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					CONTEXTUAL FILES – MAIN CONTENTS
Blue file

      Colours from film, TV, paintings, colour charts and Blipfoto photographs

      Renaissance Revolution – notes on TV prog

      Soft Surfaces (on R&E reading list) – notes

      A-n – contemporary art, curating and education – article

      A-n – article on doing an MA

      A-n – articles on surviving studying and photography student experience

      The problem of documenting fine art practices and processes – journal article

      James Turrell – Gagosian show article –
       www.gagosian.com/exhibitions/2010-10-13_james-turrell/

   ―He continues to use light as his primary subject and material, with its inherent
   allusions to painting and sculpture.‖

      Perri Webster exhibition notes

       Art Daily – article on Colorforms show – ―these works showcase the physical,
       perceptual and metaphysical effects of color.‖

      Howard Hodgkin, Tate, 2006 – quotes from book

      Chromogenic colour print – definition

      Susan Sontag – On Photography – quotes (see below in Quotes section)

      Genius of British Art – notes on the TV prog

      Bill Viola – Five Angels for the Millennium – visuals

      Anish Kapoor, Rothko, David Nash - key visuals

      A-n – Bruce Munro installation – notes

      Anish Kapoor – RA exhibition book – notes

―Much has been written about Kapoor as a colourist, and the special affection that he
holds in many of his recent works for deep blood red.‖

      Art Now – Olafur Eliasson pages

      Art Now – Felix Gonzalex-Torres pages

      Art Now 2 – Olafur Eliasson page


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   Art Now – Mariko Mori pages

   Art Now – Diana Thater page

   Conceptual Art – Daniel Marzona – notes on book

   Art Now 2 – Wolfgang Tillmans pages

   Art Now 2 – Andreas Gursky pages

   Theories and Documents in Contemporary Art – quote (see below in Quotes
    section)

   Art Daily – Eva Schlegel

   Rothko and Kapoor – visuals

   John Hoyland book – notes and visuals

   Albert Irvin – visuals

   Howard Hodgkin – Andrew Graham-Dixon – notes and visuals on the book

―The painters of the New York School can hardly be blamed for the cult of
hugeness for hugeness’s sake, and they were not, other than indirectly,
responsible for it. Their paintings required a certain scale to work their effects; the
effects of transcendental suggestion and of the vastness of cosmic forces; a
sublime disorientation of the senses which they understood could only be
achieved through the creation of images whose spread is larger than the human
optical field, images too large to be taken in at a glance.‖

   Diebenkorn book – notes and visuals

   Sheffield building visual – flat and smooth

   Art Daily - Tacita Dean review

   A-n – British Art Show 7 review

   A-n – Dan Holdsworth review

   Josef Albers – Interaction of Colour – notes on the book

p.44 ―Here we may point to a discovery made by a few contemporary painters,
that the increase in amount of a color – not merely in size of canvas – visually
reduces distance. As a consequence it often produces nearness – meaning
intimacy – and respect.‖

   Johannes Itten – The Art of Colour – notes on the book

   Saatchi Gallery – New Directions in Contemporary Photography – article

   Paint charts


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      Roland Barthes – Camera Lucinda – copious notes on the book

p.5 ―A specific photograph, in effect, is never distinguished from its referent (from
what it represents), or at least it is not immediately or generally distinguished from its
referent (as is the case for every other image, encumbered – from the start, and
because of its status – by the way in which the object is simulated.)‖

      Postmodern Culture – Hal Foster – notes on the book

      Isms – Stephen Little – notes on the book

      Art in Theory – notes on the book (see Quotes section below)

   Gerhard Richter – p. 1152

      Bridget Riley – The Eye’s Mind – notes on the book

      Susan Sontag – On Photography – more notes on the book (see quotes in
          Research and Enquiry Reflective Statement)

      David Bachelor – Chromophobia – notes on the book (see quotes in
       Research and Enquiry Reflective Statement)

      Josef Albers – Interaction of Color – more notes on the book

p.5 ―Colors present themselves in continuing flux, constantly related to changing
neighbours and changing conditions.‖

P.71 ―Color acts in a similar way. Because of the after-image (the simultaneous
contrast), colors influence and change each other forth and back. They continuously
interact – in our perception.‖

      Visualising Research – Carole Gray – notes (see quotes in Research and
       Enquiry Reflective Statement)

      Critical Attitudes Toward Overtly Manipulated Photography in the 20th century
       - journal article

      Color Perception and the Art of James Turrell – journal article

      The Use of Color and Its Effect – journal article (see quotes in Research and
       Enquiry Reflective Statement)

      Color Perception in Art: Beyond the Eye into the Brain – journal article

      Making Contemporary Art – Linda Weintraub – notes on the book (see quotes
          in Research and Enquiry Reflective Statement)

   p.16 ―The reception of a work of art is not only subject to the particular values and
   expectations of individual viewers. The artist’s task is further complicated by the
   need to contend with expectations that derive from shared cultural experiences.‖




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   p.16 ―By devoting the first chapter to audiences, this book honors the fact that
   viewers are as essential to art’s consequences as are artists and works of art.
   Furthermore it proposes that the audience’s expectations, values, tastes and
   concerns are not necessarily after-effects or postscripts. They can affect artists’
   conceptual initiation of works and their subsequent fabrication of them.‖

   p.17 ―Decisions regarding whom to affect, how to affect, and where this affecting
   transpires can occur at any juncture within the creative process.‖

      Color in Western Art: An Issue – journal article

      This Photography Which is Not One – journal article

      Colour as Sensation in Visual Art and in Science – journal article

      Theory in Contemporary Art Since 1985 – notes on the book

―To put it schematically, abstraction functions as a machine for recording the
psychological responses of the artist in order to produce (perhaps dramatically
different ) psychological responses in the viewer.‖

      MEANING – Bee and Schor – notes on the book

      Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art – more notes on the book

      Northern Art Prize 2010 – details

      Art Daily – Jeff Gibson installations review

      Colour – A Workshop for Artists and Designers – notes on the book

      www.davidbachelor.co.uk/books/colour - quotes and visuals

―Unlike form and shape, the visual experience of colour cannot be verified by the
other senses. We cannot touch colour, even though it constantly surrounds us and
we are in some ways touched by it.‖

      Rafael Lozano–Hemmer – info and visuals

AFTER MODULE DIVIDER

      Art Daily - J Henry Fair: Abstraction of Destruction – 19/1/11

―Each photo while abstract to the eye contains mysterious hunts to the subject matter
therein. These forms capture the tradition of painted abstraction….‖

      Edwina Leapman – Tate info and visuals

      Abstract art – Tate online 26/1/11

On Abstract art
―…applies to art in which the artist has started with some visible object and
abstracted elements from it to arrive at a more or less simplified or schematised from.
Term also applied to art using forms that have no source at all in external reality.‖


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      Johannes Itten – Art of Color – more notes on the book

      Katherine Kuh – The Artist’s Voice – notes on the book

p.3 Josef Albers – ―For me abstraction is real, probably more real than nature.‖

p.94 Naum Gabo – ―He’s not obliged to paint or sculpt the actual event or object
which caused his experience, because what he does is to transmit an image of an
experience – not an image of the object or event itself. It is his personal associations
accumulated during his entire life that form this experience.‖

p.105 Morris Graves - ―Something has occurred to make scale important. Rothko, for
example, gives you something to inhale – an enormous inhalation. You expand to
capacity breathing in his paintings; it’s an expansive experience. Their scale doesn’t
specifically overwhelm, but one breathes differently in front of them.‖

p. 142 ―The whole answer is there on the canvas. I don’t know how I could explain it
any further.‖

      Apocalypse – notes on the book

p.135 Tillmans – abstracts started with darkroom mistakes

      Art and Photography – David Campany (see notes and quotes below)

      Art Daily – Susan Hillier review

      www.nottinghamcontemporary.org/art/anne-collier         2/2/11

Anne Collier ―She sometimes re-photographs photographs she herself has taken‖

      BA Photography reading list

      Why Photography Matters in Art Like Never Before – book summary

      Aperture website - www.aperture.org/lessard-print.html       7/2/11

―The work of Jacinthe Lessard-L. explores the aesthetics of everyday life, while
playing homage to the abstractions of artists such as Piet Mondrian. Directing her
lens on colors, textures, and patterns—which she highlights with her expert
knowledge of light—she likes to accentuate the abstract shapes of the objects,
however mundane they may be. In this game of abstraction, the photographer
pushes the limits of her medium—using it purely as a tool for documentation—though
she also calls upon our collective memory with images that show she is not devoid of
humor." —Nathalie Hershdorfer

      Abstract photography, various sources – visuals

      The Indecisive Image – Eric Bryant, printed 19/4/2011
       www.artnews.com/issues/article.asp?art_id=2457

―Abstraction goes back to the very beginnings of photography and has come back in
different revivals‖


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―The reasons for the resurgence of abstraction are almost as diverse as the work
itself.‖

―No single movement has emerged in the field, although a number of loose-knit
groups have advocated for the abstract potential of photography.‖

―Wolf’s chromogenic dye-coupler prints, which are up to six feet tall, present intense
monochromatic fields that mimic the compositions and emotional tension of Rothko
paintings.‖

      Driven to Abstraction – journal article summary

      Walead Beshty and Eileen Quinlan - journal article summary

      Photograph as Expression – journal article

―From that point on, expressive photography becomes a matter of making
simultaneous choices in light, time and space and using aesthetic judgments to best
express meaning.‖

      Various photography journal article abstracts

      Art Daily – Simon Starling review

      Art Daily - International artists deal with Unsharpness in ―Blur After Richter‖ at
       Hamburger – 14/2/11

―Blurred surfaces, dissolving contours, hazy appearances and indistinct motifs: More
and more often images that are out of focus appear both in contemporary painting
and photography.‖

In the process of (un-)finishing his paintings, Richter raises questions about what a
picture is able to reflect at all, whether it carries a signification or if it merely
represents its own, seductively beautiful surface. For quite some time, the theme of
the blurred image is no longer exclusive to Gerhard Richter. As the many, differing
works in the exhibition show, the phenomenon of images that are, apparently, out of
focus has, to the contrary, become a characteristic and even determinating element
in contemporary art.‖

―Blurry pictures present their motifs in a state between apparition and dissolution,
between memory and forgetting.‖

      Modern Painters Dec 2010/ Jan 2011

On Dil Hildebrand - ―The artist took purposely blurry digital photographs, painted
them onto canvas, and overlaid the resulting images with thick stripes of colourful
paint.‖




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Pink file

     www.artnews.com/issues/article.asp?art_id=3223 – printed 4/3/11
Building Pictures

―…part of a growing contingent of studio-based photographers who have little interest
in traditional distinctions between mediums and genres. Taking up whatever
materials and techniques fit their needs, they work with Photoshop and the chemical
darkroom and often shoot with large-format cameras. They also incorporate found
imagery culled from books, magazine and the Internet. They build their pictures with
wood and mirrors, fabric and plaster, ignoring differences amongst mediums.‖

      Artist’s Talking/ A-n – Project blogs – The studio and beyond – printed 11/3

      Artist’s Talking/A-n - Writing art and life – www.a-n.co.uk/artists -
       talking/artists_stories/single/983559 - printed 11/3/11

―We make choices about what to include and what to exclude in our blogs, and these
choices reflect what each of us feels it takes to make the work we make. Artistic
practice does not stop at the studio door: we continually carry around with us the
intellectual, affective and practical demands of our work, and to accommodate this,
our blogs become extensions of our studios.‖

      Continuum Photography, Space and Time –
       www.interventiongallery.org/index.php?/projects/continuum/ - printed 11/3/11

―For many photographers, the ideal way to present a project is in book form.‖

―The resulting exhibition involved the coordination of a group of slide-shows – both
analogue and digital – of differing scales, positions and durations. The slide-show
format synthesises the experience of seeing photography both in print and on the
walls; it encourages a committed and sustained engagement on the part of the
viewer, complementing the work rather than hindering it.‖

      Details of library aesthetics search

      Inside the Painter’s Studio – book to buy?

      Frieze – Beautiful Things – Wolfgang Tillmans –
       www.frieze.com/issue/pirnt_article/beautiful_things/ – printed 11/3/11

―…but certainly there is something here (and in much of Tillmans’ imagery) that has
to do with transcendence or the transformation of everyday life into something more
bearable, exciting and intoxicating – so splendidly ingenuous that it has the effect of
embarrassing the viewer.‖

      The Genius of Photography – notes on the BBC Four 6 part series

      Art Daily – www.artdaily.org/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=45694 –
       Compelling new pictures of familiar territories by Wolfgang Tillmans – printed
       14/3/11




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―While the possibilities of digital imaging techniques are often put to use to cover up
and create a fantasy version of reality, Tillmans searches for clarity through a double-
sided investigation of simultaneous observation and utilisation.‖

      Ad for 1000 Words – online contemporary photography mag

      Article on Islington Mill and Rogue Studios

      A-n Mar 2011 – on the cover – Nicola Williams – for artist’s context, good eg
       of ―the work….‖ ―the paintings….‖ Rather than diaristic style

      Manchester International Festival contents booklet – marked up with notes, to
       see etc

      A life in Art: Anselm Kiefer – Guardian article – 19 Mar 2011

      Lomography.com – Double Your Pleasure: Multiple Exposures with Color and
       Shadow – article 30/3/11

      Whitworth Art Gallery booklet Jan –Apr 2011

The Fireworks – Nick Crowe and Ian Rawlinson; Mary Kelly

      Chinese Arts Centre booklet Autumn/ Winter 2010

Interesting notes on context and proposition from Yu-Chen Wang and Wu Chi-Tsung

      Louise Lawler - notes from book

      Wolfgang Tillmans - notes from book

      The Tate’s Mark Rothko exhibit: a room with a view of the subconscious –
       Guardian article 30/3/2011

      Frieze – Please Release me –
       www.frieze.com/issue/article/please_release_me - printed 6/4/2011

―In these days of dreadful uncertainties, there is nothing wrong with modesty, reverie,
idiosyncrasy, confusion, a lack of conclusions or being interested in something
people might not think ―serious‖ or valid – after all, this is art, not a science
assignment.‖

      Art Daily – Exhibition of Recent Drawings by Richard Serra on View at
       Gagosian Gallery in Geneva, Apr 6

      A-n - article on working internationally – incl blogs and online collaboration

      Degrees Unedited on promoting your Degree Show – including blogging –
       www.a-n.co.uk/degrees_unedited/article/956547 - printed 7/4/11

―as art practice is re-defined, integrating and maintaining promotional strategies runs
parallel with your creative output.‖




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―Maintain your status and keep hard at it, exposing your working process as an artist
ensures authenticity to the final project and creates an engaging story for readers to
follow.‖

      A-n - www.a-n.co.uk/artists_talking/article/539709 - Why professional artists
       need a blog – printed 7/4/11

―Writing, just like making, takes practice and if the studio is the place where you
practice your making, I say the blog is where you practice your writing. When you
blog you can think speculatively, ―thinking with the pen in hand‖, as Adorno put it,
allowing yourself to unfold freely in the presence of yourself. You can then step back
and open up a space for a critical and analytical dialogue between yourself and your
work.‖

―A blog can be an integral part of your practice, a space to reflect, to step back from
your output and locate yourself in the wider world of art production.‖

      Art Daily – Exhibition of Work by Prominent South Asian Artist Rashid Rana
       at Lisson Gallery

―he redepolys photographic imagery in varied formats including installation, sculpture,
and large scale photographic prints.‖

      Coldstones Cut – description

      A-n/ Artists Talking – article – Where the education takes place

      Colour After Klein – notes and quotesfrom book – (see quotes section below)

      Art Daily – Photographers Cassender Eeftinck Shattenkerk and Ann Peterson
       Exhibit at Seelevel review

      Tillmans - interview from The View From Above book

Nathan Kernan ―To me the Intervention Pieces as well as the Blushes or String
Pieces are very close to gestural abstract painting, which is not about the object only,
but also about the gesture and the act of making it.‖

NK – uses the term ―painting with light‖

p.10 WT ―The way every little thing gets to look the way it looks is a mirror of some
intention, and that’s maybe my interest in general in aesthetics, that every aesthetic
decision is there for a reason.‖

p.11 WT ―Maybe one thing that holds the work together, the abstract and the
figurative, is that it all deals with the phenomenon of light, and reflects my fascination
with making something that is untouchable tangible.‖

      Henry Moore Institute – info

      David Hockney – Bigger Trees near Warter – info and visuals

      National Media Museum – exhibitions prog




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       Art in Yorkshire – booklet

       Contemporary Art Society – newsletter

       Ralph Waldo Emerson – visual

       Tim Lisko – Shinkansen – bullet train photography visual

       Out of Focus. After Gerhard Richter - Hamburger Kunsthalle – exhibition info

Article entitled ―The phenomenon of unsharpness‖

―In the fine arts, images that appear out of focus are a means to irritate the viewer, as
the pictures’ content becomes increasingly hard to identify. Blurry images do,
however, equally offer a new freedom for the viewers’ imagination, associations and
individual interpretations. Certainly, unsharpness raises a significant number of
questions relevant today. Apart from Gerhard Richter we here present twenty three
artists who pursue these issues and employ unsharpness and its aesthetic potential
in different ways.‖

―In the twenty-first century the fine arts react to the extremely high speed with which
images can be recorded, processed and transmitted by creating a new unsharpness.
This is a means by which both image production and perception can be decelerated
as motifs are defamiliarised, distorted, and unveiled.‖

―Less precise, unsharp images that only convey a general impression or an
atmospheric impression stimulate the subconscious, latent inner images in our
memory more effectively than sharp pictures will. The brain completes vague hints.‖

This is what the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein referred to when he remarked:
―Well, can an unsharp image always be replaced by a sharp one to advantage? Isn’t
the unsharp image more often just what we need?‖

       Frieze – Depth of Field – article - www.frieze.com/issue/article/depth_of_field

―In contemporary art, abstraction is used as a shorthand for a certain set of formal
traits, the absence of figuration being one, but as a category it lacks any real solidity,
unless it’s used as a proper name for a particular historical movement. Abstraction
tends to describe the way an object is approached and our expectations of it, rather
than anything inherent, lending these assumptions an air of concreteness.‖

Liz Deschenes – ―All photographic images are simultaneously representational and
abstract, constructions that have gone through a series of translations and
manipulations – either mechanically, digitally, or both.‖

Eileen Quinlan – ―While some photos are seductive, even beautiful, others frustrate
with a not-quite-there-ness. This creates for me an interesting tension, foregrounding
questions of taste, of what constitutes success in the eye of the viewer.‖

       Abstract Photography exhibition – www.c-ville.com

       Art Rabbit – weekly newsletter – eg

       Arts Council Collection – new acquisitions booklet



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Peter Fraser ―this is essentially trying to understand what the world around is made
of through the art of photographing it.‖

      Edge of Vision – notes on the book (see quotes section below)

      Art Daily – Turner Prize nominations

      Contemporary Art Society – Guide to Public Collections of Art

      Contemporary Art Society – Acquisitions, Gifts and Bequests 2009-10

      A-n – How to get your degree show reviewed

      A-n – Documenting your work

      A-n – May issue

      A-n/ Degrees United – Degree Shows 2011




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Quotes

After Nihilism

p. 50 – Gerhard Richter: Painting’s Responsibility ―What we see here as blurriness is
imprecision, and that means being unlike the object portrayed.‖

p.54 - Gerhard Richter: Painting’s Responsibility ―Richter’s abstractions leap before
the eye in such a way that the eye can hardly grasp them.‖

p.165 Carefully taking into account the possibilities of painting, Bleckner allows
unexpected impossibilities of a painting expressing the desire of the impossible to be
assimilated. The hard core of such painting is light, not light in represented form but
rather light that emanates to the extent that it exists.

Practices of Looking – An Introduction to Visual Culture – Marita Sturken/ Lisa
Cartwright

p.56 Aesthetics and Taste – ―All images are subject to judgements about their
qualities (such as beauty or coolness) and their impact to have an impact on viewers.
The criteria used to interpret and give value to images depend on cultural codes, on
shared concepts, concerning what makes an image pleasing or unpleasant, shocking
or banal, interesting or boring. As we explained earlier, these qualities do not reside
in the image or object but depend on the contexts in which it is viewed, on the codes
that prevail in a society, and on the viewer who is making the judgment. All viewer
interpretations involve two fundamental concepts of value – aesthetics and taste.‖

―By the end of the century, it was widely accepted that aesthetic judgment about what
we consider naturally beautiful or universally pleasing is in fact culturally determined.‖

―Contemporary concepts of aesthetics emphasise the ways in which the criteria for
what is beautiful and what is not are based on taste, which is not innate but rather
culturally specific.‖

Reproduction and the Digital Image - p.213 ―With the digital camera, then, we have
the quality of reproducibility built into the form in a way that eliminates dependence
on a single original medium (the negative) from which the work derives. For this
reason, we can say that the digital photograph breaks even further than did the
analogue photograph from the ideology of the original work. Not only is the digital
photograph highly reproducible, but also reproducibility itself is a deeply inherent
characteristic of digital technology.‖

Postmodernism and its Visual Cultures - p.311 ―One could say that postmodernism’s
central goal is to put all assumptions under scrutiny in order to reveal the values that
underlie all systems of thought and to question the ideologies within them that are
seen as natural. This means that authenticity is always in question in
postmodernism.‖

The Photograph as Contemporary Art – Charlotte Cotton

p. 102 ―Chinese artist Boo Moon’s series of photographs from the late 1990s of the
East China Sea are similar in that they, too, deal with how our sense of place is
governed by permutations of light and movements of water. The series intensifies the
idea that natural forces have an infinite momentum and are governable by no one.
This type of photographic strategy contemplates the knowable and uncontrollable


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character of nature. Such images are consciously out of time, not reliant on the visual
signs of contemporary economics, industry or administration, or even of those of the
past, but on signs that bring us into contact with profound and destabilising concepts
about our perception of the world.‖

p.117 on Gabriel Orozco – Breath on Piano, 1993
―…it makes us see the image as an image, as forms on a surface, which is a
fundamental condition of a photographic print. Because the blurred trace of the
breath is framed within a photograph, this slight gesture and the medium of
photography become something within art.‖

p.113 ―Barth’s photographs, when installed in galleries, resonate
phenomenologically. The space between the viewer and the photographs becomes
part of the interplay between space and subject, seeing and not seeing.‖

p. 206 of Susan Derges
―The photographs are at a human scale and size, so when we see them in a gallery
they have a powerful phenomenological effect.‖

p.218 ―At the heart of this lie the possibilities that postmodernist practice represents
for contemporary art photographers: to be able to knowingly shape the subjects that
intrigue them, conscious of the heritage of the imagery into which they are entering,
and to see the contemporary world through the pictures we already know.‖

Where is the Photograph – edited by David Green

―Photographs, therefore, are not just indexical because light happened to be
recorded on a piece of photosensitive film, but because, first and foremost, they were
taken. The very act of photography, as a kind of performative gesture which points to
an event in the world, as a form of designation that draws reality into the image field,
is thus itself a form of indexicality.‖

p.58 ―Indeed it seems to us that what these often blurred, badly focussed and ill-
composed images seek to do above all is to declare the bodily presence of the
photographer within a sensory field and to anchor a reading of the image in terms of
an utterance designated by a first person pronoun, or, to use Bertrand Russell’s more
apt and telling phrase, by an ―egocentric particular‖, of which the word ―I‖ is the most
prevalent form.‖

An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism

p.132 ―Among the central features associated with postmodernism in the arts are:
the deletion of the boundary between art and everyday life; the collapse of the
hierarchical distinction between elite and popular culture; a stylistic eclecticism and
the mixing of codes. There is parody, pastiche, irony and playfulness. Many
commentators stress that postmodernists espouse a model which emphasises not
depth but surface.‖

p.172 ―According to Greenberg, the prime characteristic of painting, unlike any of the
other arts, is that paint is applied to a flat, two-dimensional surface. Painting is
reducible, in the end to this one characteristic. Art’s absorption in itself is the
essential principle of modernism. It should be added that in modernism there is often
a desire for absolute originality. The artistic products of modernism are supposed to
be pure signs of nothing but themselves.‖



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―One of the main characteristics of postmodernism in art is the multiplication of
stylistic norms and methods.‖

p.173 ―In postmodernism there is often the deliberate exploration of what lies
between, rather than within, art forms. The bringing together of heterogeneous
images and technologies seems to throw into question the idea of pure origin or
ownership.‖

A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945

p.119 On The Greeting - ―I never felt more like a painter, ― Viola said in a video
documenting the making of the piece. ―It was more like I was moving color around,
but on film…I added what painting can never possess but only intimate – time.‖

p.164 ―The term beauty has been much back in play in the Anglophone art world of
the past ten years or so. Beauty is variously invoked in the name of good art; the
―purely‖ aesthetic; the pleasurable; the pretty; the well-designed; the elegant; the
sublime; as antithesis to the conceptual, the analytic, the narrative, the didactic, the
political, the abject; or as an absence of overt content. What is actually meant by the
term beauty needs more carefully to be examined.‖

p.386 ―As recent research by art historian Pamela Lee has shown, while Riley (an
intensive reader of Merleau-Ponty) was thought of as producing an op art of pure
visuality, her work addresses the very ―blind spot to Op’s manifold ways in which
seeing is intertwined with feeling, together with feeling, together with the temporality
of vision, is transformability, and fallibility.‖

p.523 On Photopath - ―As Burgin notes, (i)t was a piece of ―sculpture‖ in as much as
it was material on the floor of the gallery, and had no other function than to be looked
at by an art audience. It was very ephemeral and at the same time – just paper –
photographs that only showed what was already there.‖ The very redundancy of the
images – showing what was already there – made the work a pointed reflection about
photography and the act of looking.

Colour After Klein – Rethinking Colour in Modern and Contemporary Art -
edited by Jane Alison

p.22 ―Colour is stronger than language. It’s a subliminal communication.‖ Louise
Bourgeois

p.23 ―Colour possesses me. I don’t have to pursue it.‖ Paul Klee

p.23 of Bourgeois ―Due to the strategic placement of a mirror, the onlooker finds
themselves enfolded in colour.‖

p.36 ―Most significantly on an aesthetic level, this doubling pointed to the
destabilisation of the medium of painting. This condition began to free colour from its
immanent connection to a physical support and transformed it into a medium in its
own right. Through Klein’s practice, colour became a passage between the
materiality of the object and a range of experiences beyond its physical limits.‖

p.102 ―Paradoxically simple and complex, Judd’s oeuvre is characterised by an acute
sensitivity to the physical properties of material, space and critically, light and colour,
the latter which may in the end prove to be his finest legacy.‖



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p.106 Anish Kapoor ―I think I am a painter who is a sculptor.‖

p.146 ―Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the late twentieth century,
James Turrell has created a substantial body of work that centres on the sensitive
manipulation of light, space and colour. Whether utilising a sunset or transforming the
glow of a television set into a fluctuating portal, his art harnesses the manifest,
physical presence of light, placing viewers in an infinite field of pure coloured light.
Focusing on perception as his medium, with light and colour as his material, he has
created ethereal experiences in sites that range from pristine gallery and museum
installations to rugged outdoor topographies.‖

Theory in Contemporary Art since 1985

p.105 ―With their carefully staged and mawkish ―cinematic‖ tableaux, both large-
scale photography and video projection are strategically suspended between the high
culture aspirations of painting and the pop culture appeal of Hollywood. And both
trajectories vector toward the large flat panel monitor or plasma screen – technical
means of presenting luminescent fields of color that are, ultimately, high -tech
paintings.‖

Art Now

p.43 On Olafur Eliasson – ―Again and again, using elements such as light, cold,
heat, water and wind, Eliasson calls forth in the viewer an alternating range of
rational reflections and simultaneous emotions.‖

Art Now 2

p.278 On Thomas Ruff – ―Every photograph is already a construct; the product of
given technical conditions, and of the reproduction of image types and social
conventions of perception. Thomas Ruff turns away from the concept of illustrating
reality in his photographic works. Often conceived as a series, he bases them not
only on his own photographs but on other people’s material as well.‖

The Shock of the New – Robert Hughes

p156 Kenneth Noland ―I wanted to have color be the origin of the painting,‖ Noland
said in 1969. ―I was trying to neutralize the layout, the shape, the composition in
order to get at the color. Pollock had indicated getting away from drawing. I wanted to
make color the generating force.‖

―Like gigantic watercolours, which they were, Noland’s targets and chevrons bloom
and pulsate with light; they offer a pure, uncluttered hedonism to the eye.‖

p.320 On Rothko – ―This format enabled him to eliminate nearly everything from is
work except the spatial suggestions and emotive power of his colour, and the
breathing intensity of his surfaces,…‖

p.389 on Brice Marden ―In Green (Earth), 1983-4, an array of long narrow panels is
locked together in silent T formations with infills. They suggest the absolute forms of
classic architecture, columns and lintels, not presented as diagrams but bathed in a
curious stored-up light; their subtle colour is organic, not chematic, and speaks of
nature. The surface, much layered, suggests a history of growth, submergence, and
mellowing.‖



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p. 415 On Hodgkin ―His space is constructed purely in terms of colour, a project rare
in English painting. He risks using it at extreme saturation, and gives it a singular
power to evoke mood; it can be by turns radiantly joyous, sharp, pensive, almost
oppressively sumptuous ….‖

The Photo Book

p.436 on Otto Steinert ―Steinert disliked what he called applied photography, by
which he meant documentary and any other mode purely at the service of the motif.
Instead he envisaged an expressive art of photography in which the creative
intentions took precedence over the motif and whatever social meanings might attach
to it.‖

Art and Photography – David Campany

p.88 ―A photograph is an image that bears the mark of the real. The light that
illuminates the world is the light that records its image. In this sense all photographs
are traces.‖

p.100 Gerhard Richter – 128 Details From a Picture - photos of oil painting – to show
surface, texture, 3Dimensionality

p.121 Andreas Gursky – Paris, Montparnasse
―Printing at such a giant scale brings the spectator’s view of the work into parallel
with the photographer’s own view of the scene itself. The formal organisation of the
image weakens its connection to the everyday just as daily life is made abstract and
formal by social organisation. Gursky’s descriptive photography has much in
common with the all over compositions of colourfield painting and the grids of
Minimalism.‖

p.30 ―the studio as a marker of changing artistic subjectivity and the studio as a
space to construct alternative environments.‖

p.33 ―Conceptualism had been invested in the examination of the photograph as
authoritative document. By contrast the practices characterised as postmodern
looked to its increasing use as artifice and fiction.‖

p.35 On Gerhard Richter ―His reworking of vernacular images as ―blurred‖ canvases
permits a consideration of the social role of painting in the age of the camera.
Freeing the viewer from the indexical immediacy of detail (a tyranny particular to the
camera image) he also grants us an important distance from which to consider the
often numbing ubiquity of photographs.‖

p.35 ―The continuing vitality of the exchange between painting and photography
points beyond any simple technical definition of media that would fix their identities
once and for all. It seems that there is no single relationship between photography
and painting precisely because there is no fixed nature of either medium.‖

p.37 ―It became clear that looking is never neutral. There is no ―just looking‖. It is
always active and motivated.‖

―The ways in which artists approach photography are now informed as much by its
rich legacy in the art of the last thirty years as by its everyday uses. So of course
there is little consensus in the current understanding of photography.‖



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p.168 ―The four looks of photography: the viewer’s look at the image; the camera’s
look at the subject; the subject’s look at the camera; and the looks between
subjects.‖

p.182 ―Barth’s images explore connections between the physiology of seeing, the
photographic image and our visual habits of looking. Here the camera is focused at
close distance, leaving us with a generalised ―background‖ on no-specific space. For
Barth, seeing is inseparable from the processes of memory through which we look for
meaning.‖

The Edge of Vision – The Rise of Abstraction in Photography – Lyle Rexer

p.21 ―Doesn’t photography give ceaseless expression to the belief, the conviction,
the apprehension, that the seen is always only a suggestion of reality, even of visible
reality? As Duane Michals once remarked, ―Photography deals exquisitely with
appearances, but nothing is what it appears to be.‖

p.27 ―Photography provided a new lexicon of seeing not simply the world
reproduced, but the world seen as reproduction. This step necessarily is an
abstracting one, reducing three dimensions to two; binocular vision to monocular or
even nonocular (pinhole) vision; movement and continuity to discontinuous statis. Yet
photography was quickly adopted as a standard of naturalism, by painters as well as
the general public.‖

p.77 ―The photography of modernism inundated viewers with a tide of objects, from
fountain pens to turbine blades. What these photographs depicted often could be
determined only from the photographs’ titles. It is as if the camera, as a mechanically
perfected device, for the first time managed to achieve its true power, the power to
solicit from a chaotic world the underlying forms of a more beautiful coherence.‖

p.143 On Bochner ―He had no interest in the spiritual connections this might foster
(as Minor White would have), but he seems instead to have been fascinated by the
point at which photography, with its inherent ambiguities, can transform a pedestrian
reality into something completely unknown. Again, Bochner was probing the nature of
the object created by photography, something which he could not understand
(certainly not take for granted) without immersing himself in the process of
photography.‖

p.146 ―Beauty resides in the possibility of surprise and recognition, an elusive
possibility vested in the viewer as much as the artist.‖

p.147 On Ellen Carey ―Like many Minimalist artists of an earlier generation,
however, she seeks to set the parameters of experiences that can lead to heightened
awareness of process, time, being and beauty.‖

p.151 ―Carel Balth’s current series, Videowatercolors, are photographic works on
canvas that reproduce still images taken from videos. Balth selects images from a
large archive of video stills he has compiled. He then transfers them from digital
format to paintings on canvas. Videowatercolors combine the sense of motion from
video, the documentary veracity of photography, and painting’s three-dimensional
presence.‖

p.187 ―The conceptual approaches of Khan and Umbrico, and in a different manner
Uta Barth, whose blurred streetscapes distance viewers from the familiar and
interrogate the process of vision itself, question what constitutes a subject in


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photography. Immanuel Kant notwithstanding, the element of the optical relation
most taken for granted is the world itself, but the history of photography
demonstrates repeatedly that access to that world cannot be presumed.‖

p.192 of Silvio Wolf ―Wolf’s images occurred at the surface. They expanded
themselves there, involving the viewer in complex, even disorientating optical
experiences…They hold us at the surface, never allowing a deeper gaze, keeping
the eye present and the mind, especially, engaged and aware. Few who attended the
exhibition asked what the photographs were ―really of.‖

p.195 ― Abstract photographs may record or register but do not testify or bear witness
except to their own presentness, which has its own poignancy. They exist fully within
the consciousness of photography’s compromised truth – compromised in the sense
that the object retains its ambiguity, never quite whole and independent, never
lapsing into transparency, hovering between formality and contingency. They reaffirm
photography’s objectivity without recourse to factitious representations. They are not
free, but they are unburdened. They allow for chance without the anxieties of an
illusionary formal control. They expand photography’s capacity for representing the
beautiful by creating occasions for beauty’s recognition within us.‖

p.283 Walshead Beshty ―The artist becomes another instrument in the process, and
not a conscious creator of the work while the work is being physically produced. This
contrasts to the normal way works are produced, for example, in the production of a
painting, the artist is consciously constructing the work – thinking conceptually – at
the same time as they apply the paint – labouring.‖

p.284 ―Despite being objects, photographs are often treated simply as ―images‖ or
―pictures‖ when in truth, they are equally subject to their surroundings and movement
through the world as any other object.‖

Susan Sontag – On Photography

p.4 ―To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting oneself
into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge – and, therefore, like
power.‖

p.23 ―Photographs, which cannot themselves explain anything, are inexhaustible
invitations to deduction, speculation, and fantasy.‖

p.90/1 ―When ordinary seeing was further violated – and the object isolated from its
surroundings, rendering it abstract – new conventions about what was beautiful took
hold. What is beautiful became just what the eye can’t (or doesn’t) see; that
fracturing, dislocating vision that only the camera supplies.‖

p.92 ―The painter constructs, the photographer discloses.‖

p.95 ―For it is in the nature of a photograph that it can never entirely transcend its
subject, as a painting can. Nor can a photograph ever transcend the visual itself,
which is in some sense the ultimate aim of modernist painting.‖

p.106 ―A photograph changes according to the context in which it is seen.‖




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Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art – Stiles and Selz

p.26 Marc Rothko ―I paint very large pictures. I realize that historically the function of
painting large pictures is painting something very grandiose and pompous. The
reason I want to paint them, however – I think it applies to other painters I know – is
precisely because I want to be very intimate and human. To paint a small picture is to
place yourself outside your experience, to look upon an experience with a
stereopticon view with a reducing glass. However you paint the larger pictures, you
are in it. It isn’t something you command.‖

p.34 Joan Mitchell ―Abstract is not a style. I simply want to make a surface work. This
is just a use of space and form ; it’s an ambivalence of forms and space.‖

p.70 On Brice Marden ―A distinctive feature of these monochromes was the narrow
unpainted space he left at the bottom of each work, into which he let spill drips from
the thick smooth surface above. These painterly edges underscored the historic route
his painting travelled from gestural expressionism and color-field painting to
minimalism. While stanchly defending the object status of his paintings, Marden
acknowledged the mystery and metaphysical relationships evoked by his works.‖

p.71 ―Too often, the visual appearance of abstract geometric painting and sculpture
belied the aesthetic and political conflicts the works suggested, tensions that brought
into competition the aesthetic aims of formalism, the context-specific, viewer-
inclusive political agenda of minimalism, process art, and conceptual art, and the
historical concerns of those interested in the implications of pattern and decoration.‖

p.148 Brice Marden ―…I try to give the viewer something to which he will react
subjectively. I believe these are highly emotional paintings not to be admired for any
technical or intellectual reason but to be felt.‖

p.317 Gerhard Richter ―Because the photograph which we all use so frequently,
each day, surprised me. All of a sudden, I was able to see it differently, as a picture
which conveyed a different aspect to me, without all those conventional criteria which
I formerly attached to art. There was no style, no composition, no judgement. It
liberated me from personal experience. There was nothing but a pure picture.
Therefore, I wanted to possess it and show it – not to use as a means for painting but
to use painting as a means for the photograph.‖

p318 Gerhard Richter ― First of all, only the photographs can be objective because
they are related to an object without being an object themselves. However, I can see
them as an object, as well, and furthermore make them one in painting them, for
example. After that, they can no longer be and are no longer meant to be objective;
and they are not to document anything, either, neither reality nor a mode of viewing.
They are reality, perception, thus object, themselves and therefore can only be
documented.‖

p.318 Gerhard Richter ―This outward hazyness is probably due to our incapacity, as
mentioned before. I cannot describe anything more clearly about reality than my own
relation to reality. And this has always something to do with hazyness, insecurity,
inconsistency, fragmentary performance, or what have you. But this does not explain
the pictures – only perhaps the cause for painting them. Paintings are something
different, they are never blurred. What we consider being indistinct is in fact
inaccuracy and this means being different in comparison with the subject painted. But
since paintings are not made in order to compare them with reality, they cannot be



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indistinct or inexact or different (different from what?). How can color not be sharp on
a canvas, for example?‖

p.321 Robert Rauschenberg ―Any incentive to paint is as good as any other. There is
no poor subject. Painting is always strongest when in spite of composition, color etc,
it appears as a fact, or an inevitability, as opposed to a souvenir or arrangement.‖

p.323 Jasper Johns ―Sometimes I see it and then paint it. Other times I paint it and
then see it. Both are impure situations, and I prefer neither.‖

p507 ―Turrell, early affected by the emanation of light in mark Rothko’s paintings…‖

p.856 ―The structure of representation – point-of-view and frame – is intimately
implicated in the reproduction of ideology (the ―frame of mind‖ of our ―points-of-
view‖). More than any other textual system, the photograph presents itself as ―an
offer you can’t refuse.‖ The characteristics of the photographic apparatus position the
subject in such a way that the object photographed serves to conceal the textuality of
the photograph itself – substituting passive receptivity for active (critical) reading.
When confronted with puzzle photographs of the ―what is it?‖ variety (usually, familiar
objects shot from unfamiliar angles) we are made aware of having to select from sets
of possible alternatives, of having to supply information the image does not contain.
Once we have discovered what the depicted object is however, the photograph is
transformed for us – no longer a confusing conglomerate of light and dark tones, of
uncertain edges and ambivalent volumes, it now shows a ―thing‖ which we invest with
a full identity, a being. With most photographs we see, this decoding and investiture
takes place instantaneously, unselfconsciously, ―naturally‖; but it does take place –
the wholeness, coherence, identity, which we attribute to the depicted scene is a
projection, a refusal of an impoverished reality in favour of an imaginary plenitude.
The imaginary object here however is not ―imaginary‖ in the usual sense of the word,
it is seen, it has projected an image.‖

Turps Banana - Issue 1 Interview Damien Hirst

―And at the end of the day, you’re making a visual thing, people have got to desire it,
and that’s a big issue for me or any painter.‖

Art in Theory

Gerhard Richter – p. 1152




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