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Home Computer Security and Privacy

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					Home Computer Security and
    Privacy: Part One
             a presentation by
     Patrick Douglas Crispen
        Faculty Development Center
    California State University, Fullerton
Richard’s Law of Computer Security

• Don't buy a computer.
• If you do buy a computer, don't turn it on.
  Source: http://virusbusters.itcs.umich.edu/um-resources/vb-
  interview.html

• Clever, but false. The [social engineer]
  will talk someone into … turning that
  computer on. Source: Mitnick, p. 7
 Truths about computer security
• EVERY home computer and every
  operating system is vulnerable to attack.
• In the early days of home computing,
  solitary equaled safe [except from floppy
  viruses.]
• But the internet is a dark force multiplier.
• When you connect your home
  computer to the internet, the internet
  connects to your home computer.
                 Tick tock
• Once online, your computer is vulnerable
  to attack from viruses, worms, and even
  criminals.
• How long do you have between
  connection and attack?
  – On average, 20 minutes.
  – And if you have a cable or DSL connection,
    you have less time than that.

                        Source: http://isc.sans.org/survivalhistory.php
How long do I have, doc?




      Source: http://isc.sans.org/survivalhistory.php
                      Why me?
Why is your home
computer attacked?
 – It is specifically targeted
   [HIGHLY unlikely.]
 – It is a ―target of
   opportunity‖ using a
   known exploit.
    Common types of home computer
         security breaches
•   Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses
•   Zombieing
•   Code exploits
•   Malware [adware and spyware]
•   ―Man in the middle‖
•   Combination attacks
 Impact of home computer security
             breaches
• Loss or compromise   • Gloom, despair, and
  of your data           agony on me
• Identity theft       • Deep dark
• Loss of income         depression, excessive
• Legal consequences     misery
                  Scared yet?
• The internet can be a
  dangerous place for both
  computers and users.
• Fortunately, there are
  some simple ways to
  protect both your
  computer and yourself.
• Protection = Prevention +
  [Detection + Response]
  Prevention is the mother of safety

• This workshop is about the first part of that
  equation: Prevention.
• We could spend weeks talking about detection
  and response.
  – In fact, your local college has semester-long courses
    on that very topic.
• For home computer users, intrusion detection
  and response are just WAY too much work.
• But prevention is a [relative] snap.
               Our goals
• Demonstrate why you need a firewall
• Show you how to deal with computer
  exploits
• Do all of this in ENGLISH!
 Coming soon to a theatre near you

In part two of this workshop [coming soon],
we
 – Show you why an updated antivirus program is
   a necessity.
 – Talk about how to kill spyware and other
   malware.
 – Find out how to block pop-up ads.
 – Learn how to protect your privacy online.
  Short attention span summary
To protect against worms and exploits
[which is what we’re going to spend this
entire presentation talking about],
 – Use both a hardware and a software firewall.
 – Run Windows Update/Apple Software Update
   at least weekly.
 – Patch all of your software frequently.
  Short attention span summary
To protect against viruses, worms, and Trojan
Horses [which we’ll talk about in part two]:
 – Install the latest antivirus software.
 – Update your virus definitions several times a week.
 – Never double-click on files attached to email
   messages.
 – Turn off Windows file sharing.
 – GET RID OF YOUR FILE SHARING PROGRAM!
  Short attention span summary
• To protect against malware [which we’ll
  also talk about in in part two]:
  – Use a good anti-spyware program regularly.
  – Think about ditching Internet Explorer.
• To protect your privacy [also in part two]:
  – Disguise your data.
  – Encrypt your data and communications.
  – Erase your tracks.
  – Watch out for social engineering attacks.
     Part One: Firewalls

 What they are and why you absolutely
  need one [well, actually, two] before
you even THINK about connecting your
       computer to the internet.
  Mmm … worms and crackers.
• Connect to the internet and two things will
  quickly target and attack your computer: Worms
  and crackers.
• Worms are a type of computer virus that, using
  automatic file sending and receiving features
  built into most computers, tries to infect other
  computers [including yours] over a network.
• Many worms include backdoors that give
  crackers a way to easily break into your
  computer at a later date.
• And if the worms don’t get you, the crackers will.
       The cracker shibboleth
• People who know nothing about computers use
  the word ―hacker‖ as a pejorative to describe a
  person who uses his skill with computers to try
  to gain unauthorized access to computer files or
  networks. [Source: Oxford English Dictionary]
• Cute, but wrong.
• Inside the computing world, however, the term
  hacker is highly complimentary, respectfully
  used to describe a person with an enthusiasm
  for programming or using computers as an end
  in itself. [Source: Oxford English Dictionary]
           Hackers v. crackers
• In the computer world
  – A "hacker" is a brilliant and respected computer
    programmer or technical expert.
  – A "cracker" is someone who tries to break into your
    computer or files without your knowledge and/or
    permission.
• A large portion of the cracker community is
  made up of ―script kiddies,‖ people who
  – Use security-breaking scripts and programs
    developed by others.
  – In general do not have the ability to these scripts and
    programs on their own. [Source: Wikipedia]
          How crackers find you
• How do worms and crackers find your computer in the
  first place?
• Worms automatically/randomly search the internet
  looking for every unprotected computer they can find.
• Every semi-competent cracker and script kiddie has
  software that
   – Scans thousands of internet connections looking for Windows
     file and printer shares.
   – Scans for known vulnerabilities, holes, and unsecured services
     in Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Apache, VM-CMS, etc.
   – Exploits those known vulnerabilities.
   – Cracks Windows passwords.
   – And so on.
          Two types of attacks
• Most home computer attacks/intrusions are
  either
  – Coordinated: Your computer is specifically targeted
    by a skilled cracker.
  – Opportunistic: A worm or cracker finds your computer
    during a random scan of thousands of other
    computers.
• Unless someone is after you, you don’t have to
  worry about coordinated attacks.
  – For home computer users, they’re few and far
    between.
  – Besides, you can’t really stop a coordinated attack.
    You can only delay it.
      Protecting your computer
• To protect your computer
  from opportunistic
  attacks—besides being
  vigilant with patch
  management—―hide‖
  your computer from the
  internet.
• If the worms and crackers
  can’t see your computer,
  they [hopefully] won’t
  attack you.
• How do you hide your
  computer? Use a
  firewall.
            What is a firewall?
• A firewall is either hardware or software that
  stands between your computer [or home
  network] and its internet connection and
  provides ―access control‖—it determines what
  can and cannot pass.
• It’s just like the firewall in your car.
  – Your car’s firewall keeps the bad stuff from your
    engine [like heat and exhaust] out of your passenger
    cabin.
  – But it isn’t impervious. It has holes in it to let the good
    stuff [like the steering column and the brakes]
    through.
            What is a firewall?
• A good firewall, like your car’s firewall, keeps the
  bad stuff out and lets the good stuff through.
• How? Well most consumer firewalls—the
  hardware firewalls [well, actually they’re routers]
  you can buy at Wal-Mart or Target or the
  software firewalls you can download—offer a
  combination of
   – Computer stealth—they hide your computer from the
     worms’ and crackers’ scans.
   – Intrusion blocking—they make it harder [but not
     impossible] for worms and crackers to break in.
              IP addresses
When you connect your home computer to the
internet, the internet connects to your computer.
– Every computer connected to the internet has its own,
  unique internet address [like 137.151.128.96 or
  130.160.4.4]
– Your ISP automatically assigns the internet address
  to your computer from a pool of addresses the ISP
  maintains.
– When you disconnect [or at some regular interval with
  cable modem and DSL connections], that address
  goes back into the ISP’s pool of addresses and is
  given to someone else.
If a cracker knows your internet
   address, he can probe your
   computer for vulnerabilities.
                      NAT
• Hardware firewalls use something called
  ―Network Address Translation‖ or ―NAT‖ to hide
  your computer from the worms and crackers.
• You physically connect your home computer[s]
  to the firewall and connect the firewall to the
  internet.
• The firewall—not your home computer—
  connects to the internet and is assigned a
  publicly-visible internet address by your ISP.
  Hiding behind a wall of fire
Your firewall automatically assigns your
computer a private internet addresses.
– Only your firewall knows what your computer’s private
  address is.
– The private address is not visible to anyone on the
  Internet nor is it [directly] accessible from the internet.
– Since the worms and crackers can’t see your
  computer’s address, it is harder for the worms and
  crackers to scan your computer for vulnerabilities.
– So, hopefully, the worms and crackers move on to
  someone else’s computer.
Communicating with the Internet




• Your firewall becomes your computer’s intermediary on
  the internet. All traffic must go through it.
• When you request something from the internet, the
  firewall pretends that it made the request, not your
  computer.
Keeping worms and crackers out




• Since the internet never even sees your
  computer, there’s nothing for the worms or
  crackers to probe or attack other than your
  firewall.
• And your firewall is just a dumb box.
    Stateful packet inspection




In addition to using NAT to hide your computer, a firewall
also uses ―stateful packet inspection‖ or ―SPI‖ to block
intruders.
– It only allows connections that you originate.
– All other connections are automatically blocked at the firewall.
         Why firewalls ROCK!
• IF YOU DON’T HAVE A FIREWALL, YOUR
  COMPUTER WILL BE ATTACKED AND/OR
  COMPROMISED… USUALLY WITHIN 20
  MINUTES OF YOUR CONNECTING TO THE
  INTERNET.
• Firewalls protect your home computer from
  worms and crackers through a combination of
  – Computer stealth using NAT.
  – Intrusion blocking using stateful packet inspection.
• Gosh, is there anything firewalls can’t do?
     What a firewall can’t do
Well, actually, a consumer firewall can’t
– Fix operating system or software vulnerabilities
   • A firewall may block some exploits coming in from the
     internet, but the vulnerabilities will still be there
   • That’s why patch management is so important
– Protect your computer from viruses
   • A firewall may block internet worms, but it won’t block viruses
     attached to emails, hidden in files you download from the
     internet or Kazaa, etc.
   • Virus protection is a job for your antivirus program, not a
     firewall.
            There’s more
A consumer firewall also can’t
– Protect your computer from spyware.
– Block pop-up ads.
– Block spam.
– Completely keep crackers out.
– Protect you from doing stupid stuff to your
  computer.
 But, if you are looking for simple
    computer stealth and basic
intrusion blocking—and trust me,
   you are—you need a firewall.
  Don’t I already have a firewall?
• How can you tell if you have a firewall and/or if it
  is working properly?
• Go to grc.com and run ―Shields Up.‖
   – This is a free, online tool from security guru Steve
     Gibson.
   – Shields Up checks file sharing, common ports, all
     service ports, messenger spam, and browser
     headers.
• If Shields Up can see you, so can the crackers.
   – You either don’t have a firewall or it isn’t configured
     properly.
              Which one?
• Should you get a hardware firewall or a
  software firewall?
• Yes.
• If you have a cable modem, satellite, or
  DSL connection, you need both a
  hardware firewall and a software firewall.
• If you have a dial-up connection, you only
  need a software firewall.
                    Why both?
• Hardware firewalls have an Achilles’ heel: they
  [for the most part] assume that ALL internet
  traffic originating from your computer is safe.
• But, if you ―accidentally‖ double-click on a virus-
  infected file,
   – Your computer will be infected with that virus.
     [Remember, hardware firewalls can’t protect you from
     either viruses or doing stupid stuff.]
   – That virus is more than likely going to try to use your
     computer and your internet connection to infect other
     computers.
 “With their tanks, and their bombs,
 and their bombs, and their guns…”
• So your computer is now
  a virus-spewing zombie.
• BUT, remember, your
  hardware firewall still
  trusts your computer.
• Your computer is flooding
  the internet with
  thousands of viruses,
  worms, or spams, and
  your hardware firewall
  doesn’t notice, care, or
  even bother to tell you.
   How software firewalls work
Software firewalls [actually, ―personal
software firewalls‖]
  – Constantly run in the background.
  – Block bad stuff from the internet [the stuff that
    somehow magically makes it past the
    hardware firewall.]
  – Warn you when a program on your
    computer tries to access the internet.
     • You decide whether or not that program will be
       allowed to access the internet.
 So in our zombie example, the
  software firewall—NOT the
hardware firewall—would catch
the flood of viruses before they
    even left your computer.
         In the simplest [grossly
         oversimplified] terms…
• Hardware firewalls protect your computer from
  the internet.
• Software firewalls
  – Are a second layer of defense behind your hardware
    firewall.
  – Protect both your computer from the internet AND the
    internet from your computer.
  – Warn you when something fishy is happening on your
    computer.
• So now can you see why I recommend running
  both a hardware AND a software firewall?
             Hardware firewalls
• Now for the bad news: Hardware firewalls—
  stand-alone boxes that do nothing but block
  intruders—are both complicated and expensive.
  – Cisco’s cheapest firewall [the PIX 501] is
    approximately US$400 Source: pricewatch.com
• But two important features of hardware
  firewalls—NAT and SPI—are built into most
  hardware routers which are a LOT cheaper.
  – Linksys’ Instant Broadband™ EtherFast® Cable/DSL
    Firewall Router with 4-Port Switch/VPN Endpoint
    [BEFSX41] is approximately US$70 Source:
    pricewatch.com
   Over the router and through the
               woods
My suggestion?
 – Before you connect
   your computer to the
   Internet, go to your
   nearest technology
   store or big box retailer.
 – Buy a cable/DSL router
   from Linksys [my
   favorite], D-Link,
   Netgear, Belkin, or
   SMC for US$50-$75.
                                Image courtesy Linksys.com
            u:admin p:admin?
• Read the instructions that come with your router
  and CHANGE YOUR ROUTER’S DEFAULT
  ADMIN USERID AND PASSWORD!
• Crackers know the default administrator’s userid
  and password for every router [and firewall and
  server and operating system and...] ever made.
  – Check out http://www.phenoelit.de/dpl/dpl.html if you
    don’t believe me.
            Software firewalls
• Now that I spent US$50 of your hard-earned
  money on a router, let me save you some
  money.
• The four best software firewalls [in my humble
  opinion] are absolutely free.
  – ZoneAlarm: http://www.zonelabs.com/
  – Sygate Personal Firewall:
    http://smb.sygate.com/products/spf_standard.htm
  – Windows XP Service Pack 2 Internet Connection
    Firewall: built into Windows XP SP2 but NOT into
    previous versions of XP
  – Mac OS X Firewall: built into Mac OS X
        Training your firewall
• You need to train the free version of ZoneAlarm
  [and other software firewalls.]
• By default, ZoneAlarm blocks everything on your
  computer from accessing the internet.
• You have to manually tell ZoneAlarm which
  programs to let through.
• Fortunately, this is really simple to do: Just
  check out http://www.tinyurl.com/27wcz for
  instructions on how to install and train
  ZoneAlarm.
                    XP Firewall
• Windows XP comes with
  its own firewall, so we XP
  users can breathe easy,
  right?
• WRONG!
• If you have Windows XP
  Home or Professional,
  your built-in software
  firewall is both horrible
  and [most likely] disabled.
               XP Firewall
• BUT, if you download and install Windows
  XP service pack 2 from Windows Update,
  your new built-in software firewall is both
  good and ON!
• Oh, and Windows 95, 98, 98SE, ME, 2000
  do NOT come with a built-in software
  firewall.
  – You need to download ZoneAlarm or Sygate
    Personal Firewall.
 To turn on XP’s built-in firewall
• Go to Start > Control Panel
• Click on Network and Internet Connections or
  double-click on Network Connections.
• Right-click on your local area network and
  choose Properties.
• Click on the Advanced tab.
• Check Protect my computer and network by
  limiting or preventing access to this computer
  from the Internet.
• Click on OK.
To turn on OS-X’s built-in firewall
• Go to Apple menu >
  System Preferences.
• In Internet & Network,
  click on the Sharing folder
  icon.
• Click on the Firewall tab.
• Uncheck any of the
  services you don’t
  understand or want to run
  all the time.
• Then click on the Start
  button.
                   Remember
• If you have a cable
  modem, DSL, or satellite
  connection, you need
  both a hardware firewall
  [in the form of a router]
  and a software firewall.
• If you have a dial-up
  connection, you only
  need a software firewall.
                   Done?
• Once you’ve installed a hardware and/or
  software firewall you’re in the clear, right?
• Not exactly. You’re SIGNIFICANTLY
  better protected from exploits and network
  intrusions than most people, but there’s
  still more you need to do.
   Part Two: Exploits

What they are, where they come
from, and how to manage them
           What is an exploit?
• Until machines start taking over for humans,
  software bugs and glitches caused by simple
  human error will be the norm.
  – Windows XP contains over 40 million lines of source
    code. Source: Wikipedia
  – Could YOU write that many lines of code and not
    make a mistake?
• An exploit is a program or technique used by a
  cracker to take advantage of software bugs or
  glitches in order to circumvent your computer’s
  security, often without your knowledge.
       Mmm… freedom bread.
• A firewalled computer is a little like a loaf
  of French bread: crunchy on the outside
  and chewy on the inside.
• Firewalls protect your computer from
  worms and crackers, but not from [all]
  exploits.
• And EVERY operating system is
  vulnerable to exploits.
    Some questionable stats from
             Secunia
• XP Professional
  – 46 security advisories issued in 2003-2004
  – 48% involved some sort of remote [online] attack.
  – 46% involved granting system access to a cracker.
• Mac OS X
  – 36 security advisories issued in 2003-2004
  – 61% involved some sort of remote attack.
  – 32% involved granting system access to a cracker.


               Source: Secunia [as posted in
               http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=113493&cid=9613964]
             XP v. Mac OS X
• So Windows is safer, and Mac OS X is
  less safe, than most people imagined,
  right?
• Not exactly.
• This is kind of like trying to scientifically
  measure which parent loves you more.
Why you should question Secunia’s
 [and everyone else’s] numbers
• Different suppliers report vulnerabilities
  differently.
• A system which includes more software
  may have more advisories, even though
  most advisories do not affect most
  computers running that system.
• Unpatched vulnerabilities may go for
  months without the release of an official
  advisory.
    Source: http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=113493&cid=9613823
Why you should question Secunia’s
 [and everyone else’s] numbers
• Systems which have better default system-wide
  security settings (e.g. packet filtering, services
  turned off by default) may have all kinds of
  "vulnerabilities" that can't actually be exploited.
• Leaving it up to the supplier to decide if
  something is a "vulnerability" or a "feature" leads
  to underreporting.
• Some of the most common attacks—such as
  viruses—rely on social engineering, and on
  "features" that are not classed as
  "vulnerabilities".
     Source: http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=113493&cid=9613823
           The truth of the matter
• Computer security isn’t just a PC- or Mac-only
  problem.
• EVERY operating system and EVERY software
  application has vulnerabilities, especially online.
• Crackers can use these vulnerabilities to
   –   Read or even delete every file on your computer;
   –   Infect your computer with a virus;
   –   Use your computer to attack another computer; or
   –   Do a whole bunch of other nasty things.
But there are some simple ways to
 keep the crackers [especially the
      script kiddies] at bay.
   Signs your computer MAY have
           been exploited
• Spontaneous reboots      • Unknown user
• Failed services, virus     accounts
  scanner disabled         • Application and
• Sluggish behavior,         service errors
  poor performance,        • Low disk space
  slow logins              • Subpoenas and
• Excessive disk or          search warrants
  network activity (HD     • Your computer insists
  LED, Switch LED)           on playing ―global
                             thermonuclear war.‖

                                 Source: Alex Keller, SFSU
     Symptoms v. the disease
• Just because your computer has one or more of
  these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean it has
  been exploited, though.
• Examples:
  – Your computer suddenly reboots during a
    thunderstorm.
  – Your network activity light goes supernova while you
    are illegally downloading the latest DiVX movie.
  – Your computer becomes sentient after you spill a
    Pepsi on the keyboard.
   Call my attorney! I’ve been
          EXPLOITED!
But if computer has been exploited, you
need to
– Stop cussing.
– Immediately disconnect your computer
  from the internet.
– Identify the exploit.
– Close the hole.
– Fix the damage.
                  I feel so dirty.
• To identify the exploit:
   – Reconnect to the internet, update your antivirus
     definitions, disconnect, and scan your entire hard
     drive.
   – Reconnect to the internet, update your antispyware
     definitions, disconnect, and scan your entire hard
     drive.
   – Write down the symptoms; reconnect to the internet;
     search Google, Symantec, or the Microsoft
     Knowledge Base; disconnect.
• To close the hole, download and apply the
  appropriate patch from the manufacturer’s web
  site.
        Repairing the damage
• Repairing the damage from an exploit could be
  as simple as deleting or replacing corrupt data
  or as complicated as a deep-level format of your
  hard drive.
  – The repair path depends on the exploit.
  – This may be a job for a professional repair technician.
• The BEST way to repair the damage caused by
  an exploit is to close the holes before they are
  exploited.
            Closing the holes
• When a vulnerability is found, operating system
  and software manufacturers
  [eventually/hopefully] release something called a
  ―patch.‖
• A patch is simply a software update meant to fix
  problems, bugs, or the usability of a previous
  version of an application. Source: Wikipedia
• Download and install the patch and your
  computer is [hopefully] no longer susceptible to
  that particular vulnerability.
 Why are patches so important?
• When a new patch is released, an
  unintended consequence is that the
  bulletin announcing the patch also
  announces the vulnerability to crackers.
• Crackers count on the fact that you won’t
  get the patch—your computer will continue
  to be vulnerable.
• And the time between bulletin and exploit
  is shrinking.
                        MS02-039
MS Security Bulletin:           MS02-039
                                Buffer Overruns in SQL Server
                                2000 Resolution Service Could
                                Enable Code Execution
                                (Q323875)

Originally Posted:              July 24, 2002

Exploit:                        W32.SQLExp.Worm [a.k.a., SQL
                                Slammer Worm]

Exploit Discovered by Symantec January 24, 2003
on:
Elapsed Time from Bulletin to
Exploit:                        184 days
                        MS04-011
MS Security Bulletin:           MS04-011
                                Security Update for Microsoft
                                Windows (835732)



Originally Posted:              April 13, 2004

Exploit:                        W32.Sasser.Worm


Exploit Discovered by Symantec April 30, 2004
on:
Elapsed Time from Bulletin to
Exploit:                        17 days
                Patch or DIE!
• Notice a trend?
• Can you see why
  patch management is
  so important?
• The time between
  bulletin and exploit is
  shrinking!
 She watch, she watch, she watch…
          channel ZERO!
• In fact, zero-day exploits—exploits that take
  advantage of unknown operating system or
  software application vulnerabilities—already
  exist and more are coming.
  – Crackers keep these zero-day exploits to themselves,
    using them to gain access or escalate privileges on a
    small number of target systems.
• No one has released a Blaster- or Sasser-like
  zero-day exploit into the wild…yet.
You can’t completely protect your
computer from every exploit, but
 you can keep the exploits at bay
   by practicing simple patch
          management.
         Patch management
• Where do you start?  • List EVERYTHING!
• Make a simple,          – Email client(s)
  estimated time sheet    – Web browsers
  showing the programs    – Word processors
  you use each week       – Chat programs
  and how much time       – Media players
  you use each            – Games
  program.                –…
          Patch management
• Don’t forget to include your operating
  system and antivirus which [hopefully] are
  always running.
  – Add those to the top of your list
• Sort your list by hours of use
• That’s your patch list, in order.
    How I use my home computer
Program                              Estimated Hours Per Week I Use
                                     That Program
Microsoft Windows XP Pro SP 1        45 Hours
Norton Antivirus 2004                45 Hours
Eudora Pro 6.1                       30 Hours
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 SP 1   25 Hours
Microsoft Word 2003                  15 Hours
Microsoft PowerPoint 2003            10 Hours
Trillian 0.74                        10 Hours
Macromedia Dreamweaver MX            10 Hours
2004
Mozilla Firebadger 0.9               5 Hours
…                                    …
                My patch list
So my patch list, in order, would be
  1.   Microsoft Windows XP SP 1
  2.   Norton Antivirus 2004
  3.   Eudora Pro 6.1
  4.   Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 SP1
  5.   …
         How to patch Windows
• When Microsoft finds a
  security hole in Windows
  or Internet Explorer, they
  [usually/eventually]
  release a patch called a
  ―Critical Update.‖
• In Internet Explorer, go to
  Tools > Windows Update.
• Click on Scan for
  updates.
       How to patch Windows
• Download and install only the Critical Updates
  and Service packs.
  – Ignore the other updates.
• Keep running Windows Update until it tells you
  to go away.
• To see a complete catalog of all Microsoft
  Critical Updates for Windows 9X and NT, go to
  http://v4.windowsupdate.microsoft.com/catalog
    The NEW Windows Update
• There are now two Windows Updates:
  – Version 4 for Windows 95, 98, 98SE, ME, and
    NT
  – Version 5 for Windows XP and 2000
• When you run Windows Update, Microsoft
  ―sniffs‖ your computer and automatically
  redirects you to the correct version.
               Mambo Number 5
• When you run Windows
  Update v.5 on XP or 2000
  for the first time, choose
  ―Express Install.‖
   – This only gives you the
     critical updates and
     security updates.
• By default, Automatic
  Updates are turned on.
     How to patch the Apple OS
• Apple menu > Software
  Update
• To get updates
  immediately:
  – Choose System
    Preferences from the Apple
    menu.
  – Choose Software Update
    from the View menu.
  – Click Update Now.
  – In the Software Update
    window, select the items
    you want to install, then
    click Install.
                                 Image courtesy Apple.com
Manually run Windows Update or
 Apple Software Update at least
          once a week.

    Your computer should, by default,
     automatically check for updates.
   That’s cool, but also run the update
         manually just to be safe.
        To patch Microsoft Office
• In Windows XP or 2000, just
  run the new Windows Update.
• In older versions of Windows,
  go to
  officeupdate.microsoft.com
  and click on ―Check for
  Updates‖
• Mac users need to go to
  http://www.microsoft.com/mac/
  downloads.aspx
• Have your Office installation
  disk nearby in case the update
  needs to ―sniff‖ the disk.
  Patching other programs through
        “Check for Updates”
• Open the program you
  want to patch and, under
  the Help menu, look for
  ―Check for Updates,‖
  ―Updates,‖ ―Check for
  Upgrade,‖ or something
  similar.
• This will either
   – Automatically check for and
     install any software
     patches you are missing
   – Take you to a web site
     where you can download
     the necessary patches.
Manually patching your software
• If the Help menu doesn’t have
  a built-in update feature,
  choose About [the name of the
  program] in the Help menu and
  write down the exact version
  number of the program.
   – Usually its an integer and a
     combination of decimals [like
     7.0.1]
• Go to the software
  manufacturer’s web site and
  look for ―Downloads,‖
  ―Upgrades,‖ ―Support,‖ or
  something similar.
Manually patching your software
Compare your software’s version number to
the version number available online.
 – If the decimals of the online version number
   are larger than yours, download and install the
   appropriate patch.
 – If the integer is larger, you’ll need to buy a new
   version of the program.
                 Done?
• Once you’ve installed a hardware and/or
  software firewall and [regularly] patched
  your operating system and programs
  you’re in the clear, right?
• Not exactly. You’re certainly better
  protected from exploits than most people,
  but there’s still more you need to do.
 Coming soon to a theatre near you

In part two of this workshop [coming soon],
we
 – Show you why an updated antivirus program is
   a necessity.
 – Talk about how to kill spyware and other
   malware.
 – Find out how to block pop-up ads.
 – Learn how to protect your privacy online.
               Our goals
• Demonstrate why you need a firewall
• Show you how to deal with computer
  exploits
• Do all of this in ENGLISH!
Home Computer Security and
    Privacy: Part One
             a presentation by
     Patrick Douglas Crispen
    California State University, Fullerton
        Faculty Development Center

				
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