COST BENCHMARK GUIDE A4-1

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					COST BENCHMARKS




       WATER SUPPLY
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
A   G U I D E   F O R   L O C A L   A U T H O R I T I E S



                                    COST REFERENCE DATE
                                            JANUARY 2000




        DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY
                                                                              FOREWORD
The cost of water supply services infrastructure can vary significantly, with changing site conditions
and the economic climate.

Experience to date has also shown that cost estimates for water services development projects seldom
use the same costing factors, planning norms and design criteria.

This complicates the task of project managers and strategic planners. It is difficult to assess the
accuracy of project business plans and the validity of project cost estimates.

The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry has therefore undertaken a costing exercise to
determine cost benchmarks for typical water services development projects. The costs were derived
from the departments rural water supply projects completed since 1994 and from as-build project costs
sourced from numerous implementing agents and consultants involved with basic water service
delivery.

Actions are underway to extend the cost information in order to improve accuracy and site-specific
variance. The assistance of all stakeholders and specifically that of local authorities will be
appreciated.

While the accuracy of cost information is expected to improve with accumulation of more cost
information, the publication of presently available cost benchmarks serve to provide guidance to local
authorities and water services institutions in their decision-making.

NOTE that the cost benchmarks are provided at component, scheme, regional and national level and
that the cost sensitivity to site-specific conditions is decreasing in the same sequence. More accurate
cost information is available in a computer model being developed by the Department, which will be
available towards the end of the year.

We trust that the cost benchmarks will assist local authorities with the evaluation of appropriate costs
for water service development.




Mike Muller
Director-General
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry
                                                                                    PURPOSE
The purpose of this document is to provide typical unit costs of water services projects and individual
infrastructure components, as benchmarks for decision-making at local authority, provincial and
national level.



                                                                 REFERENCE DATE
NOTE that the costs in this publication are dated JANUARY 2000. When used in future years, the
costs should be escalated by the published production price index (PPI) for civil engineering. This can
be obtained from Statistics South Africa, tel. (012) 310 8600.



                                                   GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
Unit costs represent typical and not site-specific conditions.
The following characteristics and criteria have been used for the typical rural condition:

      A 10 year design horizon
      Population size categorized according to cost sensitivity
           o < 500 people
           o 500 to 1 000 people
           o 1 000 to 5 000 people
           o 5 000 to 10 000 people
           o > 10 000 people
      1 000 people as average settlement size in rural areas
      No provision for population growth
      Average housing density of 15 to18 people per hectare or 3 households per hectare
      Average house occupancy is taken as 6 persons per household
      Assumed the following average water consumption and 10% reticulation losses per service
       level :
           o street taps supply 25l/c/d
           o yard taps supply 80l/c/d
           o kitchen connections supply 120l/c/d
           o full house connections supply 250l/c/d
      No provision for
           o special structures such as river and road crossings
           o extreme soil condition (e.g. hard rock) or topography
           o new access roads and dense vegetation clearance
           o land acquisition, servitudes or relocation of people
      No provision for professional fees, P&G’s, taxes and VAT
                                                    COST SUMMARY LEVELS

Cost benchmarks are required for different purposes and at different levels of detail. They serve
primarily as a reference or check for evaluation of conceptual project plans and project proposals.
They can also be useful references for regional and national budgeting and strategic planning.


The following summary levels are included in this document:
       o Component level: typical unit costs of individual infrastructure components
       o Scheme level: typical unit costs for different scheme types
       o National level: typical unit costs per capita and per household


It is envisaged that unit costs can be refined for each region or local authority area, considering the
specific cost influencing factors that relate to each local authority area. This information will be
published in a separate guide for each local authority area.


These cost benchmarks should not be used for detailed cost calculation in feasibility studies or
business plans. For this purpose site-specific design information and material costs should be used.
A computer based costing model is being developed by DWAF to assist with conceptual planning and
costing at pre-feasibility level and will in particular assist planners and consultants to evaluate
alternative projects for the need in a specific area and circumstance.




          PROCESS TO DEVELOP COST BENCHMARKS
Unit costs (benchmarks) for each aspect of a development project were calculated as follows:
      Identify key factors that largely influence the cost of an project component
      Identify less important factors and make reasonable assumptions to consolidate these factors
       into the unit costs
      Import all the different combination of factors into the CWSS Cost model and simulate the
       model for each scenario.
      Summarize all costs in table form.
      Compare costs with running projects and correct if necessary.
                                       USE OF COST BENCHMARKS

Cost benchmarks are listed in PART A, PART B, PART C and PART D of this document.


These are summary unit costs at different levels of detail (e.g. component level, scheme type,
regional and national level) and are base on the common conditions in rural areas.


If this document is used to determine cost benchmarks in extreme conditions, the costs must be
adjusted accordingly. Guidance is given in PART E.


Additional costs, fees and taxes should finally be added. Guidance in this regard is given in
PART F.
                                           CONTENTS

COMPONENT COST
                                               PART A.
             7       5            8    9         Summary
                     ,            ,             Component
     6               8            8                 Costs




                         2    1                PART B.
         4       3                              Component
                                               Costs against
                                              Key Variables
                             11       10




SCHEME, REGION & NATIONAL COST
                                               PART C.
                                                  Summary
                                                    Scheme
                                                      Costs


                                               PART D.
                                                 National &
                                                  Provincial
                                                 Unit Costs


                                               PART E.
                                                    Costing
                                                    Factors


                                                PART F.
                                               Typical Fees
                                                    P&G’s
                                                  & Taxes
                                       1. WATER REQUIREMENTS

Typical water usage and service levels

      Level of service          Range and average per capita daily water use




                                                                                                      PART A
                                  5         45    range
  Street tap
                                       25        average

                                        35              80
  Yard tap
                                                  60

                                                  50                    140
    Kitchen
  connections                                                85


                                                   60                            >350
      Fully
   reticulated                                                    250




Calculate water requirement for a mix of service levels

                 Daily per capita water use
                    for service levels                        STEP 1
                                                                      Includes 10% reticulation
                                                              Select*your service level mix . losses
  % of                                                        e.g.
 people                        Kitchen   House                      of population at street supply 25l/c/
                                                              30% * Assuming street tapstaps
 serve Street         Yard     Connect connect
                                                              20% of population at yard taps
 d 100 tap28          tap66           132          275        Yard taps supply 80l/c/d,
                                                              20% of population at kitchen conn.
   90     25             59           119          248
   80     22             53           106          220
                                                               Kitchen connections connection
                                                              30% of pop. at house supply 120l/c/d and
   70     19             46           92           193         Full house reticulation supply 250l/c/d
                                                               =100%
   60     17             40           79           165
   50     14             33           66           138        STEP 2
   40     11             26           53           110        Sum the avg. daily water use from
   30      8             20           40     +     83         the table
   20      6         + 13     +       26           55         = 130 l/c/d
   10      3             7            13           28
    0      0             0             0            0
                                                              STEP 3
                                                              Establish adequate
                                                              water resources capacity
                                 2. RUDIMENTRY SOURCES




                                                                                  PART A
                                                                       O&M
        SOURCE TYPE                         Capital (R/hh)
                                                                    (R/hh/mth)
Run-of-river Abstraction
                                               R0 to R10              R0 to R1
& Rainwater Harvesting
Spring Protection                             R20 to R40              R0 to R1

Well                                         R50 to R100              R0 to R1

Hand Pumps                                   R200 to R300             R3 to R5

Wind Powered Pump                            R400 to R700             R4 to R8

Solar Powered Pump                           R500 to R800             R1 to R2

RamPump                                      R500 to R800             R4 to R8

Most are basic technologies that can easily be operated and maintained by
the community, thus providing opportunity for reduced cost through “payment-
in-kind”.

Where such systems exist, they form an important back-up to higher levels of
service if their use can be controlled to fit in with the billing system of the
higher services.
                                                            3. GROUNDWATER

             TYPICAL BOREHOLE COSTS FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT OF 1000
                        PEOPLE (60m deep boreholes) (R'000)




                                                                                                   PART A
                                           GROUNDWATER PROSPECTS

                  Groundwater Development
                                                                poor          average    good
Hydrogeological Consulting Fees                                 R 66           R 41      R 34
Drilling Costs (60 meter deep)                                 R 117           R 60      R 44
Test Pumping and Water Quality Testing                          R 20           R 12      R 11
Sub-total (excluding site cost-factors)                        R 203           R 112     R 89
Typical cost escalation for small rural village                 R 96           R 52      R 42
Total for Groundwater Development                              R 299           R 164     R 131

                      Borehole Equipment


Number of Production Boreholes                                    2             1          1
Mechanical Equipment                                            R 40           R 26      R 26
Motors / Energy Source                                          R 23           R 15      R 15
Connecting Pipeline (1km)                                       R 55           R 28      R 28
Civil Structure (brick pumphouse)                               R 38           R 19      R 19
Total for Borehole Equipment                                   R 155           R 88       R 88
*Note: Costs are inR’000per settlement of 1000 people, this incidentally also equals to R/capita
Groundwater Prospects
                                               poor        (drill 6; use 2)
                                            average        (drill 3; use 1)
                                              good         (drill 2; use 1)
Settlement Size (use at 25 l/c/d)
The above costing relates to a typical rural settlement of 1000 people

For other settlement sizes cost are typically (moderate to good conditions)
                               500 people or less       R630 per capita
                             500 to 1000 people         R350 per capita
                            1000 to 5000 people         R130 per capita
                          5000 to 10 000 people         R75 per capita
                                 > 10 000 people        R60 per capita
Borehole Equipment
The above costing uses positive displacement pumps and diesel engines
Similar costs can be derived for electricity
Typical costs for a hand pump is R3500 to R5000 depending on depth
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                                                                4. DAM

  TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS FOR A DAM IN A RURAL
              SETTLEMENT (R mil)




                                                                                         PART A
                                   Wb = 50       Wb =100 Wb = 200


   Valley        Capacity
   shape         (mil m^3) Rollcrete              Rockfill       Earthfill
                   < 0.5      R2                    R1
                      1       R4                    R2
                      2       R7                    R6
                      4      R 12                  R 14             R6
                      6      R 17                  R 25             R 14
                   < 0.5      R3                    R3              R3
                      1       R6                    R6              R5
                      2      R 10                  R 11             R 10
                      4      R 18                  R 24             R 19
                      6      R 25                  R 38             R 29

Wt is taken as 50% of the wall length (Wb)
Expenses for the relocation of infrastructure and people are not taken into account
Expenses for land acquisition are not taken into account
All river slopes are taken as 0.8%
Freeboard height is taken as 2m
Foundation strip depth is taken as 2.5m
Annual operation and maintenance cost are : 0.5% of const. cost for earthfill dams
                                              0.5% of const. cost for rockfill dams
                                              0.25% of const cost for rollcrete dams
  FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                              5. TREATMENT WORKS


                       TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS FOR A WATER




                                                                                            PART A
                    TREATMENT PLANT FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT
                                     (R'000)
     L.O.S
 Number of
  people
  served   Street taps Yard conn. Kitchen conn. House conn.
    < 500             R 32              R 72               R 120                R 216
    1 000             R 60             R 144               R 240                R 432
    5 000            R 301             R 720             R 1,200               R 2,160
   10 000            R 600           R 1,440             R 2,400               R 4,320
   20 000           R 1,200          R 2,880             R 4,800               R 8,640

A 10 year design horizon is used
The average daily production equals the average daily consumption
Annual operational costs are 21% of the capital cost
Annual maintenance cost are 23% of the capital cost
Treatment costs are based on the following quality indicators and ranges :
      Facial coliforms : 1 - 10 /100ml, Total dissolved salts : 1000 - 2450mg/l
      Turbidity (NTU) : 5 - 10, Arsenic : 0.05 - 0.2mg/l, Calcium : 32 - 80mg/l
      Iron : 0.2 - 2mg/l, Magnesium : 70 - 100mg/l, Manganese : 0.1 - 1mg/l
      Zinc : 5 - 10mg/l, Cadmium : 0.01 - 0.02mg/l, Chloride : 200 - 600mg/l
      Fluoride : 1.5 - 3.5mg/l, Nitrate/Nitrite : 10 - 20mg/l, Potassium : 100 - 400mg/l
      Sodium : 200 - 400mg/l, Sulphate : 400 - 600mg/l
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                                        6. PUMP STATION

     TYPICAL INSTALLATION COSTS FOR A PUMPSTATION IN A RURAL
                        SETTLEMENT (R'000 )




                                                                                        PART A
                   Number of
 Power suply      people served      Street taps Yard taps Kitchen conn. House conn.
                     < 500             R 35       R 39            R 43          R 50
                      1 000            R 38       R 45            R 52          R 62
                      5 000            R 55       R 75            R 93          R 120
                     10 000            R 70       R 94            R 131         R 185
 Electrical          20 000            R 93       R 147           R 197         R 282
                     < 500             R 52       R 62            R 70          R 85
                      1 000            R 59       R 74            R 89          R 96
                      5 000            R 97       R 100           R 194         R 299
                     10 000            R 153      R 216           R 318         R 461
    Diesel           20 000            R 194      R 356           R 495         R 745
A 10 year design horizon is used
Electrical pumps operates 24 hours per day
Diesel powered pumps operate 8 hours per day
All pumps are designed with a 100m pumping head
Only surface pumps are used
One standby pump is provided
For power line costs, add R48,000 per kilometer
All pump stations have prefabricated superstructures (R22 000 each)
Diesel transport costs are not included.
Annual O&M costs for basic scenarios using simple technology is
   approximately 10% of capital costs for electricity and 20% for diesel
Annual O&M costs for high service levels ranges from 20% to 25% of capital costs
   for electricity and 25% to 30% for diesel mainly due to higher energy cost
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                                          7. BULK PIPELINE

                     TYPICAL PIPELINE INSTALLATION COST
                         FOR A 1KM PIPELINE (R'000/km)




                                                                                            PART A
                                    Soil characteristics
    Service
     level
                           Soft           Intermediate          Hard rock


                         R 70                R 77               R 288
  Street taps


     Yard                R 72                R 86               R 332
  connection


   Kitchen               R 90                R 96               R 360
  connection


    House              R 110               R 124                R 438
  connection
A 10 year design horizon is used.
Growth escalation are not taken into account
Average pipe class is class 9
Road and river crossings are not taken into account
Where possible, labor intensive construction methods are preferred
uPVC pipes are used in soft and intermediate soil, and steel piping is used in hard rock.
Average house occupancy is taken as 6 persons per household.
Values can be multiplied by 0.95 for very flat, favorable topographical conditions
Values can be multiplied by 1.1 for very steep, unfavorable topographical conditions
The annual maintenance cost are typically 2% of the capital cost
Soft soil can be excavated by hand
Intermediate soil hardness requires machine excavation
Hard rock requires machinery and blasting
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                             8. GROUND RESERVOIR


            TYPICAL GROUND LEVEL VILLAGE RESERVOIR INSTALLATION COSTS
                         FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT (R'000)




                                                                                                PART A
         Polyethylene              Steel                Concrete
             L.O.S
 Storage    Number of people
  factor        served       Street taps         Yard conn. Kitchen conn. House conn.
                  < 500             R 36           R 47           R 54             R 75
                   1 000            R 44           R 57           R 68             R 102
                   5 000            R 75           R 112          R 147            R 775
                  10 000            R 102          R 401          R 653           R 1,321
24 hours          20 000            R 147          R 751         R 1,113          R 2,251
                  < 500             R 40           R 52           R 61             R 89
                   1 000            R 49           R 66           R 81             R 126
                   5 000            R 89           R 138          R 523           R 1,059
                  10 000            R 126          R 602          R 892           R 1,804
 36 hours         20 000            R 523         R 1,026        R 1,520          R 3,075
                  < 500             R 44           R 57           R 68             R 102
                   1 000            R 54           R 73           R 92             R 147
                   5 000            R 102          R 162          R 653           R 1,321
                  10 000            R 147          R 751         R 1,113          R 2,251
 48 hours         20 000            R 653         R 1,280        R 1,896          R 3,836
 A 10-year design horizon is used.
Growth escalation are not taken into account
Soil characteristics are not taken into account
Polyethylene reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 50kl
Steel and brick reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 500kl
The life expectancies of each type of reservoir must be taken into account when choosing a
reservoir type.
Annual maintenance costs are typically:        2% of capital cost for polyethylene reservoirs
                                               4% of capital cost for steel reservoirs
                                               2% of capital cost for concrete reservoirs
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                                         9. ELEVATED TANK

*The figures in brackets are the relating storage capacity in kl
               TYPICAL ELEVATED TANK INSTALLATION COSTS FOR A RURAL
                                           SETTLEMENT (R'000)
   Reservoir material              Polyethylene (Kl)             Steel (Kl)




                                                                                               PART A
             Number of
 Storage      people
  factor      served         Street taps          Yard conn.    Kitchen conn. House conn.
                < 500         R 40      (2)       R 43    (5)    R 47      (8)     R 55 (15)
                1 000         R 42      (4)       R 49   (10)    R 57     (17)     R 72 (30)
                5 000         R 62 (21)           R 95   (50) R 135       (83)
 4 hours       10 000         R 86 (42) R 148 (100)
                < 500         R 47      (8)       R 61   (20)    R 76     (33) R 116 (60)
                1 000         R 57 (17)           R 84   (40) R 122       (67)
16 hours        5 000       R 135 (83)
                < 500         R 52 (13)           R 72   (30)    R 95     (50) R 140 (90)
24 hours        1 000         R 66 (25) R 116            (60) R 148 (100)

A 10 year design horizon is used.
Growth escalation are not taken into account
Soil characteristics are not taken into account
Polyethylene reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 50kl
Steel reservoirs are cost effective for reservoirs with capacity between 50 and 100kl
The life expectancies of each type of reservoir must be taken
into account when choosing a reservoir type
Annual maintenance cost are 5% of capital cost for a polyethylene reservoir, and 4% for a
steel reservoir
Where larger reservoirs are required, combine with a ground reservoir
FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                                                                     10. RETICULATION

                       TYPICAL RETICULATION COSTS FOR FOR A RURAL
                            SETTLEMENT OF 1000 PEOPLE (R'000)

                              Geology




                                                                                               PART A
 Pop. dencity                  100%     10% require 15% ripping,
              Service level
 (People/ha)                excavatable   ripping   5% blasting

                                               R 173            R 226                R 278
                         Street taps

      5 - 15                                   R 761            R 989                R 1,217
                         Yard conn.

                                              R 1,012           R 1,316              R 1,619
                       House conn.

                                                 R 91           R 118                R 145
                         Street taps

     15 - 40                                   R 330            R 428                R 527
                         Yard conn.

                                               R 462            R 600                R 739
                       House conn.

                                                 R 60             R 78                R 96
                         Street taps

     40 - 70                                   R 209            R 271                R 334
                         Yard conn.

                                               R 304            R 396                R 487
                       House conn.


10 year design horizon
No existing reticulation exists
Reservoir is situated close to the center of the village area
Values can be multiplied by 0.89 for very favorable, flat topographical conditions
Values can be multiplied by 1.09 for very unfavorable, steep topographical conditions
Annual maintenance cost are 3% of capital costs

FOR MORE DETAIL, SEE PART B.
                             11. PROJECT MANAGEMENT COST


   TYPICAL SOCIAL COSTS PER PERSON FOR A
             RURAL SETTLEMENT




                                                                            PART A
             Pre - implementation


                                                              R15/person
Consultation and mobilization


                                                              R20/person
Social surveys
                      Post project implementation


                                                              R16/person
Health education


                                                              R13/person
Training


                                                              R20/person
Monitoring and evaluation

                                                          R0.30/person/
Running costs of social issues
                                                             month
Costs applicable for communities between 1000 and 3000 people
Social costs per capita will decrease slightly as the population increase
       PART B

  COMPONENT COSTS

AGAINST KEY VARIABLES
                           TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS FOR A DAM IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT (R mil)
    Wall length (m)                  50                            100                                            200
  Dam wall selection   Earthfill Rockfill   Rollcrete Earthfill Rockfill Rollcrete Earthfill                   Rockfill      Rollcrete
Valley     Capacity
shape      (mil m^3)
             < 0.5        R 3.071      R 2.520     R 2.296      R 0.627      R 0.915    R 2.941      N/A           N/A         N/A
   Triangle




            0.5 - 1       R 7.651      R 5.913     R 3.848      R 2.152      R 2.235    R 4.628      N/A           N/A         N/A
             1-2         R 19.638     R 14.444     R 6.727      R 6.564      R 5.625    R 7.744      N/A           N/A         N/A
             2-4         R 52.204     R 36.744    R 12.096     R 19.116     R 14.429   R 13.517      R 6.325       R 5.718    R 15.444
             4-6         R 93.527     R 64.571    R 17.257     R 35.645     R 25.436   R 18.993     R 13.756      R 10.723    R 21.303
             < 0.5        R 5.578      R 4.333     R 3.443      R 3.717      R 3.205    R 4.411      R 3.251       R 3.091     R 5.923
   Trapeze




            0.5 - 1      R 11.770      R 8.892     R 5.761      R 6.967      R 5.805    R 6.942      R 5.389       R 4.979     R 8.783
             1-2         R 26.569     R 19.538    R 10.070     R 14.191     R 11.390   R 11.594      R 9.752       R 8.681    R 13.833
             2-4         R 63.479     R 45.626    R 17.815     R 31.083     R 23.983   R 20.236     R 19.180      R 16.345    R 23.121
             4-6        R 107.908     R 76.701    R 25.490     R 50.619     R 38.273   R 27.910     R 29.465      R 24.484    R 31.892

              Notes : Wt is taken as 50% of the wall length
                      Expenses for the relocation of infrastructure and people are not taken into account
                      Expenses for land acquisition is not taken into account
                      All river slopes are taken as 0.8%
                      Freeboard height is taken as 2m
                      Foundation strip depth is taken as 2.5m
                      Annual operation and maintenance cost are taken as :            0.5% of construction cost for earthfill dams
                                                                                      0.5% of construction cost for rockfill dams
                                                                                      0.25% of construction cost for rollcrete dams




                                                                PART B :           SURFACE WATER -DAM
                                 TYPICAL BOREHOLE COSTS FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT OF 1000 PEOPLE (R'000) (60m deep boreholes)
                                                              UNCONCOLIDATED                                                                     LEACHED / CAVERNOUS
                                      ROCK FORMATION               ROCK                        HARD ROCK                ABRAISIVE ROCK                  ROCK
                          GROUNDWATER PROSPECTS              poor average good            poor   average good         poor average good           poor average good
                          COST ELEMENTS
                     Groundwater Development
           Hydrogeological Consulting Fees                   R 65     R 40     R 33      R 61      R 38     R 32      R 62    R 38     R 33      R 78    R 46     R 38
           Drilling Costs (60 meter deep)                    R 118    R 60     R 45      R 64      R 33     R 25      R 76    R 39     R 30      R 208   R 106    R 75
           Test Pumping and Water Quality Testing            R 20     R 15     R 11      R 20      R 11     R 11      R 20    R 11     R 11      R 20    R 11     R 11
           Sub-total (excluding site cost-factors)           R 202    R 114    R 90      R 145     R 82     R 69      R 157   R 89     R 74      R 306   R 163    R 124
           Typical cost escalation for small rural village   R 96     R 49     R 42      R 69      R 39     R 33      R 75    R 42     R 35      R 145   R 77     R 59
           Total for Groundwater Development                 R 298    R 164    R 132     R 214     R 122    R 101     R 232   R 131    R 108     R 451   R 240    R 183
                        Borehole Equipment
           Number of Production Boreholes                      2          1        1       2           1         1      2         1         1      2         1         1
           Mechanical Equipment                              R 40     R   26   R   26    R 40      R   26    R   26   R 40    R   26    R   26   R 40    R   26    R   26
           Motors / Energy Source                            R 23     R   15   R   15    R 23      R   15    R   15   R 23    R   15    R   15   R 23    R   15    R   15
           Connecting Pipeline (1km)                         R 55     R   28   R   28    R 55      R   28    R   28   R 55    R   28    R   28   R 55    R   28    R   28
           Civil Structure (brick pumphouse)                 R 38     R   19   R   19    R 38      R   19    R   19   R 38    R   19    R   19   R 38    R   19    R   19
           Total for Borehole Equipment                      R 155    R   88   R   88    R 155     R   88    R   88   R 155   R   88    R   88   R 155   R   88    R   88

           TOTAL CAPITAL COST
           Total (excluding VAT)                             R 453    R 251    R 220     R 369     R 209    R 189     R 387   R 218    R 196     R 606   R 328    R 271

Note 1 :   Groundwater Prospects                                                         Note 3 : Borehole Equipment
                                                     poor (drill 6; use 2)                        The above costing uses positive displacement pumps and diesel engines
                                                  average (drill 3; use 1)                        Similar costs can be derived for electricity
                                                     good (drill 2; use 1)                        Typical costs for a handpump is R3500 to R5000 depending on depth

Note 2 :   Settlement Size (use at 25 l/c/d)
           The above costing relates to a typical rural settlement of 1000 people
           For other settlement sizes cost are typically (moderate to good conditions)
                                        500 people or less R630 per capita
                                       500 to 1000 people R350 per capita
                                      1000 to 5000 people R130 per capita
                                    5000 to 10 000 people R75 per capita
                                           > 10 000 people R60 per capita

                                                                                        PART B :                 GROUNDWATER
             TYPICAL CAPITAL COSTS FOR A WATER TREATMENT PLANT FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT (R'000)
                                                              Number of people served
                    L.O.S                   < 500    500 -1 000   1 000-5 000    5 000-10 000 >10 000

                             Package plant          R 26          R 28           R 88           R 221           R 308
                             Conventional
        Street taps
                              treatment

                          Advanced treatment        R 32          R 64          R 319           R 638          R 1,275

                             Package plant          R 28          R 35          R 236           R 348           R 546
                             Conventional
     Yard connection
                               treatment

                          Advanced treatment        R 77         R 153          R 765          R 1,530         R 3,060

                             Package plant          R 35          R 44          R 308           R 546
                             Conventional
    Kitchen connection
                              treatment                                                                        R 3,792

                          Advanced treatment       R 128         R 255         R 1,275         R 2,550         R 5,100

                             Package plant          R 44         R 156          R 412
                             Conventional
    House connection           treatment                                                       R 3,553         R 6,809

                          Advanced treatment      R 230         R 459           R 2,295        R 4,590        R 9,180
Note: Economic analysis has shown that conventional treatment works are likely to be more expensive than package plants for
production smaller than 2000kl/day




                                                                       PART B : TREATMENT PLANT
  TYPICAL INSTALLATION COSTS FOR A PUMPSTATION IN A RURAL                 TYPICAL OPERATIONAL COSTS FOR A PUMPSTATION IN A RURAL
                       SETTLEMENT (R'000)                                                    SETTLEMENT (R'000/a)
             L.O.S Street taps Yard taps Kitchen conn. House conn.                    L.O.S Street taps Yard taps Kitchen conn. House conn.

Power Number of        25l/c/d   60l/c/d   100l/c/d      180l/c/d     Power                 Number of      25l/c/d   60l/c/d     100l/c/d   180l/c/d
suply people served                                                   suply               people served
           < 500       R 35      R 39       R 43          R 50                                 < 500        0.2       R1           R1         R2
    Electrical




                                                                             Electrical
        500 - 1 000    R 38      R 45       R 52          R 62                              500 - 1 000     0.5       R1           R2         R3
       1 000 - 5 000   R 55      R 75       R 93          R 120                            1 000 - 5 000    R2        R6           R6        R 21
      5 000 - 10 000   R 70      R 94       R 131         R 185                           5 000 - 10 000    R5        R5          R 29       R 34
         > 10 000      R 93      R 147      R 197         R 282                              > 10 000       R6        R 23        R 38       R 68
           < 500       R 52      R 62       R 70          R 85                                 < 500        R1        R2           R3         R5
        500 - 1 000    R 59      R 74       R 89          R 96                              500 - 1 000     R1        R3           R5         R5
    Diesel




                                                                             Diesel
       1 000 - 5 000   R 97      R 100      R 194         R 299                            1 000 - 5 000    R7        R7          R 26       R 47
      5 000 - 10 000   R 153     R 216      R 318         R 461                           5 000 - 10 000    R 27      R 31        R 52       R 94
         > 10 000      R 194     R 356      R 495         R 745                              > 10 000       R 26      R 62        R 104      R 187




  TYPICAL MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR A PUMPSTATION IN A RURAL
                      SETTLEMENT (R'000/a)
             L.O.S Street taps Yard taps Kitchen conn. House conn.

Power Number of        25l/c/d   60l/c/d   100l/c/d      180l/c/d
suply people served
           < 500        R1        R1         R1           R2         A 10 year design horizon is used
    Electrical




        500 - 1 000     R1        R1         R2           R2         Electrical pumps operates 24 hours per day
       1 000 - 5 000    R2        R3         R3           R 45       Diesel powered pumps operate 8 hours per day
      5 000 - 10 000    R2        R3         R5           R 77       All pumps are designed with a 100m pumping head
         > 10 000       R3        R6         R8           R 12       Only surface pumps are used
           < 500        R3        R3         R4           R5         One standby pump are provided
        500 - 1 000     R3        R4         R5           R5         For power line costs, ad R48,000 per kilometer
    Diesel




       1 000 - 5 000    R6        R6         R 12         R 20       All pumpstations are build from brick (R38 000 flat rate)
      5 000 - 10 000    R 10      R 14       R 21         R 32       Diesel transport costs are not included.
         > 10 000       R 12      R 24       R 34         R 53



                                                                      PART B :                         PUMP STATION
                                               TYPICAL PIPELINE INSTALLATION COST FOR A 1KM PIPELINE (R'000/km)
                    Topographycal                   Less than 1% slope               1 to 5% slope                           More than 5% slope
                   Soil characteristics        Soft   Intermediate   Hard rock Soft Intermediate   Hard rock  Soft            Intermediate    Hard rock
                   Number of people
  L.O.S
                          served               R/km             R/km                 R/km    R/km    R/km    R/km    R/km         R/km         R/km
                          < 500                R 17             R 24                 R 259   R 17    R 25    R 271   R 17         R 28         R 295
     Street taps
      (25l/c/d)




                       500 - 1000              R 17             R 24                 R 259   R 17    R 25    R 271   R 17         R 28         R 295
                      1000 - 5000              R 62             R 68                 R 259   R 64    R 71    R 271   R 69         R 78         R 295
                     5000 - 10000              R 67             R 72                 R 289   R 69    R 76    R 303   R 74         R 83         R 330
                         > 10000               R 81             R 86                 R 334   R 84    R 90    R 350   R 90         R 99         R 384
                          < 500                R 62             R 68                 R 259   R 64    R 71    R 271   R 69         R 78         R 295
 connection
  (60l/c/d)




                       500 - 1000              R 62             R 68                 R 259   R 64    R 71    R 271   R 69         R 78         R 295
    Yard




                      1000 - 5000              R 74             R 80                 R 304   R 77    R 84    R 319   R 83         R 92         R 350
                     5000 - 10000              R 62             R 86                 R 334   R 65    R 90    R 350   R 71         R 99         R 384
                         > 10000               R 79             R 103                R 402   R 82    R 108   R 422   R 90         R 118        R 463
                          < 500                R 62             R 68                 R 235   R 64    R 71    R 246   R 69         R 78         R 270
 connection
  (100l/c/d)




                       500 - 1000              R 62             R 68                 R 235   R 64    R 71    R 246   R 69         R 78         R 270
   Kitchen




                      1000 - 5000              R 81             R 86                 R 334   R 84    R 90    R 350   R 90         R 99         R 384
                     5000 - 10000              R 98             R 103                R 402   R 102   R 108   R 422   R 110        R 118        R 463
                         > 10000               R 124            R 127                R 480   R 129   R 134   R 504   R 140        R 147        R 552
                          < 500                R 62             R 68                 R 235   R 64    R 71    R 246   R 69         R 78         R 270
 connection
  (250l/c/d)




                       500 - 1000              R 67             R 72                 R 265   R 69    R 76    R 278   R 74         R 83         R 304
    House




                      1000 - 5000              R 98             R 103                R 402   R 102   R 108   R 422   R 110        R 118        R 463
                     5000 - 10000              R 146            R 170                R 577   R 153   R 179   R 606   R 168        R 196        R 663
                         > 10000               R 146            R 170                R 577   R 153   R 179   R 606   R 168        R 196        R 663

A 10 year design horizon is used.
Growth escalation are not taken into account
Average pipe class is class 9
Road and river crossings are not taken into account
Where possible, labor intensive construction methods are preferred
uPVC pipes are used in soft and intermediate soil, and steel piping is used in hard rock.
Average house occupancy is taken as 6 persons per household.
Values can be multiplied by 0.95 for very flat, favorable topographical conditions
Values can be multiplied by 1.1 for very steep, unfavorable topographical conditions
The annual maintenance cost are 2% of the installation cost

                                                                                                     PART B :        BULK PIPELINE
Soft : Hand excavatable
Intermediate : Requires machinery
Hard rock : Requires machinery and blasting
                                       TYPICAL GROUND LEVEL VILLAGE RESERVOIR INSTALLATION COSTS FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT (R'000)
                      Reservoir material           Polyethylene                           Steel                              Brick                          Concrete
                                          Street   Yard Kitchen House Street Yard Kitchen House Street Yard Kitchen House Street Yard Kitchen                              House
                                   L.O.S
                                           taps    taps    conn.    conn.    taps    taps    conn.    conn.    taps    taps     conn.   conn.    taps    taps    conn.     conn.
Storage               Number of people
 factor                    served         25l/c/d 60l/c/d 100l/c/d 250l/c/d 25l/c/d 60l/c/d 100l/c/d 250l/c/d 25l/c/d 60l/c/d 100l/c/d 250l/c/d 25l/c/d 60l/c/d 100l/c/d   250l/c/d
                            < 500          R 36    R 47     R 60    R 107    R 39    R 47     R 54     R 75    R 25    R 50      R 75   R 154    R 22    R 44     R 65      R 132
          24 hours




                         500 - 1000        R 44    R 66     R 91             R 45    R 57     R 68    R 102    R 43    R 86     R 129   R 267    R 38    R 75    R 111      R 225
                         1000 - 5000                                         R 75 R 112 R 147                 R 154 R 308 R 461                 R 132 R 259      R 383      R 775
                        5000 - 10000                                        R 102                             R 267                             R 225 R 401      R 653     R 1,321
                           > 10000                                          R 147                             R 461                             R 383 R 751 R 1,113        R 2,251
                            < 500          R 40    R 57     R 76    R 146    R 42    R 52     R 61     R 89    R 35    R 69     R 103   R 213    R 31    R 60     R 89      R 180
          36 hours




                         500 - 1000        R 52    R 85    R 123             R 49    R 66     R 81    R 126    R 60 R 119 R 178         R 367    R 52 R 102      R 152      R 307
                         1000 - 5000                                         R 89 R 138                       R 213 R 424                       R 180 R 353      R 523     R 1,059
                        5000 - 10000                                        R 126                             R 367                             R 307 R 602      R 892     R 1,804
                           > 10000                                                                                                              R 523 R 1,026 R 1,520      R 3,075
                            < 500          R 44    R 66     R 91    R 186    R 45    R 57     R 68    R 102    R 43    R 86     R 129   R 267    R 38    R 75    R 111      R 225
          48 hours




                         500 - 1000        R 60   R 104 R 154                R 54    R 73     R 92    R 147    R 75 R 149 R 224         R 461    R 65 R 128      R 189      R 383
                         1000 - 5000                                        R 102 R 162                       R 267 R 532                       R 225 R 441      R 653     R 1,321
                        5000 - 10000                                        R 147                             R 461                             R 383 R 751 R 1,113        R 2,251
                           > 10000                                                                                                              R 653 R 1,280 R 1,896      R 3,836

Notes :              A 10 year design horizon is used.
                     Growth escalation are not taken into account
                     Soil characteristics are not taken into account
                     Polyethylene reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 50kl
                     Steel and brick reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 500kl
                     The life expectancies of each type of reservoir must be taken into account when choosing a reservoir type.
                     Annual maintenance cost are:       2% of capital cost for polyethylene reservoirs
                                                        4% of capital cost for steel reservoirs
                                                        3% of capital cost for brick reservoirs
                                                        2% of capital cost for concrete reservoirs




                                                                                             PART B : GROUND RESERVOIR
                                                   TYPICAL ELEVATED TANK INSTALLATION COSTS FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT (R )
        Reservoir material                               Polyethylene (Kl)                                              Steel (Kl)
                     L.O.S      Street taps         Yard taps      Kitchen conn. House conn.  Street taps     Yard taps         Kitchen conn.                                   House conn.
 Storage     Number of
                                  25l/c/d             60l/c/d            100l/c/d            180l/c/d             25l/c/d              60l/c/d              100l/c/d              180l/c/d
  factor   people served
                < 500          R 39,783      (2)   R 43,172      (5)   R 47,045      (8)   R 54,792     (15)     N/A                 N/A                   N/A                   N/A
        4 hours




             500 - 1000        R 42,204      (4)   R 48,982     (10)   R 56,729     (17)   R 72,222     (30)     N/A                 N/A                   N/A                   N/A
             1000 - 5000       R 61,570     (21)   R 95,462     (50)    N/A                 N/A                  N/A               R 108,260      (50)   R 134,927      (83)     N/A
            5000 - 10000       R 85,779     (42)    N/A                 N/A                 N/A                  N/A               R 148,260     (100)                           N/A
                < 500          R 47,045      (8)   R 60,602     (20)   R 76,095     (33)    N/A                  N/A                 N/A                   N/A                 R 116,260     (60)
     hours
      16




             500 - 1000        R 56,729     (17)   R 83,842     (40)    N/A                 N/A                  N/A                 N/A                 R 121,593      (67)     N/A
             1000 - 5000        N/A                 N/A                 N/A                 N/A                R 134,927    (83)     N/A                   N/A                   N/A
     hours




                    < 500      R 51,887     (13)   R 72,222     (30)   R 95,462     (50)    N/A                 N/A                  N/A                 R 108,260      (50)   R 140,260     (90)
      24




                  500 - 1000   R 66,412     (25)    N/A                 N/A                 N/A                 N/A                R 116,260      (60)   R 148,260     (100)     N/A
*Figures in brackets are the relating storage capacity in kl.
Notes :     A 10 year design horizon is used.
            Growth escalation are not taken into account
            Soil characteristics are not taken into account
            Polyethylene reservoirs are only cost effective for reservoirs < 50kl
            Steel reservoirs are cost effective for reservoirs with capacity between 50 and 100kl
            The life expectancies of each type of reservoir must be taken into account when choosing a reservoir type.
            Annual maintenance cost are 5% of capital cost for a polyethylene reservoir, and 4% for a steel reservoir




                                                                                              PART B : ELEVATED RESERVOIR
                                    TYPICAL RETICULATION COSTS FOR FOR A RURAL SETTLEMENT OF 1000 PEOPLE
                                                               Total capital costs (R'000)
                                                                         Medium, larger diameters to combat
                         Topography         Gentle to moderate                                              Steep, higher pipe classes required
                                                                                     friction losses

                               Geology          100%     10% require 15% ripping,   100%     10% require 15% ripping,   100%     10% require 15% ripping,
                                             excavatable   ripping   5% blasting excavatable   ripping   5% blasting excavatable   ripping   5% blasting
 Pop. dencity
              Service level
 (People/ha)
              Street taps                        R 155             R 202               R 249     R 179     R 232     R 286      R 186     R 242     R 298
     5 - 15   Yard conn.                         R 681             R 885              R 1,090    R 783    R 1,018   R 1,253     R 817    R 1,062   R 1,308
              House conn.                        R 906            R 1,178             R 1,450   R 1,042   R 1,355   R 1,667    R 1,087   R 1,414   R 1,740
              Street taps                        R 81              R 106               R 130     R 93      R 121     R 150      R 98      R 127     R 156
    15 - 40   Yard conn.                         R 295             R 384               R 472     R 339     R 441     R 543      R 354     R 460     R 567
              House conn.                        R 413             R 537               R 661     R 475     R 618     R 761      R 496     R 645     R 794
              Street taps                        R 54              R 70                R 86      R 62      R 81      R 99       R 65      R 84      R 104
    40 - 70   Yard conn.                         R 187             R 243               R 299     R 215     R 280     R 344      R 224     R 292     R 359
              House conn.                        R 273             R 354               R 436     R 314     R 408     R 502      R 327     R 425     R 524

 10 year design horizon
 No existing reticulation exists
 Reservoir is situated close to the sentre of the village area
 Values can be multiplied by 0.89 for very favorable, flat topographical conditions
 Values can be multiplied by 1.09 for very unfavorable, steep topographical conditions
 Annual maintenance cost are 3% of capital costs




FOR MOREDETAIL ON RETICULATION COSTS AND LEVELS OF SERVICE SEE SEPARATE DOCUMENT
“WATER SUPPLY SERVICE LEVELS – A GUIDE FOR LOCAL AUTHORITIES




                                                                                                          PART B :            RETICULATION
      PART C
SUMMARY SCHEME COSTS
  INDIVIDUAL GROUNDWATER SCHEMES
  (cost per person served)

     Project / Scheme Size                  Cost-Benchmark
                                          (Unit cost per person)

 < 500 people                           R 1500 to R2500 per capita

 500 to 1000 people                     R 1000 to R1500 per capita

 1000 to 5000 people                    R 700 to R900 per capita

 5000 to 10000 people                   R 550 to R700 per capita

 >10 000                                R 500 to R600 per capita




  INDIVIDUAL SURFACE WATER SCHEMES
  (cost per person served)


   Project / Scheme Size                  Cost-Benchmark
                                        (Unit cost per person)

< 500 people                           R 1500 to R3000 per capita

500 to 1000 people                     R 1100 to R1600 per capita
                                                                           PART C

1000 to 5000 people                    R 800 to R1000 per capita

5000 to 10000 people                   R 600 to R700 per capita

>10 000                                R 450 to R550 per capita



NOTE :
These unit costs are calculated averages and can vary with site-specific
conditions
                                               NATIONAL UNIT COSTS

                      Typical Scheme Unit Cost & Envelopes

                    2500
                                                          Groundwater Schemes
                                                          Surface Water Schemes
  Cost per Person




                    2000

                    1500

                    1000

                     500

                       0
                             <500    500 to    1000 to     5000 to      >10000
                                     1000       5000        10000

                                       Settlement Size



                NATIONAL AVERAGE COMPONENT UNIT COSTS / BENCHMARKS

                                                  Settlement Size (people)
                    Infrastructure
                     Component       <500     500 to     1000 to   5000 to   > 10 000
                                              1000       5000      10 000
Groundwater Development               R 280 /c R 150 /c R 50 /c    R 25/c       R 20 /c
                                                                                          PART D



Groundwater Equipment                 R 350 /c R 200 /c R 80 /c    R 50 /c      R 40 /c
Surface Water Development             R 600 /c R 370 /c R 220/c    R 140 /c R 60 /c
Treatment Works                       R 270 /c R 220 /c R 180 /c R 150 /c R 130 /c
Pump Stations                         R 300 /c R 110 /c R 70 /c    R 55 /c      R 45 /c

Bulk Pipelines                        R 400 /c R 200 /c R 105 /c R 80 /c        R 70 /c
Reservoirs                            R 500 /c R 200 /c R 150 /c R 95 /c        R 70 /c
Reticulation                          R 420 /c R 350 /c R 280 /c R 220 /c R 200 /c
                                   COST INFLUENCING FACTORS

It is important to note that costs can vary significantly with changing site-specific
conditions. This document provides summary unit costs at component, scheme and
national level, which are based on representative conditions in rural areas and not ofn
site-specific conditions.


It is therefore important to consider the following broad cost influencing factors inn
conjunction with the unit costs.



TYPICAL COST INFLUENCING FACTORS :

    Water source type (groundwater, surface water, combination of GW & SW)
    Geohydrological prospects (drilling success; borehole yields)
    Hydrological conditions (rainfall; runoff; river shape & suitable dam sites)
    Population size (<500 people; 500-1000; 1000-5000; 5000-10 000; >10 000)
    Housing density (effects mainly reticulation costs)
    Topography (effects accessibility & excavation volume on construction sites)
    Soils (hardness effects excavation costs ; soft, intermediate or hard soils)
    Land Use (effects cost of land and environmental sensitivity)
    Land ownership, land acquisition costs and servitudes
    Relocation cost of people and settlements (e.g. located in dam basin)
    Access roads to site and distance to economic centre (I.e. material supplies)
    Availability of contractors & construction method (labour or machine)
                                                                                          PART E



    Level of vandalism or crime (e.g. security requirements & operating system)
    Other water users (i.e. schools, offices, livestock, gardening, etc.)
                                       TYPICAL PROFESSIONAL FEES
                      CAPITAL COST        < R 600 000 R 600 000 R 2 mil             R 10 mil
                                                      to        to                  to
                                                      R 2 mil   R 10 mil            R 500 mil
Planning Fees                                  13%            11%           7%           5%
Design Fees                                  12,5%           10%          7,5%         7,5%
Contract Management                             4%            3%            2%           2%
Construction Supervision                       10%            9%            7%           4%
Training & Capacity Building Fees              10%            7%            4%           2%


                                                                    TYPICAL P&G’S
                                        < R600 000       R600 000 R2 mil R10 mil
              CAPITAL COST                                  to      to      to
                                                          R2 mil  R10 mil R500 mil
PRELIMANARY + GENERAL
                               Dam          30 %                                      14 %

                  GW development            18 %                                       5%

                      Pump Station          20 %                                      12 %

                  Treatment Works           25 %                                      15 %

       Bulk Pipelines + Reticulation        15 %                                       5%

                     Power Supply           25%                                       15 %




                                                   OTHER COSTS & TAXES
      Land Acquisition: Site specific
      Relocation cost: Site specific
      Scheme transfer cost to local authorities: 8% to 15% of capital for small projects,
                                                  5% of capital for large projects
                                                                                                PART F



      Allowance for O&M start-up: 7% to 10% of capital
      Security: 2% to 4% of capital
      Establishment of access to site: Track = R25 000 – R80 000/km
                                        Gravel road = R100 000 – R200 000/km
                                        Paved road = R200 000 – R400 000/km
      Cost escalation due to remoteness from economic centers and
       lack of support services: 10% to 15% of capital
      VAT
peo
0
13
7
3
10
55
6
20
110
26
11
138
33
14
50
165
79
100
28
66
132
275
25
59
119
248
80
22
70
19
46
92
193
60
17
53
40
106
220
90 of
30
83
8
%
ple




                                                             GLOSSARY OF TERMS
        Street tap: Unattended high-pressure communal street tap within 200m of dwellings
        Yard tap: High-pressure tap installed outside each household
        Kitchen connection: High-pressure tap installed inside each dwelling.
        House connection: Fully reticulated dwellings with sanitation facilities
        LOS: Level of service
        Ram pump: Water driven pump
        Soft soil: Hand excavation
        Intermediate: Requires machinery for excavation
        Hard rock: Requires machinery and blasting
        Storage factor: Time that reservoir must be able to supply the average water consumption without
        any water resource
        Kl: Kilo-liter (1000 liter)
        Population density: Average number of people living on 1 hectare of land (100m x100m)
        P&G: Preliminary and general
        O&M: Operation and maintenance
        l/c/d: Liter per capita per day
        hh: Household
        R/hh: Rand per household
        R/hh/mth: Rand per household per month
        Capita: Person served

				
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