeno (ix. sxva
TavebSi). TiTqos amis Semdeg basilim SesZlo qarTvelTa damarcxeba. es
uCvenebs, Tu rogor ukiduresobamde mivida basili qarTul saxelmwifosa
da eklesiasTan brZolisas. maSin, roca somxur eklesiasTan basilis damok-
idebuleba srulebiT gansxvavebulia. saerTod, bizantieli xelisufalni
rbilad da yuradRebiT epyrobodnen somex sasuliero xelisufalT _ `bi-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                665
zantiis xelisufalni zogjer, garkveuli mosazrebiT, somexTa `mamamTavre-
bis~ gulis mogebasac cdilobdnen. ase magaliTad, Tavisi sisastikiT cno-
bili keisari basil II bulgarTmmusvreli (976-1025)... iseTi `yuradRebiT~,
imdenad `Tbilad~ epyroboda somex `mamebs~, rom somxeTSi legendac ki
Seiqmna, TiTqos bizantiis es mrisxane keisari `somxuri sarwmunoebis~ (grigo-
rianobis) aRmsarebeli gamxdara. kirakos ganZakecis sityviT, basili II `iyo
kaci keTilmorwmune, metadre somexi eris mimarT, amitomac uaryo man qalke-
donuri mrwamsi da Cvens (somexTa-a.a) WeSmarit sarwmunoebaze moiqcia~.51
  Tu rogori Rrma pativiscemiT epyroboda ara marto bizantiis saero
xelisufleba, aramed sasulieroc ki somxebsa da maT eklesias, iqidanac
Cans, rom `...bizantiaSi gavrcelda patriarq fotiosis (857-867, 877-886)
mier politikuri mosazrebiT SeTxzuli cnobebi keisar basili I-is (867-
886) somex arSakunTagan warmomavlobis Sesaxeb. am Tvalsazriss ar uary-
ofdnen basili I-is memkvidreebi~...52 ufro metic, bizantiis patriarqma fo-
tiosma miswera werili somexTa patriarqs, romelSic fotiosi cnobs somx-
uri eklesiis uzenaesobas CrdiloeTis yvela xalxze (albaT, qarTvelebze)
da scnobs somxuri eklesiis samociqulo uflebebs, `fotiosmac miswera
werili Tavis Tanamedrove somxeTis patriarqs zaqaria I-s (855-876)... fotio-
si cdilobs somexi `mamebis~ gulis mogebas, maT gadabirebas. amis gamo igi
cnobs somxuri eklesiis samociqulo uflebebs, mis uzenaesobas CrdiloeTis
yvela xalxze~.53 faqtobrivad, aseve iqceva bizantiis Semdgomi patriarqi
nikoloz mistikosic~ `...nikoloz mistikossac, imperiis samoqmedo gegmis
Sesabamisad, carieli sityvebiT da ara saqmiT, moCvenebiT, angariSi gauwevia
somxeTis patriarqis, darasxanarketcis pretenziebisaTvis qarTuli eklesi-
is mimarT~.54
  maSasadame, X saukuneSic ki, berZenTa da somexTa am patriarqebis dros,
roca qarTuli eklesia uCveulod ganmtkicda da amaRlda sulierad, gaizarda
da gaifarTova iurisdiqciis sazRvrebi, aseTi mdgomareobisasac ki somx-
uri eklesiis meTauri pretenzias acxadebs qarTuli eklesiis mimarT da
am pretenzias, somxur wyaroTa Tanaxmad, bizantiac ki mxars uWers. roca
bizantieli patriarqebi fotiosi (IX s.) Tu nikolozi (X s.) cnoben somx-
uri eklesiis `uzenaesobas CrdiloeTis yvela xalxze~ da aRiareben `somx-
ebs, qarTvelebs da albanelebs~ somxuri eklesiis `samwysod~, amis mizezad
ar unda davasaxeloT mxolod politikuri motivebi, TiTqosda aseT daT-
mobaze bizantia midioda somxeTis advilad dapyrobis mizniT.
  sinamdvileSi, am mimarTvebSi, Cans, asaxva hpova im realurma viTarebam,
romelSic imyofeboda rogorc albanelTa, ise qarTvelTa eklesiebis naw-
ili VI-X saukuneebSi.
  cxadia, qarTuli eklesia, rogorc mTliani erTeuli, yovelTvis damoukide-
beli da avtokefaluri iyo somxuri eklesiisagan, magram misi sxvadasxva
666                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
nawili sxvadasxva saukuneSi eqceoda somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi,
kerZod, VI saukunis pirvel naxevarSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos eklesiis
nawili moeqca somxuri eklesiis gavlenis qveS, VII-IX saukuneebSi qarTuli
eklesiis ganuyofeli nawili hereTi, somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSia.
VII saukuneSi mesxeTi (klarjeTic ki nawilobriv) aseve somxuri eklesiis
gavlenis qveSaa (aq tao, basiani da speric igulisxmeba VI-IX saukuneebSi).
IX saukunidan somxuri eklesia Sida qarTlze iwyebs gavlenis gavrcelebas
da amis gamo qvemo qarTlSi IX-X saukuneebSi saerTod vrceldeba somxuri
sarwmunoeba _ grigorianoba qarTvelTa Soris (e.w. kvirikianTa samefoSi), e.i.
`qarTveldebodnen~ ara somxebi, aramed, piriqiT, qarTvelebi somxdebodnen.

                          didi mTargmnelebi
  giorgi mTawmidelis meSveobiT qarTulma saxelmwifom da eklesiam Ses-
Zles antioqiisa da sxva berZnul sapatriarqoebSi qarTuli eklesiis
avtoritetis amaRleba. daamtkices berZnul wyaroTa Cvenebebis safuZvelze
qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis arseboba, aqedan gamomdinareobda qarTu-
li eklesiis faqtobrivad arsebuli sapatriarqo Rirsebis iuridiulad
cnobac. am didi gamarjvebis miRweva SeuZlebeli iqneboda eqvTime, giorgi
da sxva wmida mamebis mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweobis gareSe. qarTveli wmida
mamebis mier qarTul enaze intensiuri, umagaliTo, gasaocari masStabis
mTargmnelobiTi moRvaweoba gamowveuli iyo ara wminda literaturuli
interesebiT, aramed mwvave politikur-sarwmunoebrivi garemoebiT.55
  saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos Seqmnam X saukunis dasasruls, Semdgom
ki umalve saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebam, Zlier gaaRiziana rogorc
bizantiis imperia, aseve berZnuli sapatriarqoebi. bizantiis imperiam omi
gamoucxada saqarTvelos saxelmwifos, romelic 33 weli gagrZelda. bizan-
tiis imperiasTan mebrZoli eri da misi eklesia mwvalebelTa erad da
mwvalebelTa eklesiad gamoacxades, miT umetes, rom qarTulma eklesiam
sapatriarqo eklesiad aRiara Tavisi Tavi. amas Tan daemTxva is garemoebac,
rom berZnuli eklesia im dros ukompromiso brZolas eweoda yvela arab-
erZnuli eklesiis winaaRmdeg da mwvaleblebad acxadebda yvela eklesias,
romelic iotisodena saeklesio praqtikiTac ki gansxvavdeboda berZnuli
eklesiisagan. 1054 wels srulebiT daSordnen erTmaneTs berZnuli marTl-
madidebluri da romis `kaTolike~ eklesiebi. kidev ufro adre, 730-iani
wlebidan somxuri eklesia monofizituri mrwamsis miRebis gamo srulebiT
ganSorebuli iyo qarTul-berZnul-romauli eklesiebisagan. XI saukunis
dasawyisSi bizantiis `marTlmadideblur~ imperiasTan mebrZoli qarTveli
eri mwvalebelTa erad gamocxadda, daiwyo qarTvelebis masobrivi devna
imperiaSi. romel mwvaleblobas abralebdnen berZnebi qarTvelebs _ sarw-
munoebriv erTobas romis `kaTolike~ eklesiasTan, Tu sarwmunoebriv erTo-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              667
bas somxur monofizitur eklesiasTan? berZnebma qarTvelebs wauyenes cru
braldeba, rom qarTuli eklesia Tavisi Sinagani bunebiT, sarwmunoebiT
somxur-monofizituris msgavsia. TvalSi sacemi saeklesio arqiteqturis
msgavsebis garda aRmoCnda, rom Turme liturgikac ar yofila saqarTveloSi
konstantinopoluri da, rac mTavaria, aRmoCnda, rom Zveli qarTuli saekle-
sio wignebi _ biblia, saxareba, saRvTismetyvelo wignebi Turme somxuri
Sesabamisi wmida wignebis mixedviTaa redaqtirebuli, an somxuri enidanaa
Targmnili. es sruliad sakmarisi sababi aRmoCnda qarTvelebis mwvaleble-
bad gamocxadebisa da qarTuli eklesiis devnisaTvis, radganac monofiz-
itebi, anu `somxebi~ bizantiis imperiaSi mwvaleblebad iwodebodnen da
maTTan yovelgvari saeklesio kavSiri gawyvetili hqondaT.
  marTla hqondaT qarTvelebs somxuri enidan Targmnili `wmida werili~,
Tu es ciliswameba iyo berZnebis mxridan? giorgi mciris cnobiT, qarTvelebs
marTlac hqoniaT `wmida werili~ (zogierTi nawili) somxuri Targmanebis
Sesabamisad redaqtirebuli, rac Turme gamousworebiaT eqvTime da giorgi
mTawmidelebs. am cnobas faqtebiT asabuTebs korneli danelia Tavis wignSi
`qarTuli samwerlo enis istoriis sakiTxebi~.
  mkvlevarebs bibliis qarTuli Targmanis sxvadasxva wignis sxvadasxva
ti pis teqstebi udarebiaT berZnul, somxur da siriul wyaroebTan. bibli-
ologiiT dainteresebul ucxoel qarTvelologebs bibliuri wignebis qarTul
TargmanebSi Warbad gamouvleniaT somxuri elementebi.56 qarTvelologi
moliTori askvnis _ `somxurma versiam mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa iako-
bis epistolis qarTuli teqstis CamoyalibebaSi... Zveli qarTuli Targmani
Sesrulebulia somxuri dednis mixedviT... yovel mkvlevars Tavisi mtkice-
bisaTvis garkveuli masala hqonia da tendenciurobas vervis mivawerT~.57
zogierTi mkvlevari ase msjelobs: `qarTul TargmanSi armenizmebi uZvele-
si teqstobrivi fenisaa, vidre grecizmebi. ratom? imitom, rom VII saukunis
dasawyisis aqeT, roca saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris saeklesio ganxeT-
qileba moxda, qarTuli TargmanebisaTvis somxuri wyaros gamoyeneba ar
aris savaraudo~.58
  `armenizmebi Zvel qarTul redaqciebSi xelSesaxebi da sagrZnobia. somx-
uri wyaros gavlena Cans rogorc frazis konstruqciasa da leqsikur-
derivaciul Tu gramatikul kalkebSi, aseve zogierTi sakuTari saxelis
formaSi~,59 _ `...teqstobrivi xasiaTis SeniSvnebi, anu glosebi qarTulsa da
somxur Targmanebs erT da imave adgilebze moudiT~.60 `Zvel qarTul re-
daqciebSi aris iseTi sakiTxebi, romlebic ramdenadme Sordeba berZnul
teqsts da uaxlovdeba somxurs~.61
  miuxedavad imisa, rom XI saukuneSi ramdenjerme gadaamuSaves bibliuri
wignebi armenizmebis aRmosafxvrelad, XX saukunis mkvlevarTaTvis maTi
arseboba SeumCneveli ar darCa.
668                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   ram gamoiwvia armenizmebis gaCena Zvel qarTul redaqciebSi? korneli
danelias daskvna, romelic emyareba rogorc mis mier Catarebul kvleva-
Ziebas, aseve giorgi mcirisa da giorgi mTawmidelis cnobebs, aseTia _ qris-
tianobis miRebis umalve qarTvelebs IV-V saukuneebSi bibliuri wignebi
gadauTargmniaT berZnuli enidan, xolo Semdgom raRac mizezebis gamo `berZnul-
idan momdinare Targmani V-VI saukuneebSi Sejerebul iqna somxurTan~.
   bibliuri wignebis Targmnas Zvel dros udides saxelmwifoebriv mniS-
vnelobas aniWebdnen: `cxadia, aseTi udidesi saxelmwifoebrivi movlenis
(qristianizaciis) sayrdenis _ bibliuri wignebis _ nacionalur enaze gad-
moReba metad seriozul da sapasuxismgeblo saqmed iqneboda miCneuli...~62
   `...amrigad, IV-V saukuneebis saqarTvelos politikuri, kulturuli da
religiuri kavSiri bizantiur samyarosTan, logikuri aucileblobiT gulisx-
mobs, rom qristianuli religiis qvakuTxedis _ axali aRTqmis _ qarTul
enaze gadmoRebisas berZnuli originali unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli~63.
mkvlevaris am daskvnas amagrebs literaturul wyaroTa Cveneba _ `X-XI
saukuneebSi bibliuri wignebis Zvelma qarTulma redaqciebma safuZvliani
gadamuSaveba ganicades berZnul wyarosTan maqsimaluri daaxloebis mizniT.
am droisaTvis mwignobarTa SegnebaSi jer kidev cocxalia warmodgena
bibliis Zveli qarTuli Targmanis Rirsebasa da warmomavlobaze~.64 aseTi
cnoba aqvs giorgi mcires _ `pirveliTganve guqondes werilnca da sarwmu-
noebaA WeSmariti da marTali~, magram es cnoba XX saukunis erT mkvlevars
legendad miuCnevia. `ara, giorgi mciris cnoba legenda ki ar aris,
aramed istoriuli viTarebis anarekli da adre arsebuli tradiciuli
azris werilobiTi fiqsacia~.65
   `giorgi mcire TviTon ki ar Txzavs am faqts, aramed, arsebiTad, tradici-
ul azrs imeorebs. masze adre giorgi mTwmideli araerTgzis aRniSnavs
bibliuri wignebis pirvandel TargmanTa maRal Rirsebas, rac, ra Tqma unda,
pirvel yovlisa, berZnul wyarosTan siaxlove-Sesatyvisobas gulisxmobs
(am droisaTvis Targmanis Rirsebis sazomad berZnul wyarosTan siaxlove
iTvleba!). giorgi mTawmideli wers: `Cuenni yovelni saxarebani pirveliT-
gan wmidad Targmnilnia da keTilad~, an kidev: `egeviTari Targmani, gareSe
maT pirvelTasa, arRara gamoCinebul ars enasa Cuensa...~.66
   `Tu kritikulad SevafasebT giorgi mciris cnobas... pozitiur faqtad
rCeba Semdegi: 1) qarTvelebs qristianobis miRebisTanave hqoniaT Zvel
mTargmnelTa mier gadmoRebuli bibliuri wignebi (`pirveliTganve guqondes
werilnica~); 2) Semdgom, radgan saberZneTi teritoriulad Sors iyo
saqarTvelosagan, saqarTveloSi (Tu saqarTvelos mezoblad) mcxovreb somxebs
qarTvelebisaTvis `mizeziTa wesierebisaATa~, e.i. Targmnis sisworis dacvis
motiviT, SeuTavazebiaT bibliuri wignebis somxuri TargmaniT sargebloba;
3) amis Sedegad, qarTul enaze somxuridan gadmouRiaT zogierTi bibliuri
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             669
wigni... bibliuri wignis somxuridan momdinare qarTuli Targmani qro-
nologiurad meoreul, mogviano movlenad aris miCneuli~.67
  ra mizezis gamo moxda IV-V saukuneebSi berZnulidan Sesrulebuli
Tavdapirveli Targmanebis Semdgom saukuneebSi Sejereba somxur redaqcie-
bTan, anu ram gamoiwvia qarTul TargmanebSi somxurenovani elementebis,
armenizmebis gaCena?
  mkvlevarebi am movlenas ganixilaven ara globaluri masStabiT, imdroin-
deli saerTaSoriso viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aramed miaCniaT saqarTvelosa
da saqarTvelos SigniT momxdari eTnikuri cvlilebebis arekvlad liter-
aturaSi, TiTqosda berZnulidan momdinare ZvelqarTuli Targmanebis somx-
ur redaqciebTan Sejereba moxda `somxuri warmoSobis~ qarTuli wreebis
moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad. `Zveli qarTuli Targmanis somxur
wyarosTan Sejereba Tu somxuridan xelaxla Targmna V-VI saukuneebi-
saTvis ufro safiqrebelia samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos taos TemSi,
sadac somxuri warmoSobis mosaxleobis xvedriTi wona didi iyo~.68
  rogori didic ar unda yofiliyo `somxuri warmoSobis qarTuli wreeb-
is~(!) raodenoba da wona qarTvel erSi, maTi moTxovnilebaTa dasakmay-
ofileblad erisa da saxelmwifosaTvis gansakuTrebuli politikuri mniS-
vnelobis mqone bibliur wignebs xelaxla aravin Targmnida. meorec, Tuki
aseT wreebs ar akmayofilebdaT Zveli qarTuli Targmanebi da swunobdnen
maT, SeeZloT ufro `swori TargmanebiT~ dakmayofilebuliyvnen, romelic
ukve arsebobda somxur enaze. magram qarTuli bibliuri da saRvTismetyve-
lo wignebi somxur redaqciebTan Sejerda da xelaxla iTargmna ara viwro
eTnikuri wreebis dakmayofilebisaTvis, aramed sparseTis imperiis nebiT,
meorec, qarTul eklesias somxuridan xelaxla Targmna-Sejereba dasWirda
Tavisi sparsofilobisa da antiberZnulobis dasamtkiceblad _ Seqmnili
politikuri viTarebis gamo.
  dapyrobil saqarTveloSi sparseTi berZnuli enis da yovelive berZnu-
lis mimarT gaatarebda iseTive RonisZiebebs, rogoric ramdenime xnis win
somxeTSi. Tu rogor iqceodnen sparselebi somxeTSi IV-V saukuneebSi,
aRwerili aqvs movses xorenacs.
  sparselebi ise iqcevian, TiTqosda isini somexTa imdroindel sarwmunoe-
bas _ qriatianobas ki ar devnian, aramed krZalaven maTi mteri saxelmwi-
fos enasa da mwerlobas, e.i. berZnul enasa da berZnul wignebs. sparselebi
wvaven berZnul wignebs, sadac ki waawydebian.
  sparseTs Tavis mier dapyrobil somxeTSi berZnuli mwignobroba aukrZa-
lavs da neba daurTavs somxebisaTvis exmaraT mRvdelmsaxurebisaTvis asu-
ruli, an sxva araberZnuli mwignobroba.
  `...berZnuli wignebis uqonlobis gamo sahak dids xeli miuyvia asurul-
idan TargmnisaTvis. saqme isaa, rom mehruJanma dawva berZnuli wignebi
670                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
mTels Cvens qveyanaSi; amasTanave, somxeTis danawilebisas, sparsTa wil
somxeTSi sparseli moxeleebi aravis rTavdnen berZnuli mwignobrobis
SeTvisebis nebas, mxolod asurulis Seswavla SeiZleboda~.69 amis Semdeg
sahak didi da mesropi bizantiaSi agzavnidnen gamorCeul axalgazrdebs,
raTa gawafuliyvnen berZnul mwignobrobaSi da Sedgomodnen somxur enaze
Targmnasa da weras. male sahak didi daabezRes sparseTis imperatorTan
`...berZenTadmi mimxrobis gamo~.70 sahak dids apatimreben, Semdeg aTavisu-
fleben da aficeben `daifice Seni rjulis mixedviT, rom erTgulad gvem-
saxurebi Cven, ar gacdunebs berZenTa erTmorwmuneobis sicrue da fiqrad
ar gaivleb amboxebas~.71 bizantiidan dabrunebul ganswavlul axalgazrdebs
dapyrobil somxeTSi devnian da aviwroeben berZnulad ganswavlulobis
gamo. `saqme isaa, rom mas Semdeg, rac daeca somex mefeTa taxti (428 w.),
somxeTSi sparsTa xelisuflebam TandaTan fexi mtkiced moikida. bizantiis
imperiisadmi dapirispirebuli iranis Sahis kari im xanebSi somxeTSi mx-
ars uWerda siriuli kulturis gavlenis gavrcelebas berZnulis sawi-
naaRmdegod. siriul kulturas somxeTSi isedac Rrmad hqonda fesvebi
gamdgari da mTavrobis mfarvelobis pirobebSi mas kidev ufro gaeSala
frTebi. amgvar viTarebaSi berZnul civilizacias naziarebi, misi Tayvanism-
cemeli moazrovneni aramcTu aravis undoda, maT devnidnen, aviwroebdnen
kidec~, _ wers mkvlevari al. abdalaZe72 movses xorenacis `somxeTis is-
toriis~ winasityvaobaSi.
    rogorc somex mefeTa taxtis dacemis (428 w.), iseve qarTvel mefeTa
taxtis dacemis Semdgom (523 w.), sparseTis imperia dapyrobil qveynebSi
atarebs erTi da igive antibizantiur-antiberZnul politikas. rogorc
somxeTSi ganadgurda da daiwva berZnuli wignebi, ganidevna berZnulad
ganswavluli moazrovneni, igive moxdeboda saqarTveloSic. qarTuli bib-
liuri da wmida wignebi Targmnili iyo berZnuli enidan. VI saukunis
dasawyisSi sparseTis imperia da somxeTis eklesia moiTxovdnen yovelive
berZnulobis kvalis aRmofxvras qarTul TargmanebSi. amisaTvis qarTul
Targmanebs Seudarebdnen somxur Targmanebs da `Seawamebdnen~ masTan, Sea-
sworebdnen somxuri redaqciebis mixedviT, anda xelaxla Targmnidnen somx-
uridan. im dros somxuri eklesia sparsTa dasayrdeni eklesia iyo mTel
aRmosavleTSi. e.i. moxdeboda imis sapirispiro ram, rac moxda XI saukune-
Si. XI saukunis dasawyisSi berZnebma qarTvelebs daswames `mwvalebloba~
imis gamo, rom maTi wmida werili somxuris mixedviT iyo redaqtirebuli
anda somxuridan Targmnili, xolo VI saukunis I naxevarSi qarTvelebs
daswames `mwvalebloba~ imis gamo, rom maTi wmida werili berZnulidan iyo
Targmnili da ara somxuri da siriuli enebidan.
    amitomac, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT VI saukunis politikur viTarebas, unda
davaskvnaT, rom bibiliuri wignebis ZvelqarTuli Targmanebis somxurad
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              671
redaqtireba moxda ara romelime eTnikuri jgufis moTxovnilebaTa dasak-
mayofileblad saqarTvelos romelime kuTxeSi, aramed saerTod sparseTis-
agan dapyrobil saqarTveloSi. 574 wlis ajanyebis Semdgom aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi qalkedonitebma ganimtkices TavianTi mdgomareoba, xolo `me-
6 saukunis damlevisaTvis ki monofizitebi aq sabolood damarcxdnen~ (saq.
ist., gv. 71); gamodis, rom monofizitebi saqarTveloSi batonobdnen 506
wels somxeTis dedaqalaq dvinSi mowveuli somxeTis, qarTlisa da albane-
Tis eklesiebis saerTo (506 wlis) krebis Semdgom _ 574 wlamde.
  TiTqosda 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi Zneli iqneboda mTeli bibliisa da
wmida werilis ZvelqarTuli Targmanebis somxuris mixedviT redaqtireba,
magram XI saukunis ufro mcire periodSi mTeli, ukve arsebuli qarTuli
Targmanebi gadamuSavda berZnuli redaqciebis mixedviT ara erTxel, aramed
samjer. XI saukuneSi qarTul wmida werils uaxlovebdnen berZnuls, raTa
berZnebs, anu bizantiis imperias qarTvelTaTvis `mwvalebloba~ da `biwi~
ar daewamebinaT, aseve VI saukuneSic ramdenjerme gaukeTebdnen redaqcias
qarTul Targmanebs somxur TargmanebTan daaxloebis mizniT, raTa sparse-
Tis dampyrobel imperias da mis wiaRSi arsebul oficialur qristianul
eklesias `mwvalebloba~ da `biwi~ ar daewamebina qarTuli eklesiisaTvis.
  safiqrebelia, rom ZvelqarTuli Targmanebis somxuris mixedviT redaqtireba
da somxuridan intensiurad Targmna mimdinareobda ara marto VI saukune-
Si, aramed VII saukuneSic da VIII saukunis dasawyisSic. saqme isaa, rom,
marTalia, 607-609 wlebSi qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebi daSordnen erTma-
neTs, magram herakles mier sparseTis saxelmwifos TiTqmis ganadgurebis
Semdgom, urTierTdamokidebuleba am or eklesias Soris Seicvala. gamar-
jvebulma imperatorma heraklem somxeTSi moiwvia somxuri eklesiis kreba,
romelmac dagmo monofizitoba da aRiara qalkedonuri mrwamsi. mTeli VII
saukunis ganmavlobaSi vidre 723 wlamde, manaskertis krebis mowvevamde,
somxuri eklesia, ZiriTadad, qalkedonuri aRmsareblobisa iyo. qalkedoni-
turi aRmsareblobisa iyo aseve qarTuli eklesia. or moZme qalkedonitur
eklesias Soris aucileblad iqneboda `erToba~ da, aqedan gamomdinare, VII
saukuneSic tradiciulad grZeldeboda VI saukuneSi dawyebuli ZvelqarTuli
Targmanebis somxuris mixedviT redaqtireba da intensiuri Targmna somx-
uri enidan, miT umetes, rom orive es qveyana arabTa mier iyo dapyrobili da
arabebisaTvis yovelive bizantiuri iseve `dasawuni~ iqneboda, rogorc adre
sparselebisaTvis. qarTvelebi iZulebulni iqnebodnen, esargeblaT qarTul-
Tan SedarebiT gacilebiT Rrma da mdidari somxuri saRvTismetyvelo, is-
toriuli da filosofiuri literaturiT. ase gagrZeldeboda vidre 723
wlamde, roca somxuri da qarTuli eklesiebi sabolood daSordnen erTma-
neTs, radganac somxurma eklesiam aSkarad da gadaWriT aRiara monofiz-
ituri mrwamsi. grZeldeboda Tu ara somxuridan Targmna IX-X saukuneebSi?
672                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
grZeldeboda, radganac ukve arsebobda Targmnis TiTqmis 250-wliani tradicia.
garda amisa, marTalia, somxurma eklesiam miiRo monofizituri mrwamsi,
magram somxeTsa da danarCen qristianul msoflios Soris kedeli ar
aRmarTula. bizantiis patriarqebi sakmaod Tavazian werilebs weren `erT-
morwmune~ e.i. qristian somxeTis patriarqebs, magaliTad _ patriarqi foti.
somxuri enidan qarTul enaze Targmna gagrZeldeboda im dromde, roca
bizantiis eklesiam `mwvalebloba~ daswama qarTul eklesias somxur ekle-
siasTan urTierTobis gamo. e.i. somxuridan qarTulad Targmna Sewydeboda
X saukunis II naxevarSi. es imas ar niSnavs, rom yoveli Targmani momdinar-
eobda somxuri enidan, piriqiT, qarTvelebs ukve VI saukunis II naxevridan
dauwyiaT brZola somxuri saeklesio morCilebisagan Tavis daRwevis mizniT
da warmatebisTvisac miuRweviaT imave saukuneSi.
  `armenizebuli~ qarTuli redaqciebis TiTo nusxiT moRweva Cvens dromde
gasakviri ar aris. XI saukunis Semdgom, roca eklesiam kanonikurad miiRo
eqvTime da giorgi mTawmidelebis skolidan gamosuli `Targmanebi~, Zveli
redaqciebi aRar gamoiyeneboda eklesiebSi, aRar gadawerdnen, aRar uvlid-
nen _ ufro metic, uaryofdnen rogorc TiTqmis `mwvaleblurs~, amitomac
bunebrivia, aRarc unda moeRwia Cvens dromde.
  taos Temi, marTlac, IV-VI saukuneebSi somxuri provincia gaxda, magram
es ar gvaZlevs safuZvels vTqvaT, rom adgilobrivma qarTulma mosaxle-
obam mTlianad daiviwya Tavisi erovneba da gasomxda. piriqiT, Semdgomi VII-
IX saukuneTa tao-klarjeTis mosaxleobis gasaocari ltolva qarTvelo-
bisaken, maT mier `qarTvelTa samefos~ Seqmna, maT mier fanatikuri siyvaru-
li `qarTvelobisadmi~, amtkicebs imas, rom IV-VI saukuneebSi taos mosaxle-
obis didi wili araTu gasomxebula, aramed piriqiT, yovelive somxuri
maTTvis arasasurveli gamxdara da masSi gaRviZebula miZinebuli qarTuli
erovnuli grZnobebi.
  TargmanTa Sesaxeb unda iTqvas, rom mosaxleobisaTvis, mrevlisaTvis mniS-
vneloba ara aqvs, saidan iqneba naTargmni saeklesio wignebi, mTavari isaa,
rom maT mSobliur enaze esmaT saxareba Tu samociqulo da teqsti gasagebi
iyos maTTvis. TviT mkvlevarebs, specialistebsac uWirT gaarkvion da daadg-
inon, romeli enidanaa naTargmni teqstebi qarTul enaze, miT umetes, ubralo
mrevlisaTvis. amitomac, taos qarTulenovani mrevlis `somxuri warmoSobis
qarTuli wreebis moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad~ wmida werilis maincd-
amainc somxuridan Targmna raRac gaugebari Cans.
  Tu mosaxleobam Tavisi erovneba, somxoba uaryo, miiRo sul sxva _ qarTu-
li ena `qalkedonituri~ aRmsareblobis gamo _ rogorc fiqrobs zogierTi
specialisti _ ratom unda moeTxova qalkedonit mrevls monofizitur
somxur eklesiaSi kanonikurad miCneuli saeklesio wignebis Targmna? gamo-
dis, rom qalkedonitebs kanonikurad miaCndaT monofizitur eklesiaSi miRebu-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               673
li wmida werili, rac SeuZlebelia. amitomac, ZvelqarTuli Targmanebis
somxur wyarosTan Sejereba Tu somxuridan xelaxla Targmna moxda ara
taos TemSi `gaqarTvelebuli~ somxebis dasakmayofileblad, aramed mTli-
anad qarTul eklesiaSi Seqmnili politikuri garemoebis gamo.
  qalkedonituri partia yovelTvis arsebobda somxur eklesiaSi. VII sauku-
neSi da VIII saukunis dasawyisSi TviT somexi kaTalikosebi iyvnen qalkedo-
nitebi. somex-qarTvelTa cnobili saeklesio kamaTis dros da Semdgom 607-
609 wlebSi arsebobda damoukidebeli somxuri qalkedonituri eklesia,
romelsac Tavisi kaTalikosi marTavda _ `berZenTa mxares dasves moses
saydris mowinaaRmdege vinme ioan-orbunebiani... romelic abraamis xeldasx-
mis Semdegac mowinaaRmdege darCa~.73 IX saukuneSic somxuri eklesiis Sig-
niT mwvave brZola mimdinareobda monofizitebsa da qalkedonitebs Soris.
  ase rom, Tu romelime somexi ar aRiarebda monofizitur eklesias, mas
SeeZlo erovnuli qalkedonituri eklesiis wevrad gamoecxadebina Tavisi
Tavi. erovnuli somxuri qalkedonituri eklesiis centri mdebareobda
bizantiis imperiaSi, istoriul somxeTSi, taosTan axlos, xolo qarTuli
qalkedonituri eklesiis centri taosagan Zlier daSorebiT mcxeTaSi mde-
bareobda. aseT viTarebaSi araTu taos somxebi gaxdebodnen qarTuli qalke-
donituri eklesiis wevrebi, piriqiT, taos qarTvelebi iqceodnen somxur-
qalkedonituri eklesiis wevrebad.
  saerTod, araviTari saWiroeba ar arsebobda imisa, rom qalkedoniti somx-
ebi qarTuli eklesiis wevrebi gamxdariyvnen, maT TavianTi erovnuli qalke-
donituri eklesia hqondaT, sakmaod Zlieri da bizantiisagan dafinansebuli.
  taos provincias aRmosavleTidan somxeTi esazRvreboda, dasavleTidan _
bizantiis imperia, romelTa dapyrobis obieqtic TiTqmis mudmivad iyo is.
aseT dros somxebis gaqarTveleba taoSi SeuZlebeli iyo. Tu qalkedonito-
bas aRiarebdnen, iqve iyo berZnul-qalkedonituri eklesia, somxur qalke-
doniturs rom Tavi davaneboT. miT umetes, rom tao TviT Sedioda bizantiis
imperiaSi VII-IX saukuneebSi da saxelmwifo ena _ berZnuli ena iq, albaT,
yvelam icoda.
  amitomac unda vifiqroT, rom imis Semdeg, rac tao-klarjeTi moeqca bizan-
tiis imperiaSi da amiT gaTavisuflda arabTa politikuri da somexTa ekle-
siuri batonobisagan _ tao-klarjeTis qarTvelebSi xdeba erovnuli grZnobebis
afeTqeba _ Zvelad somex-spars-arabTagan daTrgunvili qarTvelobis aRorZineba,
erovnuli grZnobebis gamoaSkaraveba, rasac Sedegad mohyva iq qarTuli enis,
kulturis ayvaveba da qarTuli erovnuli saxelmwifos Seqmna, maSin, roca
arabTagan dapyrobili qarTli da kaxeTi am mxriv ukan rCebian.
  radganac qarTuli biblia da saeklesio wignebi naredaqtirevi, an naT-
argmni aRmoCnda somxuri Sesabamisi wignebis mixedviT, cxadia, qarTul
eklesias VIII saukunis Semdeg aRar daakmayofilebda aseTi Targmanebi,
674                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
radganac 726 wlis manaskertis krebis Semdeg somxuri eklesia aSkarad
monofizituri iyo. qarTul eklesias ki ukve monofiziturad miCneuli
somxuri wmida werilis mixedviT naTargmni wignebi aRar daakmayofilebda.
am mdgomareobas unda gamoewvia ucxoeTSi, bizantiis imperiaSi mdebare
qarTuli monastrebis, gansakuTrebiT ki, sabawmidis monastris literatu-
ruli muSaobis gacxoveleba. sabawmidis monastris erT-erTi umTavresi
funqcia iqneboda qarTuli Targmanebis redaqtireba axla ukve berZnuli
redaqciebis mixedviT. am dros, rodesac Zveli V-VI-VII saukuneTa qarTuli
Targmanebi (e.i. bunebrivia, xanmeti teqstebi) udardeboda imdroindel berZnul
redaqciebs, axali qarTuli redaqciis miRebis dros redaqtorebs Zveli
teqstebidan axal teqstebSi zedmeti `xan~-ebi aRar gadahqondaT. Cans, ase
iqna miRebuli `sabawmiduri~ redaqciebi bibliuri teqstebisa. sabawmidaSi
moRvaweoben grigol xanZTelis mowafeebi. sabawmidaSi dawerili `sinuri
mravalTavis~ `...Seqmna ganuzraxavs da sisruleSi mouyvania makari leTe-
Tels~. `rom makari leTeTeli grigol xanZTelis mowafe unda iyos, es
azri pirvelad n. marsa aqvs gamoTqmuli~.74 grigol xanZTels ki orienta-
cia aRebuli hqonda berZnul eklesiaze. is TviTon Cavida da gaecno
konstantinopolSi saeklesio cxovrebas, xolo ierusalimSi mowafeebi hyav-
da da iqidan saeklesio berZnul ti pikons iRebda. sabawmidis, ise rogorc
sxva ucxour Tu qarTul monastrebSi, albaT, gacxovelebiT adarebdnen
qarTul teqstebs berZnuls da axdendnen qarTuli teqstis gamarTvas
berZnulis mixedviT. miuxedavad amisa, somxuridan naTargmnobis da re-
daqtirebis kvalis aRmofxvra ver SeZles, Tumca es arc iqneboda saboloo
mizani. mizani iqneboda is, rom qarTuli Targmani damTxveoda berZnul
redaqcias (Cans, Tu qarTuli da berZnuli teqstebi Sinaarsobriv-azrobri-
vad identuri iqneboda, Zvel qarTul teqsts zedmeti `xan~-ebis gamoklebiT
gadaitandnen axal redaqciaSi). redaqtorebis mizani iqneboda ara Zveli
Targmanebis lingvistur-filologiuri kvleva-Zieba, aramed TargmanTa te-
qstis gamarTva berZnul redaqciasTan Sedarebis gziT. Semdgom ki, XI
saukuneSi, qarTuli Targmanebi didi sizustiT dauaxloves berZnuls, miuxe-
davad amisa, rogorc qarTvelTa Soris, ise berZenTa Sorisac yofilan
saeklesio pirebi `mabralobelni~ da `mayvedrebelni~, romlebic swunobd-
nen qarTul Targmanebs im mxriv, rom TiTqosda ar iyvnen identurni
berZnulisa. `...mecnierni berZnulisani mabralobel gueqmnebodes gamouZie-
blad dawerisaTYs sityuaTasa~.75 igulisxmeba berZnulis mcodne qarTvele-
bi, magram yofilan agreTve qarTulis mcodne berZnebi _ `mayvedrebelni~.
`...amas `guayuedrebdes berZennio~. saqme isaa, rom sxvadasxva sityva grigol
RvTismetyvelisa, romelic eqvTimes Tavis dros, unda vifiqroT, cal-calke
uTargmnia, viRacas mere SeuerTebia, meqanikurad gadaubams. es berZnebsac ki
SeuniSnavT da qarTvelebi gaukicxavT aseTi aRrevisaTvis.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 675
   `mabraloblebisa~ da `mayvedreblebis~ gamravleba XI saukunis dasawyis-
Si gamoiwvia bizantia-saqarTvelos Soris omma, roca qarTul eklesias
bralad dasdes aramarTlmadidebloba _ mwvalebloba, ris safuZvelsac
berZnebs aZlevda is, rom qarTuli eklesia, miuxedavad imisa, rom qalke-
donitobis mtkice damcveli iyo, mainc gansxvavdeboda bizantiur-berZnuli
eklesiisagan Tavisi nacionalur-qristianuli kulturiT. imis Semdeg, rac
qarTuli eklesia Camoscilda somxur eklesias, `...romelTanac mas akav-
Sirebda erTi da igive saeklesio wesebi, zne-Cveuleba da tradiciebi~,76
qarTvel ers miuCnevia, rom denacionalizaciis saSineli katastrofisagan
Tavis daRwevis gza aris _ `...sakuTari eklesiis frTaTa qveSe nacionalur-
qristianuli kulturis gaRviveba~,77 rasac Sedegad mohyolia VIII-X sauku-
neebSi originaluri saeklesio wesebis mZlavri zrda-ganviTareba: SemuSave-
bula nacionaluri agiografia, `dawesebul iqna wmida qarTuli dResaswaulebi
erovnuli wmidanebisa~.78 qarTvelebs saberZneTis praqtikidan momdinare
msoflio eklesiis dResaswaulebisaTvis `Tavisi erovnuli suli CauberiaT,
ris gamoc Semdegi drois, XI saukunidan, mwerlebs, romelTac maTi war-
moSoba ukve naTlad aRar gaegebodaT, qarTul dResaswaulebad mounaT-
lavT. aseTia, magaliTad jvris dResaswauli aRdgomis meore dRes, ... dResaswau-
li wmida giorgisa 10 noembers..., satfureba ierusalimis taZrisa 13 seqtem-
bers~79 da sxva. am dResaswaulebs am ricxvebSi berZnebi ar dResaswau-
lobdnen, rac iwvevda gaocebas. arsebobda sakuTari qarTuli `wesi da
gangeba saxarebis sakiTxavebisa~ berZnulisagan gansxvavebuli, arsebobda
qarTuli sistema welTaRricxvisa, aseve gansxvavebuli berZnulisagan, ma-
gram yvelaze meti Tavisebureba da `qarTveloba~ Cvens winaprebs am xanaSi
liturgikul mwerlobaSi gamouCeniaT... SeuTxzavT zatiki. am araCveulebrivs,
istoriaSi erTaderT magaliTs, gansakuTrebiT Tavi uCenia X saukuneSi...~80
swored qarTuli eklesiis nacionalur-qristianulma xasiaTma misca sababi
berZnebs mwvaleblebad moenaTlaT qarTvelebi, radgan qarTuli eklesiis
liturgikac ki gansxvavebuli yofila berZnulisagan. `qarTvelebi dadgomian
RvTismsaxurebis sruli gaerovnebis gzas, ara marto enis mxriT, aramed Si-
naarsiTac, magram Semdgomma periodma es mimarTuleba Seayena~.81 qarTuli
RvTismsaxurebis srul gaerovnebas win aRudga bizantiis eklesia imiT, rom
erovnuli niSan-Tvisebebi mwvaleblobad CauTvales qarTul eklesias da monofiz-
it somxur eklesiasTan Zveli kavSiris damadasturebel niSnad miiCnies.
qarTuli eklesiis marTlmadideblobis damtkicebas Tavisi Sroma Sealies XI
saukunis moRvaweebma praqtikuli saqmianobiT _ saeklesio wignebis berZnul-
Tan Sedareba-Sewameba-daaxloebiT. es praqtika qarTul eklesiaSi miRebuli
yofila XI saukunemde _ VIII-X saukuneebSi `...berZnulis mixedviT asworeben
Zvel Targmanebs, romelnic somxuri enidan momdinareobdnen. aseTi Sedareba-
Sesworebis gziT warmoiSva `axali Targmani~. am dros unda ekuTvnodes prof.
ak. SaniZis mier aRwerili wvirimis (svaneTSia) X saukunis iadgari~.82
676                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   imisaTvis, raTa moespoT berZnebisaTvis sababi qarTvelTa mwvaleblebad
gamocxadebisa, eqvTime, giorgi mTawmidelebi da maTi skola asrulebs Sem-
degi saxis samuSaos `...bibliis manamde arsebul qarTul Targmanebs maqsi-
malurad uaxloeben berZnul wyaros, rom `biwi rame~ ar daswamon maT. sul
raRac naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi bibliuri wignebis Zvelma qarTulma
Targmanma samjer ganicada safuZvliani gadamuSaveba da qarTuli teqstis
berZnulTan daaxloeba aRmavali xaziT warimarTa (giorgi mTawmideli, efrem
mcire, petriwi, iyalToeli)... aseT muSaobas Tavidan mxolod wminda lit-
eraturuli interesebi ki ar gansazRvravda, aramed ufro mwvave poli-
tikur-kulturuli garemoc... es iyo iZulebiTi RonisZieba qarTuli kul-
turis kerebis TviTmyofobis SesanarCuneblad didmpyrobeluri berZnebis
mimZlavrebis Jams... V-XI saukuneebSi qarTul enaSi ar momxdara iseTi
didi masStabis cvilebebi, rom amis gamo XI saukuneSi aucilebeli yofil-
iyo Zvel qarTul TargmanTa redaqciuli gadamuSaveba da enobrivi modern-
izacia... mizani iyo ara Zveli teqstebis enobrivi modernizacia, aramed
maqsimaluri daaxloeba berZnul wyarosTan~.83
   aRmoCnda, rom giorgi mTawmideli aris bibliuri wignebis ara mTargmne-
li, am sityvis dRevandeli mniSvnelobiT, aramed redaqtori, romelic Zvel
qarTul Targmanebs, berZenTagan dawunebuls, _ asworebs imdroindeli berZnuli
redaqciebis mixedviT. `giorgi rom bibliur wignebs xelaxla ar Targmnis,
es faqtia, romelsac mxolod danaxva unda da ara mtkiceba... giorgis
redaqciuli kalami arsebiTad Seexo Zveli redaqciebis ara gramatikul,
aramed Sinaarsobriv-stilistur mxares~.84 `giorgis redaqtoruli muSao-
bis mizania, rom Zveli qarTuli redaqciis teqsti ufro dauaxlovos berZnul
wyaros~.85 `...efrem mcire ki giorgis naredaqciev qarTul Targmans kidev
ufro aaxloebs berZnul wyarosTan ara marto Sinaarsis, aramed struqtur-
is, stilis TvalsazrisiTac~,86 `...raTa qarTuli Targmani maqsimalurad
Seesatyvisebodes berZnul wyaros azrobrivadac da enobrivadac~,87 `ma-
gram es xdeba ... qarTuli enis bunebis sawinaaRmdegod~.88
   aseT ukiduresobamde qarTveli mTargmnel-redaqtorebis miyvana gamoi-
wvies `mabraloblebma~ da `mayvedreblebma~ TavianTi ciliswamebiT, TiTqos-
da qarTul Targmanebs raRaca monofizituri `biwi~ gaaCnda. qarTvelma
mTargmnel-redaqtorebma mospes sababi qarTuli eklesiis mwvalebelTa ek-
lesiad gamocxadebisa da amiT udidesi saqme Seasrules qarTuli eklesis
avtokefalia-TavisTavadobis saqmeSi.

         `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri redaqcia
  CvenSi, Zvels dros, somxuridan uTargmniaT an somxuris mixedviT ureda-
qtirebiaT ara marto wmida werilis erTi nawili, aramed zogierTi saero
wignic. giorgi mcire werda: marTalia, Cven ZvelTaganve gvqonda wmida
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 677
werilis SesaniSnavi qarTuli Targmani, magram garkveuli mizezebis gamo
somxebma SeZles Cvens winaprebs somxuris mixedviT xelaxla `eTargmnaT~,
eredaqtirebinaT igio. aseve iTqmis zogierT ZvelqarTul saero wignze.
cnobilia, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali (`ambavi rvaTa ZmaTa~) da
saerTod, `mefeTa cxovreba~ armenofiluri tendenciebis matarebelia da
Zveli somxuri tradiciis gavleniT aris dawerili.89 es miuTiTebs imaze,
rom Zveli qarTuli saistorio Txzulebani garkveul dros, garkveuli
mizezis Sedegad redaqtirebul iqna armenofilebis mier. unda vigulisxmoT,
rom igi armenofiluri TvalsazrisiT redaqtirebul iqna swored im dros,
roca somxuris mixedviT aredaqtirebdnen qarTul wmida werils. somxuris
mixedviT redaqtireba, es iyo saqarTvelosTvis globaluri procesi, romel-
ic moicavda ara marto saeklesio wignebs, aramed, Cans, saerosac.
  giorgi mcire wers _ `daRacaTu pirvelTaganve gvqondes werilnica da
sarwmunoeba WeSmariti da marTali, garna qveyana Cveni Sors iyo qveynisa-
gan saberZneTisa. da viTarca Teslni arawmidani Soris Cvensa daTesul
iyvnen borotni igi Teslni somexTani, gularZnilni da manqanani, da amis
mier friad gvevneboda, rameTu naTesavi Cveni wrfeli iyo da umanko, xolo
igini reca mizeziTa wesierebisaTa, reca cdunebad gvazmnobdes, da romeln-
ime wignica gvqondes maTgan Targmnilni~.90
  cnobilia, rom imis Semdeg, rac VIII saukunis 20-ian wlebSi somxurma
eklesiam sabolood miiRo monofizituri mrwamsi, qarTuli eklesia sruliad
gaemijna am eklesias. somxurma eklesiamac Tavis mxriv kavSiri gawyvita
bizantiasTan da saerTod, qalkedonitur samyarosTan. wignebi, romelTa Sesaxebac
wers giorgi mcire, SeiZleboda ZiriTadad Targmnil-redaqtirebuliyo VIII
saukunemde. giorgi mcire wers, rom am dromde `pirvelTaganve~ arsebuli
qarTulad Targmnili wignebi, `WeSmariti da marTali~ iyoo. CvenSi qris-
tianoba, rogorc saerTo-saxalxo sarwmunoeba, damkvidrda IV saukunidan.
amitomac unda vigulisxmoT, rom am droidan ukve daiwyeboda kidec qarTul
enaze wmida werilis Targmna. amitomac `pirvelTaganni~ wignebi qarTul
enaze IV-V saukuneebSi berZnulidan unda Targmniliyo da Seqmniliyo wmida
werilis qarTuli redaqcia. swored amis Semdeg iwyeba is procesi, romel-
sac aRSfoTebiT aRwers giorgi mcire. iwyeba `pirvelTagani~ wignebis re-
daqtireba somxuri redaqciebis mixedviT. Tu am movlenis qveda zRvrad
miviCnevT V saukunes, xolo zedad VIII-s, maSin somxuris mixedviT qarTuli
wignebis `Targmna~-redaqtireba mimdinareobda VI-VII saukuneebSi.
  marTlac, VI saukune tragikuli iyo qarTveli xalxisaTvis. am dros
daiSala da gauqmda farnavazis mier daarsebuli TiTqmis aTaswlovani
qarTuli saxelmwifo, sparselebma qveyana dai pyres. qarTuli eklesiac,
rogorc elinofiluri eklesia, devnili iyo sparsTa mier. samagierod ki,
rogorc cnobilia, somxur eklesias Zalian mowyale TvaliT uyurebdnen
678                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
sparseTis Sahebi da Semdeg arabebi. maT is miaCndaT berZnuli eklesiis
sawinaaRmdego realur Zalad. amitomac, somxur eklesias abatonebdnen
sparseTis imperiaSi moqceul amierkavkasiel qristianebze. qarTuli da
albanuri eklesiebi VI saukunis dasawyisSi somxuri eklesiis gavlenis
sferoSi moeqcnen. am dros iwyeba swored qarTuli wmida werilis xelax-
ali redaqtireba somxuris mixedviT _ `mizezisaTa wesierebisaTa~. am pro-
cesis mizani iqneboda elinofiluri Txzulebebi qceuliyo somxofilur
Txzulebebad. saboloo mizani ki iyo _ qarTvelebs bizantiis magier ori-
entacia aeRoT sparseTze. aseTive mdgomareoba gagrZeldeboda VII sauku-
neSic. marTalia, VI saukunis bolos saqarTvelo kvlav gaerTianda da
saxelmwifoebrioba aRsdga, magram erekle keisarma Seaferxa misi gaZliereba.
sparsTa damarcxebis Semdeg, ereklem `unia~ Sekra somxur eklesiasTan da
is kvlav gaabatona. erekle da saerTod bizantia, didi mowiwebiTa da
ridiT epyrobodnen somxur eklesias VII saukuneSi. amitomac VII saukune-
Sic qarTuli wignebis somxuris mixedviT redaqtirebas veraferi daabrkoleb-
da (Cven amis Sesaxeb vwerdiT sxvadasxva TavebSi).
   swored am dros VI-IX saukuneebSi sparsTa da arabTa batonobis dros
unda `Targmniliyo~, anu rac igivea redaqtirebuliyo (Zvel qarTulad
`Targmna~ redaqtirebasac aRniSnavda), ukve arsebuli qarTuli saistorio
Txzulebani, kerZod ki, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali, `ambavi qarTvelTa
mefeTani~. marTlac, `mefeTa ambavi~ da `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali ise-
Ti armenofiluri tendenciebiT aris gaJRenTili, rom SeuZlebelia aRniSn-
uli saukuneebis garda CvenSi odesme Seqmniliyo pirobebi msgavsi qmedebi-
saTvis, garda XVII-XVIII saukuneebisa.
   isini, romelnic aredaqtirebdnen Zvel wignebs, marTlac rom `gularZ-
nilni da manqanani~ yofilan. es kargad Cans `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavl-
idan. aq sxvadasxva xerxebiT (`manqanebiT~) damcrobilia yovelive qarTu-
li. sazogadod miCneulia, rom am nawilis avtori aris leonti mroveli,
rac ase ar unda iyos. qarTuli erovnuli Tavmoyvareobis Semlaxveli
Txzuleba qarTuli saxelmwifos damxobisa da saqarTvelos kulturul
cxovrebaSi ucxoelTa batonobis dros unda Seqmniliyo, xolo Semdeg dros
is, rogorc WeSmariteba (`Zveli ambavi~), gaimeores sxva avtorebma.
   „qarTlis cxovrebis“ am redaqciebis mixedviT qarTvelebi arian yvela
erze uborotesni, uwminduri znisani saZageli cxovrebiT mcxovrebni, mkvdris
gvamis mWamelni, amitomac usaflavoni, naTesavTa armcnobni. marTalia, TiTqosda
qarTvelebi aseTni iyvnen aleqsandre makedonelis saqarTveloSi Semosv-
lamde, magram amis Semdegac mainc Wamdnen im kacis gvams, romelsac kerpebs
msxverplad swiravdnen.
   am Txzulebis Tanaxmad, zemoT aRniSnulis garda, qarTvelebi samxedro
ZaliTac ise Zlierebi ar arian, rogorc mezobeli somexi xalxi. am xalxis
gavlenis qveS arian da aRiareben kidec im xalxs uzenaesad.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   679
   gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, rom „qarTlis cxovrebis“ SesavalSi qarTu-
li enac damcrobilia. es ena TiTqosda axali enaa, ara babilonis godolis
dangrevis dros RvTis mier Seqmnili, rodesac bibliis Tanaxmad Seiqmna
sazogadod yvela ena, aramed TiTqosda qarTuli ena Seqmnilia eqvsi sxva-
dasxva xalxis enebis stiqiuri aRrevis Sedegad, maT Soris somexi xalxis
enis meoxebiTac.
   da es yovelive saukuneTa manZilze meordeboda qarTvelTa mTavar saist-
orio wignSi. es gasaocari movlena, marTlac, imiT SeiZleba aixsnas, rom
`naTesavi Cveni wrfeli iyo da umanko~ _ rogorc giorgi mcire werda.
aRniSnuli koncefcia srulebiT gansxvavdeboda sxvebisagan, magaliTad, TviT
macxovari qarTvel ers `sazepuro~, RvTisagan rCeuls uwodebda `wmida
andrias cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad. amitomac aseTi urTierTgamomricxveli kon-
cefciebi sxvadasxva wyaroebidan momdinareobs da ar aixsneba imiT, TiTqosda
aRniSnuli damamcirebeli siyalbe Seiqmna qristianobis rolis gazrdis
mizniT. qarTvelebi, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, qarTlosis STamomavle-
bi arian, romelTa Sesaxebac Tavis TxzulebaSi wers leonti mroveli: _
`aqamomdis qarTlosianTa ena somxuri iyo, romelTa zraxvides xolo odes
Semokrbes ese uricxvni naTesavni qarTlsa Sina, maSin qarTvelTaca dau-
teves ena somxuri. da amaT yovelTa naTesavTagan Seiqmna ena qarTuli~.
   `...da ipyres sjuli uborotesi yovelTa naTesavTaca, rameTu col-qmrobi-
saTvis ara uCndaT naTesaoba da yovelsa suliersa Wamdes, saflavi ara iyo,
mkudarsa SesWamdes~.91 da Semdeg `...iyvnen qarTls esreT aRreul ese yovelni
naTesavni da izraxeboda qarTlsa Sina eqvsi ena: somxuri, qarTuli, xaza-
ruli, asuruli, ebrauli da berZnuli. ese enani icodes yovelTa mefeTa
qarTlisaTa, mamaTa da dedaTa~.92
   sainteresoa, rom sul ramdenime striqonis Semdeg kvlav meordeba zemoT
moyvanili Tvalsazrisi aleqsandre makedonelTan dakavSirebiT: `aman
aleqsandre dai pyrna yovelni kideni qveynisani... movida qarTlad da povna
yovelni qarTvelni uborotes yovelTa naTesavTa sjuliTa, rameTu col-
qmrobisa da siZvisaTvis ara unda naTesaoba, yovelsa suliersa Wamdes,
mkvdarsa SesWamdes, viTarca mxecni da pirutyvni, romelTa qcevisa war-
moTqma uxm ars~.93
   aleqsandre makedonelis wasvlis Semdeg qarTvelebs odnav SeucvliaT
Tavisi Cveva _ `da radgan warvida aleqsandre, arRara Wamdes kacsa Tvin-
ier romel Seswirian kerpsa msxverplad~.94
   SeiZleboda zemoT moyvanili erovnuli Tavmoyvareobis Semlaxveli cnobebi
qarTvelTa TviTkritikadac migveCnia da raime gamamarTlebeli mizezi mogve-
Zebna, aqve, am cnobebis gverdiT rom ar iyos gasaocari qeba yovelive somxurisa.
   `leonti mrovelis~ Txzulebis aRniSnuli nawili mTlianad gaJRenTilia
ideiT, rom somxebi upiratesni arian qarTvelebze, radganac somexTa wina-
680                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
pari ufrosobda ara marto qarTvelebs, aramed saerTod kavkasielTa winapre-
bzedac. Targamosis rva vaJiSvils (gmirebs) Soris haosi ufrosi iyo:
`SvidTave gmirTa zeda iyo gamgebel da ufal haos da eseni iyvnen morCil
haosisa~.95
  somexTa winapari iseTi Zlieri `devgmiria~, rom is amarcxebs `yoveli
qveynis pirvel mefes~ _ nebroTs.
  nebroTis damarcxebis Semdeg haosi gamefda qarTvelTa winaparze da
sxva kavkasielebze _ `maSin haos hyo Tavi Tvisi mefed ZmaTa TvisTa zeda
da sxvaTaca naTesavTa zeda, maxlobelad sazRvarTa misTasa~.96
  am TxzulebaSi, rogorc vTqviT, dakninebulia saqarTvelos istoria, ker-
Zod, qarTvelebi jer somxebs emorCilebian, Semdeg xazarebsa da sparselebs,
Semdeg kvlav somxebs, xolo haosi iseTi gmiria, romlis msgavsi arc war-
Rvnamde da arc mis Semdeg ar arsebula. _ `xolo haos umetes gmiri iyo
yovelTasa, rameTu egeviTari araodes yofil iyo arca wylis-rRvnis winaT
da arca Semdgomad taniTa, ZaliTa da simxniTa~.97
  farnavaz mefis Semdeg mirianis gamefebamde, am Txzulebis Tanaxmad,
saqarTvelo somexi mefeebis xelTaa _ TiTqmis 600-700 wlis ganmavlobaSi,
amis Sesaxeb a. bogveraZe wers _ `amis Semdeg Targamosianebis, kerZod,
qarTvelebisa da somxebis cxovreba TavTavisi gziT warimarTa. qarTlosi-
anebi jer xazarebis morCilebaSi arian, mere sparselebisa~.
  `farnavazis Semdeg, romelmac Seqmna qarTvelTa samefo da `msaxurebda
antioqoss, mefesa asuristanisasa~, samxedro-politikuri upiratesoba, le-
ontis mixedviT, amierkavkasiaSi mTlianad somexi mefeebis xelTaa, romleb-
sac morCilebdnen qarTvelTa mefeebi da qarTvelebi. ase gagrZelda qarTlSi
mirianis gamefebamde. maeJan qarTlis spaspeti sparsTa mier somxeTis mooxre-
bis Semdeg ambobs: `warRebul ars somxeTi, romelsa ekida samefo Cueni~.
  `leonti aRar asaxelebs imis mizezs, Tu ram ganapiroba somexTa upirate-
soba qarTlosianebze, magram saeWvo araa, rom misi azriT, amas hqonda is
istoriul-genetikuri safuZveli, romlis ZaliTac haosi Tavis Zmebze jer
`iyo gamgebel da ufal~ da mere `mefe~.98
  `leonti mrovels~ qarTvel mefeTa cxovrebis aRweris dros uxvad gamouy-
enebia somxuri masalebi, Tqmulebebi da legendebi, vrclad saubrobs
somxuri enis gansakuTrebul rolze maSin, roca qarTuli ena, rogorc
iTqva, dakninebulia.
  a. abdalaZe wers _ `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTas~ armenofiluri tenden-
cia imiTac unda aixsnas, rom leonti mrovels, garkveuli mizezebis gamo,
mis winaSe dasaxuli miznis gansaxorcieleblad uxvad gamouyenebia somx-
uri masalebi, somxuri Tqmulebebi, legendebi~.99
  `leonti sakmaod vrclad saubrobs somxebis Zlierebaze, mis did war-
sulze, somxuri enis gansakuTrebul rolze...~100
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               681
  cnobilia, rom I-II saukuneebSi saqarTvelo amierkavkasiaSi uZlieresi
saxelmwifo iyo da masTan romis imperiac ki megobrobda. qarTvelTa jars
eWira somxeTi da somxeTis samefo taxtzec arc Tu iSviaTad qarTveli
mefeebi isxdnen. miuxedavad amisa, `leonti mrovels~ am drosac ki saqarTvelo
somxeTze damokidebul qveyanad hyavs gamoyvanili. I saukunis 30-50-ian
wlebTan dakavSirebiT, g. meliqiSvili wers _ `aSkaraa, rom `qarTlis cx-
ovrebis~ monaTxrobs am laSqrobis Sesaxeb somxuri tradicia udevs safuZ-
vlad. amaze miuTiTebs aSkara armenofiluri tendencia, romelic monaTxrobs
wiTel zolad gasdevs... `qarTlis cxovrebac~ I saukunis 70-80-iani wlebis
ambebis gadmocemisas, rogorc vTqviT, agreTve somxur tradicias eyrdnoba.101
  g. meliqiSvili wers, I saukunis miwuruls `qarTamis mefobis aRwerisas
qarTuli wyaroebi kvlav Zveli somxuri tradiciidan modian...~102
  rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ I nawils axasi-
aTebs ori mTavari tendencia:
  1. qarTvelTa erovnuli Tavmoyvareobis Selaxva;
  2. mkveTrad gamoxatuli da gadaWarbebuli armenofiloba.
  am Txzulebis armenofiluri tendencia amJamadac ki uxerxulobas iwvevs.
magaliTad, g. peCs germanulad uTargmnia `qarTlis cxovreba~ Tavisi
armenofiluri cnobebiTa da adgilebiT, rasac SeuZlia ucxoelebs mcdari
warmodgena Seuqmnas Cvens istoriazeo, _ wers al. abdalaZe: _ `raxania
mkvlevarni msjeloben, kamaToben `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Semadgeneli erT-
erTi Txzulebis, `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTas~ armenofiluri tendenciis
mizezebis Sesaxeb, magram miRebuli Sedegebi, rogorc Cans, samecniero wreebs
ar akmayofilebs. amis dasturad SeiZleba movixmoT axlaxan gamoqveynebu-
li `qarTlis cxovrebis~ g. peCiseuli germanuli Targmanic, rac TavisTa-
vad friad mniSvnelovan movlenas warmoadgens. g. peCisve mier Targman-
isadmi darTul winasityvaobasa da SeniSvnebSi `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefe-
Tas~ armenofiluri tendenciebis kvaldakval araferia naTqvami. komentare-
bis gareSea gadaTargmnili qarTuli teqstis saTanado, armenofiluri ten-
denciis amsaxveli cnobebi Tu adgilebi. am sakiTxze arsebuli arc samecni-
ero literaturaa miTiTebuli, amiT ki saqmeSi Cauxedav ucxoel mkiTxvels,
SesaZloa, mcdari warmodgena Seeqmnas Cvens uZveles istoriaze~.103
  aRsaniSnavia, rom Cveni mkvlevarebi, marTalia, didi xania ikvleven aRniS-
nuli Txzulebis rogorc armenofilur, ise qarTvelTa erovnuli Tavmoy-
vareobis Semlaxvel tendenciebs, magram ikvleven ara orive tendencias
erTad _ mTlianobaSi, aramed cal-calke, magaliTad, roca armenofilur
tendenciebs ikvleven, saerTod gverds uqceven da ar exebian qarTvelTa
damamcirebel cnobebs, xolo roca qarTvelTa damamcirebel tendenciebs
ikvleven, armenofilur cnobebs ar ganixilaven. aseTi midgoma xels ar
uwyobs WeSmaritebis dadgenas im mizezis gamo, rom radganac `qarTlis
682                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
cxovrebis~ aRniSnuli Txzuleba aris erTi mTliani naSromi, amitomac
mTlianobaSi da urTierTkavSirSi unda iqnas ganxiluli masSi arsebuli
yvela tendencia. es Txzuleba qronikebis ubralo krebuli rom iyos er-
Tiani redaqciis gareSe, maSin, cxadia, cal-calke SeiZleboda yoveli ten-
denciis ganxilva, magram radganac aRiarebulia, rom es Txzuleba aris
erTi avtoris, an yovel SeTxvevaSi erTi redaqtoris mier damuSavebuli,
misi kvlevac erTiani unda iyos.
   am Txzulebis (igulisxmeba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali) avtori (Tu
redaqtori) SemTxveviT srulebiT ar laxavs qarTul erovnul Tavmoyvar-
eobas da ganadidebs yovelive somxurs. es aris avtor-redaqtoris winaswar-
dasaxuli gezi, romelic mtkiced miiswrafis erTi garkveuli miznisaken.
   wina TavebSi vwerdiT, rom qarTvelebis armenizacia VI-VII saukuneebSi
mimdinareobda ara marto mesxeTSi, aramed qvemo qarTlSic (gugarqSi); es
procesi mimdinareobda hereTSic. iq mcxovrebi qarTuli mosaxleoba iqca
somxuri eklesiis mrevlad, ris gamoc, maT eklesiebSi Sewyvetili iyo
qarTulenovani msaxureba da danergili iyo somxurenovani. qarTuli ena
gandevnil iqna saeklesio msaxurebidan. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom
eklesia Zvel dros moicavda kulturis yvela sferos, cxadia, qarTuli
enis xmarebidan gandevna qarTuli mosaxleobis guliswyromas gamoiwvevda.
swored am dros, qarTvelTa winaaRmdegobis dacxromis mizniT, albaT, Semu-
Savda kidec Sesabamis wreebSi qarTuli enis damamcirebeli Teoria (romelic
gadmotanilia `qarTlis cxovrebis~ SesavalSi) da gavrcelda.
   magaliTad, kerZod, aq enis Sesaxeb naTqvamia, rom qarTvelebis ena Tavda-
pirvelad ara qarTuli, aramed somxuri ena iyo. qarTvelebma imis Semdeg
daanebes Tavi somxur enaze laparaks, rac SemuSavda qarTuli ena. qarTu-
li ena, am Teoriis Tanaxmad, ase Seqmnila _ saqarTveloSi cxovrobdnen
qarTvelebi (somxuri salaparako eniT), berZnebi, somxebi, ebraelebi, xazare-
bi, asurelebi da sxvebi. Semdeg am xalxebis enaTa aRrevis Sedegad Seiqmna
qarTuli ena. qarTuli enis Seqmnis Semdeg qarTvelebma miatoves somxur
enaze laparaki da daiwyes qarTuli: `aqamomdis qarTlosianTa ena somxuri
iyo, romelsa zraxvdes, xolo odes Semokrbes ese uricxvni naTesavni qarTlsa
Sina, maSin qarTvelTaca dauteves ena somxuri da amiT yovelTa naTesavTa-
gan Seiqmna ena qarTuli~.104 qarTuli enis Seqmnis Semdegac ucxo xalxebi
saqarTveloSi cxovrebas ganagrZobdnen.
   Zvelad yovelma ubralo, rigiTma qristianmac ki icoda, rom yoveli ena
Seqmnilia RvTis mier, babilonis godolis dangrevisas. zemoT moyvanili
qarTuli enis Rirsebis damamcirebeli Teoriis gavrcelebis Semdeg,
qarTvelebs arwmunebdnen, rom qarTuli ena RvTis mier ki ar aris Seqmnili,
aramed es ena aris sxvadasxva enaTa stiqiuri aRrevis Sedegad axalSeqm-
nili ena, xolo am enis Seqmnamde qarTvelebi RvTisagan Seqmnil somxur
enaze metyvelebdnen.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              683
  swored es weria `qarTlis cxovrebis~ SesavalSi.
  am Teoriis gavrcelebis dros ar SeiZleboda ar gamoCeniliyo sapir-
ispiro Teoria da marTlac, qarTuli eklesia gavlenis sferoebisaTvis
enaTa WidilSi aqtiurad monawileobda. amas miuTiTebs arseboba Teoriisa,
romelsac ewodeba `qebaA da didebaA qarTulisa enisaA~. am Teoriis Tanax-
mad, qarTuli ena araTu RvTis mier aris Seqmnili, aramed qarTuli ena
saRmrTo enaa, romelzedac isaubrebs da romliTac ganikiTxavs ieso qriste
meored mosvlis dros mkvdreTiT aRmdgar adamianebs. es rom namdvilad
asea, amas miuTiTebs mravali niSani, kerZod, qarTuli ena sxva enebis gaCe-
namde 104 Tu 94 wliT adrea Seqmnili.
  `saswaulad ese aqvs asoTxi weli umetes sxvaTa enaTa qristes mosvliT-
gan dResamomde~.105 aqvea miTiTebuli sxva niSnebic qarTuli enis RvTiuri
warmoSobis dasadastureblad da agreTve am enis araTu sxva enebze nakle-
bobis, aramed upiratesobis dasamtkiceblad.
  yvela qarTvels, romelnic aRniSnul pirobebSi cxovrobdnen da Tavisi
TvaliT uyurebdnen qarTuli enis gandevnas eklesiidan da kulturis yve-
la sferodan, ar SeeZloT daejerebinaT am devnili qarTuli enis upirate-
soba sxvaTa enaze. swored maTTvis naTqvamia iqve, rom marTalia, amJamad
qarTuli ena damdablebulia da dawunebulia, magram es srulebiT ar
niSnavs imas, rom qarTuli ena mdabali enaa, ara, es ena uflis saxeliTaa
kurTxeuli, magram amJamad igi uflis mier Senaxulia (`damarxul ars~) da
daZinebulia (`mZinare ars~), raTa meored mosvlisas yvela ena (e.i. yvela
eri) am eniT ganikiTxos ufalmao (e.i. gadmocemulia im drois realuri
suraTi: ena damdablebul-dawunebulia) _ `damarxul ars ena qarTuli
dRemde meored mosvlisa mesiisa sawamebelad, raTa yovelsa enasa RmerTman
amxilos amiT eniTa da ese enaA mZinare dResamomde... da ese enaA Semkuli
da kurTxeuli saxeliTa uflisaTa mdabali da dawunebuli _ moelis
dResa mas meored mosvlasa uflisasa~.106
  saerTod, es Txzuleba antigrigorianuli suliskveTebiTaa gaJRenTili,
rac iqidan Cans, rom masSi qarTvelTa momaqcevlad dasaxelebulia ara
wmida grigori, rogoradac saxavda VI-VII saukuneebSi somxuri eklesia,
aramed berZenTa dedofali elene (romis imperator konstantines deda) da
wmida nino. es miuTiTebs, rom Txzuleba elinofiluria da am Tavisi mimarT-
ulebiTac somxuri eklesiis sawinaaRmdego. `axalman nino moaqcia da helene
dedofalman~.
  qarTuli ena araa Rirsi damdablebisa (rogoradac amdablebda mas fsevdo-
leonti mroveli) da dawunebisa, radganac `yoveli saidumlo amasa enasa
Sina damarxul ars~, _ weria iq.
  wmida saxarebidan cnobilia, rom lazare gardacvalebis Semdeg oTxi
dRe ido saflavSi da iqve darCeboda meored mosvlamde, ufal ieso qristes
rom ar enebebina misi gacocxleba.
684                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   qarTul enasac swored iseve Zinavs, rogorc eZina lazares. qarTul
enas saxarebaSi lazare hqvia (e.i. lazare qarTuli enis simboloa), radg-
anac qarTuli ena swored iseve aRsdgeba, rogorc aRsdga lazare `da ese
enaA mZinare ars dResamomde da saxarebasa Sina mas enasa lazare hqvian~.
wmida saxarebidan cnobilia, rom ufali ieso qriste iyo megobari lazare-
si da misi debisa _ mariamisa da marTasi. ieso qristec megobaria qarTuli
enisa (e.i. lazaresi) da es megobroba imiT mtkicdeba, rom yoveli saidum-
lo qarTul enaSia Senaxuli.
   `qebaA da didebaA~ qebaa ara marto qarTuli enisa, aramed qarTuli
anbanisa da qarTuli wmida wignebisa (maTes saxarebisa). amas didi mniS-
vneloba hqonda, radganac mesxeTSi (igulisxmeba tao da sxvadasxva kuTxee-
bi), gugarqSi da hereTSi eklesiebSi somxurenovani msaxurebis danergvis
dros ganidevna qarTulenovani wignebi da dainerga `maStocis da wmida
grigoris wesi da msaxureba~, e.i somxurenovani wignebiT somxurenovani
msaxureba (wirva-locva). aseT dros gancxadebas imisas, rom qarTul sax-
arebas (kerZod, maTesas) aqvs idumali, saRvTo winaswarmetyveluri niSnebi,
didi mniSvneloba hqonda.
   unda aRiniSnos, rom VI-VII saukuneebis ZiriTad periodebSi qarTuli da
somxuri eklesiebi TiTqmis erTi da igive sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebisa
iyvnen (ganxeTqileba, `ganyofa~ am or eklesias Soris moxda 607-609 wlebSi,
xolo erekle keisris laSqrobis Semdeg somxurma eklesiam `unia~ Sekra
bizantiur (e.i. CvenTanac) eklesiasTan, amitom zemoT aRniSnuli metoqeoba
am dros (VIIs.) ideologiurad uzrunvelyofili ar iyo (ar hqonda iseTi
aSkarad gamoxatuli erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi saxe, rogoric VIII saukunis
Semdeg). swored am mdgomareobis gamo, SeiZleba iTqvas, totaluri arme-
nizaciis dros, qarTvelTa wmida wignebzec ki xeli miuwvdebodaT armeno-
filebs. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali da `ambavi mefeTanis~ somxofiluri
redaqciis arsebobac am mizeziT aris gamowveuli.
   miiCneva, rom swored `somxur-qalkedonurma~ versiam, romelic VII sauku-
niT TariRdeba, safuZveli daudo `leonti mrovelis~ erT-erT sqemas _
`gavrcelebulia Tvalsazrisi, TiTqos arqauli nawilis, e.w. eTnarqebis sqe-
ma mTlianad XI saukunisaa. masSi areklilia kavkasiis xalxTa megobrobis
am saukunis idea. kritikuli Seswavla ki mowmobs, rom es sqema metad
Zvelia. Tavisi faqturiT igi misdevs da emTxveva imas, rasac vicnobT
`xalxTa warmomavlobis~ wignis somxuri qalkedonuri versiiT, romelic
VII saukuniT TariRdeba.107
   `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sedgenilobidan Cans, rom qarTvelebs Tavdapirve-
lad hqoniaT TavianTi istoriis qronikebi an Canawerebi. aseve Tqmulebebi
da erovnuli istoriis folkloruli Zeglebi. SesaZlebelia isini Sekre-
bili da erT qronologiur sistemaSic iyo moyvanili da Txzulebis saxe
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                685
hqonda, magram VI-VII saukuneebSi armenofilebs es ZvelqarTuli istoriu-
li Txzuleba uredaqtirebiaT, misTvis miuciaT mkveTrad gamoxatuli ar-
menofiluri saxe. `cnobilia, rom leonti mrovelma Tavisi moTxroba qarTlis
gaqristianebis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad `moqcevaAdan~ aiRo. rac Seexeba wa-
rmarTobis xanis istorias, kerZod, aleqsandre makedonelis Semosvlis
epizods, k. kekeliZis azriT, igi uSualod `moqcevaA qarTlisaAdan~ ar
momdinareobs, aramed VII-VIII saukuneebis romeliRac istoriuli Txzule-
bidan, romelic unda iyos wyaro TviT `moqcevaA qarTlisaAsTvisac~.108
  swored aleqsandre makedonelis Semosvlis epizodi, romelsac k. kekel-
iZe VII-VIII saukuneebis romeliRac istoriuli Txzulebidan aRebulad
Tvlis, Seicavs qarTvelTa Zlier uaryofiT Sefasebas. aq qarTvelebi sxva-
dasxva uwmindur zneTa mqoned arian gamoyvanilni.
  mose xoreneli qalkedonituri mimarTulebis moRvawed iyo miCneuli.
amitomac mas somexi qalkedonitebi pativs scemdnen, xolo VII saukuneSi
mTeli somxuri eklesiis TiTqmis qalkedonituri mimarTulebis gamo is
mTel somxeTSi iqneboda pativcemuli. miCneulia, rom swored xorenacis
istorias gavlena hqonda leonti mrovelis istoriaze.
  `somxeTis istoriaSi~, sadac daxasiaTebulia artaSes II-is (33-20 ww. Zv.w.)
moRvaweoba, naTqvamia: `msgavsad CrdiloeTis qveynebisa (CvenSic) mkvdris
WamiobiT da sxva amisTanebiT cxovrobdnen. da ese yoveli mowesrigda
dReTa Sina artaSesisa~. rogorc vxedavT, aseTi `codva~ leonti mrovels
ar Caudenia. aqedan im daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba, rom erT-erTi wyaro
fsevdokalistenes `aleqsandrianTan~ erTad, leonti mrovelisTvis Sei-
Zleba yofiliyo movses xorenacis `somxeTis istoriac~. albaT, es adgili
hqonda mxedvelobaSi q. patkanovs, rodesac werda, rom cnoba `uwmindur
zneTa~ Sesaxeb `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ zoroastrizmisa da movses xorena-
cis gavleniT gaCndao~.109
  armenofilebs qarTvelTa saistorio Txzulebis redaqtirebis dros xelT
hqoniaT xorenacis `istoria~, romlis gavlena etyoba kidec `leonti mrov-
elis~ Txzulebas _ `leonti, ueWvelia, icnobda movses xorenacis `somxeTis
istorias~ (misi terminologiiT `cxovrebas somxeTisa~), romelSic somexTa
mamamTavari haiki, anu leontis enaze haosi, aseve Targamosianad aris
gamoyvanili. magram Tu xorenaciT haoss Zmebi ar hyolia, leontim kavkasi-
is xalxebis mamamTavrebi (eTnarqosebi) haosis umcros Zmebad gamoacxada
da amiT aRniSnuli xalxebis naTesaobis originaluri koncefcia Seqmna.110
  rogorc aRiniSna, armenofiluri redaqtirebisas `qarTlis cxovrebis~
Sesavalsa da `mefeTa cxovrebaSi~ uxvad CaurTavT somxuri masalebi, somx-
uri Tqmulebebi, legendebi, aq armenofilebi saubroben somxebis Zliereba-
ze, mis did warsulze, somxuri enis gansakuTrebul rolze,111 aq saubaria
imis Sesaxeb, rom somxebi upiratesni arian qarTlosianebze, rasac TiTqos-
686                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
da istoriul-genetikuri safuZveli hqonda. haosi qarTvelebisaTvis `iyo
ganmgebel da ufal~ da mere `mefe~. haosianebs TiTqosda istoriulad
`marTebdaT ufloba~ qarTlosianebisa, amitomac iyo, rom somex-qarTvelTa
omebSi qarTvelTa calkeuli warmatebis miuxedavad, sabolood gamarjveba
somxebs unda darCenodaT da rCebodaT kidec leontis Tanaxmad. es kon-
cefcia leontim somxebis siyvaruliT ki ar SeimuSava, aramed xorenacis
Txzulebidan gamomdinare Seqmna.112
   `qarTlis cxovrebis~ dawerili nawilis armenofiluri redaqcia Sesa-
Zlebeli iyo gansakuTrebiT VI-VIII saukuneebSi, radganac es periodi umZi-
mesi iyo qarTveli xalxis istoriaSi.
   g. anCabaZe wers _ `VI-VIII saukuneebi saqarTvelos istoriaSi erT-erTi
yvelaze mZime xana iyo. feodaluri urTierTobis ganmtkiceba-ganviTarebis
periodi CvenSi daemTxva saSinao da sagareo politikuri viTarebis mkveTr
gauaresebas. gafeodalebuli erisTavebi ar epuebodnen centralur xelisu-
flebas. qveyanas gars ekra Zlieri da agresiuli saxelmwifoebi: bizantiis
imperia, xazarTa samefo da sasanuri iranis adgilze aRmocenebuli arabTa
saxalifo. mZime krizisSi imyofeboda TviT qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobac,
romelic am droisaTvis Tavisi istoriis meore aTwleuls iTvlida. VII
saukunis bolos gaqra samefo Zalaufleba lazikaSi, ufro adre ki _
qarTlSi. adgilobrivi mmarTvelebi ucxoeli dampyroblebis SiSiT mefis
tituls veRar atarebdnen. daqsaqsuli, politikur damoukideblobas mok-
lebuli, gauTavebeli omebiT sisxlisagan daclili, daxarkuli xalxi, ioane
sabanisZis sityviT, `iryeoda viTarca lerwami qarTagan ZlierTa~. gaxSir-
da renegatobis SemTxvevebi...~113
   hqondaT Tu ara qarTvelebs VI-VII saukuneebamde saistorio Txzule-
bani? SeuZlebelia qarTvelebs IV-V saukuneebSi ar hqonodaT istoriuli
nawarmoebebi da Canawerebi. amaze miuTiTebs TviT `mefeTa cxovreba~. Tu am
Txzulebas Cven CamovacliT armenofilur Canamatebs da saerTod, gavw-
mendT armenofiluri redaqciisagan, SeiZleba miviRoT V saukunemdeli qarTve-
li xalxis istoriis SesaniSnavi Tanadrouli wyaro. `saqarTvelos Zveli
istoriis amsaxveli qarTuli saistorio Txzulebis, `mefeTa cxovrebis~
bevri cnoba berZnul-romauli da somxuri wyaroebiT, arqeologiuri da
epigrafikuli masaliT dadasturda, ris Semdegac `mefeTa cxovrebis~, rogorc
saistorio wyaros Sesaxeb, Zveli Sexeduleba Seicvala~.114
   `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~-dan Cans, rom masSi Sesulia VI saukunemde dawer-
ili qronikebi. m. CxartiSvilma gamoarkvia, rom wmida ninos cxovreba IV
saukuneSive dawerila saqarTveloSi.
   V saukuneSi somxeTSi mravali istorikosi moRvaweobda. Cans, am dros Cvens
mezobel albanel xalxsac hyavda Tavisi istorikosebi. `Zveli msoflios
istoriis~ III tomSi amis Sesaxeb naTqvami yofila _ `rogorc Cans, albanelebs
mokle drois ganmavlobaSi hyavdaT TavianTi Zveli istorikosebi~.115
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              687
  qarTveli xalxis ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebrioba, romelic VI sauku-
nisaTvis TiTqmis aTaswlovani iyo, moiTxovda Tavisi istorikosebis arse-
bobas, gansakuTrebiT ki gaqristianebis Semdeg.
  p. ingoroyvam gamoarkvia, rom `mefeTa cxovrebaSi~ Sesulia uZvelesi
folkloruli masalebi. xalxuri saleqso formiT yofila dawerili ar-
qauli xasiaTis folkloruli Zeglebi _ `brZola qarTvelTa mefisa mir-
vanisa da durZukTa~, Tqmulebani farnavazze, `glova qarTvelTa mefisa
farsman qvelisa~, `brZola gmirTa da sastikeba haerisa~.116 unda vifiqroT,
rom qarTuli folkloruli Zeglis `brZola gmirTas~ mTavar gmirad Tx-
zulebis armenofiluri redaqciis dros haosi iqca.
  `leonti mrovelis~ TxzulebaSi SeiZleba aRmovaCinoT azrobrivi sxva-
dasxvaobani, magaliTad, is genealogia eTnarqebisa, romelic gadmocemulia
`ambavi rvaTa ZmaTaSi~ srulebiT gansxvavdeba `cxovreba farnavazisaSi~
SefarviT arsebul genealogiisagan. `farnavazis cxovrebaSi~ SefarviT
arsebobs aseTi genealogia _ qarTlosi (romlis adgilzec farnavazia im
droisaTvis) Tavi da `ufali~ aris yvela qarTvelisa, maT Soris megreleb-
isac (egrosi _ quji). megrelTa meTauri quji eubneba farnavazs _ `Sen xar
Svili TavTa maT qarTlisaTa da Sen gmarTebs ufleba Cemi... Sen xar ufali
Cveni da me var mona Seni~.117
  ratom marTebs farnavazs megrelTa meTauris qujis `ufleba~, ratom
aris quji mona farnavazisa, xolo farnavazi misi ufali? am kiTxvas TviT
quji pasuxobs _ imitom, rom farnavazi Svilia qarTlisa TavTa, e.i. `qarT-
lis Tavebi~ egrisis `uflebi~ arian istoriulad.
  farnavazis `cxovrebaSi~ gadmocemuli genealogia aSkarad miuTiTebs,
rom egrosis (megrelTa eTnarqis) `ufali~ aris qarTlosi. maSin, roca
`ambavi rvaTa ZmaTasaSi~ gadmocemuli genealogia sruliad gansxvavebu-
lia. aq egrosis `ufali~ aris ara qarTlosi, aramed haosi (ise, rogorc
sxva Zmebisa) _ `amaT SvidTave gmirTa zeda iyo gamgebel da ufal haos da
ese yovelni iyvnes morCil haosisa~.118
  maSasadame, am TxzulebaSi gadmocemulia ori srulebiT erTmaneTisagan
gansxvavebuli genealogia eTnarqebisa, erTis mixedviT, egrosis `ufali~ aris
qarTlosi, meoris mixedviT, egrosis `ufali~ aris haosi. am ori genealogi-
idan ufro Zveli unda iyos is, romelSic egrosis uflad qarTlosia gamocx-
adebuli, aseTi azris gamoTqmis uflebas iZleva sxva uZvelesi wyaro _
`moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, aqac igive genealogiuri Tvalsazrisia gadmocemuli.
  saerTod, qarTuli saistorio Txzulebani `qarTlis cxovreba~ iqneba is
mTlianobaSi, `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~, arseni beris Tu sxvaTa naSromebi, Sei-
cavs Tvalsazriss, romelic gamudmebiT da dabejiTebiT meordeba maTSi,
rom qarTvelTa saxelmwifos sazRvari yovelTvis gadioda mdinare egrisw-
yalsa da Sav zRvaze (farnavazidan vidre arCilis CaTvliT), samegrelo
688                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
yovelTvis qarTvelTa saxelmwifos SigniT mdebareobs, es ki niSnavs, rom
megrelebic iseTive qarTvelebad arian miCneulni, rogorc saqarTvelos
sxva kuTxeTa mcxovrebni. am Tvalsazrisidan ki srulebiT gansxvavdeba is
Tvalsazrisi, romelic `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenizebul SesavalSi _
`ambavi rvaTa ZmaTaSia~ mocemuli. aq gansxvavebiT erovnul-qarTuli Tval-
sazrisisagan gadmocemulia, rom megrelebi iseTive eTnikur siaxloveSia
qarTvelebTan (qarTlelebTan), rogorc somxebTan da sxva kavkasiel tomebTan.
e.i megrelebi, qarTebi (qarTlelebi), somxebi da sxva tomebi erTnair eTni-
kur naTesaur kavSirSi imyofebian. isini Zmebi _ `Tvisni~ arian. maSin roca,
rogorc vTqviT, qarTuli uZvelesi erovnuli TvalsazrisiT, qarTvelebi
erTiani xalxia, xolo megrelebi iseve arian qarTvelebi, rogorc qarTlelebi,
xolo somxebi ki srulebiT ucxo xalxia.
   SeiZleba `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri redaqciis dros masSi
aisaxa ramdenadme gamZafrebuli saxe im eTnikuri suraTisa, romelic qarTvel
xalxs gaaCnda VI-VIII saukuneebSi, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos gauqmebis
Semdeg. cnobilia, rom erovnuli saxelmwifos arseboba aucilebeli pirobaa
xalxis erTian erad (naciad) Camoyalibeba-arsebobisaTvis. amitomac, unda
vifiqroT, rom erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos arsebobis droidan, far-
navazidan _ vaxtang gorgasalis CaTvliT, qarTveli xalxi arsebobda da
erTiani iyo. am xalxSi Sedioda megrelebic, xolo imis Semdeg, rac VI
saukuneSi erTiani saxelmwifo gauqmda, VII saukuneSi arabebi SemoiWrnen,
xolo VIII saukunis dasawyisSi arsebulma katastrofam zRvramde miaRwia,
daiwyo qarTveli xalxis denacionalizaciis procesi. qarTveli xalxi
`iryeva viTarca lerwami qarTagan ZlierTa~, qarTvelebi mahmadiandebian,
rac `qarTvelobis~ uaryofasac niSnavda. qarTvelebi somxuri eklesiis
mrevli xdebian (monofizituri somxuri eklesiis, Tu diofizitur-monoTel-
ituri somxuri eklesiisa), rac armenizacias niSnavda. garda amisa, dasavleT
saqarTveloSi adgilobrivi saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebi swored maSin Zlier-
deboda, roca centraluri, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo sustdeboda, kerZod,
maSin, roca VI saukunis dasawyisSi erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo gauqmda,
dasavleT saqarTveloSi asparezze gamovida egrisis samefo. misi didi
nawilis bizantielTa mier aneqsiam xeli Seuwyo aqaurebis tomobriv gan-
calkevebas erTiani qarTveli xalxisagan _ es iyo denacionalizaciis er-
Tiani procesis mxare. Cans, am dros megruli dialeqti kidev ufro Sordeba
erTian fuZe qarTul enas da is ukve damoukidebel enad yalibdeba. `megru-
li ena~, rogorc calke ena, ukve moixseneba daviT da konstantines `wamebaSi~.
aseve iTqmis saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi mcxovreblebzec.
   arabTa Semosevas iseTi didi xalxis denacionalizaciac ki gamouwvevia,
rogoric iyo sparseli xalxi, amitomac arabTa Semosevis gamo mosalodne-
li iyo kidec qarTveli xalxis denacionalizacia. magram es procesi
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 689
mxolod dawyebula da ver dasrulda sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo, kerZod,
qarTulma eklesiam SeZlo qalkedonitur mimarTulebaze dayrdnobiT da
erovnuli TviTSegnebis gaRvivebis saSualebiT qarTveloba gaeerTianebina.
marTalia, Semdeg VIII-X saukuneebSi Seiqmna saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTx-
eebSi erovnul-qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebi, magram maT, tao-klar-
jeTis, afxazeTis da kaxeT-hereTis samefoebs, aerTianebda qarTuli eklesia
erTiani qalkedonituri sarwmunoebiT _ amiT ki `qarTveloba~ kvlav er-
Tiani iyo. e.i. denacionalizaciis procesi ar gaRrmavda, is male Sewyda.
qarTveli xalxi kvlav mTlianad arsebobda. denacionalizaciis VI-VIII
saukuneebSi arsebulma saxem uTuod gavlena iqonia `ambavi rvaTa ZmaTaSi~
gadmocemul suraTze.
   rogorc iTqva, `moqcevaA qarTlisaA~ da `ambavi mefeTani~ erTmaneTisagan
Zlier gansxvavdebian maTSi gadmocemuli TvalsazrisiT qarTveli xalxis
Tavdapirveli istoriis Sesaxeb. `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tanaxmad, qarTvelebi
gadmosaxldnen samxreTiT mdebare samSoblodan, romelsac `arian-qarTli~
erqva, `ambavi mefeTaAs~ mixedviT ki, qarTveli xalxi adgilze _ saqarTveloSive
Camoyalibda qarTlosis STamomavlebis gamravlebis Sedegad. `moqcevaAs~
Tanaxmad, qarTveli xalxi gadmosaxlebis dros dasaxlda vrcel terito-
riaze mdinare egriswylidan vidre hereTis CaTvliT. am teritoriaze
mxolod qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen _ e.i. megrelebi qarTvelebi arian ise,
rogorc yvela adgilobrivi mkvidri mcxovrebi aRniSnul sazRvrebSi. `am-
bavi mefeTanis~ Tanaxmad ki, qarTlosis STamomavlebi arian qarTvelebi,
xolo megrelebs TavianTi eTnarqi hyavT, anu megrelebi qarTlosis STamo-
mavlebi ar arian. `moqcevaAs~ Tanaxmad, samxreTidan gadmosaxlebul
qarTvelebs saqarTveloSi daxvdaT ucxo tomebi, romlebic iyvnen veluri
da saZageli cxovrebiT mcxovrebni. `ambavi mefeTanis~ Tanaxmad ki, velure-
bi da saZageli cxovrebiT mcxovrebni TviTon qarTvelebi iyvnen.
   `moqcevaAdan~ TavisTavad igulisxmeba, rom samxreTidan gadmosaxlebuli
qarTvelebis ena iyo qarTuli ena, amas adasturebs arseni beri, roca wers:
`Cven qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da maTi ena
uwyiT~.119 `ambavi mefeTanis~ Tanaxmad ki, Tavdapirvelad qarTveli xalxis
mSobliuri ena iyo ara qarTuli, aramed somxuri ena, TiTqosda qarTuli ena
mogvianebiT Camoyalibda sxvadasxva enaTa aRrevis Sedegad.
   `moqcevaA qarTlisaASi~ ar Cans raime tendencia sxva erebis, an Tundac
qarTvelTa mimarT. aq istoria bunebrivi mdinarebiT aRiwereba. `ambavi
mefeTani~ ki xasiaTdeba mkveTrad gamoxatuli tendenciurobiT, rogorc
ucxo xalxis, ise qarTvelTa mimarT. kerZod, `ambavi mefeTani~ antiberZnuli
(antiromauli) da prosparsuli mimarTulebisaa, rom araferi vTqvaT somx-
ofilobasa da qarTvelTa augze. antiberZnuloba (anu, rac igivea im droi-
saTvis, antiromauloba) imiT gamoixateba, rom pirveli mefe azoni aris
690                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
romaelTa (anu `berZenTa~) warmomadgeneli, romelsac ar uyvars qarTvele-
bi da a.S. moviyvanoT Sesabamisi adgilebi `moqcevaA qarTlisaAdan~120 (Zve-
li qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi, I, 1964 w.) da `ambavi
mefeTanidan~.121

  `moqcevai qarTlisai~                     `qarTlis cxovreba~
  qarTvelTa gadmosaxleba                  qarTvelTa eTnogenezisi

`Tana-hyvanda aleqsandres mefesa azo,   `pirvelad vaxsenoT ese rameTu somex-
Ze arian-qarTlisa mefisa, da mas mi-    Ta da qarTvelTa, ranTa da movaknelTa,
uboZa mcxeTa sajdomad da sazRvari       herTa da lekTa, megrelTa da kavka-
daudva mas hereTi da egriswyali da      sianTa _ amiT TvisTa erTi iyo mama,
somxiTi da mTa crolisa da warvi-        saxeliT Targamos... misca qarTloss
da, xolo es azo warvida arian qarT-     da uCina sazRvari: aRmosavliT hereTi
lad, mamisa Tvisisa da warmoiyvana      da mdinare berdujisi, dasavliT zRva
rva saxli da aTni saxlni _ mama         pontosi... da CrdiloT sazRvari Rado,
mZuZeTani da dajda Zvel mcxeTas~        mTa mcire... romelsa aw hqvian lixi...
(gv.81). aqedan Cans, rom qarTvelTa     xolo egriss misca qveyana zRvis
dasaxlebis dasavleTi sazRvari ga-       yurisa da uCina sazRvari... dasavliT
dis mdinare egriswyalze.                zRva, CrdiloT mdinare mcirisa xaz-
                                        areTisa (gv. 5). aqedan ki Cans, rom
                                        `qarTvelTa~ (qarTlosis STamomaval-
                                        Ta) dasaxlebis dasavleTi sazRvari
                                        gadis lixis mTaze, xolo megrelTa
                                        dasavleTi sazRvari gadis lixis
                                        mTaze, xolo megrelTa dasavleTi
                                        sazRvari gadis mcire xazareTis
                                        mdinareze. TviT `qarTlis cxovreba-
                                        Si~ sxvagan ki naCvenebia, rom sazR-
                                        vari qarTvelTa saxelmwifosi (qa-
                                        rTlisa) mudam gadioda mdinare
                                        egriswyalze. azrobrivi sxvaoba Tval-
                                        saCinoa.
   saqarTveloSi velurebi
                                         TviT qarTvelebi velurebi
  cxovrobdnen qarTvelebis
                                                  iyvnen
         mosvlamde
 `pirvel, odes aleqsandre mefeman        `aqamomdis qarTlosianTa ena somxu-
 naTesavni igi loTis SvilTani wa-       ri iyo, romelsa zraxvides, xolo
 riqcina da Sexadna igi kedarsa mas     odes Semokrbes ese uricxvni naTe-
 qveyanasa, ixilna naTesavni sastikni   savni qarTlsa Sina, maSin qarTvelTa-
 bunTurqni, msxdomareni mdinaresa       ca dauteves ena somxuri. da amaT
 zeda mtkvarsa... daukuirda aleqsan-    yovelTa naTesavTagan Seqmna ena
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                      691

dres da cna, rameTu ieboselTa naTe-     qarTuli. da ipyres sjuli uborote-
savni iyvnes, yovelsa xorcielsa Wa-     si yovelTa naTesavTaca, rameTu col-
mdes da samare maTi ara iyo, mkv-       qmrobisaTvis ara uCndaT naTesaoba
darsa SeSWamdes~ ... (gv. 81) Semos-
                                        da yovelsa suliersa Wamdes, safla-
vlis Semdeg maT SeebrZola aleqsan-
dre. xolo isini, `meot iqmnnes~, saq-   vi ara iyo mkvdarsa SesWamdes... (gv.16).
arTvelodan gaiqcnen.

azo qarTvelTa pirveli mcxeTeli          azo aris makedoneli (berZeni), mas
mefea qarTvel mefeTa Ze. qarTveli       romaeli jariskacebi hyavs, ar uyvars
xalxi Camoyalibda ara azos dros,        qarTvelebi. aleqsandre qarTvelebs
aramed manamdec qarTvelebs Tavian-      `...dauteva maT zeda patrikad saxeliT
Ti saxelmwifo hqondaT, samxreTiT,       azon, Ze iaredosi, naTesavi misi _ qvey-
iq Tavisi mefeebic hyavdaT, azo qa-     aniT makedoniT, da misca asi aTasi
rTveli mefis Zea _ `Ze arian _ qarT-    kaci qveyaniT hromiT... dauteva qarTls
lis mefisaA... ese iyo pirveli mefe     erisTavad azon da mis Tana spani igi,
mcxeTas Sina azoi, Ze arian qarTv-      mpyrobelad qarTlisa... aman azon
elTa mefisa...~ (gv.31-82).             moarRvivna zRudeni qalaqsa mcxeTas
                                        safuZvliTurT... da yovelsa qarTlisa
                                        qalaqTa moarRvivna zRudeni... iyo kaci
                                        Zneli da mesisxle da ese daawesa da
                                        amcno spaTa misTa, viTarmed: `yovel-
                                        man qarTvelTaganman romelman povos
                                        saWurveli, mokaliT igi~ da hyofdes
                                        hromni esreT qarTvelTa zeda da vinc
                                        vin gamoCndis qarTvelTagani qmnul-
                                        keTili da asakovani, moklian igi. da
                                        iyo Wiri didi naTesavsa zeda qarTve-
                                        lTasa~ (gv. 19-20). anti-berZnulia da
                                        amave dros sparsofiluria Tundac
                                        imiT, rom pirveli qarTveli mefis
                                        deda sparsia, xolo sxva saukuneTa
                                        qarTvel mefeTa dinastiebi sparsu-
                                        li warmoSobisa da sxva msgavsi.
  `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom kavkasiaSi gadmosaxlebi-
sas qarTvelebs saqarTveloSi daxvdaT sxva, ucxo xalxi, dasturdeba berZnuli
cnobebiT, romelTa mixedviTac iberielebs samxreTidan gadmosaxlebis dros
kavkasiaSi daxvdaT sxva eri, romelsac qarTvelebi SeebrZolnen da daama-
rcxes _ `kaspiisa da veqsinis zRvas Soris mdebare yelze cxovrobs
iberTa aRmosavluri tomi, romelic odesRac pirineidan movida aRmosav-
leTSi da hirkanielebTan sastiki brZola hqonda~.122
692                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  T. yauxCiSvilis azriT, `es literaturuli cnoba iberTa da hirkaniel-
Ta Soris realurad arsebuli urTierTobis gamoZaxili unda iyos~.123 am
cnobas sxva berZeni avtorebic imeoreben. maSasadame, `moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~
Sesabamis cnobas aqvs wyaro, an raime realuri safuZveli, maSin, roca
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ cnobebi qarTvelTa eTnogenezisis Sesaxeb aris zRa-
pruli da tendenciuri. is, rogorc aRiniSna, xorenacis istoriasa da
somxur-qalkedonitur raRac wyaroze yofila dayrdnobili. maSasadame, `am-
bavi rvaTa ZmaTa~ dawerilia xorenacis Semdeg, misi erT-erTi wyaro VII
saukunis somxuri Txzulebac yofila _ `xalxTa warmomavlobis~ wignis
somxur-qalkedonituri versia, romelic VII saukuniT TariRdeba~,124 xolo
`moqcevaA qarTlisaAs~ is berZnuli wyaroebi, romelSic hirkanielebisa da
iberebis saqarTveloSi urTierTbrZolazea laparaki, antikur periods ga-
nekuTvneba. (`hirkanielebSi~ vgulisxmobT `ieboselTa naTesav~ bun-Turqebs,
romelnic qarTvelebs daxvdnen mtkvris xeobaSi Semosvlisas).
  srulebiT aSkaraa, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali aris daufaravi,
gamokveTili armenofiluri Txzuleba, romelSic qarTvelebi arcTu kargad
xasiaTdebian, amitomac unda daisvas kiTxva imis Sesaxeb, iyo Tu ara aRiarebu-
li am Txzulebis Sesavali sazogadoebis mier, aRiarebdnen Tu ara am Txzule-
bas saqarTveloSi da qarTveli xalxisaTvis ramdenad mosaTmeni iyo is?
  Cven arseni beris (arsen iyalToelis) erT Txzulebaze dayrdnobiT unda
ganvacxadoT _ qarTuli eklesiisaTvis miuRebeli iyo `qarTlis cxovreb-
is~ Sesavlis (`ambavi mefeTanis~) armenofiluri redaqcia, ufro metic,
SeiZleba gamoiTqvas azri, rom es redaqcia saerTod akrZaluli iyo qalke-
donur saqarTveloSi da is arsebobda mxolod qarTvel monofizitTa
wreSi. es Txzuleba iyo dafaruli apokrifi (igulisxmeba XI-XIV saukuneeb-
Si), romelsac krZalavda qarTuli samociqulo eklesia. es Cans arseni
beris `cxovreba wmida ninosidan~.
  `cxovreba da moqalaqeoba ninoAsi~ `...dawerilia XII saukunis 10-20-ian
wlebSi daviT aRmaSeneblis (Tu ioane kaTalikosis) brZanebiT arseni mona-
zonis (beris), anu arseni iyalToelis mier... Txzuleba ZiriTadad mTavrdeba
ninos gardacvalebisa da dakrZalvis aRweriT. amis Semdeg iwyeba axali
Txroba, romelsac uZRvis zed warwerili _ `eseca waurTe yoveli, rameTu
Svenier ars, sayvarelno da satrfialo msmenelTaTvis~. es Txroba Seicavs
saqarTvelosa da qarTuli eklesiis istoriisaTvis friad sayuradRebo
masalebs qarTvelebisa da maTi mefeebis Camomavlobis... da sxvaTa Sesaxeb~.125
  cnobilia, Tu ra didi avtoriteti iyo arsen iyalToeli qarTuli ek-
lesiisaTvis da daviT aRmaSeneblisaTvisac. SeiZleba iTqvas, mis mier orga-
nizebulma ruis-urbnisis saeklesio krebam daviT aRmaSeneblis dros, erT-
gvarad Seafasa da Seajama wina saukuneebSi qarTuli eklesiis saqmianoba
da gansazRvra momavalSi misi mimarTuleba. arsen beri istoriuli piri
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               693
iyo, amitomac misi Txzuleba qarTvelTa eTnogenezisis da mefeTa Camomav-
lobis Sesaxeb daTariRebulia. am mxriv, ra SeiZleba iTqvas `ambavi mefeT-
anis~ avtoris Sesaxeb? marTalia, zogierTma Cvenma didma mecnierma miiCnia,
rom is dawerilia XI saukuneSi leonti mrovelis mier, magram es gancxa-
deba efuZneboda mxolod logikur msjelobas da ara istoriul faqts.
amitomac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom arc `ambavi mefeTanis~ avtoria cnobili da
arc misi daweris (miT umetes redaqtirebis) TariRi, arseni beris Txzuleb-
is avtori ki cnobilia.
   is faqti, rom arsen beris TxzulebaSi gamoTqmuli Tvalsazrisi srulebiT
ewinaaRmdegeba `ambavi mefeTanSi~ gamoTqmul Tvalsazriss qarTvelTa eT-
nogenezisis, qarTvelTa qveynis sazRvrebis, mefeTa warmomavlobis, qarTuli
enis da sxvaTa Sesaxeb, gvaZlevs uflebas iTqvas, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~
arsebuli nawili XI-XIV saukuneebSi araTu samefo karis SekveTiT iwerebo-
da (igulisxmeba armenofiluri redaqcia), aramed akrZaluli iyo samefo
karis mier, radganac swored mefis karis moZRvari, mefis maswavlebeli da
sulieri mama arseni ar iziarebda da, ufro metic, uaryofda `ambavi mefe-
Tanis~ mraval Tvalsazriss.
   dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas isic, rom (XII saukunis dasawyisSi) qarTu-
li eklesiisaTvis srulebiT mouTmeneli iyo `ambavi mefeTanSi~ arsebul
armenofilur TvalsazrisTagan umravlesi. cnobilia, rom msoflio saekle-
sio kreba aris kanonmdebeli organo, aseve adgilobrivi saeklesio kreba
kanonmdebelia adgilobrivi eklesiis mimarT, amitomac ruis-urbnisis saek-
lesio krebis gadawyvetilebani savaldebulo iyo eklesiisaTvis, mas efuZne-
boda saeklesio samarTali. es kreba saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa da qarTu-
li eklesiis urTierTTanamSromlobis kargi gamoxatulebaa. am krebas ara
marto saeklesio, aramed saxelmwifo-samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis Zalac
hqonda. krebam moixsenia kidec saqarTvelos saxelmwifos meTaurebi da
agreTve qarTuli eklesiis xelmZRvanelebi. kerZod, krebis `Zegliswera~
moixseniebs saqarTvelos patriarqs (mamamTavars) _ kaTalikos ioanes, evstaTi
monazons (SeiZleba es iyos afxazeTis kaTalikosi), giorgi mwignobarTuxu-
cess (Wyondidels) da arseni monazons. aqve `ZeglisweraSi~ sagangebodaa
CarTuli arsen iyalToelis mimarTva mefisadmi _ daviT aRmaSeneblisad-
mi.126 zemoT moyvanilis gamo, arseni monazonis (beris) mier mefis, anda
kaTalikosis brZanebiT daweril `wmida ninos cxovrebas~ da masze darTul
qarTuli eklesiis mokle istorias hqonda dogmis mniSvneloba. is Seucvle-
lad unda yofiliyo aRiarebuli eklesiis mier, xolo yovelive sawinaaRmdego
Tvalsazrisi iqneboda oficialurad uaryofili saxelmwifosa da eklesiis
mier. amitomac, radgan arseni beri Tavis eklesiis istoriaSi gamoTqvams
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri redaqciisagan kardinalurad gansxvave-
bul Tvalsazriss, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es armenofiluri redaqcia da masSi
694                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gamoTqmuli mravali Tvalsazrisi uaryofili da miuRebeli iyo rogorc
qarTuli eklesiis, aseve samefo karis mier (igulisxmeba arsenis epoqa). ars-
eni saerTod ibrZoda monofizitobis gavlenis winaaRmdeg _ `aman SeTxza
erTbunebianTa wvalebisa da pirisdasayofeli werili, romel veraraisame
RoniTa Zaledves somexTa pasuxisgebad~, _ wers i. bagrationi.127
   arsen beri wmida ninos `cxovrebaSi~ wers, saWiroa vicodeT `Cven qarTvelni
romelTa naTesavTa Svilni varT da `mefeni qarTvelTani~ vin iyvneno.
Semdeg wers _ Cveni qveyana, Cvens mefes `azoves~ aleqsandre makedonelma
`misca qveyana ese~. aleqsandre makedonelma qarTvelebs misca qveyana
Semdegi sazRvrebiT _ `hereTi da egriswyali da somxeTi da mTa crolisa~.128
qarTvelebi gadmosaxldnen da daemkvidrnen swored am sazRvrebSi.
   am gadmosaxlebamde arseni beris azriT, qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen sxva
qveyanaSi, romelsac `arian-qarTli~ erqva. aq maT hqondaT erovnuli sax-
elmwifo da mefeebic hyavdaT. am qarTvel mefeTa Svili iyo azove, romel-
mac qarTvelTa erTi nawili gadmoasaxla arian-qarTlidan da daasaxla
axal qveyenaSi. qarTvelebi dasaxlebulan mdinare egriswylidan hereTis
CaTvliT (an hereTamde), somxiTidan crolis mTamde.
   arseni beris Txzuleba uflebas iZleva iTqvas, rom qarTuli samociqu-
lo eklesia ar iziarebda `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofilur redaqcias _
1. sazRvrebis Sesaxeb _ arsenis Tanaxmad, qarTvelTa qveynis dasavleTi
sazRvari Tavdapirvelad gadioda mdinare egriswyalze. egriswylis aRmo-
savleTiT mdebare qveyana dasaxlebuli iyo qarTvelebiT, qarTvelTa naTe-
saviT, romelTa `Svilni varT~ Cven dRevandeli qarTvelebio, _ wers is _
`Cven qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da ena maTi
uwyiT da yovelni mefeni qarTlisani amaT mefeTa SvilisSvilni arian~.129
Tvalsazrisi gansxvavdeba `leontis~ Tvalsazrisisagan; 2. megrelebi TviTve
arian qarTvelebi, maTi deda ena qarTuli enaa _ es azri gamomdinareobs
iqidan, rom qarTvelebi Tavidanve dasaxlebulni iyvnen mdinare egriswylis
aRmosavleTiT, magram cnobilia CvenTvisac da arseni iyalToelisTvisac,
rom am mdinaris aRmosavleTiT mimdebare teritoria istoriulad megrelebiT
iyo dasaxlebuli, rogorc TviT am mdinaris saxelwodebac amJRavnebs. maSas-
adame, swored megrelebi, iseve rogorc saqarTvelos nebismieri kuTxis
mkvidri mcxovrebni `egriswylidan hereTamde~, arian qarTvelebi. es Tval-
sazrisic gansxvavdeba `leontis~ Tvalsazrisisagan, radganac `leontis~
azriT, qarTvelebi qarTlosis STamomavlebi arian da isini cxovrobdnen
lixis mTis aRmosavleTiT, xolo megrelebi ki misi Zmis, sxva eTnarqis _
egrosis memkvidreni arian, isini ki mdinare mcire xazareTidan (mdinare
yubanidan) vidre lixamde cxovrobdnen; 3. enis Sesaxeb. qarTvelTa Tavda-
pirveli ena eklesiis am Teoretikosis Tanaxmad, qarTuli iyo da ara
somxuri, rogorc miaCnda `leonti mrovels~, ufro metic, arsenis Tanaxmad,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              695
dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi mosaxleobis dedaena qarTuli enaa, ise,
rogorc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobisa. im qveynis mosaxleobis
dedaena, romelsac aqvs sazRvrebi _ `hereTi da egriswyali, somxeTi da mTa
crolisa~ _ dasabamidanve qarTulenovania, radganac _ `Cven qarTulni
Svilni varT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da maTi ena uwyiT~. aqedan Cans,
rom arsen bers megruli ena miaCnia ara damoukidebel enad, aramed kilod
da dialeqtad qarTuli enisa. marTlac, TiTqmis 800 wlis win, albaT megru-
li dialeqti didad ar gansxvavdeboda literaturuli qarTulisagan,
samegreloSi qarTuli ena dedaenad miiCneoda; 4. saqarTveloSi qarTvelTa
dasaxlebamde cxovrobda sxva veluri xalxi, romelic qarTvelTa gadmo-
saxlebis win aleqsandre makedonelma daamarcxa, nawili daxoca, xolo
darCenilebi gadaasaxla CrdiloeT oseTis iqiT, iq sadac yivCaRni mkvidrobeno
_ wers arseni _ aleqsandre makedonelma `...qalaqni da simagreni yovelni
ucxoTeslTa maT gamouxvna, romelnime da sxvaTa simravle maTi uricxvi
waravlina kedarsa mas, sada igi pirvelni miiyvana _ garegan oseTisa, da
ars qveyana igi maRal da vrcel da simravle wyalTaA, sada igi mieriTgan
mkvidroben didni igi naTesavni yivCaRTani~.130
   maSasadame, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi mosaxleoba, romelic aleqsandre
makedonelma ixila, iyo ara qarTvelebi, aramed `...naTesavni igi sastikni
warmarTTani, romelTa Cven aw bunTurqad da yivCaRad uwodT~.131 eseni
aleqsandrem CrdiloeTSi gadareka, xolo aq qarTvelebi daasaxla.
   es Tvalsazrisi srulebiT gansxvavdeba `leonti mrovelis~ Tvalsazri-
sisagan, romlis Tanaxmadac, TviT qarTvelebi iyvnen velurebi, romelnic
ixila aleqsandrem.
   ucxoTeslTa gaJletisa da gadarekvis Semdeg aleqsandrem daiwyo qvey-
nis Seneba _ `da TviT iwyo Senebad qveyanisa Cvensa, xolo hyva Tana azove,
Ze arian-qarTlisa mefisaA, da misca qveyana ese Cveni sameufod da samkvi-
dreblad da ganuCina sazRvari hereTi da egriswyali da somxiTi da mTa
crolisa, da TviT warvida.
   xolo ese azove warvida arian-qarTlad mamisa Tvisisa da warmoiyvana
muniT aTasi saxli mdabio da moqalaqe dedebiT, yrmebiTurT maTiT da kualad
aTi saxli mTavarTagan palatisaTa dedebiT da yrmebiTurT maTiT. da maT Tana
hyves kerpni RmerTad. da ese azove ars pirveli mefe qarTvelTaA, da amisa
SvilisSvilTagan ocdamerve iyo mirian, romeli igi mxolod iqmna qristiane
da mieriTgan yovelni mefeni qarTvelTani arian morwmune keTilad da Cven
qarTvelni Svilni varT maT arian-qarTliT gamosulTani da maTi ena uwyiT. da
yovelni mefeni qarTlisani amaT mefeTa SvilisSvilni arian~.132
   rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, arseni monozani, anu rac igivea, qarTu-
li qalkedonuri eklesia, srulebiT uaryofda `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Se-
maval `ambavi mefeTanis~ armenofilur redaqcias, anu im redaqcias, romel-
ic amJamad aRiarebulia.
696                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   arseni asaxelebs kidec Tavis wyaroebs. mas gamouyenebia `moqcevaA
qarTlisaA~ da `ambavi mefeTa~. is wers _ `wmidano mamano da Zmano, ese
netarisa ninoAs cxovreba~ Seuwyobelad da ganbneulad `qarTlis moqcevasa~
Tana da `hambavsa mefeTasa~ Tana aRreulad sweria... arca Semimatebia da
arca damiklia... yoveli WeSmariti da WeSmaritebiT aRwerili da wamebuli
maT mier aha winaSe Tqvensa ars... ikiTxvideT da ersa warmoauTxrobdiT
sadidebelad RmrTisa da pativisa misisa romlisa ars didebaA~.133
   arseni wm. ninos cxovrebaze darTul qarTuli eklesiis mokle istoriis
gadmocemisas, uSualod Txrobisas, wyarod asaxelebs `qarTlis cxovrebis
wigns~. teqstidan srulebiT aSkarad Cans, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis wigns~
is iyenebs erekle keisrisa da arabTa Semosevamde (VII s.), amis Semdeg Cans,
is iyenebs efrem mciris Txzulebas `uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa moqce-
visasa~, Semdeg akritikebs berZen saeklesio moRvaweebs da iyenebs mTaw-
midelTa gamonaTqvamebs qarTvelTa ubiwo sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb.
   rogorc aRiniSna, wm. ninos `cxovrebis~ teqstisaTvis arsens gamouyenebia
`qarTlis moqcevaA~ da `hambavi mefeTani~, xolo teqstze darTuli qarTvelTa
da qarTuli eklesiis mokle istoriis gadmocemisas _ `qarTlis cxovrebis
wigni~, kerZod, is aRwers, azoves Semdeg, vidre vaxtang gorgasalis CaTvliT
istorias da agrZelebs _ `amisa Semdgomad friadni Wirni moiwines sparsTagan
qarTvelTa zeda da friadni sulni moswyvidnes da qveyanani daipyrnes da
friadni iwames saxelisaTvis qristesisa. romelTaime aRweril ars Cvens
Soris da romelTaime aRuwerel daSTa, xolo yovelni aRweril arian
wignsa mas cxovelTasa da winaSe RmrTisa ixareben. amas yovelsa `qarTlis
cxovrebis~ wigni vrclad mogviTxrobs~ (iqve, gv. 48). e.i. sparselTa Semose-
vis Semdego, _ wers is _ qristianTa mowameobrivi Rvawli mxolod nawilo-
briv aRiwera, magram amis miuxedavad, maTi mowameoba sruliad aris aRwerili
zecaTa `sicocxlis wignSio~ _ (`wignsa mas cxovelTasa~). amitomac, roca
arsenic wers _ `amas yovelsa `qarTlis cxovrebis~ wigni vrclad mogviTxrob-
so~, _ gulisxmobs ara sparselTa Semosevis periods, aramed qarTveli xalx-
is istorias sparselTa Semosevamde _ V saukunis miwurulamde.
   maSasadame, is wyaro, romelsac arseni iyenebda Tavis istoriaSi azovedan
vaxtang gorgaslis CaTvliT, yofila `qarTlis cxovrebis wigni~.
   Cans, redaqcia `qarTlis cxovrebisa~, romelsac iyenebda arsen iyalToe-
li, srulebiT gansxvavdeba CvenTvis cnobil `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armeno-
filuri redaqciisagan. arsens agreTve gamouyenebia wyarod `hambavni mefe-
Tani~. cnobilia, rom `hambavni mefeTani~ `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Semadgeneli
nawilia. aseve unda iTqvas, rom is redaqcia `hambavni mefeTanisa~, romelsac
iyenebda arseni Tavis wyarod, srulebiT gansxvavdeba im armenofiluri
redaqciisagan, romelsac Cven dRes vicnobT.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  697
  gansxvaveba armenofilur da Cveulebriv redaqciebs Soris Zalze didi
yofila, kerZod, rogorc aRiniSna, gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan qarTvelTa
eTnogenezisis, qarTvelTa Cvevebis, qarTvelTa qveynis sazRvrebis, qarTvel-
Ta enisa da sxvaTa Sesaxeb. SexedulebaTa gansxvaveba arsebiTia. Cans, `mo-
qcevaA qarTlisaAs~ Tvalsazrisi aRniSnul sakiTxebze msgavsi iyo `hambav-
ni mefeTanis~ araarmenofiluri redaqciis Tvalsazrisisa.
  unda vigulisxmoT, rom XII saukuneSi, arsen iyalToelis dros arsebobda
`qarTlis cxovrebis~ (`ambavi mefeTanis~) iseTi redaqcia, romelic araar-
menofiluri da sayovelTaod misaRebi iyo. Cans, es araarmenofiluri `qarT-
lis cxovrebis wigni~ (ase uwodebs mas arsen iyalToeli) Seicavda qarTvelTa
istorias uZvelesi droidan VII saukunemde. es wyaro gamouyenebia arsen
bers, rasac aRniSnavs kidec _ `amas yovelsa qarTlis cxovrebis wigni
vrclad mogviTxrobs~.
  Tuki arsebobda `qarTlis cxovrebis wignis~ araarmenofiluri redaqcia,
ratom ar moaRwia Cvenamde? Cvenamde ar moaRwia saerTo-saxalxo-sakiTxavi
wignis _ `vefxistyaosani~-s XII-XIV saukuneebis xelnawerebma. isini daikargnen
monRolTa Semosevisas, Cans, aseve daikarga `qarTlis cxovrebis~ araar-
menofiluri redaqciac. xolo am wignis armenofiluri redaqcia, romelic
albaT, adreve arsebobda monofiziti qarTvelebis saWiroebisaTvis, Semoin-
axes monofizitebma, sadRac somxeTis somxur monasterSi. cnobilia, rom
saqarTvelos monofizituri nawili (igulisxmeba mxargrZelebisadmi daqvem-
debarebuli qveynebi) ubrZolvelad danebda monRolebs, SemdgomSic am qvey-
nebSi SedarebiT simSvide sufevda. mxargrZelebis ojaxi qarTvelobda da
amave dros somxobda kidec. Cans, aseve iyvnen qarTveli monofizitebi. isini
arc qarTvelobas Tmobdnen da arc somxobas. `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armeno-
filuri redaqcia maT midrekileba-ganwyobas srulebiT Seefereboda.
  ara marto saqarTvelos zogierTi kuTxe iyo armenizebuli, aramed Cveni
mezobeli albaneTis zogierTi nawilic.
  armenizebul albanelebsac hyavdaT TavianTi erovnuli istorikosi, romelic
erTdroulad albaneli patriotic iyo da somexi patriotic. es iyo mose
kalankatueli. miuxedavad imisa, rom is albaneli iyo, yovelive somxurs
albanurze maRla ayenebda. is werda kidec ara albanur, aramed somxur
enaze _ `akad. s. eremianis Tanaxmad, moses kalankatuacis Txzuleba imitom
daiwera somxur enaze, rom mose warmoSobiT albaneTis armenizebuli ol-
qidan iyo~.134
  albanelTa msgavsad, saqarTvelos armenizebuli olqebis (ara bolomde
armenizebulis, igulisxmeba tao _ da qvemo qarTli, hereTi) qarTvelTa
ufro metad gasomxebis mizniT, albaT, adreve moxda `qarTlis cxovrebis
wignis~ (`ambavi mefeTani~) armenizacia. radganac es wigni mxolod VII s-is
Sua wlebamde Seicavda qarTvelTa istorias (heraklemde _ `qarTlis cx-
698                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
ovrebis wigni~ vrclad mogviTxrobs `amisa Semdgomad gamovida mefe herek-
le~ arseni beri, (iqve, gv, 48)), amitom unda vifiqroT, rom `qarTlis cxovre-
bis wignis~ armenofiluri redaqtireba moxda VI saukuneSi an VII saukunis
dasawyisSi, Tumca isic SesaZlebelia, rom es moxda Sida qarTlze somex
mefeTa eqspansiis dros _ VIII-X saukuneebSi. Sida qarTlze Tu ra Zlieri
zegavlena hqonda somxeTs VIII-X saukuneebSi, amis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs a.
abdalaZe Tavis wignSi _ `amierkavkasiis politikur erTeulTa urTierToba
IX-XI saukuneebSi~.
   unda vifiqroT, rom `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `ambavi mefeTanis~ dReisaTvis
cnobili redaqcia dawerilia mose kalankatuelis msgavsad armenizebuli
qarTvelis mier somxuri eklesiis mrevlad qceul qarTvelTaTvis (somx-
uri eklesiis mrevlad iqcnen armenizebuli albanelebic). es redaqcia
miuRebeli iyo saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiisaTvis da is ar gamoiyena
qarTuli eklesiis erT-erTma meTaurma arsen iyalToelma qarTuli eklesi-
is istoriis mokled aRweris dros.
   arsebobdnen Tu ara armenizebuli qarTvelebi da hyavda Tu ara somxur
eklesias qarTuli mrevli?
   Cans, es sakiTxi ukve Seswavlili aqvT somex istorikosebs, magaliTad, g.
ter-mkrtiCiani fiqrobs, rom koriuni (an agaTangelosi) qarTveli iyo. `rogorc
iv. javaxiSvili wers _ g. ter-mkrtiCians agaTangelozi da koriuni iden-
tur pirebad miaCnda da fiqrobda rom koriuni `... qarTvelTa, anu qarTvel-
somexTa episkoposi iyo ...iqneb qarTvelic ki...~135
   TviT n. mari werda, rom tao-klarjeTis qarTveluri mosaxleoba somxdebo-
da VIII saukunemde. marTlac, aqauri mosaxleoba namdvilad ganicdida ar-
menizaciis process. aqauri iyo nerse iSxneli _ Semdgom kaTalikosi somx-
uri eklesiisa, SeiZleba armenizebuli qarTveli da amitomac is simpaTiiT
ixsenieba giorgi merCules mier. netars uwodebs, aseve qarTul eklesiaSi
miRebuli sakiTxavic `wmidisa yrmaTa orTa ZmaTa daviTisa da tariWanisa~
mas `netar did nerses~ uwodebs _ `maSin viTarca euwya saqme ese wmidasa
mamasa Cvensa nerses kaTalikozsa somxiTisasa, rameTu TviT hxedvida igi
iSxniT sakvirvelebasa da brwyinvalebasa... srbiT moiwia divris~.136
                                      `daviT da tariWanis martvilobidan~ Cans,
                                    rom tao Tavisi saeklesio centr iSxaniT
                                    da, cxadia, mis samxreTiT mdebare terito-
                                    riebiT, romelzedac Semdeg aSenda bana,
                                    xaxuli, oSki _ 650-ian wlebSi nerse kaTa-
                                    likosis dros, Sedioda somxeTis eklesia-
                                    Si, magram es ar niSnavs imas, rom es mxare
                                    somxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, piriqiT, aq cxov-
                                    robdnen qarTvelebi, romelnic iyvnen mrev-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               699
li somxuri eklesiisa. aq saeklesio ena iyo somxuri ena, xolo ojaxis ena
_ qarTuli. TavianTi Tavi miaCndaT qarTvelebad (VII saukuneSi), xolo
berZnebi am mxares _ `iverias~ uwodebdnen. TviT somexi mematianeebic ki am
mxares `qarTvelTa~ mxares uwodebdnen VII s-Si ioane mamikonianis mat-
ianedan irkveva, rom me-7 s-Si mesxeTis mxareebi (da klarjeTi) qarTul
mxares warmoadgenda.137 am matianedan irkveva: 1. `VII saukuneSi mesxeTi
Woroxidan vanandamde, klarjeTis CaTvliT, samflobeloa vaSden `qarTvel-
Ta (iverielTa) mTavrisa~, vaSdenis Zea jojiki `qarTvelTa (iverielTa)
mTavari~.138 am qarTvel mTavrebs prosparsuli (anu prosomxuri) orienta-
cia hqondaT da es antiberZnuli tao da klarjeTi qarTvelebiT dasaxle-
buli qveyana iyo. taoSi VIII saukunemde cxovrobda somxuri eklesiis
samwysoSi Semavali qarTuli mosaxleoba somxuri saeklesio eniT. marTa-
lia, tao da klarjeTi qalkedonituri midrekilebisa iyvnen, magram somxur-
ma eklesiam taoel qarTvelTa Tavis gavlenis qveS moqceva imiT SeZlo,
rom erekle keisris Semdeg is `uniaturi~, anu TiTqmis qalkedonituri gaxda.
ufro adre ki, VII saukunis dasawyisSi kirionisa da abraam kaTalikosis
epoqaSi taos erTi nawili qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi Sedioda, sadac
arseni safarelis Tanaxmad gadasaxlebula abraam somexTa kaTalikosis
mier devnili qalkedonit somex samRvdeloTa nawili. safiqrebelia, rom
somxuri eklesiis mier `uniis~ aRiarebis Semdeg isini ukanve dabrundnen.
  Cans, somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvels ekuTvnis somexTa ganmanaTleblis
wmida grigoris cxovrebis arabuli teqsti (Targmani). am arabul teqstSi
gamovlenilia uamravi qarTuli sityva da agreTve qarTuli warmomavlobis
geografiuli saxelebi. avtori icnobs da wers qarTuli eklesiis Sesaxe-
bac. is dainteresebulia qarTuli eklesiiT, mxolod avtoris (mTargmnel-
is) qarTuli erovnebiT SeiZleba aixsnas mis mier qarTuli sityvebis xmareba
da ara iseTi garTulebuli sqemiT, rogoric es n. marma warmoadgina.139
  rogorc iTqva, somxuri eklesiis wevri iyo TviT kirionic qarTlis
kaTalikosad gamorCevamde.
  `qarTvelTa episkoposi~ hqvia mose gugarqis (curtavel) episkoposs, romelic
somxuri eklesiis wevrad miiCnevs Tavis Tavs kirionis dros.
  qarTvelTa gadaqceva somxuri eklesiis mrevlad, savaraudoa, IV s-is
bolosa da V s-is dasawyisSi e.w. `berZnul somxeTSic~. aRniSnul dros
bizantiam `berZnul somxeTSi~ somxur eklesias neba darTo gaevrcelebina
somxuri anbani da somxurenovani wirva-locva;140 berZnul somxeTSi, somex-
Ta garda, cxadia, bevri qarTvelic cxovrobda, radganac es mxare istoriul
kapadokiaSi mdebareobda da kesaria-kapadokiis (pontos diocezis) nawili
iyo, sadac (kapadokiaSi) saerTod qarTvelebi cxovrobdnen (qarTvel mecni-
erTa Tanaxmad). kapadokiaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi, cnobilia, rom gaberZnd-
nen _ qarTvelTa erTi nawili ki SeiZleba `somexi~ gaxda, anu wevri
700                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
somxuri eklesiisa. etyoba, aqvs raRac safuZveli g. ter-mkrtiCians, roca is
agaTangelozs da koriuns identur pirebad miiCnevs da qarTvelad Tvlis.
Cans, somxur eklesiaSi ukve koriunis dros qarTveli mrevlic arsebobda.
  Cans, gugarqSi mcxovrebi `somxurenovani~ mrevli, romelic ase xSirad
ixsenieba `epistoleTa wignSi~, erovnebiT qarTveli iyo saeklesio somx-
urenovani wirva-locviT (albanelTa msgavsad). istoriuli provinciebi:
gaCiani, gardabani, kuxeTi, romelnic Sediodnen hereTsa da gugarqSi
qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli iyo. maTi eTnarqebi iyvnen qarTlosis Svilebi _
gardabos, kuxos da gaCiosi.141
  aseve yofila taoSic da mesxeTis zogierT sxva kuTxeSi VIII saukunemde.
  marTalia, qarTvelebs aRniSnul mxareebSi miuRiaT somxurenovani wirva-
locva da zogierTni ki somxuri eklesiis wevrnic gamxdaran, magram maT
kargad scodniaT, rom isini gvar-tomobiT da erovnebiT qarTvelebi iyvnen
da ara somxebi (aseve icodnen armenizebulma albanelebma, rom isini erovnebiT
albanelebi iyvnen da ara somxebi). swored amitom isini Semdeg deda
eklesias daubrundnen.
  Cans, Zvel saqarTveloSi somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvels uwodebdnen
`sarwmunoebiT somexs~. amis Tqmis uflebas iZleva grigol bakurianis erTi
cnoba, romelic SeiZleba ase gavigoT, rom me naTesaviT qarTveli var,
magram myavs `sarwmunoebiT somexi~ msaxurebio _ `...vinaAca menebos, naTesav-
Ta CemTa da msaxurTa CemTa daRacaTu somexni iyvnen sarwmunoebiTa~.142
SeiZleba, grigol bakuriani `sarwmunoebiT somexis~ qveS gulisxmobdes
Tavis msaxurs, magram es msaxuri (Tu naTesavi)~ gvariT e.i. erovnebiT ki ar
aris `somexi~, aramed `sarwmunoebiT~. grigol bakuriani kargad asxvavebs
erTmaneTisagan erovnebiT somexsa da sarwmunoebiT somexs. erovnebasa da
sarwmunoebas kargad rom asxvavebs erTmaneTisagan, es iqidan Cans, rom Tavi-
si Tavis (da saZmos) daxasiaTebisas is arasodes ar wers, me `sarwmunoebiT
qarTveli~ varo, aramed yovelTvis wers _ me erovnebiT `naTesaviT~, `gvariT~
var qarTvelio.
  `qarTvelni varT naTesaviT mxneni da medgrobiT aRzrdilni~. `monazon-
ni monastrisa Cemisani guarad qarTvelni arian~.143
  grigol bakurians naTesavebi da msaxurebi qarTvelebic hyolia, `naTesav-
Ta da msaxurTa CemTa qarTvelTao~, wers is, magram amaTgan zogierTi
SeiZleboda, rom `sarwmunoebiT somexi~ yofiliyo _ `vinaAca menebos, naTe-
savTa CemTa da msaxurTa CemTa, daRaTu somexni iyvnen sarwmunoebiT~.
  swored erovnebiT qarTvelebisaTvis, magram `sarwmunoebiT somxebisaTvis~,
anu rac igivea, grigoriani qarTvelebis saWiroebisaTvis unda redaqtire-
buliyo `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavali teqstebi armenofilebis mier.
  rogorc sxva TavebSi aRiniSna, hereTSi, gugarqsa da mesxeTis zogierT
mxareSi (sxvadasxva saukuneebSi somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi moq-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               701
ceul qarTvel mrevls aswavlidnen somxur anbans da maT eklesiebSic
somxurad iyo wirva-locva. cnobilia, rom mcxeTis jvris taZarSi aRmoCnda
qva somxuri warweriT (grafiti, amokawruli warwera), aseve, mcxeTis jvrisa
da atenis sionis qvis filebze arsebobs somxuri asoebi, amokveTili
qvismTlelebis mier. esaa qvismTlelTa niSnebi, anu damRebi. `Tu qvismTlelTa
niSnebi _ somxuri asoebi niSnavs, rom xelosani iyo somexi da es niSani
misi inicialia, maSin am SemTxvevaSi qvismTlelTa da xelosanTa Soris
jvarze da aseve atenSi iyo somexTa garkveuli ricxvi~.144 ufro metic, am
niSnebsa da grafitze dayrdnobiT iseTi mosazrebac ki gamoiTqva, rom
jvris taZris arqiteqtori somexi iyo.145
  rogorc vTqviT, hereTis, gugarqis da mesxeTis nawilis qarTveloba `somx-
urenovani~ iyo, e.i. maT eklesiebSi wirva-locva aRniSnul saukuneSi somx-
urad tardeboda. aqedan gamomdinare, mosaxleobam icoda somxuri wera-
kiTxva. somxuri iswavleboda, qarTuli akrZaluli iyo. amitomac mcxeTis
jvarsa da atenis sionze arsebuli somxuri asoebi (da warwerebic) SeiZle-
ba imasac uCvenebdes, rom aq hereTidan, gugarqidan da taodan Camosuli
qarTveli xelosnebic muSaobdnen, romelnic maTTvis cnobil anbans (somx-
urs) iyenebdnen.
  i. abulaZe Tvlis, rom dabali fenis qarTvel da somex morwmuneebs ar
gauwyvetiaT urTierTkavSiri. epistoleTa wignis Tanaxmad, qarTvelebi somxeTis
mTavar eklesiasa da sxva eklesiebSi loculobdnen. dabali fenebi 607-609
wlebis Semdegac TavianT wess ar Secvlidnen.146
  somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvelTa arsebobiT unda aixsnas is faqti, rom
maT qarTul wignebze TavianTi saeklesio eniT (somxuriT) minawerebi gaukeTe-
biaT. am garemoebiT aixsneba arseboba somxuri minawerebisa jruWis oTx-
Tavze, Satberdis krebulsa, an miqael modrekilis sagaloblebze. da ara
imiT, TiTqosda es minawerebi e.w. `qalkedoniki somxebis~ gakeTebuli iyos.
  qarTvelTa kulturuli armenizacia mxolod XI saukunisaTvis SeiZlebo-
da rom dasrulebuliyo, somexTa Zlieri saxelmwifos gauqmebisa da qarTvelTa
erTiani saxelmwifos daarsebis Semdeg. kulturulad armenizebul qarTvelTa
saWiroebisaTvis Seqmnila `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `ambavi mefeTanis~ armeno-
filuri redaqcia. maSasadame, unda vivaraudoT, rom arsebobda `ambavi mefe-
Tanis~ orgvari redaqcia _ armenofiluri da Cveulebrivi. `ambavi mefeT-
anis~ `Cveulebrivi~ redaqcia Tavdapirveli iyo, xolo Semdgom am redaqci-
is armenofilebis mier gadamuSavebis Sedegad miRebul iqna is redaqcia,
romelmac moaRwia Cvenamde.
  rodis iqna redaqtirebuli armenofilebis mier `ambavi mefeTani~? cno-
bilia, rom am redaqciaSi moi poveba cnoba, romlis Tanaxmad qarTuli
mwignobroba Seqmna mefe farnavazma da ara mesrop maStocma. es cnoba imiT
aris mniSvnelovani, rom miuxedavad am Txzulebis sruli armenizaciisa,
702                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
redaqtorebs ar SeucvliaT cnoba farnavazis mier qarTuli mwignobrobis
Seqmnis Sesaxeb. qarTuli anbanis mesrop maStocis mier Seqmnis legenda
Camoyalibda mogvianebiT X-XIII saukuneebSi (ix. epistoleTa wigni, z. aleq-
siZis Sesavali, gv. 46). amitomac unda vivaraudoT, rom `qarTlis cxovreba~
armenofilebis mier redaqtirebul iqna mesrop maStocis mier qarTuli
anbanis Seqmnis Teoriis Camoyalibebamde, radganac imdenad armenofiluria
`qarTlis cxovreba~, rom SeuZlebelia aRniSnuli Teoria arsebuliyo da
mis redaqtors ar amoegdo iqidan farnavazis mier qarTuli mwignobrobis
Seqmnis cnoba. maSasadame, unda vivaraudoT, rom `qarTlis cxovreba~ (`am-
bavi mefeTani~) armenofilebis mier redaqtirebul iqna X saukunemde.
  saqarTvelos gaerTianebisa da Zlieri qarTuli saxelmwifos arsebobis
dros XI-XIII saukuneSi armenofilur wreebs qarTvelTa augad xseneba ukve
aRar SeeZloT. am saukuneebSi, roca qarTveli eri Tavs iwonebda erovnuli
kulturis aRorZinebiT, aarsebda `sxva aTinasa~ da `axal ierusalims~,
mecnierebisa da sulieri kulturis msoflio mniSvnelobis kerebs, aRaravis
SeeZlo qarTvelTa winaprebisaTvis veluroba da kaciWamioba (gvamis mWame-
bloba) daewamebina. amitomac am dros warmoudgenelia, SeTxzuliyo `qarT-
lis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri Txzulebebi. ufro metic, cnobili, dawyebuli
XI saukunidan TiTqmis xelaxla `iTargmna~ yvela is qarTuli saeklesio
wigni, romelic odesRac somxuridan Targmnili anda redaqtirebuli iyo.
somxuri eklesia da somxeTic ki ukve TviTve gaxda augad saxsenebeli
qarTvelTa mier. magaliTad, giorgi mTawmideli somxur sarwmunoebas dasci-
noda bizantiis imperatoris winaSe, xolo ruis-urbnisis Zeglisweram somex-
Ta da sxvaTa saxelmwifos dangrevis mizezad sodomuri codvebi miiCnia.
  XI-XIII saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi miuRebeli iyo yovelgvari armenofil-
uri Tvalsazrisi. am dros `qarTlis cxovrebis~ CvenTvis cnobili armeno-
filuri Txzulebis dawera, albaT, SeuZlebelia da leonti mrovelic, Seu-
Zlebelia, iyos avtori `ambavi mefeTanisa~.
  `ambavi mefeTani~ uZveles drosve arsebobda, xolo X saukunemde is
redaqtirebul iqna armenofilTa mier.
  `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavlis ukve arsebulma armenofilurma redaqciam
Tavi Seafara somxeTs. is Targmnes kidec somxurad am dros (XI-XIII ss)
somxeTSi TavSefarebuli es redaqcia saqarTveloSi aravis sWirdeboda.
  am wignis (redaqciis) bedi Seicvala saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSla-
dasustebisa (XV) da saqarTveloSi grigorianuli eklesiis gavlenis aRo-
rZinebis Semdeg. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, sparseTi da osmaleTi XVI-XVIII
saukuneebSi ebrZodnen qarTul marTlmadideblur eklesias. qarTvelTa
mrevli mesxeTSi osmalebma daumorCiles konstantinopolis berZnul da
somxur sapatriarqoebs. osmalebis mier Sida qarTlis dapyrobis dros aq
somxuri eklesiis gavlena Zlier gaizarda. sparseTic XVI saukunis Sem-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               703
deg aseve didi siyvaruliT ekideboda somxebis grigorianul eklesias.
somxebs uSenebdnen eklesiebsa da qalaqebs (mag. julfaSi), misces yovelg-
vari SeRavaTi da daxmareba. somxebi moqalaqeobrivad sparselebs gauTanabres,
amave dros ki, qarTuli eklesiis mrevls atyvevebdnen, sparseTis siRrmeSi
asaxlebdnen, anadgurebdnen. sparseTis politika saqarTveloSi iTvaliswinebda
somexTa yovelgvar SeRavaTs. aseT situaciaSi saqarTveloSi XVI-XVIII ss-Si
kvlav gaCnda somxuri eklesiis qarTuli mrevli. gansakuTrebiT bevri qarTveli
grigoriani cxovrobda Sida da qvemo qarTlSi, kaxeTsa da mesxeTSi.
  swored am dros, saqarTveloSi qarTveli grigorianuli mrevlis gaCenis
dros, maTi armenizaciis daCqarebis mizniT moZebnili iqna da xelaxla
gamoCnda `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri redaqcia.
  rostom mefe, romelic sparseTis warmomadgeneli iyo saqarTveloSi, yov-
el Rones xmarobda sparsuli politikis gatarebisaTvis. sparsuli poli-
tika ki yovelmxriv xels uwyobda somxur eklesias, somex vaWar-xelosan-
amqarTa gaZlierebas mTel sparseTSi da maT Soris saqarTveloSic. ros-
tomi prosomxuri orientaciisa iyo, sparseTis interesebidan gamomdinare.
Cans, amitomac rostomis samefo karze yuradReba miaqcies `qarTlis cx-
ovrebis~ Sesavlis armenofilur redaqcias da rostomis meuRlem, mariam
dedofalma, misi gadaweris SekveTa misca.
  am droisaTvis ukve dakarguli iyo `qarTlis cxovrebis~ Sesavlis `Cveu-
lebrivi~ redaqcia da mxolod armenofiluri arsebobda, magram es armeno-
filuri redaqcia misaRebi iyo qarTveli marTlmadideblebisaTvis, maT
Soris mariam dedoflisaTvisac, radganac ukeTesi aRar arsebobda.
  ivane javaxiSvili farsadan gorgijaniZis `istoriis~ ganxilvisas wers,
rom TviT ganaTlebul qarTvelebsac ki erovnuli istoriis Sesaxeb Zalze
mciredi warmodgena hqondaT da `qarTlis cxovreba~ arc ki enaxaT. far-
sadan gorgijaniZe rostom mefis karze iyo aRzrdili, `rostom mefem
viTac Svili gamzarda da mravali wyaloba dammarTa...~ _ wers is,147
  `swored ganmacvifrebeli da daujerebeli ramaa, rom saistorio cnobebi
imdroindel saqarTvelos ganaTlebul wreebs, romelTa jgufs, ueWvelia,
ekuTvnoda rostom mefis maxlobeli kaci, istorikosi farsadan gorgijaniZe,
saqarTvelos istoria ase maxinjad hqoniaT dazepirebuli!.. vaxtang gorgasa-
li mirian mefis Svili iyoo. es SemTxveviTi Secdoma ar aris, avtori
srulebiT darwmunebuli yofila, rom mirian mefe vaxtang gorgaslis mama
iyo. Tu aseTs maRalxarisxovans da mefis maxlobel moxeles da istorikoss,
rogoric iyo farsadan gorgijaniZe, ase domxaliviT hqonda areuli samSob-
lo qveynis warsuli da Tavgadasavali, ase zRaprulad hqonda warmodgenili
qarTuli saukeTeso wyaroebi aramcTu wakiTxuli, TvaliTac ki nanaxi ara
hqonia, maS danarCens xalxs, Cveulebrivs, SuaTana SeZlebisa da codnis
patrons, raRa warmodgena unda hqonoda? rasakvirvelia, araferi!...148
704                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  swored zemoT aRniSnulis gamo, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ armenofiluri
nusxis aRmoCena namdvili zeimi unda yofiliyo im drois qarTvelTaTvis _
sayovelTao ucodinarobas erovnuli istoriisas `qarTlis cxovreba~ avsebda.
  qarTvel grigorianebs ki gaaxarebda `qarTlis cxovrebis~ `ambavi mefe-
Tani~ Tavisi armenofiluri tendenciebis gamo. Cans, armenofilebs kidev
erTxel uredaqtirebiaT is da kidev ufro gaumZafrebiaT armenofiluri
tendenciebi.
  qarTvel grigorianebs XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi, Tumca samSoblosa da eris
didi siyvaruli hqondaT da TavianT Tavs `qarTvelad~, anda `saqarTvelos
Svilad~ Tvlidnen, magram isini uyoymanod aRiarebdnen somxuri kulturisa
da istoriis upiratesobas. magaliTad, `farsadan gorgijaniZe q. goriTgana
yofila. Tavis Tavs igi musulmanTa samarTlis wignSi `jami abasis~ qarTuls
TargmanSi qarTvels uwodebs. broses ki hgonia, rom igi somexi unda yofil-
iyo. SesaZlebelia, miT umetes, rom misi nawarmoebis pirvel nawilSi somx-
eTis istoriis ambebs sapatio adgili aqvs daTmobili~.149
  marTalia, is gaqarTvelebul somxad miiCneva, magram piriqiT, is `grigo-
riani~ qarTvelia, anu gasomxebuli qarTveli. mas musulmanobac miuRia,150
magram am dros is mainc gasomxebuli qarTvelia. im dros, rogorc n.
irbaxi da mravali TviTmxilveli werda, saqarTveloSi yoveldRiurad mravali
qarTveli somxdeboda, rogorc maRali, ise dabali wodebisa, gansakuTrebiT
ki somxdebodnen qarTveli yma-glexebi (somexi mebatonisa) da tyveobisagan
gamoxsnili (somexTa mier) _ qarTvelebi. es is droa, roca Sah-abasi da
sxva (mis wina da mis Semdeg) sparsi Tu osmalo mmarTvelebi qarTvelebs
atyvevebdnen, saqarTvelos aoxrebdnen, qarTul eklesias ebrZodnen. amave
dros ki Sah-abasi da sxvebi iranis dedaqalaqSi (ispahanis ubanSi _ jul-
faSi) somxebs eklesiebs uSenebdnen; somxur eklesiebs iranel ostatebs
alamazebinebdnen da evropel ostatebs axatvinebdnen, magaliTad, `rac Se-
exeba `vanqis~ eklesias, igi Tavisi arqiteqturuli gadawyvetiT, mooqrouli
WeriTa da gumbaTiT, daxvewili gemovnebiT Sesrulebuli mxatvrobiT, julfis
yvelaze mniSvnelovan TvalsaCino Zegls warmoadgens. `vanqis~ eklesiis
xuroTmoZRvreba da kedlis ornamenti, moxatuloba iranel ostatebs ekuTvniT,
xolo siuJeturi kompoziciebi evropel fermwerTa mieraa Sesrulebuli...151
  amave dros ki sionis meCeTad gadaqcevas cdilobdnen. aseT epoqaSi
somexTa gaqarTveleba warmoudgenelia, xolo qarTvelTa gasomxebis Sesax-
eb TviTmxilveli evropeli misionerebi da qarTveli moRvaweebi werdnen.
  gasomxebuli qarTveli farsadan gorgijaniZe wers saqarTvelos, misi
samSoblos istorias, magram armenofiluri tendenciiT. Tavis saqarTvelos
istoriis pirvel nawilSi somxeTis istoriis ambebs sapatio adgili dauT-
mo, aRwera somexTa Trdat mefis ambavi: `...romlis Semdgom me-9 gverdamde
somxeTis istoriis mokle cnobebia moyvanili. mere me-10 gverdze moTxrobilia
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 705
sul mokled bagrationTa mosvla saqarTveloSi, maTi gaqarTveleba...~152
(`...daviT gabatonda somexTa qoronikons...~, `...aqamadisan rom somxobas ukan
batonoba uqniaT qarTvelobaSigan...~ `somexT qordass...~ `somexi qoronikoniT~
`somexTcxovreba~, `somexT xelmwife~, es da sxva msgavsi winadadebebi xSirad
gvxvdeba mis istoriaSi). mis saqarTvelos istoriaSi wina planzea somxeTi
da somexTa Tavgadasavals Zalze sapatio adgili uWiravs. am mxriv misi
Txzuleba Zalze hgavs `ambavi mefeTanis~ armenofilur redaqcias.
    Cans, swored farsadan gorgijaniZis msgavs qarTvel moRvaweebs xelaxla
uredaqtirebiaT `qarTlis cxovreba~ vaxtang VI-is epoqaSi.
    erTmaneTs Seadares vaxtangamde (vaxtangis winare _ e.w. `Zveli qarTlis
cxovrebisa~) da vaxtangis Semdgomi (.e.w. `axali qarTlis cxovreba~) teqste-
bi, romelnic aleqsandre makedonelis saqarTveloSi laSqrobas Seexeba.
    vaxtangis Semdgomi `qarTlis cxovrebis~ saanalizo teqstebi miuTiTeben,
rom maTSi Zalze gamZafrebulia qarTvelTa augi, kerZod, axal redaq-
torebs `leonti mrovelisad~ miCneul teqstSi CaurTavT zedmeti adgile-
bi qarTvelTa bilw CvevaTa warmoCenisaTvis.
    magaliTad, vaxtangis winare redaqciebis Tanaxmad, aleqsandre `movida
qarTlad da pova yovelni qarTvelni uborotes yovelTa naTesavTa sjul-
iTa. rameTu col-qmrobisa da siZvisaTvis ara uCnda naTesaoba, yovelsasa
suliersa sWamdes, mkvdars SeSWamdes~, _ amiT am redaqciebSi mTavrdeba
qarTvelTa augi da iwyeba sxva ambavi vaxtangis Semdgom redaqciebSi (s.
yauxCiSvilis mier, 1955 wels dabeWdili `qarTlis cxovreba~) qarTvelTa
augi grZeldeba ase `...yovelsa suliersa Wamdes, mkvdrisa SesWamdes, vi-
Tarca mxecni da pirutyvni, romelTa qcevisa warmoTqma uxm ars da ixilna
ra ese naTesavni sastikni warmarTni, romelTa igi Cven bunTurgad da
yivCaRad uwodT, msdgareni mdinaresa mas mtkvrisasa mixveviT~.153
    `mrovelis teqstSi amis win naTqvami iyo, rom qarTlSi Semosulma aleqsan-
drem hpovna `yovelni qarTvelni uborotes yovelTa naTesavTa sjuliTa~.
gamodis, TiTqos bun-Turqad da yivCaRad wodebulni sastikni naTesavni
iyvnen `yovelni qarTvelni~.154
    ase amZafrebs axali redaqtori XVI saukunis Semdgom qarTvelTa augs.
mas Tavis wyarod, q. cxadaZis gamokvlevis Tanaxmad, gamouyenebia arsen
beris Txzuleba, magram aRsaniSnavia, rom arsen beri saZraxis Cvevebs
miawerda ara qarTvelebs, aramed qarTvelebis mosvlamde saqarTveloSi
mcxovreb sxva xalxs, xolo axalma redaqtorma es Tvisebebi qarTvelebze
gadaitana. Teimuraz bagrationi kategoriulad uaryofda imis SesaZleblo-
bas, rom qarTvelebs msgavsi Cveva hqondaT.
    `Teimurazi kategoriulad acxadebs, `araQWeSmarit ars~ da mravali uar-
sayofi argumentis moyvanis Semdeg mtkiced askvnis, rom amisi msgavsi
Cveuleba aramc Tu qarTlosianTa Soris, aramed saerTod aziis erTa Sorisac
arasodes yofilao~.155
706                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  zogierT mkvlevarTa azriT, qarTvelni aseTi saZageli Cvevebis mqoned
miiCnies qarTvelma saeklesio pirebma garkveuli mizniT `eklesiisa Cvenisa
moZRvarni uZagebdes maT gardavlilTa winaparTa maTTa da maTsa ityodes
mravalTa uwesoTa qcevaTa da arawmidaTa da mkvdarTa Wamasa xorcsa ka-
cisasa... raTa qristes sarwmunoebasa zeda moqceulTa erTa SeiZulon Cveule-
bani da zneni winaparTa kerpTmsaxurebisani~ (Teimuraz bagrationis azria).156
  marTalia, nikoloz gulaberiZe werda, gaqristianebamde qarTvelebi `umZ-
vinvaresni da uveluresni~ iyvneno, magram miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba
gaziarebul iqnas Teimurazis mosazreba. ara qarTuli eklesiis moZRvrebma
daxates qarTvelTa winaprebi velurebad, aramed im Zalebma, romelnic
saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa da eklesiis dasustebisas cdilobdnen qarTvelTa
sxva xalxSi asimilacia gaeadvilebinaT.
  qarTvelTa erovnuli siamayis Sesusteba survili iyo ucxo Zalebisa
rTuli politikuri situaciis dros.
  `qarTlis cxovrebis~ xelaxla gamocemis dros sasurvelia masSi aRar Sev-
ides is Seuracxmyofeli CanarTebi, romelnic ganekuTvneba vaxtang VI-is Semdgom
epoqas, miT umetes, rom mari broses mier gamocemul `qarTlis cxovrebasa~ da
mis frangul TargmanSi am CanarTebis erTi nawili Setanili ar aris.

                  qarTvelTa armenizaciis Sesaxeb

  amJamad, rogorc wesi, miiCneva, rom Sua saukuneebSi mimdinareobda sxva-
dasxva eTnikuri jgufebisa da agreTve somexTa gaqarTveleba. TiTqosda es
xdeboda sarwmunoebrivi gziT, qalkedonituri sarwmunoebis miRebis Semdeg
somxebi eqceodnen qarTul kulturul garemoSi da isini qarTveldebodnen.
  miiCneva, rom qalkedonitoba aris qarTvelTa erovnuli sarwmunoeba, xolo
monofizitoba (grigorianoba) somexTa erovnuli sarwmunoebaa. Tu somxebi
qalkedonitobis miRebiT qarTveldebodnen, maSin unda vivaraudoT, rom aseve
qarTvelebi somxdebodnen grigorianobis miRebiT.
  hqonda Tu ara adgili aseT process, iRebdnen Tu ara qarTvelebi somxur
sarwmunoebas, eqceodnen Tu ara isini somxuri eklesiis gavlenis sferoSi
da amiT somxdebodnen?
  Cvens mecnierebaSi araa miRebuli msjeloba qarTvelTa gasomxebis Sesaxeb,
maSin roca somexTa gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb wers yvela mecnieri, romelic
exeba V-XVIII saukuneebis saqarTvelos istorias, amitomac Tu SeiZleba
msjeloba somexTa gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb, maSin qarTvelTa gasomxebis Sesax-
ebac msjeloba ar unda iwvevdes araviTar uxerxulobas da WeSmaritebis
dadgena umTavresi unda iyos.
  pirobebi qarTvelTa gasomxebisaTvis Seqmnili iyo araTu Sua saukuneebSi,
aramed XIX saukuneSic ki. amis damamtkicebeli magaliTebis moyvanamde
unda iTqvas somxuri sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              707
   miRebulia, rom somxuri eklesia monofizituri eklesiaa, sinamdvileSi ki
somxur eklesias, da saerTod, somxebs, mxolod pirobiT Tu ewodebaT aseTi
saxeli. somxur eklesias gaaCnia Taviseburi, gansakuTrebuli sarwmunoeba,
romelic, marTalia, mimdevaria monofizituri dogmatikisa, magram amave
dros uaxlovdeba diofiziturs (e.i. marTlmadideblobas).157
   marTalia, somxurma eklesiam uaryo qalkedonis kreba, romelic misi
azriT nestorianobis aRorZinebas uwyobda xels, magram amave dros, monofiz-
itobis mraval mimarTulebas Soris imas gahyva, romelic axlos idga
marTlmadideblobasTan. es aris TavisTavadi sarwmunoeba, romelsac ewode-
ba kidec somxuri erovnuli sarwmunoeba. somex TeologTa azriT, es aris
is dogmatika, romelsac qadagebda wmida grigori (anu es aris nikeis I
msoflio krebis qristologiao).
   amitomac, somxur erovnul sarwmunoebas wmida grigoris sarwmunoeba,
xolo eklesias `somxur-grigorianuli eklesia~ hqvia.
   imis gamo, rom wmida grigoris eklesia arc mtkice monofizituria, da
arc diofizituri, aramed raRac saSualo SemTanxmebluri qristianobis
sxvadasxva dapirispirebul mimarTulebaTa Soris, eklesia iqca gaWirvebis
Jams TavSesafarebel savaned sruliad sxvadasxva sarwmunoebrivi mima-
rTulebis qristiani xalxebisaTvis, sadac maTi sarwmunoebrivi grZnobebi
da rwmena TiTqmis ar ibRaleboda.
   somxuri eklesia albanelebis, qarTvelebis, sirielebisa da sparseli
qristianebisTvisac ki mSobliuri eklesia iyo. amas adasturebs somex-
qarTvel-albanelTa gaerTianebuli krebebi, romlebic tardeboda somxeTSi
V saukunis Semdeg, cnobilia, rom sparseli qristianebi (VI-VII ss.) somxuri
eklesiis meTaurs ekiTxebodnen rCevas da moiTxovdnen misgan miTiTebas
(Semonaxulia epistoleebi sparseli qristianebisa somexi kaTalikosisad-
mi). somxur eklesiaSi mravlad moRvaweobdnen sirielebi, agreTve albanelebi
(magaliTad, mose kalankatueli) da qarTvelebi (kirion kaTalikosi
saqarTveloSi Camosvlamde somxeTis mTavari eklesiis winamZRvari da air-
aratis provinciis qorepiskoposi iyo).
   rogorc iTqva, somxuri sarwmunoeba erovnulia, radganac misi dogmatika
gansxvavdeba da ganirCeva sxva sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebebisagan da axa-
siaTebs mxolod mas. amiT somxuri eklesia erovnuli eklesiaa.
   aris Tu ara qalkedonitoba mxolod qarTvelTa sarwmunoeba? ar aris. am
TvalsazrisiT, qarTvelebs erovnuli sarwmunoeba ar gaaCniaT. qalkedoni-
toba, upirveles yovlisa, `berZnuli sarwmunoebaa~ (qarTvelebi `berZnuls~
uwodebdnen msoflio (kaTolike) _ sayovelTao eklesias).
   qalkedonitoba msoflio sarwmunoebaa. saqarTvelos mezobeli didi qris-
tianuli imperiebis, bizantiisa da ruseTis sarwmunoeba qalkedonituri iyo,
amitomac jer bizantiasTan da mere ruseTTan mebrZoli158 sparselebi (VII
708                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
saukunemde), arabebi (X saukunemde), Turqebi (XI saukunis Semdeg) da kvlav
sparselebi (XVI saukunis Semdeg) qarTvelebis qalkedonitur sarwmunoe-
bas ganixilavdnen rogorc mowinaaRmdege imperiebis _ mtris sarwmunoebas,
daundoblad ebrZodnen qarTvelebsa da qarTul eklesias. am dros ki
somxuri eklesia, rogorc neitraluri sarwmunoebis mqone, maTTvis misaRebi
iyo. ufro metic, somxuri eklesiis meSveobiT cdilobdnen qalkedonitobis
aRmofxvras saqarTvelosa da kavkasiaSi.
  sparselebi VII saukunis 20-ian wlebamde Tu rogori pativiscemiT epyro-
bodnen da aZlierebdnen somxur eklesias, da Semdgom ki arabebi Tu rogor
ebrZodnen amierkavkasiis qveynebSi (albaneTsa da saqarTveloSi) somxuri
eklesiis saSualebiT qalkedonitebs, amis Sesaxeb naTqvamia sxva TavebSi.
  marTalia, imis Semdeg, rac saqarTvelom gaaerTiana Tavisi miwebi da ara
marto kavkasiaSi, aramed mcire aziaSic vasaluri saxelmwifoebrivi er-
Teulebi daaarsa (XI-XIII saukuneebSi) qarTuli eklesiis (qalkedonitobis)
sawinaaRmdego moqmedeba aravis SeeZlo, magram erTiani saqarTvelos sax-
elmwifos daSlis Semdeg (XV s.) mezobeli TurqeTi da irani iwyeben oms
qarTuli eklesiis winaaRmdeg. samagierod, rogorc TurqeTi, ise irani aZlier-
eben somxur eklesias da mas uqvemdebareben TavianT saxelmwifoebSi mcx-
ovreb qarTvelebsa da sxva erebs.
  Turqebma konstantinopolis `axladSeqmnil somexTa sapatriarqos dau-
morCiles: somxebi, sirielebi, qaldevelebi, koptebi, qarTvelebi (igulisxme-
ba am dros Turqebis mier samxreT saqarTvelos dapyrobili provinciebis
qarTvelebi, yars-arzrumisa da nawilobriv, imier taos mimdebare midamoeb-
is qarTuli mosaxleoba), abisinielebi~.159 somxuri sapatriarqosadmi damor-
Cilebuli qarTvelebi somxdebodnen, ara marto imitom, rom maT eklesiebSi
inergeboda somxuri ena da isini grigoriandebodnen, aramed imitomac, rom
maT samoqalaqo _ sasamarTlo saqmeebsac ki wyvetda konstantinopolis
somexTa sapatriarqo.160
  mesxeTis qarTveli qristianebi Turqebma dauqvemdebares somxur ekle-
sias, riTac gagrigoriandnen. `am mxriv, rogorc Cans, nayofier moRvaweobas
eweoda agreTve konstantinopolis grigorianuli sapatriarqo, romlis uf-
lebasac XV saukunis meore naxevridan daeqvemdebara agreTve samcxe-
saaTabagos qarTuli eklesia. qarTvelTa grigorianul sarwmunoebaze miqcevis
tendenciebi aSkarad SeimCneva imier taosa da arzrumis sasazRvro pro-
vinciebis qarTul mosaxleobaSi. rogorc safiqrebelia, yarsisa da arzru-
mis qarTuli marTlmadidebluri samwyso (karelisa da arzrumelis saepisko-
posoebi), romlebmac XVII saukunemde moaRwies, saukunis bolos mTlianad
gauqmda da mrevli Zalauneburad Seerwya Turqul-musulmanur Tu somxur-
grigorianul religiebs. aqaur marTlmadidebelTa (qarTvelTa) gagrigori-
anebis (gasomxebis) faqti dadasturebuli aqvs mkvlevar ignati fafazians
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                709
Tavis `eklesiis cxovrebaSi~. aseTive viTareba Seiqmna XVI-XVII saukuneebSi
tyiani artaanisa da patara artaanis TemebSi, Cildiris tbis midamoebSi...~161
   ara marto mesxeTSi, aramed yvelgan saqarTveloSi, sadac ki Turqebi
batonobdnen, somxur eklesias ufleba eZleoda qarTvel qristianebze, xolo
qarTuli eklesia idevneboda.
   `TiTqos gasakviria, magram faqtia, XV saukunis Sua xanebSi TurqeTis
dapyrobil teritoriaze arnaxulad gaizarda rogorc somex vaWar-mrewvelTa,
ise somxur-grigorianuli eklesiis Zliereba da avtoriteti. sakuTari
saxelmwifo dakarguli somexi xalxi TurqeTis sulTanebs TavianTi poli-
tikis dasayrden iaraRad miaCndaT~.162
   konstantinopolis aRebis Semdeg Turqebma gaauqmes berZnuli politikuri
xelisufleba. `amieridan rCeboda mxolod berZnuli marTlmadidebluri
eklesia, konstantinopolis sapatriarqo, romelic qveyanaSi jer kidev didi
gavleniT sargeblobda. mosalodneli eqscesebis Tavidan asacdenad, rogorc
osmalebi fiqrobdnen, saWiro iyo gamonaxuliyo mesame Zala, romelic daupir-
ispirdeboda konstantinopolis sapatriarqos, bzars Seitanda marTlma-
didebelTa uflebebSi da mis realur konkurentad gadaiqceoda. sulTnis
mTavrobam aseT mesame Zalad miiCnia TurqeTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi somxebi
da maTi somxur-grigorianuli eklesia, romelic ekonomiurad maSin sak-
maod moRonierebuli Canda... sulTan mehmed II-s konstantinopoleli somxe-
bi miaCnda Tavisi interesebis erTgul damcvelad. saerTod, qristianul
religiur mimdinareobaSi somexTa Taviseburi seqta, romelsac mogvianebiT
(1836 wels) grigorianoba Seerqva, somxebs gansakuTrebul da SedarebiT
privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi ayenebda rogorc TurqeTSi, ise iranSi. ase
Seiqmna meore somxuri sapatriarqo konstantinopolSi. amrigad, somexi
xalxi somxuri saxelmwifos ararsebobis pirobebSi ucbad ori sapatri-
arqos (eCmiaZin-konstantinopolis) da ori sakaTalikosos (sisis da axtam-
aris) patroni gaxda~.163
   saqarTvelo gayofili iyo TurqeTsa da irans Soris. Tu saqarTvelos Turqul
nawilSi qarTvelebis gasomxebas Turqebi uwyobdnen xels, iranul nawilSi
(qarTlsa da kaxeTSi) qarTvelebis gasomxeba sparselebis nebiT xdeboda.
   im dros, roca saqarTvelos kaTalikosi evdemoz diasamiZe sparsma xe-
lisufalma kldidan gadaagdebina, xolo kaTalikosi domenti stambolis
cixeSi iyo gamoketili, iranis dedaqalaqSi sparseli Sahebis xelSewyobiT
agebdnen somxur eklesiebs brwyinvale arqiteqturuli gadawyvetiT, moo-
qrouli WeriTa da gumbaTebiT, daxvewili gemovnebiT Sesrulebuli mx-
atvrobiT (1605-1663 ww),164 amave dros ki Tbilisis sioni kinaRam mahmadia-
nur meCeTad gadaakeTes.
   `ufro metic, sparseTSi gasaxlebul somxebs Sahi nebas rTavda da pi-
radadac exmareboda eklesiebis mSeneblobaSi, dadioda maT qristianul
dResaswaulebze, eswreboda qristianul ceremonialebs, misi gansakuTrebu-
710                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
li brZanebiT sjidnen yvelas, vinc somex qristians Seuracxyofas miayeneb-
da... abraam erevanci sulTan ahmad III-s somexTa keTildReobaze mzrunvel-
sa da `somexi xalxis meurves~ eZaxis, ufro metic, nadir-Sahis mier somxe-
bisadmi gamocemuli rayamebidan IV rayamSi vkiTxulobT _ `Tu romelime
somexi qristiani miiRebs mahmadianur sarwmunoebas, maSin mas CamoerTmeva
mTeli misi memkvidreoba~.165 amave dros qarTvelebs iZulebiT amahmadi-
anebdnen, maSasadame, Tu qarTvels qristianad darCena undoda, is unda
gasomxebuliyo, radganac somxis gamahmadianebas kanoni krZalavda.
  am epoqaSi qarTl-kaxeTi ZiriTadad sparselebis xelSi iyo da sparse-
Tis saxelmwifoSi Sedioda, amitomac saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc mTel
sparseTSi, somxebi privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi iyvnen, xolo qarTuli
eklesiis mrevli _ devnili.
  imis Semdeg, rac `...iranis Sahma eCmiaZins, rogorc somexTa sarwmunoebriv
centrs, mowyale TvaliT Sexeda~,166 somexTa sarwmunoebrivi centri ganuzomlad
gamdidrda, gafarTovda da Tavisi gavlena gaavrcela mezobel qveynebze.
  `eCmiaZins mniSvnelovani mamulebi hqonda Tavrizsa da TbilisSi. mam-
ulebTan erTad isini yidulobdnen agreTve yma-glexebs, romlebic amuSavebdnen
nayid miwebs. mag., 1715 wels kaTalikos astvacatur amadnelma TbilisSi
iyida ymebad xaxutaiSvilebis ramdenime ojaxi, ris Semdeg isini didxans
eCmiaZinis nasyid ymebad iTvlebodnen~.167
  cnobilia, rom is qarTveli yma-glexebi, romelTac eCmiaZini da saerTod,
somxuri eklesia yidulobda, iRebdnen grigorianul sarwmunoebas da somxde-
bodnen.
  qarTveli glexebis gasomxebis faqti aRwerili aqvs misioner ambrozis.
mas SeumCnevia, rom somxdebodnen ara marto somxuri eklesiis mier nayidi
qarTveli glexebi, aramed somxdeboda im qarTuli soflebis mosaxleoba,
romelsac iZendnen mdidari somxebi. 1640 wels is romSi gzavnis werils.
qarTvelebio, _ wers _ `raki maTi xelqveiTi gaxdebian, bevri maTgani
gadadis somxis weszed~... mdidari somxebi ki, romelTac SeeZloT saqarTvelo-
Si soflebis, mamulebisa da ymebis SeZena, mravlad iyvnen rogorc sparseT-
Si, ise TurqeTSi (sparseTSi Sedioda qarTl-kaxeTi, TurqeTSi _ mesxeTi).
  sparseTis somxebma `Seqmnes julfis savaWro kompania, kavSiri daamyares
italiis, safrangeTis, prusiis samrewveloebTan, Seqmnes TavianTi kantorebi
indoeTis TiTqmis yvela did qalaqSi, iavasa da fili pinis kunZulebze da
sxva... TurqeTisa da meore mxriv, sparseTis mesveurTa politikis wyalobiT
XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi somxuri savaWro kapitali saerTaSoriso arenaze
gavida. maT vxedavT Savi zRvis, egeosis zRvis, xmelTaSua zRvis, atlantisa
da indoeTis okeaneebis auzebSi da sxva~.168
  swored am dros, roca somxebs TavianTi sibrZnisa da gonierebis meoxe-
biT saSualeba hqondaT simdidre moepovebinaT, indoeTisa da wynari okeaneebis
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               711
sanapiro qveynebSic ki, qarTvelobas atyvevebdnen da samSoblodan asax-
lebdnen, devnidnen da amahmadianebdnen.
  Sah-abasma kaxeTis qarTveloba (Cans, 300 aTasi suli) daatyveva, sparseTSi
gadaasaxla da iZulebiT gaamahmadiana, amave dros ki, Sah-abasis piradi
meTvalyureobiT Sendeboda ispahan-julfas brwyinvale somxuri eklesiebi.
  sparselebi qarTlis aklebis drosac uamrav qarTvels atyvevebdnen da
sparseTSi mierekebodnen. swored aseT dros somxuri eklesia exmareboda
da tyveobidan ixsnida grigorianuli sarwmunoebis mqone mosaxleobas.
  datyvevebisa da gadasaxlebis dros irRveoda qarTuli ojaxebi. mama
iranis erT kuTxeSi iyideboda, Svilebi ki _ sxvagan, Tavisufleba da yovel-
gvari adamianuri Rirseba ispoboda. am saSineli gasaWiridan Tavis daxsna
SeiZleboda grigorianuli sarwmunoebis miRebiT, radganac iranSi arsebu-
li kanonebiT, rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, grigorianuli sarwmunoebis mqone
mosaxleoba devnas ar ganicdida.
  `...1741 wels agvistoSi, roca yizilbaSebma qarTli aikles, mere gausies
marbieli avRanisa da saca ram darCeniliyo, daatyveves... gamarjvebulma
sparselebma, roca qarTlis tyveebi daagroves da iranSi gasarekad gaamza-
des, am dros nadir-Sahis winaSe gamocxaddnen somxuri eklesiis warmomad-
genlebi, miarTves mas 300 Tumani fuli, 300 fuTi xorbali da ixsnes
Soreul iranSi gasarekad gamzadebuli 300 somxuri ojaxi imis gamo, rom
qarTvelTa Soris aseTi saxsrebi Znelad saSovari iyo, Cvens qveyanas didZali
xalxi ekargeboda. es viTareba somxur sarwmunoebas saqarTveloSi popu-
larulsa da mimzidvels xdida~.169
  qarTvelTa gasomxebas masobrivi xasiaTi miuRia da yoveldRiurad Turme
imdroindeli damkvirvebeli sakuTari TvaliT xedavda, Tu rogor somxdebod-
nen qarTvelebi. es iqidanac Cans, rom am faqts adasturebs iseTi gamoCenili
moRvawe-mogzauri, rogoric iyo nikoloz ColoyaSvili (nikifore irbaxi).
  nikoloz ColoyaSvili saqarTveloSi erT-erTi yvelaze gavleniani sa-
suliero piri iyo. mas elCadac agzavnidnen evropaSi, miiRo espaneTis mefem,
romSi qarTuli wignis gamocemisTvis izruna, pativs scemda romis papi. is
ara marto kaxeTsa da qarTlSi, aramed samegreloSic moRvaweobda. amito-
mac sityva im kacisa, romelic kargad icnobda ara marto saqarTvelos
yoveli kuTxis, aramed imdroindeli msoflios cxovrebas, WeSmariti iyo da
mxolod simarTles Seicavda. man erT krebaze, romelsac eswreboda ros-
tom mefe, saqarTvelos kaTalikosi da episkoposebi, ganacxada: `yoveldRe
Cveni TvaliT vxedavT, rom mravalni qarTvelni somxdebian da ufro mome-
tebuli maTgani mahmadis sarwmunoebasac Rebulobs~.170 rostom mefe, kaTali-
kosi da episkoposebi mas daeTanxmnen.
  sparsTa da TurqeTis mier dapyrobil saqarTvelos kuTxeebSi qarTvele-
bi somxdebodnen, agreTve mahmadiandebodnen, an kaTolikobas iRebdnen.
712                                            mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
qarTvelebi gansakuTrebiT somxdebodnen (anu grigorianul sarwmunoebas
iRebdnen) qalaqebSi da gzispira savaWro adgilebSi, gzispira soflebSi.
adamianis gasomxeba imiT gamoixateboda, rom is aRiarebda Tavis Tavs
somxuri eklesiis wevrad.
   am dros mas Cveulebriv rCeboda Tavisi qarTuli ena, qarTuli adaT-
wesebi da Cvevebi, mis cxovrebaSi TiTqmis araferi icvleboda, garda imisa,
rom mahmadianebisagan axla, is ukve daculi iyo somxuri eklesiis mier.
   evropeli misionerebi, rogorc wesi, yovelTvis aRwerdnen, rom imdroin-
del qarTlSi batonobdnen somxebi. amas aRniSnaven ara marto evropelebi,
aramed qarTvelebic. magaliTad, saqarTvelos kaTalikosi nikoloz VIII
1742 wels Tavis werilSi romis paps, benediqte XIV-s swored amas SesCivis
_ `Cemi didi xnis wadilis Sesruleba somxebma ar damacales, radgan isini
axla Cven aRar gvijereben da am qveyanaSi Tavisi nebisamebr batonoben.
Tqveni patri kapucinebi daamwyvdies da egodenad hgvemes da daawylules,
uaresis qmna aRar SeiZleboda. gaaupatiures wmida xatebi da jvrebi Tqve-
ni eklesiisa... daiWires kaTolikebi Tu mamakacebi, Tu dedakacebi, Tu ranairad
Seuracxyves: qoneba sul waarTves da ZaliT kaTolike sarwmunoebasa da
TavianT mSoblebs ganaSores... SegvewieT, nu miuSvebT, raTa emodeni xalxi
warwymdes, nurc CaugdebT Tqvens SeZenils erT gacofebul urwmunoebs...~171
   Tanamedrove mkiTxvels SeiZleba eCvenos, rom saqarTvelos patriarqis
am werilSi saqme Seexeba ara qarTvel marTlmadideblebs, aramed mxolod
kaTolikeebs. sinamdvileSi, werili saerTod qarTvelebs Seexeba, radganac
saqarTvelos kaTalikosi amave werilSi paps moaxsenebs, rom is da misi
eklesiis qarTveli mrevli papis erTgulia, amitomac is SesTxovs paps
gasomxebisagan daifaros qarTvelebi. werilSi axsenebs kidec qarTvelebsa
da mis ers. is paps swers: `Cveni qveyana Tqven gemorCilebaT... aw yvela
qarTveli umorCilesad gevedrebiT, raTa am provincias xeli ar aaRoT da
ukapucinebod ar dagvtovoT...~172
   ratom aRiareben am momentSi qarTveli warCinebulebi da gamoCenili
pirebi papis uzenaesobas? im mizezis gamo, rom osmalebi da sparselebi
marTlmadidebel qarTvelebs iZulebiT asomxebdnen, an aTaTrebdnen. amito-
mac eris erTianobis gadarCenisaTvis papis uzenaesobis aRiarebiT mahmadi-
anTa yuradRebis modunebas cdilobdnen. cnobilia, rom isini papis qveSevr-
domebs (`frangebs~ _ kaTolikebs) naklebad devnidnen. marTlac, papis uze-
naesobis garegani aRiarebiT qarTveli qarTveladve rCeboda, xolo gagrigo-
rianebis, an gamahmadianebisas qarTvelebi erovnebas kargavdnen _ somxde-
bodnen, an TaTrdebodnen.
   aq ara sarwmunoebrivi, aramed erovnuli momenti iyo arsebiTi, Torem
sarwmunoebrivad qarTvelebs TavianTi Tavi mtkice marTlmadideblad mi-
aCndaT da erTgulebdnen kidec mas.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                713
  somexma ierarqebma icodnen, rom qarTvelebi paps eloliavebodnen ara
sarwmunoebis gamo, aramed gasomxebisgan Tavdacvis mizniT, amitomac sas-
tikad devnidnen aseT qarTvelebs: cemdnen, aSorebdnen col-qmars erTma-
neTs, arTmevdnen bavSvebs, saxls, yovelgvar qonebas, asamarTlebdnen da
Semdeg ki agrigorianebdnen. amas TiTqmis yovel werilSi aRwerdnen rogorc
qarTveli, ise evropeli sasuliero pirebi.
  zemoT moyvanili kaTalikosis werilis garda, amaze miuTiTebs erTi
kargad cnobili, 1634 wlis ambavi: gorSi somxebma Seityves, rom erTi
qarTveli (erovnebiT qarTveli) axalgazrda nasyida kaTolikea da patrebs
emsaxureba. somxebma es qarTveli ZaliT gamoiyvanes saxlidan, cema-tyepiT
miiyvanes goris cixis mahmadian ufrosTan, Semdeg waiyvanes TbilisSi, daas-
mines mahmadian rostom xanTan, moTxoves am qarTvelis sikvdiliT dasja.
`vidre nasyidas saqme gadawydeboda, mas bevri Seuracxeba miayena momCivan-
gabrazebulma xalxma, radgan xelSi hyavdaT~.173
  qarTvel kaTolikeebs sazogadod somxebi rom devnidnen da maT gagrigo-
rianebas moiTxovdnen, es zemoT moyvanilis garda, Semdegidanac Cans: Turqebma
samxreT saqarTveloSi erTimeoris miyolebiT gaauqmes qarTuli saepisko-
posoebi. 1763-1764 wlebisaTvis am mxareSi darCenili iyo erTaderTi qarTveli
episkoposi giorgi. TurqTa iZulebiT `1764 wlis dasawyisSi am mxares
qarTveli episkoposi vinme giorgi iZulebuli gamxdara daetovebina mar-
Tlmadidebloba. marTlmadideblur qristianobaSi osmaleTi xedavda ruseT-
saqarTvelos kavSirs da araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar miiCnevda dasaSvebad
axalcixis safaSos teritoriaze mis ramenair Sewynarebas. amitomac iyo,
rom qarTvelma episkoposma giorgim marTlmadideblobis nacvlad miiRo
kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba, rac sakmarisi sababi gaxda imisaTvis, rom Turq
moxeleebs SeewyvitaT saepiskoposos devna~.174
  magram amiT ar damTavrda. rogorc ki qarTvelma episkoposma giorgim
kaTolikoba miiRo, maSinve misi devna daiwyes somxebma. faSas moTxoves misi
dapatimreba im motiviT, rom qarTveli episkoposi ki ar unda gakaTolike-
buliyo, aramed unda gagrigorianebuliyo, radganac yvela qristiani, vinc
ar unda iyos is, Cven unda gvemorCilebodeso.
  marTalia, Turqebma Sewyvites qarTveli episkoposis, giorgis devna, ma-
gram `samagierod, gakaTolikebul episkoposs devna dauwyoo eCmiaZinis pa-
triarqma. sainteresoa vicodeT, ra uflebiT eWideboda marTlmadidebel
giorgi episkoposis ymobas somexT patriarqi. qarTul da somxur eklesiebs
Soris raime uflebrivi urTierToba xom ar arsebobda? amis sarwmuno
pasuxs Cven gvaZlevs misioneri leoni. igi wers, `eCmiaZinis patriarqi
portas mieraa damtkicebuli da kargadaa daculi TviT sulTanis mier,
amitom brZaneblobs mTel Tavis erze... da Turqebis firmanis ZaliT yvela
sxva qristiani morCilebaSi mohyavs~.175
714                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   qarTvelebi Turq-sparselTa nebiT unda gagrigoriandnen, anu unda daemor-
Cilon somxur eklesias, gansakuTrebiT is qarTvelebi idevnebodnen somexTa
mier, romlebic am wess daarRvevdnen da gagrigorianebis nacvlad kaTo-
likobas miiRebdnen. amas sxva magaliTebis garda, episkopos giorgis magaliTi
aCvenebs _ `somexT patriarqs mopovebuli hqonia sulTanisagan ufleba TurqeTSi
Semavali kavkasiis qristianobis meurveobisa. gasagebia, rom gakaTolikebul
qarTvel episkopos giorgisac am mizeziT eWideboda, e.i. masze xelewifeboda
somex patriarqs, romelsac axalcixis faSisaTvis giorgis dapatimreba uTx-
ovia, magram gakaTolikebul qarTvel episkoposs faSasTvis qrTami 1000 pias-
tri miucia da faSas is somexi episkoposisaTvis daumalavs. somexTa episko-
poss faSasTvis dokumenturad dausabuTebia, rom `xvanTqaris firmanis ZaliT
axalcixelebi~ unda emorCilebodnen Cems patriarqso, axla ki `gafrangebulan
da misi morCilni ar ariano~, e.i. somexi episkoposi Tvlida, rom qarTveli
giorgi gakaTolikebis magivrad unda gagrigorianebuliyo. am sakiTxze faSas
qarTvels kaTolikeTa da somexTa episkoposs Soris paeqroba gaumarTavs... es
dava Cven imasac gvafiqrebinebs, rom axalcixis bevri marTlmadidebeli am
gziT albaT grigorianul sarwmunoebas iRebda~.176
   gakaTolikebis gamo TviT sulxan-saba orbeliansa da anton I kaTalikoss
devnida somxuri eklesia, xolo erekle II-s kaTolikeTa mfarvelobisaTvis
emuqreboda kidec.177
   CvenTvis cnobilia, Tu rogor aiZulebdnen da devnidnen cnobil qarTvel
pirebs imis gamo, rom maT grigorianobis nacvlad kaTolikoba miiRes.
magram ubralo, rigiTi glexebis devna da maTze iZuleba naklebad aris
cnobili. SeiZleba arc devnidnen im martivi mizezis gamo, rom qarTveli
glexebi ar iRebdnen kaTolikobas, aramed pirdapir grigoriandebodnen.
   arsebobs damamtkicebeli sabuTi `...saqarTveloSi somxuri sarwmunoebis
qarTvelTa sakmaod mravalricxovani koleqtivis arsebobisa~.178
   ra Tqma unda, somxur sarwmunoebas iRebda ara mTeli saqarTvelos
mosaxleoba, aramed qarTl-kaxeTis daba-qalaqebisa da gzispira soflebis
mosaxleobis erTi nawili. es procesi gansakuTrebiT samxreT saqarTvelo-
Si, qvemo qarTlsa da mesxeTSi mimdinareobda intensiurad, radganac mesxe-
Ti osmalTa, xolo qvemo qarTli sparsTa uSualo gamgeblobaSi imyofeboda,
aseT miwebze mcxovreblebs ki an mahmadianoba unda mieRoT, an grigoriano-
ba da an kaTolikoba.
   qvemo qarTlSi mxolod didi da gavleniani Tavadebis ojaxebma gabedes,
uareyoT grigorianoba, maT kaTolikoba miiRes, Tumca grigorianoba qvemo
qarTlis sxva cnobilma TavadTa ojaxebmac miiRes. iqauri orbelianebi,
romlebmac kaTolikoba miiRes, mkacrad idevnebodnen amis gamo somxebisa-
gan. TviT saqarTvelos ubrwyinvalesi Tavadi sulxan-saba orbelianic ki
somxebisgan idevneboda. 1715 wels evropidan dabrunebuls, gakaTolikebul
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              715
sulxan-sabas, Tan Camoyvnen misionerebi. sabas winaaRmdeg maSinve aRiZrnen
grigorianebi `somxebs zogierTi sabas mteri qarTvelebic SeuerTdnen da
maT TanaugrZnes~.179
  bunebrivia, saqarTvelos eklesiis gamoCenil moRvawes sarwmunoebis gamocv-
lisaTvis, qarTvelma sasuliero pirebma sayveduri hkadres, magram somxebs
masTan ra xeli hqondaT? magram maTi moqmedeba sastikia. sabas Tanmxlebi
piri wers amis Sesaxeb _ `1717 wels somxebma Cveni saxli gaZarcves da
erTianad daangries. TavianTi Cveulebis winaaRmdeg qarTvelebic SeuerTd-
nen, Tumca iseTi sibraziT ar moqmedebdnen, rogorc somxebi~... TamaraSvili
wers _ `qarTvelebs cxadad monawileoba ar miuRiaT am devnulobaSi da Tu
ram brali miuZRviT, saxeldobr is, rom gaCumebulan da somxebis winaaRm-
deg xma ar amouRiaT~.180
  maSin, roca saqarTvelos ubrwyinvalesi Tavadi ase idevneboda grigori-
anTagan, glexoba uares dReSi iqneboda.
  qvemo qarTlis TavadaznaurTagan orbelianebmac kaTolikoba miiRes, ma-
gram amis Semdeg somex-grigorianTagan devnis gamo srulebiT dakarges
qoneba da gapartaxdnen. TamaraSvili wers _ `gakaTolikebuli orbelianebi
ivane da vaxtang Zlierni iyvnen yovelmxriv da bevri ymac hyavdaT. im
zomamde, rom sparseTis mTavrobas weliwadSi 5000 jariskacs aZlevdnen. ai
aseTi Zlierni yovliTurT daCagres kaTolikebis mtrebma somxebma Tavis
mier mosyiduli sparselTa daxmarebiT...~181 da aRwers qarTvel TavadTa
srul ganadgurebas grigorianTa mier.
  misionerebi romSi gagzavnil werilebSi xSirad gadmoscemdnen grigori-
anTa mier kaTolikeTa devnas. es kaTolikebi arian ZiriTadad qarTvelebi
da ara evropidan Camosuli misionerebi. marTalia, maTac, Camosulebsac
devnidnen, magram maTi ricxvi mcire iyo, xolo ZiriTadad qarTveli kaTo-
likeebi idevnebodnen. saqarTveloSi isini idevnebodnen somxuri eklesiis
mier, ara mxolod sarwmunoebrivi mZulvarebis gamo, aramed imitom, rom
somxuri eklesiis centrs mTeli saqarTvelos mosaxleoba Tavis mrevlad
miaCnda. es damtkicebuli hqonda kidec spars-osmalTa mier. amitomac
qarTvelebs ara kaTolikoba, aramed grigorianoba unda mieRoT.
  somxeTis patriarqs Tavis mrevlad miaCnia qarTvelebi, xolo saqarTve-
lo Tavis samwysod. es rom asea, iqidanac Cans, rom iranis Sahebisagan
somxebi iRebdnen nebas, rom saqarTvelodan (!) kaTolikeebi ganedevnaT,
saqarTvelodan da ara somxeTidan.
  1741 wels somxebma Tbilissa da gorSi kaTolikeebi daarbies iranis
Sahis nebarTviT.
  `tfilisSi didi devnuloba aRsZres kaTolikebis winaaRmdeg, radganac
didi sasomxeTis patriarqma moi pova erTi firmani Sah-Tamazisagan, raTa
arc tfilisSi da arc gorSi aRar daayenon kafucinebi. es firmani ra
716                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
miutanes tfilisSi mefis moadgiles, maSinve CamoarTva kafucinebs, rac
gaaCndaT da maTi eklesiac gaaoxra da yvela iq myofi patrebi gandevna~.182
  somxur eklesias ara marto iranis Sahi, aramed, rogorc iTqva, osmaleTis
xonTqaric abatonebda qarTvelTa miwa-wyalze: `somxeTis patriarqisave
CagonebiT iyo, rom xvanTqarma axalcixis kaTolikeebi dauqvemdebara eCmiaZ-
inis patriarqs, ris gamo sam weliwadSi erTxel gangeb erTi vardapeti
modioda da kaTolikeebs xarks arTmevda... eCmiaZinis gamZafrebuli patri-
arqebi ar sjerdebodnen am gadasaxads, ramdenadac da rodesac ki Ses-
Zlebdnen iqaur kaTolikeebs sdevnidnen da xSirad maT saxl-karsac os-
malebs aklebinebdnen. esreT, iqauri kaTolikeebi mudam wamebulni iyvnen
somxebis patriarqebis da maT mier waqezebuli mahmadianebisagan~.183
  zemoT moyvanilSi, ra Tqma unda, igulisxmeba, rom idevnebodnen adgilo-
brivi kaTolike qristianebi. erTaderTi gza am ubedurebisagan (saxl-karis
aklebisa da mudmivi wamebisagan) Tavis dasaRwevad iyo mahmadianobis, anda
grigorianobis miReba.
  idevnebodnen ara marto kaTolikeebi, aramed marTlmadideblebic. XVII
saukuneSi saqarTveloSi marTlmadidebloba ise idevneboda, rom qarTvel
samRvdeloebasa da TviT patriarqsac ki kaTolikobis miReba surdaT.184
rogorc iTqva, kaTolikobis miReba sasurveli imiT iyo, rom sparseT-osma-
leTisaTvis kaTolikoba mosaTmeni da miRebuli sarwmunoeba iyo, xolo
marTlmadidebloba yovlad miuRebeli, magram, rogorc iTqva, kaTolikobis
miRebis Semdeg qarTvelebs axla ukve somxuri eklesia devnida da aiZuleb-
da mieRoT grigorianoba. somxuri eklesia saqarTveloSi ise iyo gaZliere-
buli, rom somxebi kaTolike misionerebs, romlebic vaxtang V Sahnavazisa da
saqarTvelos patriarqisaTvis didad sasurveli stumrebi iyvnen, quCaSi gav-
lis dros qvebs uSendnen, pirSi afurTxebdnen da joxiT scemdnen.185
  brbo, romelic sazogadod arbevda, scemda da klavda kaTolikeebsa da maT
ojaxebs, `Segulianebuli iyvnen vardapetebisa mier~, emuqrebodnen yvela vaWarsa
da xelosans, romlebic vardapetis mowodebisas ar daketavda Tavisi duqnis
darabebs da ar wayveboda brbos `urwmunoTa~ asaklebad. `urwmunoebSi~
mahmadianebs ar gulisxmobdnen: `...gabrazebuli gamovida vardapeti Tavis
mRvdlebTan erTad da daiwyo SeCveneba da wyevla yvela imaTi, vinc ar
daketavda duqnebs da Cvenis eklesiis da saxlis dasaqcevad ar movidoda.
am SeCvenebisa da wyevlisagan SeSinebulma vaWrebma da meduqneebma yvelam
daketes duqnebi...~186 da daaqcies kaTolikeTa saxl-kari da eklesia.
  aqedan Cans, rom `somxebi~ arian ara eTnikurad somxebi, aramed social-
uri fena _ vaWrebi da meduqneebi.
  `am dros somxebis mier mtroba da devnuloba iqamde gaZlierda, rom am
ambavma evropis mTavrobamdisac miaRwia da maTi gamosarCleba da gul-
Sematkivroba gamoiwvia~.187
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               717
   evsevi nikolaZe, qarTuli eklesiis istorikosi, wers, rom grigorianobis
saqarTveloSi gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg medgrad ibrZodnen Cveni kaTaliko-
sebi nikoloz amilaxvari, domenti, besarioni, aseve anton I. magram qarTvel
samRvdeloebasa da kaTalikosebs zogjer taxts da xandaxan sicocxlesac
ki aTmobinebdnen spars-osmaloebi.
   ev. nikolaZe wers, rom saqarTveloSi qarTvelebma Tavidan gulTbilad
da siyvaruliT miiRes Tanamorwmune (qristiani) somxebi. `magram somxebma
qarTvelebs es Rvawli imiT miuzRes, rom daiviwyes maTi amagi da daiwyes
qarTvel xalxSi mwvaleblobis (e.i. grigorianobis) gavrceleba. qarTveleb-
is am erT nawils, romelic aRiarebda somexTa sarwmunoebas, maT Seaswavles
somxuri ena da amnairad es xalxi mTel qarTvelobas CamoaSores... aseTi
warmatebiT gamxnevebulni somexTa misionerebi moefinen aRmosavleT saqarTve-
los da daiwyes qarTvelebSi mwvaleblobis gavrceleba. maT winaaRmdeg
gamovidnen saqarTvelos ganaTlebuli kaTalikosebi: nikoloz amilaxvari
(1675-1688), domenti (1705-1724) da gansakuTrebiT besarioni (1724-1739).
saqarTveloSi Zveli droidan moi povebodnen TargmanSi is nawerebi, rom-
lebic iyvnen mimarTuli somxuri eklesiis mwvaleblobis winaaRmdeg... am
TxzulebaTa SemweobiT saqarTvelos mRvdelmTavrebi advilad imarjvebd-
nen somxebTan paeqrobaSi, magram XVIII saukunis dasawyisidan garemoeba
Zalze Seicvala. am droidan mxiTaristebis nawarmoebni Zlier gavrceldnen
somexTa Soris da misces saSualeba maT samRvdeloebas saRvTismetyvelo
ganaTlebisa. evropeli mwerlebis sxolastikuri nawarmoebni, romlebic somx-
ur enaze gadmoiTargmnen, gaxdnen axal wyarod sarwmunoebrivi davisa. sxo-
lastikurma xerxianobam, romelic gansakuTrebiT aristoteles loRikas em-
yareboda, somexTa misionerebs misca mZlavri iaraRi qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg.
somexTa misionerebis monofizituri propaganda, romelic winaT daiwyo, gan-
sakuTrebiT gaZlierda areulobis dros saqarTveloSi, mefe ieses sikvdilis
Semdeg, Teimuraz II-is qarTlSi gamefebamde (1724-1744) da umaRles wertilam-
de avida kaTolikos anton I-is mmarTvelobis pirvel wlebSi (1744-1749).188
   ev. nikolaZe imowmebs TviT anton kaTalikoss da wers, rom somxeTis
eklesiis meTauri kaTalikosi lazare dauaxlovda anton kaTalikoss da
Seecada, antons mieRo grigorianuli sarwmunoeba. antonma, cxadia, ar miiRo
grigorianoba, romelic avaldebulebda mas, qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs,
qceuliyo somxuri eklesiis wevrad _ `rogorc kaTalikosi antoni mowmobs,
erTbunebian mwvaleblebs masTan hqondaT kamaTi. somexTa misionerebis me-
Taurad iTvleboda anton I-is Tanamedrove somexTa kaTalikosi lazare
Waukeli. ukanaskneli Zalian dauaxlovda kaTalikos antons da Seecada
mis gamoyvanas marTlmadidebeli eklesiidan, magram es ver moaxerxa~.189
   bunebrivia, SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva, nuTu grigorianebs imis uflebac ki
hqondaT, qarTuli eklesiis meTaur kaTolikosisTvis SeebedaT, rom mas
718                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
somxuri sarwmunoeba eRiarebina? amis nebas da aseT gabedulebas grigori-
anebs aZlevda is, rom sparseTi da TurqeTi didad aZlierebdnen somxur
eklesias da mas faqtobrivad gadasces ufleba Tavis mrevlad eqcia ara-
somexi qristianebi.
  `somexTa mwvalebloba warmatebiT vrceldeboda qarTvelTa Soris imit-
om, rom saqarTveloSi gamocxadebuli iyo sarwmunoebrivi Tavisufleba da
mTavrobas ar SeeZlo sarwmunoebrivi davis akrZalva~,190 sinamdvileSi ki
saqarTvelo dapyrobili an vasali qveyana iyo, romlis mTavrobasac ar
SeeZlo damoukidebeli sarwmunoebrivi politikis warmoeba, is ver Seafer-
xebda grigorianTa moqmedebas.
  anton kaTalikosma araTu aRiara grigorianoba, aramed am sarwmunoebis
sawinaaRmdegod dawera vrceli Txzuleba, romelsac Zalze didi mniS-
vneloba hqonda. mas XIX saukuneSic ki ruseTis imperatori miiCnevda
saqarTveloSi grigorianobis gavrcelebis Semaferxebel saSualebad.
  antonma `...dawera uzarmazari dogmatikur-polemikuri xasiaTis Txzule-
ba `mzametyveleba~, romelic `araCveulebriv movlenad unda CaiTvalos
aramcTu qarTul mwerlobaSi, aramed mTeli aRmosavleTis eklesiis saRvTis-
metyvelo azrovnebis ganviTarebis istoriaSi~ (k. kekeliZe). es veeberTela
wigni sul raRac weliwadnaxevarze nakleb droSi daiwera (wera daiwyo
1750 wlis 1 oqtombers da daasrula 1752 wlis 11 marts). wigni mimarTu-
lia marTlmadidebluri eklesiis dasacavad mwvalebelTagan.191
  am Txzulebis didi mniSvneloba iqidan Cans, rom roca XIX saukuneSi qarTu-
li eklesiis TavisTavadobis gauqmebis gamo somxur eklesias didi SesaZle-
bloba mieca saqarTveloSi gaevrcelebina Tavisi sarwmunoeba, ruseTis impera-
tors gankarguleba gaucia amis sawinaaRmdegod daebeWdaT `mzametyveleba~.
  `didi xania, erT visme pirs miurTmevia xelmwife imperatorisaTvis Txov-
na maszeda, rom saqarTveloSi vrceldeba frangoba, anu frangTa sarwmunoe-
ba da somxoba da amasTanave daurTavs im pirsa, rom mxolod erTaderTi
saSualeba ariso mosaspobad sxvadasxva sarwmunoebis gavrcelebisa mar-
Tlmadidebel saqarTveloSi, daibeWdos `mzametyveleba~ saqarTvelos swav-
lul kaTalikozisa anton I-isa. xelmwife imperators esreTi Txovna gada-
ucia sinodSi,192 egzarxoss gamourkvevia, marTla vrceldeboda Tu ara
saqarTveloSi (eparqiebSi) `frangoba~ da `somxoba~, ris Semdegac mizanSe-
wonilad iqna miCneuli gamocemuliyo es wigni `gasomxebisa~ da `gafrange-
bis~ Tavidan asacileblad.
  miTumetes XVIII saukuneSi am wigns hqonda uaRresad praqtikuli mniS-
vneloba. es Txzuleba vrceldeboda xelnaweris saxiT. 3-4 weliwadSi
`mzametyveleba~ uTuod Zalze daabrkolebda grigorianobis winsvlas
saqarTveloSi. 1752 wels dasrulebuli wigni 1754-1755 wlebisaTvis ukve
mTel saqarTveloSi iqneboda gavrcelebuli.
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               719
   ev. nikolaZe wers: `rodesac anton kaTalikosma Sexeda, rom somexTa misio-
nerebis propaganda saqarTveloSi marTlmadidebel sarwmunoebisaTvis did
safrTxes warmoadgenda, gadawyvita mis winaaRmdeg gamosuliyo da mwvale-
blebis garyvnil moZRvrebas mecnieruli sityviT Sebmoda. vinaidan somexTa
misionerebi Tavis swavlas amyarebdnen sxolastikasa da somxuri eklesiis
istoriaze, antoni gaxda iZulebuli gacnoboda am wyaroebs laTinur-somx-
ur enaze. man jer kargad Seiswavla sxolastika da somxuri RvTismetyvele-
ba... da amis Semdeg somexTa mwvaleblobis gansaqiqeblad dawera didi Txzu-
leba, romelsac `mzametyveleba~ uwoda. es nawarmoebi, romelic dasrulda
1752 wels, Seicavs monofizituri moZRvrebis srul ganqiqebas da masSi
yoveli kaci ipovis mza pasuxs mwvalebelTa yvela kiTxvaze~.193
   rogorc aRiniSna, 1753-1755 wlebisaTvis es Txzuleba ukve win aRudgebo-
da saqarTvelos mdabio xalxSic ki popularul monofizitur Txzulebebs.
am dromde, Turme, erTi aseTi monofizituri Txzuleba, somexTa kaTalikos
lazares mier dawerili, mravals qristians marTlmadideblobis gzidan
acdenda. somexTa kaTalikosi lazare Tavis TxzulebaSi `somexTa ekle-
sias~ aRiarebda yvela eklesiis ufrosad da somexTa kaTalikoss yvela
qristianis mTavar mbrZaneblad. lazarem Tvisi Txzuleba... mraval xelnaw-
erebSi gaavrcela qarTvelebSi, rogorc arqiepiskoposi timoTe mowmobs, es
Sroma saqarTveloSi mdabio xalxSi ikiTxeboda da bevri keTilmorwmune
motyuebaSi Seyavda~.194
   swored amgvar qmedebas win aRudga kaTalikosi antoni da mraval qarTv-
els SeunarCuna ara marto marTali rwmena, aramed SeunarCuna erovneba _
qarTveloba.
   ar SeiZleboda es upasuxod darCeniliyo, antoni aseTi gabedulebisaTvis
unda dasjiliyo da daisaja kidec _ 1755 wels mas CamoarTves sakaTali-
koso taxti da gaaZeves, marTalia, sxva motiviT.
   ar aris gamoricxuli, rom antonis marcxSi eria eCmiaZinis xeli, rogorc
wers g. maisuraZe _ `eCmiaZins yvelaze ufro metad erekle II-is frangT-
momxreoba aRizianebda... amasTan, kaTolikeTa momagreba rusuli gavlenis
neitralizebasa da somxuri sarwmunoebis TandaTanobiT gandevnasac iwvevda.
amitom, Tu, erTi mxriv, am Zalaze dayrdnoba erekle II-s di plomatiuri
lavirebis saSualebas aZlevda, meore mxriv, mis winaaRmdeg ruseT-eCmiaZinis
kavSiris Seqmnas uwyobda xels. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom 50-ian wlebSi
erekle II-isa da anton I-is marcxi aseTi kavSiris Sedegi yofiliyo~.195
   anton kaTalikosi monofizitebisaTvis yvelaze miuRebeli piri iyo saqa-
rTveloSi. grigorianebs didi Zala hqondaT imis Semdeg, rac 1762 wels
erekle II-m antoni daabruna saqarTveloSi da misca kvlav sakaTalikoso
taxti. somxuri eklesiis meTaurma kaTalikosma mkacrad gaafrTxila erek-
le II da TiTqmis daemuqra kidec. mis werilSi, cxadia, ara uSualod
antonzea saubari, aramed kaTolikeebze.
720                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  `ra moulodnelic ar unda iyos, kaTolikosis sityvebSi ara marto pro-
testi ismis erekles politikisadmi, aramed erTgvari faruli muqarac. es
miT ufro sayuradReboa, rom cota xanSi eCmiaZini qarTveli mefis sawi-
naaRmdego moqmedebas gamoamJRavnebs. motanili werili 1765 wlis gazafxu-
liTaa daTariRebuli. imave wlis dekemberSi ki ereklem amxila qarTlis
TavadTa SeTqmuleba paata batoniSvilis meTaurobiT, romelSic eCmiaZinis
warmomadgeneli aRaloc aRmoCnda CaTreuli... ruseTis kavSiri paatas SeT-
qmulebasTan TiTqos aSkaraa. Tu es mosazreba Sesawynarebelia, maSin erek-
le II-is winaaRmdeg ruseTisa da eCmiaZinis kavSiri am SemTxvevaSic savse-
biT dasaSvebia~.196
  aRsaniSnavia, rom ajanyebulebi ereklem sastikad dasaja, xolo eCmiaZi-
nis warmomadgeneli aRalo ar dasaja.197 es miuTiTebs, Tu ra Zlier Zalas
warmoadgenda saqarTveloSi somxuri eklesia.
  10 wliT adre, 1755 wels, iseve rogorc wina XVII saukunisa da XVIII
saukunis sxvadasxva wlebSi, grigorianTa TaosnobiT moewyo saqarTveloSi
myofi kaTolikeebis sastiki devna. aRsaniSnavia, rom maSin am devnaSi
qarTvelebs, kerZod, mefe Teimurazsac monawileoba miuRia. saqarTvelodan
ganidevnen ara marto evropeli misionerebi, aramed anton kaTalikosic,
romelic `kaToliked~ iqna gamocxadebuli.
  iyo Tu ara anton I kaTolike? rogorc masalebi uCvenebs, antoni iyo ara
kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis mimdevari, aramed `frangTmomxre~, mas kaTolikee-
bi grigorianebis Semaferxebel saSualebad miaCnda.
  `Tbilisis somex vaWrebs evropelTa konkurenciisa eSinodaT, somxur
eklesias ki _ kaTolikeTa gavlenis zrdisa. am mxriv, eCmiaZins arc erekle-
sa da anton I-is frangTmomxreoba moswonda. niSandoblivia, rom 1755 wels
TbilisSi mowyobil kaTolikeTa darbevaSi eCmiaZinis xeli eria~.198 swored
1755 wels gandevnes antoni.
  anton I kaTolike rom yofiliyo, mas ruseTis wmida sinodi ar Caabarebda
vladimiris centralur eparqias, ar miscemda mTavarepiskoposis maRal
tituls (maSin sul ramdenime mTavarepiskoposi iyo ruseTSi), da mere XIX
saukuneSi rusi imperatoris nebiT ar gamoscemdnen `mzametyvelebas~, romelic
swored `frangobis~, anu kaTolikobisa da gasomxebis Semaferxebel saSu-
alebad miiCneoda.
  anton I qarTvelebma gandevnes mxolod subieqturi interesebis gamo,
kerZod, mefe Teimuraz II_s (kaxeTis taxtis memkvidres) eSinoda antonisa,
rogorc qarTlis samefo taxtis erTaderTi kanonieri memkvidrisa, mefesTan
daaxloebul zogierT qarTvel samRvdelo pirs anton I-is nayofierma
moRvaweobam Suri aRuZra da amitomac cili daswames, xolo grigorianebs
antoni ar moswondaT `mzametyvelebis~ dawerisaTvis da kaTolikeebis
mfarvelobisaTvis. 1755 wlis kaTolikeTa devnaSi swored im qarTvelma
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               721
saxelmwifo moxeleebma miiRes aqtiuri monawileoba, romelTac grigorian-
uli sarwmunoeba hqondaT miRebuli. cota mogvianebiT erTi misioneri
werda _ `am ambavze saqarTvelos yvela adgilebidan Semoikribnen mefis
nacvlebi da msajulebi, romlebic sqizmatiki somxebi arian. imaT ufro
Seagulianes mefe Cven winaaRmdeg~.199
  aq `sqizmatik somxebSi~ swored qarTveli grigorianebi igulisxmeba,
radganac SeuZlebelia mTel saqarTveloSi mefis nacvlebi da msajulebi
ara qarTvelebi, aramed erovnebiT ucxoelebi yofiliyvnen.
  miuxedavad imisa, rom anton I-ma grigorianobis sawinaaRmdego uzarmaz-
ari Txzuleba gamoaqveyna, 1753 wels masTan mividnen grigorianebi da
Seecadnen miecaT didZali qrTami, raTa misionerebi ganedevna saqarTvelo-
dan. antonma misionerebis darbeva ara marto usamarTlobad miiCnia, aramed
pirobac dado, aseT raimes arasodes Caidenda. uTuod es momentic safuZv-
lad daedo ciliswamebas, TiTqosda antoni TviTve iyo kaTolike.
  erTi misioneri swerda roms _ `somxebi winaaRudgnen patrebs, 1753 wels
maTma moTavem, saxelad aRa meliqma, tfilisis qarTvelebis patriarqs miu-
tana erTi qisa fuli 500 Tumani da sTxova, an gaaZeveT aqedan kafucinebi, an
arada eklesia CamoarTviTo. patriarqma upasuxa: maT winaaRmdeg araferi
maqvs da aseTs usamarTlobas maT arasdros vuzamo~.200 1753 wels saqarTve-
los patriarqi swored antoni iyo.
  aRsaniSnavia, rom antonis damokidebuleba kaTolikeebisadmi arafriT
gansxvavdeboda misi winamorbedebis da agreTve afxazeTis kaTalikosebis
damokidebulebisagan kaTolikeebisa da misionerebisadmi. antonamde saqarTve-
los kaTalikosi nikoloz xerxeuliZe, rogorc aRvniSneT, 1742 wels werda
roms, rom is da misi wre gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT epyroboda misio-
nerebs, natrobdnen maT sikeTesa da bednierebas `...magram Cemi didi xnis
wadilis Sesruleba somxebma ar damacales, radgan isini Cven ar gvijer-
eben da am qveyanaSi TavianTi nebisaebr batonoben...~201
  cnobilia, kaTalikosi nikoloz xerxeuliZe 1744 wels mokles.
  saqarTvelos keTilganwyoba misionerebisadmi imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom
isini ase Tu ise aferxebdnen qarTvelTa gagrigorianebas. amas, albaT,
ekonomiuri mniSvnelobac hqonda, radganac qarTvelebi gagrigorianebis
Semdeg ukve somxuri eklesiis wevrebi xdebodnen da mas aZlevdnen Semo-
saval-Sesawirs, xolo qarTveli e.w. viTomda _ `kaTolikebi~ qarTl-kaxeTSi
kvlav qarTuli eklesiis wevrebadve rCebodnen. Semosaval-Sesawirs romis
paps ar ugzavnidnen. zemoT naxsenebi misioneri wers, rom imis Semdeg, roca
1753 wels anton kaTalikosma grigorianebisagan qrTami ar aiRo, maT mefes
mimarTes `1754 wels tfilisisa da goris somxebi erTad SeerTdnen, mefesTan
mividnen da daiwyes Civili Cveni aqedan gaZevebisTviso~.202
722                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  1755 wels moxda didi devna kaTolikeebisa, am dros antonic maTTan
erTad daisaja. m. TamaraSvili fiqrobda, rom qarTvelebi am devnaSi nakle-
bad monawileobdnen, Tumca mefe mdevnelebs exmareboda _ `1955 wels moxde-
nili devnuleba kafucinebis winaaRmdeg Teimuraz mefisgan miewereba ufro
berZnebsa da somxebs, vidre qarTvelebs~.203
  antoni uaryofda Tavis gakaTolikebas da mas ciliswamebas uwodebda, `am
SemTxvevaSi antoni mtkiced uaryofs mis winaaRmdeg wamoyenebul bralde-
bas da mas `ciliswamebas~ uwodebs, romelic sxvadasxva politikuri miznebiT
inspirirebuli iyo ZiriTadad misi biZis, Teimuraz II-is mier, romelmac
ukanonod daisakuTra qarTlis taxti~.204
  marTalia, imis Semdeg, rac 1755 wlis krebaze antoni daamxes da daapa-
timres, is iZulebuli gaxda TeimurazisaTvis gamoeTxova ruseTSi wasasv-
leli sarekomendacio baraTebi, amitomac Tavi Zlier daimdabla da bralde-
baSi Tavi damnaSavedac aRiara Teimurazis winaSe, magram es iyo xerxi,
uromlisodac mas ruseTSi arc miiRebdnen. antoni kaTolike rom yofiliyo,
romsa da evropaSi gaemgzavreboda da ara ruseTSi.
  ramdenime saukuniT adre giorgi mcire werda: `...viTarca Teslni arawmi-
dani Soris Cuensa daTesul iyvnes borotni _ igi Teslni somexTani, gu-
larZnilni da manqanani da amis mier friad gvevnebodao...~205 aq `somexTa
TeslSi~ giorgi mcire, rogorc konteqstidan Cans, gulisxmobda qarTvel
grigorianebs, anu somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvelebs. amis gamoo, werda is
da sxva imdroindeli moRvaweni, berZenTa Soris mravlad gamoCndnen `mayve-
drebelni~ da `mabralobelnio~, romelnic gvisworebdnen da gvaswavlidnen,
rogori saxisa unda yofiliyo qarTuli eklesiao.
  aseTi istoria ganmeorebula mogvianebiT, antonis epoqaSi. oRond axla
ukve piriqiT. axla ara berZnebi, aramed TviT grigorianebi `aswavlidnen~
da `ayvedridnen~ qarTvelebs, Tu rogori saxis unda yofiliyo qarTuli
eklesia. ase wers anton I Tavis `mzametyvelebaSi~. `664.12. aqvs ukve
sakuTrad eklesiasa somexTasa xelis dasxma ueklesiod episkoposTa... gvas-
waveben Cven, xolo amxilebsTca maT beWedi igi...~
  `666.14. aqvs ukve eklesiasa somexTasa sakuTrad, rameTu ara wmidad
Seuracxies dedani... gvayvedrian Cven, viTarca dedaTagan gamocxobilisa
SemwirvelTa~... da sxva.206 e.i. `somxebi~ qarTvelebs saeklesio wesebs `aswav-
lian~ da `ayvedrian~ am wesebis ucodinarobas antonis dros.
  `lazare kaTalikosi somexTa, ese aw, romelica cxovrobs JamTa CvenTa...
aman lazare aRwera wigni, romelsa uwoda `sawadeli samoTxe~, garna ara
sawadel ars igi Cemda, aramed friadca saZagel... gansakvirvelTa gmobaTa
ityvis, viTarmed eSmakica SeZrwundebian~207, _ wers antoni.
  grigorianebs, cxadia, ar SeeZloT uyuradRebod daetovebinaT antonis
antigrigorianuli qmedeba, miT umetes, rom saqarTveloSi grigorianebs
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             723
qarTuli ena, TavianTi mSobliuri ena kargad esmodaT da SeeZloT waekiTx-
aT antonis Sroma iranisa da osmaleTis mier gaZlierebulni amgvar kriti-
kas verc moiTmendnen.
   `iran-osmaleTisaTvis SedarebiT ufro mosaTmeni iyo rusulisagan gansx-
vavebuli qristianoba, ris gamoc aRmosavleTSi TviT kavkasiis araqarTul
provinciebSi qarTvelni `farulad qristianobdnen, somexni ki cxadad~.
ufro metic, osmaleTTan loialuri urTierToba konfesiuri eqspansiis
saSualebasac aZlevda eCmiaZins. italieli misioneri leone werda: `eCmi-
aZinis patriarqi portas mieraa damtkicebuli da kargadaa daculi TviT
sulTanis mier, amitom mbrZaneblobs mTel Tavis erze... da Turqebis firma-
nis ZaliT yvela sxva qristiani morCilebaSi mihyavs~. am mxriv is qarTul
interesebsac upirispirdeboda. araerTi SemTxvevaa aRricxuli, roca osma-
leTis mflobelobaSi moqceul samcxe-javaxeTis qarTvel marTlmadide-
blebs eCmiaZini ZaliT somxur sarwmunoebaze aqcevda~.208
   `somxebis patriarqisave CagonebiT iyo, rom xvanTqarma axalcixis kaTol-
ikeebi dauqvemdebara eCmiaZinis patriarqs...~209
   aRsaniSnavia, rom ara marto TurqeTi da sparseTi aZlierebdnen somxur
eklesias, aramed qarTveli mefe-mTavrebic gansakuTrebuli mzrunvelobiT
epyrobodnen grigorianebs.
   qarTvel mefeTa keTil mopyrobas grigorianebisadmi upirveles yovlisa,
gansazRvravda ekonomikuri motivebi, magram isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom maT
arc SeeZloT emoqmedaT grigorianTa winaaRmdeg. qarTli da kaxeTi iranis
provinciebi iyo da aq unda gatarebuliyo igive sarwmunoebrivi politika,
rogoric iranSi, qarTl-kaxeTis samefoebis aRdgenis Semdeg ki isini iranis
vasali qveynebi gaxdnen.
   somexTa mimarT keTilad iyo ganwyobili da maT pirobebs uqmnida ros-
tom mefe, mariam dedofali (mariams walkaSi grigorianebisaTvis eklesia
augia), vaxtang VI.210
   mefe simon I `...somexTa didi mosiyvarule da vardapetebis didi pativ-
ismcemeli iyo~ (somexi mematianis sityvebia).211
   grigorianebisaTvis rostom mefes da mariam dedofals augiaT qalaqi
(qarTlis axalqalaqi) grigorianuli saydrebiTa da monastrebiT, rogorc
es iq mdgomi eklesiis warweridan Cans.212 am warweraSi ar aris naTqvami,
rom es qalaqi `somxebisaTvis~ aSenda, aramed naTqvamia, rom is aSenda
`saxasod vaWarTa~.213 im dros grigorians, somexsa da vaWars erTmaneTTan
aigivebdnen da saerTod, `somexi~ da `vaWari~ sinonimebi iyo. amitomac aq
`vaWrebSi~ qarTveli grigorianebic igulisxmebian.
   male, rostomis karze, maRali saxelmwifoebrivi postebic grigorianebma
daiWires, kerZod, Tbilisis qalaqisTavoba, es kargadaa aRwerili. rostomi,
rogorc sparseTis warmomadgeneli qarTlSi, grigorianebis mimarT atareb-
724                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
da sparsul politikas, icavda da mfarvelobda maT. amave dros ki marTl-
madidebelTa eklesias devnida. qarTveli kaTalikosi evdemoni man daaxr-
Cobina da cixidan gadmoagdebina.
  rostomi daxvewili politikosi iyo da Tavisi gamocdilebiT icoda, rom
qarTvelebTan pirdapiri da aSkara midgomiT verafers gaawyobda. amitomac
man cbier xerxs mimarTa, roca nadirobis dros mokles ufliswuli (rost-
omis Svilobili), am mkvlelobas qarTvelebi (e.i. marTlmadideblebi) abralebd-
nen somxebs (e.i. grigorianebs), xolo grigorianebi marTlmadideblebs. si-
marTlis gamosakvlevad rostomma daniSna dueli SioS baraTianisa (mar-
Tlmadidebelsa) da baadur Tumanians (grigorians) Soris. orTabrZolaSi
vinc gaimarjvebda, marTalic is iqneboda. isini rostomma gaagzavna erT
trial, ukacriel mindorze da Tan gaatana sami TaTari. swored es TaTrebi
iqnebodnen aRmsrulebelni rostomis nebisa: duelis dros SioSma baadurs
mucelSi Subi Caartya ise Zlier, rom Subis wveri gadatyda da baaduris
mucelSive CarCa, magram miuxedavad amisa, damarcxebulad mainc SioSi
gamocxadda, radganac, is Turme, baadurma miwaze dasca. Tu es marTla ase
moxda, warmoudgenelia, `sami TaTris~ daxmarebis gareSe saR-salamaTi Sio-
Si miwaze rogor unda daeca sastikad daWril baadurs, magram movlenebi
amis Semdeg viTardeba. es kerZo SemTxveva ganzogaddeba _ `gamarjvebul~
baadurs sixaruliT Seegebnen qalaqis TaTrebi da somxebi _ `da haosianni
da TaTarni SejarviT gamovidnen da misrulTa aRamaRles baadur da moiy-
vanes mefisadmi, da pativs scemda da misca mkurnalTa gankurnebad da
Seiyvara umetes ufros zomisa...~ (1645 wlisaTvis miZRvnili somxuri sige-
li qarTulad Targmnili somexTa mier XIX saukuneSi, Cans, qarTveli grigo-
rianelebis saWiroebisaTvis).214
  rostomma SioSis mTeli qoneba gadasca baadurs _ `amis Semdgomad
qarTvelni mciredre damdabldnen zvaobaTagan TvisTa vinaiTgan haosianTa
simRerani sayvedrebulni Seawyves enaTa maTsa zeda da yovelisa taepisa
dasasrulisa ityodnen: `SioS wadi, baadur movida~, romel ars `SioS gaiqec,
baadur modis~. simRerisa amas zeda haosianTagan qarTvelTa ercxvinebo-
daT. esma ese mefesa saniabazs, e.i. mciresa Sahabazs da miuwoda baadurs da
misca mTavroba didi tfilisis qalaqisa. iqmna ese 1650 welsa...~215 ase
gadaeca Tbilisis qalaqisTavoba grigorianebs.
  am somxur sigelSi rostomi ara qarTvelad, aramed somxad, anisel somex
mefeTa STamomavladaa gamocxadebuli.216
  marTlac, rostomi Tavisi antiqarTuli da prosparsuli politikis ga-
tarebisas, ar hgavda qarTvel politikur moRvawes. miuxedavad imisa, rom
rostomis meuRle qristianobisadmi (rogorc marTlmadideblobis, ise
monofizitobis) kargad iyo ganwyobili, rostomi mainc mtrulad iyo ganwy-
obili qarTuli eklesiis mimarT. saqme is iyo, rom qarTuli eklesia gamox-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 725
atavda im qarTvelebis miswrafebas, romelTac surdaT Teimuraz I-is same-
fo taxtze ayvana, xolo rostomis saqarTvelodan gaZeveba.
    `rogirc aRiniSna, rostom mefesa da Teimurazs Soris dapirispirebam qarTuli
feodaluri sazogadoebis or banakad gayofa gamoiwvia. dauRalavi Teimurazi
rostomisa da yizilbaSebis winaaRmdeg brZolas wlebis manZilze imereTidan
ganagrZobda. mis mTavar amocanas qarTlidan rostomis gaZeveba, iranis ba-
tonobis damxoba da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos gaerTianeba Seadgenda... qarTl-
Si rostomis moRvaweobis pirvelma 15 welma sxvadasxva brZolebiT, ajanyebe-
biT da SeTqmulebebiT damZimebul situaciaSi ganvlo. qarTlSi rostomis
mosvlisTanave qarTvelebis erTi nawili mahmadiani mefis mmarTvelobas ar
daemorCila, maT qristianobis rjulisaTvis `batoni Teimurazi erCivnaT~.217
    Teimurazi iyo gansaxiereba marTlmadideblobisa, anu, rogorc maSin miiC-
neoda, `qarTvelobisa~. qarTvelebs swored Teimurazi surdaT. amis gamo
`...rostom mefis laSqarSi Teimurazis sasargeblo ganwyobileba sufevda...~218
    ise, rogorc wina wlebSi `1642 wels rostom mefis winaaRmdeg kvlav
didi SeTqmuleba moawyes. Sah-abas II-is istorikosis mohamed Taheris in-
formaciiT, `Teimurazi SeuTanxmda zaal erisTavs _ yara-yalxans, nodar da
ioTam amilaxvrebs... raTa rogorme mospon mefobis safarveli rostom
mefe~. rostomis winaRmdeg mowyobil am axal SeTqmulebaSi monawileobd-
nen: zaal erisTavi, ioTam amilaxvari, nodar ciciSvili, kaTalikosi evdemon
diasamiZe, giorgi goCaSvili, somxeTis meliqi yorxmazbeg aTabegisSvili da
sxva qarTvelni. SeTqmulTa Soris yvelaze aqtiurad qarTlis kaTalikosi
evdemon diasamiZe moqmedebda. dadebuli pirobis Tanaxmad, SeTqmulTa mi-
zans `cotas kaciT~ cxireTs myofi rostom mefis mokvla da mis adgilze
Teimurazis gabatoneba warmoadgenda~.219
    magram `qarTvelTa~ (marTlmadidebelTa) es SeTqmuleba gasca somxeTis mel-
iqma (Cans, qarTvelma grigorianma), romelmac Sahs SeTqmuleba gaumJRavna~.220
    ar SeiZleba qarTuli eklesiis meTauris monawileoba am SeTqmulebaSi
avxsnaT piradi dainteresebiT, aramed es iyo gamoxatva qarTuli eklesiis
brZolisa mahmadianobis (da sxva gavrcelebuli religiuri mimarTulebeb-
is) winaaRmdeg.
    rostomma Zalian kargad icoda, rom mis winaaRmdeg ibrZoda zogadad
qarTveloba, romlis meTauric kaTalikosi iyo. amitomac man gansakuTrebu-
li sisastikiT dasaja datyvevebuli kaTalikosi. saerTod, rostomi ajanye-
bulTa mimarT Semwynarebeli iyo da erCia maTi Semorigeba. 1642 wlis
ajanyebulebic mcired dasaja, kerZod, mxolod ramdenime kaci gaaxeibra da
Tvalebi daTxara, magram kaTalikosi ki ara marto moakvlevina, aramed
sikvdilis Semdegac Seuracxyo _ cixidan gadmoagdebina.
    `kaTalikosi qalaqis cixeSi daamwyvdies, Semdeg `daarCves da cixidan
gadmoagdes~.221
726                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   rostomis dros (da saerTod, XVII saukunis 30-iani wlebidan) gaizarda da
ganviTarda qarTlis saqalaqo cxovroba, xelosnuri warmoeba, vaWroba, dawin-
aurda Tbilisi, dasaxlda qalaqebi. es gulisxmobda grigorianobis raodeno-
bis gazrdas, radganac saerTod im dros vaWrobas da xelosnobas ZiriTadad
isini misdevdnen. am grigorianebSi uTuod didi iyo qarTvelTa ricxvi.
   `aRebuli xanisaTvis qarTvel-somexTa ekonomikuri urTierTobis aseve
Tavisebur formad gvevlineba eCmiaZinis msxvili feodaluri organizaciis
garkveuli kavSiri qarTul feodalur mflobelobasTan da qarTuli qalaqebis
vaWroba-warmoebasTan.
   qarTuli da somxuri wyaroebis mowmobiT, eCmiaZini qarTlsa da kaxeTSi
flobda soflebs, calkeul zvrebs, baRebs, saxnav-saTes farTobebs, xolo
qalaq adgilebSi duqnebs. aqve igulisxmebian mis ymobaSi moqceuli Sesa-
bamisi mwarmoeblebi da xelosan-vaWrebi~.222
   eCmiaZinis gavlena iseTi didi iyo, rom mas TviTon marTlmadidebeli
qarTveli mefeebic ki ymebsa da soflebs Cuqnidnen. qarTveli glexebi am
gziT grigoriandebodnen.
   `kaxeTis batons~ Teimurazs da mis SviliSvils erekles eCmiaZinisaTvis
SeuwiravT sofeli Tasmaluri Tavisi mcxovreblebiT, venaxebiTa da wylebiT~.
(iqve, gv. 173); es sofeli kaxeTsa da qiziys Soris yofila. `1657 wels ukve
rostom mefes Seuwiravs eCmiaZinisaTvis sofeli naxiduri~.223
   es qarTuli soflebi, cxadia, gagrigoriandnen, anu, `gasomxdnen~. `qarTvel
xelisufalTa garda eCmiaZins yma-mamulsa da sxva saqonlebs swiravdnen
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi somxuri warmoSobis SeZlebuli pirebi, riTac
isini xarks uxdidnen Tavis konfesiur kuTvnilebas. magaliTad, 1678 wels
sofel SulaverSi javanSiris Svilebs eCmiaZinisaTvis SeuwiravT kargad
mowyobili zvari, 1664 wels Tbilisel moqalaqes aslan behbuTaSvils
`sulisa da Tavis sadRegrZelod~ somexTa mTavari eklesiisaTvis sami
qulbaqi Seuwiravs, axalqalaqel ambardanianT muradaSvils ki mis mier
cxinvals nayidi ori biWi Seuwiravs eCmiaZinisaTvis~.224
   cxadia, es ori nayidi biWi gagrigorianda, amis Tqmis nebas iZleva ara
marto 1634 wels nikoloz irbaxis mier sasamarTlo darbazSi warmoTqmu-
li sityvebi, romlebsac yvela daeTanxma `yoveldRiv, Cvenis TvaliT vxedavT,
rom mravalni qarTvelni somxdebian~-o, aramed, `patri ambrozis moxseneba,
romSi 1640 wels gagzavnili, romelic ase ambobs: `am qristianebis qveyana-
Si kvalad SeiZleba bevri keTilis qmna ravdenime mamul-soflebis yidviT,
rogorTac Svrebian somxebi, romlebisac Tumca didi simZulvare aqvsT
qarTvelebs sarwmunoebis saqmeSi, magram raki maTi xelqveiTi gaxdebian,
bevri maTgani gadadis somxis weszed, amazed uaresic vnaxeTa: zogierTma
saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma mdidarma uriebma gaauriaves ramdenime TavianTi
yma da mosamsaxure. amisaTvis Tvinier raime eWvisa, bevri qarTvelebi siam-
ovnebiT miiRebdnen laTinis wessa, ukeTu Seiqmnebian Cvenni xelqveiTni~.225
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              727
  amis gamo eCmiaZini dainteresebuli iyo SeeZina da mieRo qarTuli sof-
lebi yma-glexebiT.
  `eCmiaZini yoveli RoniT cdilobda xeli Seewyo aseTi ganwyobilebi-
saTvis saqarTvelos somxur mosaxleobaSi da rac SeiZleba metad gaezar-
da sakuTari ymaTa kontigenti~.226
  qarTvelTa masiur gagrigorianebas xels isic uwyobda, rom maSin damkvi-
drebuli wesis Tanaxmad vaWari, meduqne, xelosani, amqari, moqalaqe grigo-
rianuli sarwmunoebisa unda yofiliyo. ufro metic, sxvadasxva xelobis
mosaqmeni qmnidnen gaerTianebebs, romelSic SesvlisaTvis aucilebelad
saWiro iyo gagrigorianeba.
  `aSkaraa, qarTuli qalaqebis profesiuli gaerTianebebi vaWrobaSi somex-
Ta upiratesobis gamo, umTavresad monofizitur eklesiasTan unda yofil-
iyvnen dakavSirebuli, amitom am gaerTianebebSi Sesvla da mis safuZvelze
garkveuli privilegiebis miReba, gasagebia, mxolod somxur sarwmunoebaSi
gadasvliT SeiZleboda. qarTuli mosaxleobis erTi nawilis somxur sarw-
munoebaze gadasvla sxva gziTac xdeboda, jer kidev m. TamaraSvilma vati-
kanis arqivis masalebis safuZvelze gamoTqva mosazreba, rom somexTa mier
soflis, e.i. yma-mamulis SeZenis Semdeg iq mosaxle qarTvelTa nawili
somxur sarwmunoebaSi gadadioda~.227
  miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli mosaxleoba masobrivad iRebda grigori-
anobas, isini ar uaryofdnen qarTul enas, wes-Cveulebebs, qarTul xasiaTs.
  marTalia, grigoriani qarTvelebi TavianT Tavs `somexs~ uwodebdnen, ma-
gram am terminSi (`somexSi~) isini debdnen ara eTnikur Sinaarss, aramed
mxolod sarwmunoebrivs.
  qarTvel grigorianebs mxolod sarwmunoebrivad miaCndaT TavianTi Tavi
`somxebad~, eTnikurad ki _ `saqarTvelos Svilebad~. mxolod XIX saukunis
dasawyisidan aRricxes qarTvelebi grigorianebi erovnebiT somxebad, aseve
erovnebiT somxebad aRricxes somxuri ti pikonis mqone qarTveli kaTolikeebi.
  m. TamaraSvili werda: `am qarTvelebma Tu sarwmunoeba uaryves, gvarto-
moba ar uaruyviaT da arc TavianTi saxelebi dautovebiaT, radgan danarCe-
ni marTlmadidebeli qarTvelebi ar edavebodnen gasomxebul qarTvelebs
TavianTi gvarisa da saxelis Senaxvas~.228
  ratom iRebdnen qarTvelebi grigorianobas da kaTolikeebi ratom gaxd-
nen somxuri kaTolikuri eklesiis wevrebi?
  iqneb grigorianoba mxolod sarwmunoebriv aRmsareblobas ar niSnavda?
unda vifiqroT, rom grigorianobis miReba _ es iyo socialuri kategoriis
Secvla. es iyo raRac msgavsi socialuri revoluciisa. SinaomebiT, leki-
anobiT, mahmadianuri agresiiT gatanjul, dazaralebul glexebsa da xelos-
nebs omi aRar surdaT. Cans, gadasaxadebiT da omebiT gaRatakebuli xalxis
masebi ise xvdeboda grigorianul sarwmunoebas, rogorc ganmaTavisuflebels
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siRatakisa da omebisagan, marTlac, es sarwmunoeba aTavisuflebda glexs
da xelosans omis begarisagan, da Cans, sabatono gadasaxadisaganac.
   maTi mfarveli xdeboda Zlieri da mdidari somxuri eklesia, romelic
uSiSroebis da siRatakisagan daxsnis garantias aZlevda maT, samagierod
arafers ar iTxovda glexobisa da xelosnebisagan, garda eCmiaZinis re-
ligiuri upiratesobis aRiarebisa. marTlac, ekonomikurad dauZlurebul
da amiT avtoritetSelaxul mcxeTasTan (qarTul eklesiasTan) SedarebiT
mdidar eCmiaZins didi garegnuli brwyinvaleba hqonda.
   magram glexisa da xelosnisaTvis arsebiTi iyo is, rom grigorianobis
miRebiT igi Zalze xSirad Tavisufldeboda batonymuri urTierTobisagan,
anda Tu ymad rCeboda, is icvlida socialur kategorias _ glexidan, miwis
dammuSaveblidan, is iqceoda vaWrad, romelic gacilebiT didi Tavisu-
flebiT sargeblobda da qonebis dagrovebis Semdeg ymobidan gamoxsnac ki
SeeZlo maSin, roca es glexisaTvis gacilebiT ufro Zneli iyo.
   grigorianobis miRebiT, is, rogorc `somexi~, anu vaWari, Tavisufldeboda
omis begarisagan, es im dros, roca yovel mebatones Tavisi mamuli patara
saxelmwifod miaCnda da gametebiT ibrZoda am `saxelmwifos~ sazRvrebis
gafarToebisaTvis.
   im dros, roca mebatoneebi miwis yoveli mtkavelisaTvis gaafTrebiT
ebrZodnen erTmaneTs (da ebrZodnen yma-glexebis saSualebiT) mudmivi le-
kianobisa, omebisa da ajanyebebis dros, samxedro begarisagan gaTavisufle-
ba didi SeRavaTi iyo.
   amis garda, grigorianebs Seqmnili hqondaT erTgvari korporaciebi, urT-
ierTdaxmarebis salaroebi TavianT eklesiebTan. eklesia exmareboda Rataks,
aZlevda bavSvebs ganaTlebas, aswavlida vaWrobas da rac mTavaria, tyved
wayvanil ojaxebsac ki ixsnidnen fuliT da abrunebdnen TavianT sacx-
ovrebel adgilze. es didad mimzidvels xdida grigorianobas.
   saqarTveloSi im dros `somxoba~ aRniSnavda ara erovnebas, aramed so-
cialur fenas, socialur kategorias. qveyanaSi arsebobda yma, anu glexi,
mebatone da `somexi~, anu vaWar-xelosani.
   `somexi~, rogorc wesi, niSnavda grigorian adamians ganurCevlad misi
erovnebisa (umeteswilad qarTvels), romelic vaWari an potenciuri vaWari
iyo (xelosnebic vaWrobdnen).
   `somxoba~ _ es iyo vaWar-xelosanTa fena da ara erovneba da isini ar
idevnebodnen spars-osmalTa mier. frederiko diubua werda: `saocari isaa,
rom marto qarTvelebs devnidnen da ara somxebs...~229 iranSi somxebs yovel-
gvari upiratesoba eniWebodaT, somxebi rogorc iranis, ise TurqeTis eko-
nomikuri warmatebis sayrdeni iyo. somxebs swored vaWroba-xelosnoba eva-
lebodaT. somxoba religiur-ekonomikuri organizacia iyo. aman gamoiwvia
is, rom erT periodSi Sida qarTlis barSi miuxedavad mosaxleobis siWar-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                   729
bisa, gauqmda yvela qarTuli saepiskoposo (ruisis, urbnisis, niqozis, samTavisis
da sxva), radganac mosaxleoba gagrigorianda da eCmiaZins Seemata. amito-
mac erekle II-is droisaTvis mcxeTidan vidre lixis qedamde aRarcerTi
qarTuli saepiskoposo aRar arsebobda. mxolod mcxeTa-Tbilissa da kaxeT-
Si isxdnen qarTveli episkoposebi!
   z. WiWinaZe werda _ `ZvelTaganve Tbilisis namdvil somxis STamomavali
moqalaqeni Tavisuflad yidulobdnen qarTvel yma-glexebs. maT hflobdnen
rogorc undodaT da Tan TavianT sjulzedac miaqcevdnen. devnilni ymani
eTvisebodnen somexTa, devnilni somxur gvarsa da saxels irqmevdnen, somx-
urad inaTlebodnen da miT gadairCendnen xolme Tavebs~.230
   `Tbiliseli vaWrebi yidulobdnen marTlmadideblebs, amasTan ara mx-
olod saxlis saWiroebisaTvis, aramed saxelosnoebSi samuSaodac. somxuri
sarwmunoebis pirTa ymobaSi moxvedrili marTlmadideblebis patronis sar-
wmunoebaSi nebiT Tu uneblieT gadasvla, Cans, zogjer farTo xasiaTs iReb-
da, ris gamoc xelisuflebi drodadro am procesis damuxruWebas arapi-
rdapiri gziTac cdilobdnen~.231
   qarTvelebis grigorianul sarwmunoebaSi masobrivad gadasvlis Semdeg
somxuri eklesia dainteresebuli iyo, maT SeeTvisebinaT sarwmunoeba, magram
qarTvelebma ar icodnen somxuri ena _ grigorianuli saeklesio ena, amit-
omac qarTvelebisaTvis qarTuli asoebiT daweril somxurenovan saxarebebs,
locvebs, saeklesio wignebs avrcelebdnen saqarTvelos somxur eklesiebSi.
   qarTveli grigoriani xelosnebi, vaWrebi da amqrebi saqmes awarmoebdnen
qarTul enaze. moRweulia uamravi qarTulenovani aseTi davTrebi.
   qarTveli grigoriani poetebic ki qarTul enaze werdnen leqsebs (aseTi
poeti mravali iyo).
   qarTveli grigoriani istorikosebic ki (magaliTad, farsadan gorgijan-
iZe da sxva wvrili mTxzvelebi) qarTul enaze werdnen.
   qarTveli grigoriani saxelmwifo moxeleebi da aznaurebi qarTul enaze
awarmoebdnen saqmes.
   saerTod, qarTvel grigorianebs uyvardaT saqarTvelo, qarTuli kultura,
qarTuli adaT-wesebi da yovelive mamapapuri, saqarTvelos istoria. es
aRniSnulia mcodneTa mier: `gvelis perangSi~ aseTi adgilia: moqmedeba
xdeba ara saqarTveloSi, aramed sparseTSi. `somxebis sufraze Taria, viRac
gasaocrad ukravs. Tari neldeba da meore kaci dairas iRebs, SeaTamaSebs
xelSi da yurTan miitans da TiTqos ybayuraao, gahkivis baiaTs: `rusTaveli
aRar gvyavs, gamkiTxavi vin ari... aRsdeg, Tamar dedofalo! SenTvis tiris...~
uecrad petriZe wamoxteba: _ vin kiTxavs mag ubedurs an rusTavels an
Tamars? vahme, istoriav!~232
   Tumca, marTlmadideblebi qarTvel grigorianebs qarTvelebad aRar miiC-
nevdnen, magram isini qarTulenovanni iyvnen da aRwerilis msgavsad uyvar-
730                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
daT saqarTvelo, anu Tavisi istoria da winaprebi. aseTi `somxebi~ gansx-
vavdebian namdvili somxebisagan da namdvil somxad arc miaCndaT TavianTi
Tavi, xolo somxeTSi maT somxebad ar miiCnevdnen.
  somxeTis ajanyebis cnobil meTaurs, daviT-begs, somxebi somxad ar miiC-
nevdnen da qarTvels uwodebdnen. somxuri eklesiis moRvawe artem ararateli
gadmogvcems: `1796 wels yizlarSi usaxlkarod da ulukmapurod darCeni-
li artemi TanamoZme somxebTan eZebs TavSesafars. kidevac axerxebs erTi
somxis moZebnas, magram es ukanaskneli gulcivad istumrebs gareT. a. ararat-
elis SeniSvniT, `imitom, rom me qarTveli somexi ara var da namdvili
somxeTis mkvidri var; amasTan dasZina: wadi Sens Tanamemamule mRvdelTan,
iqneba man Segifaroso~.233
  aqedan cxadia, rom `qarTveli somxebi~ sxvaa, xolo `namdvili somxeTis
mkvidri~ _ sxva. qarTveli somexi eTnikurad qarTvelia da mxolod sarw-
munoebrivad aris `somexi~.
  artem ararateli aRniSnavs saqarTveloSi qarTuli enis sayovelTao xmare-
bis Sesaxeb grigorianTa mier _ `aqauri somxebis umravlesobam srulebiT ar
icis somxuri da qarTulad laparakobs... am adgilebis gavla miT ufro Zneli
iyo, rom somxebma ar icodnen somxuri ena da qarTulad laparakobdnen~.234
  a. ararateli ar wers, rom saqarTveloSi yvela somexi laparakobda
qarTul enaze. is wers _ `umravlesobam ar icis somxurio~, es imaze unda
migviTiTebdes, rom somxuris mcodne grigorianebi `namdvili somxebi~ iyvnen,
gadmosaxlebulni somxeTidan, xolo am enis ucodinari ki adgilobrivi
mkvidri qarTveli grigorianebi.
  erTi mxiTaristi werda, rom XIX saukunis 20-iani wlebisaTvis `saqarTveloSi
mosaxle somxebi somxuris ucodinarni iyvnen da qarTulad laparakobdnen~.235
  iv. gvaramaZe werda _ `ukeTu Cveni winaparni somxebi iyvnen, ra eWvia,
Tavidanve somxuri ena eqnebodaT Sin Tu gareT saxmareblad, rogorc sa-
suliero pirni eklesiaSi wirva-locvas somxurad asrulebdnen, erSic imave
enas gaavrcelebdnen, metadre qalaq adgilas, sadac wera-kiTxvis codna
ueWvelad saWiroa moqalaqe movaWre mozardis axalTaobisaTvis! ra dasa-
jerebelia, rom somxis mRvdelma Tavis mowafes qarTuli wera-kiTxva aswav-
los da somxuri ara? vTqvaT, xmarebaSi qarTuli ena yofiliyo da mis gamo
somxurisaTvis Tavi daunebebiaT da qarTuli SeutaniaT xmarebaSi, Sin, ga-
reT da eklesiebSic, maSin imaT qarTulSi, xom TavianTi somxuri deda enis
TiTo-orola nawyvetebic aras darCeboda ueWvelad... xolo radgan aravi-
Tari somxuri enis amgvari elementebi ar daSTenila Cvens qarTuls enaSi,
cxadi WeSmariteba aris, rom Cveni winaparni qarTvelTa modgmis STamomav-
lobisani arian, misTvis wminda qarTuli ena hqoniaT xmarebaSi~.236
  imis gamo, rom axlad gagrigorianebulma qarTvelebma somxuri ena ar
icodnen da amave dros ki maTi ricxvi Zalze didi iyo (didi Tu patara
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                              731
qalaqebis vaWar-xelosani, moqalaqeni, gzispira soflebis glexebi, Sewiru-
li soflebis ymebi), saWiro gaxda maTTvis qarTuli asoebiT daeweraT
somxuri locvebi, wignebi, saxarebac ki. `somxuri saeklesio literatura
qarTuli transkri pciiT, eWvi araa, somxuri sarwmunoebis qarTvelebi-
saTvis unda Sedgeniliyo, romelTa didma umravlesobam, bunebrivia, somxuri
wera-kiTxva ar icoda. mosaxleobis amave nawilis sulieri moTxovnilebeb-
is dasakmayofileblad zogi somxuri locva iTargmneboda qarTul enaze.
erT-erTi aseTi naTargmni krebulis daniSnulebis Taobaze giorgi goreli
gvauwyebs: `gadmoTargmanebuli somxis enidgan qarTvelTa enazed goreli
gevorg uRirsi varTapetisagan sargoT yrmaTa somxeTis eklesiisaTa, visac
somxeTis ena ar esmis~. am cnobaSi isaa sayuradRebo, rom giorgi gorelis
es saeklesio dogmaturi krebuli somex `yrmaTa sargoT~ ki ar uTargmnia,
aramed `yrmaTa somxeTis eklesiisaTa~, e.i. imaTTvis, vinc somxur eklesias
ekuTvnoda da amave dros somxuri ar icoda. aseTebi ki, gasagebia, somxuri
sarwmunoebis qarTvelebi, e.i. qarTveli monofizitebi iyvnen. sxvaTa Soris,
XIX saukunisaTvisac dasturdeba qarTuli transkrifciiT Sesrulebuli
somxuri locvis wignebis gavrceleba qarTvel monofizitTa Soris... qarTuli
transkrifciiT Sesrulebuli da qarTul enaze Targmnili somxuri saekle-
sio dogmaturi literatura, vfiqrobT, kidev erTi damatebiTi sabuTia
saqarTveloSi somxuri sarwmunoebis qarTvelTa sakmaod mravalricxovani
koleqtivis arsebobisa. amitom yvela im cnobaSi, sadac mosaxleobis somx-
uri sarwmunoebisadmi kuTvnilebaze mxolod aqcentireba (magaliTisaTvis
sakmarisi iqneboda, albaT vaxuStis geografiac) marTebuli iqneboda isini
qarTvel monofizitebad migveCnia. aseve qarTul-somxuri epitafiebi, Tbili-
sis somxur sasaflaoze qarTulwarweriani saflavis qvebi, orenovani qarTul-
somxuri samoxeleo da piradi beWdebi, ueWvelia, qarTveli monofizitebis _
eTnikurad qarTvelisa da sarwmunoebiT somexis gaorebuli bunebis gamomx-
atvelebi unda iyvnen.
  amis garda, sabuTebis erT wyebaSi daculia personaluri miTiTebebi
qarTvel monofizitebze~.237
  qarTvel monofizitebs vaxuSti bagrationi `sarwmunoebiT somxebs~ uwodebda,
xolo maTi ena, qceva-zne da cxovrebis wesi qarTuli iyo.
  is qvemo qarTlis `somxobis~ Sesaxeb wers: `am adgilTa Sina mosaxleni
arian sarwmunoebiT somexni da mciredad qarTlis sarwmunoebisa, aramed
qceva-zniTa qarTuliTa~ (t. IV, gv. 312). vaxuStis am cnobaSi, rogorc vxe-
davT, yuradReba TiTqos ZiriTadad gamaxvilebulia sarwmunoebriv momentze,
romlis gverdiT eTnikurobis cneba sadRac qreba.238
  `niSandoblivia, rom sarwmunoebrivi kuTvnilebis gareSe moxsenebuli
Tbilisis somxebis mimarT vaxuSti kulturuli qarTvelobis aRmniSvnel
imave gamoTqmas iyenebs~.239
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  z. WiWinaZe saqarTveloSi mcxovreb yvela somexs ar uwodebda qarTvel
grigorians. is mxolod somxuri eklesiis wevr qarTvelebs uwodebda am
saxels. agreTve z. WiWinaZe ar fiqrobda, rom TbilisSi mcxovrebi yvela
somexi erovnebiT qarTveli iyoo. is werda, rom Tbilisis somxebSi SeiZle-
ba naxevari somxuri sarwmunoebis mqone qarTveli aRmoCndeso. mas amis
Tqmis uflebas aZlevda Tavisi piradi dakvirveba da gamokiTxva cocxali
adamianebisa _ swored amgvari `somxebisa~. is werda _ `...dRes mTeli
qarTl-kaxeTi da masTan imereTic savsea qarTvel grigorianebiT. maT yve-
las kargad etyobaT, rom igini STamomavlobiT namdvili qarTvelebi unda
iyvnen da ara somexni, yvela es kargad etyobaT maT, vinc daakvirdeba, yvela
cxadad SeniSnavs, rom Tu sul ara, umetesi nawili am grigorianebisa unda
iyvnen namdvilad STamomavlobiT qarTvelni. amas eWvi da yoymani ar unda.
Tuki vinme daakvirdeba, samwuxarod, amis dakvirveba ki qarTvelebs srulebiT
ara aqvT... dRes mTelma saqarTvelos erma rom grigorianT sarwmunoeba
miiRos, mis Semdeg igic Tavis gvar-tomobas e.i. qarTvelobas unda gamoeTx-
ovos?!... Tamamad vityviT, rom rac qarTvelTagan gafrangebulan, asi imdeni
gasomxebula, axalcixe erT dros gasomxebul qarTvelebiT iyo savse. iq
qarTvelTa ricxvi gafrangebul da gasomxebul qarTvelTagan Sesdgeboda
da orive ki mainc somxebad iwodebodnen... qarTvels grigorianebTagan
ZvelTaganve yovelive Sinauri, Tu gareuli, baraTebis wera sul qarTulad
swarmoebda. maTSi somxurad TviT mRvdlebic ar swerdnen da gind rom
eweraT, mere amiTi ras gaxdebodnen, arafers. qarTlis qarTvel grigori-
anebTagan qarTuli mwerlobis asparezzed sxvadasxva SesamCnevi mwerlebic
gamosulan Zvel dros... madaTovi, qiCiknova, CamCi, melqo, saiaTnova, wyaloba
bebuTovi, osef amirovi... zurab antonovi... _ komediebis mwerali da cno-
bili gvari mixeil birTvelis Ze TumaniSvili, mwerali da meleqse, romel-
ic `ciskarSi~ swerda daarsebiTganve da 1869 wels `ciskris~ erTi nomris
`salayboSi~ is hazri gamoTqva, rom `Cven tomiT qarTvelni varT da mx-
olod sjuliT somexnio~, amaT garda nikoloz xudadovi, anastasia TumaniS-
vili-wereTlisa... ter fili pe yaiTmazaSvili, Tfilisis gegmis damxati ter
Smovani da mravali sxvani, eniT dauTvlelni, yvelas moTvla aq Znelia,
xolo imas ki vityviT, rom Zveladganve Tfilisis qarTvel grigorianebs Tu
somxis STamomavalTaTvis saxalxo enas qarTuli ena Seadgenda. am eniT
suldgmulobdnen igini... sikvdilis Semdegac ki saflavis qvebzec qarTu-
lad awerdnen, aseTis Zvelis qarTulis warwerianis qvebiT savsea Zveli
xojivanqis sasaflavo, aseve iyo vanqis galavanSi da sxva saydrebTa maxlo-
bladac ase iyo, TviT saydris SenebaTa cnobebsac ki swerdnen qarTulad...
Tbilisis somxoba iseve hpatronobda qarTul enas, rogorc qarTvelni,
uamisod ar SeiZleboda, radganac maSindeli somexic tomiT qarTveli iyo.
igi qarTvel grigorianad unda Seracxuliyo. aseT pirTagan qarTuls enazed
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 733
Zlier bevri wignebia nawer-naTargmni... Cveni mosazreba iyo, rom gvesaubra
da dagvesabuTebina is garemoebac, rom qarTvelebSi arian iseTnic, romelic
grigorianTa sarwmunoebas aRiarebdnen da dRes mis meoxebiT igini somxis
gvaradac iricxebian. aseTi mosazrebis dasamtkiceblad saWiroa cocxali
cnobebi, namdvili ambebi WeSmaritebasTan axlos mdgari. aseT WeSmaritebas
emorCileba yoveli ganaTlebuli kaci, am WeSmaritebas veravin ewinaaRmde-
geba... ai, esec zogi gvarebi qarTvel grigorianebisa... alaverdaSvili, ala-
verdovi, mTawmindeli, mamapapiT qarTulis eniT molaparake, dRes alaver-
dovi, gagvarebuli... igi swers Semdeg sayuradRebo cnobas, romelic umniS-
vnelo iqneba, rom moviyvanoT aq: `me vswavlobdi Tbilisis saxelosno sko-
laSi. me somexi var, magram somxuri ar vicodi, saqarTvelos somxebi martod
sjuliT varT somxebi, Torem erovnebiT qarTvelebi varT, rogorc frangebi
da TaTrebic, somxebis ganyofilebaSi qarTuli ena akrZaluli aqvsT, iq
aravis aswavlian am enas, arc me maswavlidnen, qarTuli wera me Cemis SromiT
da malviT Seviswavle, amitom amxanagebi me `vracas~ meZaxdnen, e.i. qarTvels,
roca es ambavi somxuri enis maswavlebelma da mRvdelma Seityes, maT amis
gamo sastikad gamkicxes, qarTul enas nu swavlobo, aseTi vai-vaglaxiT Sevis-
wavle Cemi RviZli ena _ qarTuli~.240
  z. WiWinaZe CamoTvlis qarTveli grigorianebis gvarebs: alxazaSvili _
gvaris gadakeTebis Semdeg _ alxazovi; aWriani;           areSiZe _ areSovi;
abulovi _ abulianci _ Zveli gvari abulaZe; baraTaSvili; baqraZe _
basilaSvili _ basilovi; begTabegisSvili; gigauri; giorgaZe _ axali
gvari giorgianci; gvelesiani _ axali gvari gvelianci; durgliSvili;
berZeniSvili; dalaqiSvili; gulaSvili _ ivangulaSvili _ ivangulovi;
mamulaSvili _ mamulovi; RaribaSvili _ karibovi; lolaZe; ambardana;
kuxtievi; mamacaSvili; maCabeli; sandaZe; turiaSvili; TarxniSvili; mza-
reuli; sosiaSvili; SaburiSvili _ Saburovi; RarliaZe; muCaiZe; TuSiS-
vili _ TuSurianci, laziSvili; obolgogianci; RambaraSvili; rostomaS-
vili; jaSitaSvili; aTabegovi _ jayeli; zurabiSvili; did-zurabiSvili _
did-zurabovi; qoniaSvili _ gvaris gadakeTebis Semdeg _ salovi; me-
sanTliSvili _ gvaris gadaTargmnis Semdeg _ sveCnikovi; meliaSvili _
gvaris gadaTargmnis Semdeg _ lisiciani; xuciSvili; gomelauri; sulx-
aniSvili; zoziaSvili; lomiZe; panCuliZe _ panCuliani; fridonaSvili;
malxaziSvili; elisbarovi; nadiraZe; menTeSaSvili _ manTaSovi; wamalaS-
vili; koxtaSvili; iasamanovi; aRniaSvili; buxraSvili; alaverdiSvili; na-
muraZe; qoCoraSvili _ qoCrianci; mamajanaSvili; maminaSvili; SanSeSvili;
mirazaSvili; TavqalaSvili _ Tav-qalianci; puradSvili _ puradovi; Tu-
maniSvili; javaxiSvili; mirianaSvili; narimanaSvili; wereTeli; martiaS-
vili; faniaSvili; Zikovi; xidarbegiSvili; xaxanaSvili; zaliaSvili; xiza-
novi; meRvinovi; bainduraSvili; CxeiZe; dadiani; doRaSvili; koSkaSvili;
734                                          mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
gozalovi; safariSvili; ximSiaSvili; wmindoaSvili; dondarovi; giorgaZe;
qitiaSvili; xaraziSvili; meRoriSvili; CareqaSvili; metiviSvili; xaxutaS-
vili; manvelovi; afxaziSvili; xublaria; Wi paSvili; RvTisievi...241
  arc erTi zemoT dasaxelebul avtors ar miaCnia, rom saqarTveloSi
mcxovrebi yvela somexi warmoSobiT uTuod qarTvelia, ara, isini weren, rom
saqarTveloSi cxovrobda somxeTidan gadmosaxlebul `namdvil somexTa~
garkveuli raodenoba, magram maT gverdiT cxovrobdnen is qarTvelebi,
romelTac miiRes grigorianuli sarwmunoeba da agreTve is qarTvelebi,
romelTac miiRes kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba somxuri ti pikoniT. Semdgom,
radganac xalxi im dros erTmaneTisagan ver arCevda erovnebasa da sarw-
munoebriv mimarTulebas, somxur eklesiasTan dakavSirebuli yvela qarTve-
li `somxad~ iqna CaTvlili.
  aseTi mdgomareoba gamonaklisi ar aris. cnobilia, rom is qarTvelebi,
romlebmac mahmadianoba miiRes _ `TaTrebad~ iwodebodnen qristianTa mier.
xolo is qarTvelebi ki, romelTac kaTolikoba miiRes, `frangebad~ iwode-
bodnen marTlmadidebelTa mier. aseve grigorian qarTvelebs `somxebs~
uwodebdnen. cota mogvianebiT ki somxurti pikoniani qarTveli kaTolikee-
bic `somxebad~ iqna aRricxuli.
  qarTveli kaTolikeebi rom `somxdebian~, es dadasturebulia mecnierTa
mier. m. TamaraSvilma vatikanSi moZiebul dokumentebze dayrdnobiT es
daamtkica Tavis wignebSi.
  `rac Seexeba qarTvel kaTolikeebs, imis gamo, rom vatikanSi kongregaciis
mier qarTuli ena ar iyo damtkicebuli RvTismsaxurebisaTvis moqmed enad,
gabatonda laTinuri da somxuri enebi. imis gamo, rom TurqeTma XVI-XVII
ss. Caketa evropaSi misasvleli gzebi da misionerebs aukrZales aq Semos-
vla, TandaTan qarTuli kaTolikuri eklesiebidan gamoidevna laTinuri
enac (misi ucodinarobis gamo) da qarTveli kaTolikeebi SerCnen somxur
enas, xSir SemTxvevaSi qarTvel kaTolikeTa mrevls somex kaTolikeTa
warmomadgenlebi Tu gasomxebuli qarTvelebi winamZRvrobdnen. aseTi vi-
Tareba qarTvel kaTolikeTa srul dabnevas iwvevda, radgan metyvelebdnen
qarTulad, aiZulebdnen elocaT somxurad, adidebdnen romis paps da cx-
ovrobdnen Turquli politikis qveS.
  somxur-kaTolikuri eklesia xelmZRvanelobda maT jvriswera-monaTvlas.
monaTvlisas arqmevdnen somexi kaTolike episkoposis mier rekomendebul
saxelebs da ase TandaTan icvleboda maTi namdvili vinaoba. xSirad axal
saxels axali gvaris xelovnurad Seqmna da gadakeTebac mosdevda. Sovin-
isti kaTolike moZRvarni yvelafers akeTebdnen imisaTvis, rom qarTvel
kaTolikeebs daeviwyebinaT mSobliuri ena, gvari, warmomavloba da bolos,
radganac kongregacias maT saeklesio enad somxuri hqonda damtkicebuli,
somxebad gamoecxadebinaT. samwuxarod, rogorc ukve zemoT vnaxeT, sof.
velis magaliTze, mesxeTis sinamdvileSi es nawilobriv kidec gakeTda~.242
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                               735
  m. TamaraSvili wers, Turq-osmalebis batonobam Tu rogor gaanadgura
mesxeTi, amas `..dResac RaRadebs gaveranebuli qveyana, auracxeli nangrevebi
da metadre samcxis didebuli 19 saepiskoposos erTianad mospoba. am
uwyalo svras vinc ki gadaurCa qarTveli marTlmadidebelTagani, Zalauneb-
urad mahmadianoba miiRo, radgan XVI saukuneSive osmaleTma mouspo gza
evropel misionerebsa, umwyemsod datovebul samcxis qarTvel kaTolikeb-
sac igive Savi dRe daadgaT, xolo maTma mcire ricxvma SeirCina ukve
miRebuli kaTolike sarwmunoeba somxis ti pikonis miRebiTa, radgan am
dros somxobas osmaleTi ise ar awuxebda, rogorc sxva tomis qristianebs,
romlebic daixsna ara marto sikvdilisagan, aramed sxva bevrnairi Sewux-
ebisganac. am garemoebis wyalobiT, isini SeuerTdnen somxis tomis kaTo-
likebs ara marto sarwmunoebiT, aramed erobrivadac, raTa maTsaviT uSiS-
rad yofiliyvnen gamZvinvarebuls osmaleTis mTavrobis xelSi. verc gabe-
des Semdeg qarTuli tibikonis miReba, radgan maTi mtarvali batonisagan
moelodaT an sikvdili, an gamahmadianeba~.243
  m. TamaraSvili aRwers srul suraTs, Tu ra mizezis gamo iRebdnen
qarTvelebi somxurenovan wirva-locvas TavianT eklesiebSi da Tu ratom
aRiarebdnen isini TavianT Tavs somxebad da ara qarTvelebad. aRniSnavs,
rom amgvari `gasomxebiT~ qarTvelebi ara marto qristianobas inarCunebd-
nen, aramed xSirad sicocxlesac ki. somxurma eklesiam SeZlo sikvdilisa-
gan daexsna da qristianobisaTvis SeenarCunebina uamravi qarTveli. igive
iTqmis qarTveli grigorianebis Sesaxebac _ isinic somxur eklesias efare-
bodnen TavianTi col-Svilis, sicocxlisa Tu qonebis gadarCenis mizniT.
  qarTul eklesias ki, rogorc cnobilia, ebrZodnen osmaleTic da sparseTic,
ara marto qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba iyo maTTvis miuRebeli, aramed
qarTuli eklesiac. SeiZleba iTqvas, am uTanasworo brZolaSi qarTuli
eklesia gamarjvebuli gamovida dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi.
mesxeTis, saingilosa da lore-taSiris garda man TiTqmis mTel saqarTveloze
gavlena SeinarCuna.
  XIX saukunis bolos aRmoCnda, rom saqarTvelos zogierTi daba-qalaqis,
soflisa Tu kuTxeebis mosaxleobis erT nawils somxebi Seadgendnen. m.
TamaraSvilma, romelic dainteresebuli iyo am sakiTxiT, moiZia sxvadasxva
ucxoenovani wyaroebi da ganacxada: `raodenic ki SegveZlo, TiTqmis yvela
SesaniSnavi aRmosavleTis istoria da mgzavrTa werilebi gamoviZieT, ma-
gram veraferi vpoeT somxebis gadmosaxlebis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi uwinares
XVII saukunisa. amisaTvis unda vTqvaT, rom somxebs gadmosaxleba da
saqarTveloSi damkvidreba dauwyiaT XVII saukunis damdegs~...244
  somxebi SeiZleba gadmosaxlebuliyvnen 1615-1618 wlebSi Sah-abasis mier
saqarTvelos mooxrebis dros. 1687-1747 wlebSi nadir-Sahis dros, 1780
wels erekles mier.245
736                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
   magram maTi raodenoba didi ar iyo.
   somexTa Zalze didi gadmosaxleba iwyeba XIX saukuneSi, 1804 wlis
dasawyisSi, 1828 wels sparseTidan gadmosaxlda 40 aTas sulze meti somexi,
1829 wels TurqeTidan gadmosaxlda 70 aTas sulze meti somexi.246 gadmo-
saxldnen agreTve 1895 wels.
   miuxedavad amisa, rogorc paata guguSvili werda, XIX saukunis dasawyis-
Si somexTa procentuli raodenoba amierkavkasiaSi didi ar iyo da 6%-s
Seadgenda.
   gadmosaxlebuli somxebi srulebiT ganirCeodnen saqarTvelos adgilo-
brivi `somxebisagan~ eniT, qceva-zniT, wes-CveulebiT, cxovrebis saxiT da
yovelmxriv.
   `vaxuSti borCalos aRweraSi asaxelebs esred: `am adgilTa Sina mosax-
leni arian sarwmunoebiT somexni da mciredad qarTlis sarwmunoebisa,
aramed qceva-zniTa qarTuliTa~. amnair somxebis tomiT qarTvelobisa Cven
eWvi ara gvaqvs, radgan sazogadod SeniSnulia, rom somxebi saca wavlen,
TavianT zne-Cveulebas ar stovdnen da sxvisas ar scvlian, sxvaTa Soris,
TviT mogzauri gambac mowmobs, rom saqarTveloSi somxebi arafriT ems-
gavsebian qarTvelebs da maTSi irCevian TavianTi zne-CveulebiT. am faqts
yvelani cxadad davinaxavT, ukeTu CavukvirdebiT am erTi saukunis wineT
saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlebul somxebs, romlebsac TavianTi ararai dau-
tovebiaT da sxva zne-Cveuleba ar SeuTvisebiaT. dResac yvelaferSi iseTi
somxebi arian, yovelis mxriT, rogorc iyvnen am erTi saukunis wineT, aq
gadmosaxlebis dros. es faqti sabuTs gvaZlevs qarTvel tomad SevracxoT
yvela isini, romlebsac somxebisa marto sarwmunoeba aqvT da ara zne-
Cveuleba. is sakiTxi, rom qarTvelobaSic moi povebian somxis merjuleni _
e.i. qarTveli grigorianebi, jer b. kldiam aRZra `iveriaSi~ 1902 wels,
xolo Semdgom imave wels moskovis lazares aRmosavleTi enebis institu-
tis profesorma b. xaxanaSvilma `kavkaz~ _ rusul gazeTSi. amave sagans
Seexo batoni lasi 1904 wlis ianvris dRis `iveriaSi~.247
   qarTvel grigorianebs, rogorc cnobilia, `somxebs~ uwodebdnen. agreTve,
qarTvel kaTolikeebsac, gansakuTrebiT ki somxurenovani wirva-locvis mqo-
neT. amitomac qarTvelTa gadagvarebis am saxes unda ewodos qarTvelTa
armenizacia.
   m. TamaraSvili wers _ `axlaxans gorSi da axalcixeSi (1703 da 1705 w.)
dawerili sabuTebi aRmoaCines, romlebic cxadad gvimtkiceben iqauri kaTo-
likebis qarTvelobas naTlisRebis saxelebiT da sxva garemoebiT... ai, xsenebul
axlad napovn sabuTebSi zogierTi saxelebi: mindoraTi, mananaZe, waldaZe,
nebieriZe, miqelaZe, xurciZe, qaTamaTi, zazaTi, beroTi, beromelaTi, malxazaTi,
keJeraTi, gulspaTi, tetiaTi, batonaTi... xizanaTi, cxelaTi, TeliaTi, tyavaZe,
omiaZe, maisuraZe, horovelaTi, meCxuaTi, filiWamiaTi, godelaTi, godermaTi,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                         737
TuTelaTi, xuTqalTi... naxvretaTi, qvaTi, fufulaTia, gediaTi, kenWianTi, xrin-
wianTi... kbilaTi, koWibrolaTi, sardalaTi, kandelakianTi, ZamaTi, puwkaTi,
xaxianaTi, gelaWamiaTi, WotuaTi, eTeraTi, puradaTi, qoCoraTi, RviniaTi, Cit-
irekaTi, amzerianTi, qoniaaTi da sxva... (kacebis saxelebi) qristesa, RvTisa,
aRdgomela, maxara, darCia, oWia, gania, beruka, Cita, Sermazana, erekle, ramaza,
sava, niko, gogita, farsadana, nadira, xoSa, maxarobeli, kikina, zaali, elizbara,
glaxa, saba, JoJua, beJana, zuraba, amirana, papua, mamuka, paata, gogia, beJua,
mamula, Saqro, nikaSa, malaqia, nono, nonia, iordane, sayvarela, Sio, Tamaza da
sxva. dedakacis saxelebi: mzeqala, mzisadara, vardigula, gulsunda, iagunda,
naTelo, dediqala, dedijanu, darejana, TuTa, TvalSvenieri, ZuZuna, Tamara,
lelo, ybawiTela, gundo, batondeda, gulgula, ybaCua, bangiani, vardo, gundo,
dedeba, TeTrua, loyawiTela, gedo, kakalo, yayaCo da sxva~.248
   yvela eseni qarTveli kaTolikeni somxebad iwodebodnen. simarTle gairkva
mixeil TamaraSvilisa da sxva qarTvel moRvaweTa gmiruli TavdadebiT.
   Tbilisis moqalaqeTa gagrigorianebis Semdeg grigorianTa ubnebSi arse-
buli qarTvelTa eklesiebi umrevlod da umoqmedod darCenilni _ grigo-
rianebs rCebodaT. maTi marTlmadidebeli winaprebis mier iyo aSenebuli
kidec es eklesiebi. eklesiis mrevli mxolod sarwmunoebas icvlida, saeklesio
Senoba ki kvlav Zveli rCeboda. TamaraSvili wers _ `ai, sxvaTa Soris,
ravdeni eklesiebi daiCemes da maTSi qarTuli warwerebi gaaqres _ tfil-
isSi meidnis Tavze yofila patara gumbaTiani eklesia, dRes surf-georqad
wodebuli wm. nikolozis eklesia, dRes jigraSenis eklesiad wodebuli,
avlabris xidis iqiT myofi isnis eklesia, feTxainis eklesia, Zvelad beTle-
mis RvTismSoblisad wodebuli, tfilisis axlos TeleTis wmida giorgis
eklesia, Savnabadas eklesia, Telavis RvTismSoblis eklesia, romelic erek-
le mefis saxlis ezoSi yofila, javaxeTSi kumurdos eklesia da sxva~.249
   marTlac, giuldenStedti, romelmac imogzaura saqarTveloSi, CamoTvlis
Tbilisis somexTa eklesiebs. mas Tavis teqstSi ucvlelad gadaaqvs ekle-
siaTa saxelebi, romlidanac Cans, rom am eklesiebs ixsenieben qarTuli
saxeliT `saydari~, kerZod, am somxur eklesiebs hqviaT _
   `Zichis Sagdari~ _ e.i. `cixis saydari~,
   `Petcherno Sagdari~ _ e.i. `feTxainis saydari~,
   `Wankis Sagdari~ _ e.i. `vanqis saydari~,
   `Melikis und Subsarnisi Sagdari~ _ e.i. `meliqis, anu subsarqisis saydari~,
`sagaSeni~, `noraSeni~, `moRnini~, `jigraSeni~, `surbniSani~, `kozmani~, `qamoani _
qamoanT eklesia~, `zirkiani _ zirkianT eklesia~, `subkarapetesa~, `kasebis~, `petros~,
anu `subkarapetas~ saydari an eklesia; `kasebis~ eklesia, `petros eklesia~.250
   sxvaTa Soris, aRsaniSnavia, rom giuldenStedtis dakvirvebiT lekebis
garemocvaSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi lekdebodnen, xolo osTa Soris mcx-
ovrebi qarTvelebic aseve kargavdnen enas da religias.
738                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  `kavkasiel mTielTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT lekebsa da osebSi arian
bevri qarTvelebi, romelTac religiasTan erTad, enac daiviwyes.251
  mogzauri aRniSnavs, rom qarTveloba im soflebisa, romlebic moeqca
mahmadianebis xelqveiT, gamahmadiandnen da amiT gaTaTrdnen~, _ igulisxmeba
saingilo.
  `...Warma Semdegi soflebi mostaca kaxeTs _ alianaTi, kaxi, varxiani da
inguxi. isini ekuTvnian ukve dasaxlebul Warel patara mTavrebs. maTi
mosaxleoba jerac qarTvelebia, magram cota aqvT qarTuli Cvevebi da
TiTqmis ureligiod arian. Tumca, meti wili mosaxleobisa qarTvelebia,
mainc isini sarwmunoebiT mahmadianebi arian... es mxare TebelTan erTad
adre emorCileboda kaxeTis mefes da iyo qristianuli. axla is damoukide-
belia. ara aqvs religia. gansakuTrebiT Wari Zalian yaCaRuria. isini Tv-
lian Tavs sunis seqtis mahmadianebad~.252
  giuldenStedti aRwers, Tu rogor icleboda qarTlis mTianeTi qarTuli
mosaxleobisagan da rogor upatronod da umrevlod rCeboda qarTvelTa
eklesiebi. cxinvalis CrdiloeTiT aCabeTis cixidan 15 wuTis savalze aris
sofeli qurTa, romelic dasaxlebulia qarTvelebiTac da osebiTac... sofel
sxlebSi jer kidev aris patara Zveli qviTkiris eklesia, romelSic jerec
dgas vercxliT moWedili jvari, is aris 2 futis simaRlis da 40 wlis
winaT Tavad maCabelma da misma meuRlem Semoswires. Tavads ar hqonia
sazafxulo saxli. es eklesia axla mxolod damnaSave osebs emsaxureba
TavSesafarad~.253
  n. berZeniSvili wers, rom Crdilokavkasieli tomebi saqarTvelosaken
jer kidev XIII saukuneSi daiZrnen, magram erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwi-
fos daSlis Semdeg (XVI saukunidan) isini TandaTanobiT Semovidnen
saqarTveloSi da adgilobriv mcxovreblebs Seerivnen.
  `XIII saukuneSi oqros urdos monRolebma imierkavkasiis velebi daiWires
da Tavis samomTabarod aqcies. mTas Semoxiznuli adgilobrivi mosaxleoba
_ afxazni, Cerqezni, osni, RunZ-RliRvni TandaTan amierkavkasiisaken moiwevd-
nen da piraqeT kavkasiis tomebs _ dvalebs, fxovelebs ereodnen~.254
  Tu XIX saukunemde, ase Tu ise, qarTuli eklesia icavda saqarTvelos
qarTuli mosaxleobis `qarTvelobas~, imis Semdeg, rac saqarTvelos avtoke-
falia gauqmda, kidev ufro gaRrmavda qarTvelTa rogorc armenizaciis, ise
sxva tomebsa da xalxebSi asimilaciis procesi, rogorc amas imdroindeli
aRweris masalebi uCveneben.
  qsnis xeobaSi `sof. zodexis ZiriTadi mkvidrni 1774 wels iyvnen odiS-
vilebi... sainteresoa eTnografiuli masala odiSvilebis Sesaxeb. `Cveni
warmoSoba sul sxva gvari iyo. Zir-gvari yofila cecxlaZe. Tavidan meju-
dis xeobis sofel ardisSi ucxovriaT. mand yofilan sami Zmani cecxlaZee-
bi (aRsaniSnavia, rom cecxlaZeebi 1744 wlis aRweris Tanaxmad WurTisxe-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                 739
vis mkvidrni arian _ r.T. ixileT javax. gv. 184). erTs erqva bedo, meores _
mela, mesames _ odi. eseni Camosulan da daukargavT namdvili gvari ceclx-
laZe da gadakeTebulan sam gvarad: odiSvilad, bedoSvilad da melaZed.
melaZis winapari dasaxlda WerTSi, odiSvilisa _ zodexSi, bedoSvilisa _
safarSeTSi. melaZeebi da bedoSvilebi _ gaosdnen. xevSic arian odiSvile-
bi. papaCemis gadmocemiT isini zodexSi modiodnen salocavad~.255
   `XIV saukunidan qarTlis mTaSi iwyeba osuri nakadis SemoRweva~.256
   osebi jer didi da patara liaxvis saTaveebTan, xolo ufro mogvianebiT
qsnis xeobis saTaveebSi esaxlebian. dvaluri mosaxleoba osuri dafenebis
qveS eqceva. osuri dafenebis qveS moeqca adgilze mosaxle qarTveloba,
romelTac osebisagan Seiswavles salaparako ena da gadmoiRes maTi zne-
Cveulebani, es procesi daiwyo XIV saukunidan da dRemde grZeldeba.257
   rogorc aRiniSna, XIX saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqme-
bis Semdeg qarTvelTa gagrigorianebas farTo xasiaTi hqonia _ `es SeRa-
vaTi da kidev bevri sxvac (rom mahmadianuri samyaro somxur eklesias
naklebad aviwroebda) qarTvelTaTvis erTgvar satyuaras warmoadgenda, rasac
Raribi glexoba Tu Raribi qarTveli moqalaqe advilad etaneboda. am
niadagze bevrma qarTvelma miiRo grigorianoba da somexad mogvevlina.
gasomxeba mimdinareobda ara marto qalaqebSi, aramed soflebSic.
   XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi batonymobis gadavardnis Semdeg, mravali
qarTveli mebatonis mamuli uvardeboda somex didvaWars. zogjer am mam-
ulze msxdomi glexebi axali mebatonis sarwmunoebasac Rebulobdnen~.258
eTnograf n. volkovas 1976 wels dmanisis raions sof. vardisubanSi aseTi
saintereso masala aqvs dafiqsirebuli: vardisubanSi cxovroben qarTvele-
bi da somxebi. somxebi ewerebian minasiancebad, miqeliancebad, avaqianebad
da marqarianebad, pasportSic uweriaT, rom arian somxebi. maT somxuri ena
ar ician. maTi mSobliuri ena qarTulia. yofiTi wes-CveulebiT da kultur-
is yvela niSniT qarTvelebi arian, somxur yofasTan araferi akavSirebT.
TiTqos iseTi suraTi iqmneboda, rom somxebis qarTvelebTan asimilacias
unda hqonoda adgili, sinamdvileSi ki es ase ar ariso, wers n. volkova.
gamokiTxvis Sedegad gairkva, rom aqauri somxuri gvarebis matareblebi
warmoSobiT qarTvelebi arian da aq asiode wlis win mosulan sxvadasxva
raionebidan. ase, magaliTad, minasiancebis da miqaeliancebis winapari diRmeli
TeTraZeebi yofilan, romlebic diRmidan sami Taobis win gadasulan. mar-
qarovebis winapari goreli menabdiSvilebi yofilan. marqarovebs vardis-
ubanSi axlac menabdianTs eZaxian (patronimiul saxels) da ara marqarovebs.
aqaurebs kargad axsovT, Tu rogor Seucvala adgilobrivma somexma memam-
ulem qarTvelebs qarTuli gvarebi somxurad.
   Cvens mier 1985 wels amave sofelSi igive masala iqna damowmebuli. mag.
simoniSvilebs somexma mebatonem simoniancebad gadaukeTa gvari.
740                                             mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
  somxebi imTaviTve xels hkidebdnen vaWroba-xelosnobas. grigorianuli
eklesia qarTuli eklesiisgan erTgvarad ganze idga. somxur mosaxleobas
mRvdelmsaxurebisaTvis XX saukunis dasawyisSi Sida qarTlis raionebSi
133 eklesia da 137 mRvdeli tertera emsaxureboda. maTi mrevli 100
aTasamde kacs Seadgenda~.259
  `...gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia XIX saukuneSi ramdenjerme Catarebuli mo-
saxleobis kameraluri aRweris masalebi da 1886 wlis saojaxo siebi (ss).
qarTveli monofizitebi (grigorianebi) xSir SemTxvevaSi somxuri erovneb-
isadmi arian miTvlili. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti azri aRmwerTa mier
sarwmunoebriv momentzea gadatanili. Tu qarTveli, marTlmadidebluri
rwmenis garda aRiarebda sxva sarwmunoebas, is mosaxleobis SexedulebiT
qarTveli aRar iyo. ase moinaTlnen somxebad aRmosavleT da samxreT
saqarTvelos mosaxleobis garkveuli nawili, frangebad (da somxebad) _
kaTolike qarTvelebi samcxe-javaxeTSi, ingiloebad _ mahmadiani qarTvele-
bi istoriul hereTSi, Turqebad _ mahmadiani qarTvelebi samxreT-dasavleT
saqarTveloSi... cnobilia, rom saqarTveloSi monofizituri qristianoba
gavrcelda qarTvelTa Sorisac da Camoyalibda qarTvel grigorianTa Tavise-
buri jgufi... goris mazris Tarianis sazogadoebis sofel axaldabaSi
sxvadasxva gvaris qarTvelebTan erTad mosaxleoben papuaSvilebi, TaTriS-
vilebi, nacvliSvilebi, TandilaSvilebi, giorgaSvilebi, kutiSvilebi, javax-
iSvilebi. CamoTvlil gvarTa warmomadgenlebi somxuri eTnikuri fenisadmi
arian mikuTvnebuli. Cveni Rrma rwmeniT, sarwmunoebrivi momentis gamo,
aRniSnuli gvar-saxelebis matarebelni amave ss-is mixedviT saqarTvelos
sxva regionebSic arian gansaxlebulni da yvelani qarTvelebs ekuTvnian...
saerTod, 1886 wlis ss-iT SeiZleba gamoTvla, Tu ramdeni komli, gvari, suli
aris Camocilebuli xelovnurad qarTul eTnoss da meqanikurad sxva eT-
nosze, am SemTxvevaSi somxurze miwerili... axalqalaqi (qarTlis) somxuri
gvarsaxelebis CamoTvlas aq ar SevudgebiT, magram unda davasaxeloT zo-
gierTi `somxuri~ gvarsaxeli: mamasaxliSvili, qvriviSvili, xuciSvili, me-
zurniSvili, goginaSvili, oqromWedliSvili, CalaSvili, tatanaSvili, abuaS-
vili, gabrieliZe, wverianaSvili, mWedliSvili, nasyidaSvili, iverianovi, firal-
iSvili, goderZiSvili, mamacaSvili... CamoTvlil gvarsaxelebs qarTuli Zirebi
aqvT, eTnografiuli masalebiTac isini grigoriani qarTvelebi iyvnen... gor-
is mazris sof. berbukSi mosaxleobdnen gigaurebi. ss-iT gigaurebi somxur-
grigorianuli sarwmunoebis gamo, somxuri eTnosisadmi arian mikuTvneb-
ulni... verxviaSvilebis erTi komli Tu somxuri grigorianuli sarwmunoe-
bis mimdevari da erovnebiT `somexia~, meore _ marTlmadidebelia da qarTve-
lia. goris mazris sofel vayaSi somxuri eTnosisadmi arian mikuTvnebulni
imedaSvilebi, mamulaSvilebi, mekariSvilebi... grakalSi _ papuaSvilebi, gog-
inaSvilebi, durgliSvilebi, tatiaSvilebi; did garejvarSi _ TuSiSvilebi,
munjiSvilebi, dirbSi _ kulumbegaSvilebi (am gvaris warmomadgenlebi, saerTod,
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                                  741
osebi arian), doliaSvilebi, moZmanaSvilebi, TeTruaSvlebi, qoTuaSvilebi,
berianaSvilebi, paataSvilebi... zemorexSi _ kakitaSvilebi, mamukelaSvilebi,
qarTveliSvilebi, kabulaSvilebi (es gvaric osuria), tyviavSi _ qarelebi,
merabiSvilebi, giguaSvilebi, xabaziSvilebi da mravali sxva. sof. kavTisxev-
Si somxur-grigorianuli rwmenis gamo somxuri erovnebisadmi arian mikuTvneb-
ulni: nanikaSvilebi, qsovrelebi, iremaSvilebi, basiaSvilebi, biWikaSvilebi...
qvaxvrelSi _ berikaSvilebi, papiaSvilebi, gogolaSvilebi, meTiaSvilebi, xu-
ciSvilebi, gigolaSvilebi... axalgorSi mosaxleoben iseTi gvarebic, rom-
lebic somxuri eTnosisadmi konfesiuri mikuTvnebulobis gamo arian miwer-
ili. aseT grigorian qarTvelebs Soris SeiZleba davasaxeloT: mzareu-
lovi, burdinovi, mearayovi, kakilovi, kikolaSvili, xubaSvili (ZiriTadad
osi), xocuelaSvili, beriaSvili, loseuraSvili, gaTenaSvili, geliaSvili,
daTiaSvili, gremelaSvili, cagareli. eTnografiuli masalebiTac, CamoTv-
lili gvarebi qarTvelebi arian, romlebmac garkveuli mizezebis gamo
miiRes somxur-grigorianuli sarwmunoeba da Sesabamisad, miekuTvnen somx-
ur erovnebas... qarTveli grigorianebis CamoTvla 1886 wlis ss-is mixedviT
SeiZleba gagvegrZelebina agreTve Tbilisis, Telavis, siRnaRis mazrebidan...
aviRoT magaliTad, Tbilisis mazris sofeli _ axalsofeli, sadac mosaxle
kazarovebis erT nawils miwerili aqvT _ `eseni maTiaSvilebi arian~. meore
nawils _ `eseni marTiaSvilebi arian~. sofel kumisSi mkvidrobda~ keklovi
(eseni alaverdaSvilebia)~. kumisis mosaxleobis didi nawili qarTvelebi
iyvnen (grigorianuli rwmenis gamo ki somxebad arian Cawerili)... babalaS-
vili, guraspaSvili (Seadare guraspauli), sayvarelaSvili, maTuraZe, TaT-
araSvili, gziriSvili, garsevanovi, xoritovi, guramovi, gabievi, JuJiaSvili,
tetiaSvili, kaxelaSvili, qobulaSvili, olqiaSvili, dedilaSvili, niniaS-
vili, soziaSvili, maisuraZe, sayevarovi, kaxurovi, rostiaSvili... patara erg-
neTSi _ `griquraSvili (eseni mestviriSvilebi arian)~, sarTiWalaSi _
`stefanovi (eseni garsiaSvilebia)~, sanioreSi _ `oxanaSvili (orkodaS-
vilebia)~, `sarqisaSvili (kikuaSvilebia)~, yandaurSi _ `kuzanaSvili (gamt-
kiculaSvilebia)~; CumlaySi _ `demurovi (menabdiSvilebia)~; ananaurSi _
`stepanovi (muxaSvilebia)~... mTeli Sua saukuneebis manZilze saqarTveloSi
somxuri mosaxleoba iyo, da Sesabamisad, qarTveli grigorianebic, magram am
ukanasknelTa raodenobis zrda gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba XIX saukunis Sua
xanebidan (araerTi magaliTi SeiZleboda mogvetana XIX saukunis sxvadasx-
va periodis kameraluri aRwerebidan, romlebSic esa Tu is gvarebi jer
marTlmadideblebad da qarTvelebad, Semdeg ki grigorianebad da somxebad
arian Cawerili). saqarTveloSi XIX saukuneSi qarTveli grigorianebis
zrda, Cveni azriT, dakavSirebuli unda iyos qveyanaSi kapitalisturi urT-
ierTobis swraf zrdasa da 1811 wlidan saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri
eklesiis avtokefaliis dakargvasTan~.260
   zemoT aRwerili procesi saqarTveloSi XX saukuneSic unda gagrZelebu-
liyo, magaliTad, aviRoT mesxeTi. aq 5 raionSi axalqalaqis, bogdanovkis, aspin-
742                                           mitropoliti a n a n i a j a f a r i Z e
Zis, axalcixisa da adigenis raionebSi, 1923-24 wlebidan 1980 wlamde, aRar
moqmedebda arc erTi qarTuli eklesia (arc marTlmadidebluri da arc
qarTul-kaTolikuri), 1980 wels, axalcixis wmida marines eklesiis gaxsnamde,
amave periodSi ki aq uwyvetad moqmedebdnen somxur-grigorianuli eklesiebi
axalqalaqsa da axalcixeSi da somxur-kaTolikuri eklesia _ axalcixis
raionis sof. sxvilisSi. amis gamo, mTeli mosaxleoba (da 1944 wlidan aq
Camosaxlebuli imerloba) monaTluli iyo somxur eklesiebSi. am ambis TviTmx-
ilveli meca var da amJamad mcxovrebTa umravlesobac amas adasturebs. 1924-
1980 wlebSi qarTvelebi somxebTan inaTlebodnen qarTuli eklesiis umoqme-
dobis gamo, im motiviT, rom `mironi xom mainc erTiao~. `mironi xom mainc
msoflioSi yvelgan somxeTidan modis, Cvenc xom somxuri mironi gvaqvso~.
cxadia, aseTi Tvalsazrisi arasworia da SeiZleba gangeb gavrcelebuli.
   qarTvelTa armenizaciis sxvadasxva meTods Soris SeiZleba gamoirCes:
mosaxleobis darwmuneba da ekonomiuri zemoqmedeba. pirvelis Sesaxeb miu-
TiTebs 1813 wels qarTul enaze eCmiaZinSi dabeWdili da saqarTveloSi
gavrcelebuli sigeli. am sigels xels aweren (TavianTi beWdiT adastureben)
somexTa 6 arqiepiskoposi da 2 varTapeti, magram samwuxarod, sigelSi si-
crue simarTledaa gamocxadebuli, kerZod, TiTqosda rostom mefe somxuri
warmoSobisa iyo, TiTqosda misi Svili qarTvelebma mokles, samarTali ga-
momJRavnda, qarTvelebi daisajnen da ganidevnen xelmwifis karidan, xolo
Tbilis-qalaqis mmarTveloba da ufrosoba somxebs gadaecaT.261
   ekonomiuri zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb wers q. SaraSiZe, matenadaranSi daculi
qarTuli xelnawerebis erT nawilze muSaobis Semdeg. `am jgufSi sayura-
dRebod iyo ramdenime sabuTi, romlebic cxadyofdnen, rom somexTa eklesia,
saqarTvelos zogierT raionSi, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, fuladi Tanxis gamsesx-
ebeli dawesebulebebis funqcias asrulebda ara marto somexi, aramed
qarTveli mosaxleobisaTvisac~.262
   `sayuradReboa somexTa kaTalikos nerses humanuri pirovneba (1760-1857)...
man daaarsa somxuri seminaria da dawyebiTi skolebi TbilisSi, umaRlesi
saswavlebeli... nersesi daxmarebis xels uwvdida qvriv-oblebs. Telaveli
qvrivis, somxis qalis mimarTva xsenebuli pirovnebisadmi mowmobs, rom
nersesis daxmarebiT izrdebian, Sesabamis asakSi mziTvdebian da qorwinde-
bian qvrivis oboli gogonebi da sxva. aRsaniSnavia, rom nersesis qvelmo-
qmedeba ar aris Semofargluli nacionaluri da religiuri zRudeebiT.
nersesma Cinebulad icis qarTuli... sayuradReboa, rom nersesi, etyoba, pi-
radad midioda qarTlis soflebSi zogierTi saqmis mosagvareblad. XIX
saukunis I naxevarSi am kaTalikoss nivTieri daxmarebisa da mfarvelobi-
saTvis qarTvelebic mimarTaven... nersess mimarTavs vinme Tamari. etyoba,
didi Tavadis meuRle, romlis qmaric tyveobaSi daRupula. daRupuli, Cans,
garkveul politikur rols TamaSobda, vinaidan misi ojaxisTvis CamourT-
saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria                             743
meviaT yma da mamuli, qvrivi sastik siRaribeSi Cavardnila. Tamari metad
Tavdaxrilad sTxovs nersess nugeSs da daxmarebas.263 aRsaniSnavia, rom am
qarTveli Tavadis meuRle qarTul enaze mimarTavs somxuri eklesiis me-
Taurs. amave dros ki gauqmebuli qarTuli eklesiis meTauri rusi egzarx-
osebi sastikad devnidnen qarTul enas. Tavadis qvrivisaTvis qoneba swored
ruseTis (marTlmadidebelTa) xelisuflebas CamourTmevia, somexi xelisu-
fali ki mas xels umarTavs. cxadia, gasomxebisaTvis pirobebi Seqmnilia.
  q. SaraSiZe wers _ `axali ambavi ar aris, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi
somxebisaTvis qarTuli ena saukuneebis manZilze mSobliuri ena gaxda da
qarTuli mwignobroba maTi udidesi nawilisaTvis erTaderTi iyo, romelsac
isini flobdnen. matenadaranis Cven mier anotirebuli sabuTebi erTxel
kidev adastureben am faqts. qarTulad iwereba mokiTxvis baraTebi, qarTu-
lad warmoebs saqmiani mimowera ojaxis wevrebs Sorisac, qarTulad iwere-
ba ara Tu kerZo pirebis angariSebi, davTrebi, Tamasuqebi, aramed somexTa
eklesiebis oficialuri angariSebic.
  sayuradReboa, rom sami vaWari Zma, romelTagan erTi TbilisSi vaWrobs,
meore _ erevanSi, da mesame kidev _ yarsSi, erTmaneTTan qarTuli mimoweriT
arian dakavSirebuli. am TvalsazrisiT CvenTvis yvelaze sayuradRebo iyo
nerses kaTalikosis mimarT 1826 wlis axlos dawerili baraTi...~264
  XIX saukuneSi, im dros, roca qarTuli ena amierkavkasiis da saqarTve-
los mosaxleobis umTavresi ena iyo, TbilisSi ar arsebobda arc erTi
qarTulenovani skola Tu saswavlebeli (XIX s-is 60-70-ian wlebamde) maSin,
roca imave TbilisSi arsebobda somxurenovani seminaria, sxvadasxva somx-
uri saxelosno saswavlebeli da umaRlesi saswavlebelic ki. mosaxleoba,
da maT Soris qarTveli mosaxleobac (gansakuTrebiT moqalaqeni), TavianT
Svilebs am somxur saswavlebelSi abarebdnen, sadac isini swavlobdnen
kidec somxur enas, maTTvis ucxo enas.
  unda davaskvnaT, rom erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg
(XV s) erTiani qarTveli xalxic ganicdis denacionalizacias, sxvadasxva
qarTul samefo-samTavroebSi danawilebul qarTvelobas uCndeba kuTxuri
patriotizmi, yalibdeba imerloba, qarTleloba, kaxeloba Tu megreloba,
amave dros qarTvelTa erTi nawili `TaTrdeba~, `frangdeba~, `somxdeba~,
gansakuTrebiT ki mimdinareobda qarTvelTa armenizacia. mTiani nawilis
qarTvelobac denacionalizacias ganicdida. es procesi gagrZelda XIX
saukuneSic, Tumca amave saukunis bolos daiwyo konsolidaciis procesi. am
dros qarTvelTa erovnuli konsolidaciisadmi antagonisturad ganewyo
somxuri burJuazia. g. meliqiSvili wers _ `meore mxriv, qarTvelTa erovnu-
li konsolidaciis procesisadmi antagonisturad ganwyobili aRmoCnda
agreTve Zlieri somxuri burJuazia, romelic gabatonebul mdgomareobas
aRwevs am xanis saqarTveloSi da kavkasiis zog sxva raionSi~.265 da es
cxadia xels uwyobda grigorianeli qarTvelebis somxebSi asimilacias.

				
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