Specialty Cut Flower Production by Extremehort

VIEWS: 717 PAGES: 34

									  CUT
FLOWERS
A COMMERCIAL GROWERS GUIDE




Kansas State University
Agricultural Experiment Station
and Cooperative Extension Service
                          3




     Contents



“More than anything,
I must have flowers,
always, always.”
          —Claude Monet
                                                                                 5




Introduction .............................................................5
        Choosing a Site
        Preparing the Bed
        What To Grow: The Ideal Crop
        Definitions
        Fresh Cut Flowers—Annuals
        Fresh Cut Flowers—Perennials
        Fresh Cut Flowers—Bulbs
        Fresh Cut Flowers—Flowering Woody Stems
        Dried Materials—Flowers and Miscellaneous Plant Parts

Planting ....................................................................9
        When to Plant
          Annuals
          Biennials
          Perennials
        How to Plant
          Plant Density
          Crop Support

How to Grow .......................................................... 11
        Watering
        Fertilizer
        Weed Control
        Disease Control
           Table 1. Diseases Common to Flowering Plants
6




    Harvest ................................................................... 18
                Table 2. Optimal Development Stage of Cut Flowers
                for Direct Sale

    Postharvest .............................................................22
            Pulsing
            Marketing and Selling
               Table 3. Flowers Particularly Sensitive to Ethylene

    Summary ................................................................ 24
            Recommendations Summarized
            References

    Suppliers .................................................................25
            Cut Flower Seeds
            Plugs, Transplants, and Bulbs
            Preservatives and Dyes
            Cleaning Supplies
            Synthetic, Organic, and Biological Controls
            Soluble Organic Fertilizers
            Containers, Harvest, Holding, Packing
            Seeding and Planting Equipment
            Tillage and Bedding Equipment
            Transplanting Equipment
            Irrigation Equipment
            General Materials

    Recommended Reading ..........................................29
    Directories .............................................................. 31
    Organizations ......................................................... 32
                                                                                                              7




                                        Introduction


   Many agricultural producers in Kansas are considering alternative enterprises
   to increase their incomes. Field production of specialty fresh or dried cut flowers could
   be a profitable alternative crop in Kansas. Our state has a climate advantageous
   to production of many flowers, grasses, and grains for the floral and decorative crafts
   markets. Perennial flowers that are high in demand, such as Liatris, are native to Kansas
   and flourish in our climate and soils. National, regional, and local markets exist for high-
   quality specialty cut flowers. These markets can be served with Kansas-grown products.

   The outdoor production of specialty cut flowers is an old segment of the floriculture
   industry currently in revival across the country. The market conditions, technology and
   varieties are new. As an emerging industry, it offers unique opportunities for those who
   enter. This publication discusses basic cut flower production factors. The term “cut flower”
   in this publication refers to all fresh and dried flowers, seed heads and stalks, and all
   plant parts used for floral and decorative purposes.



Choosing a Site                        Labor efficiency is a critical       from public roads to parking areas
  Most cut flowers prefer a loca-    factor in choosing a site. Flower      and from parking to the fields will
tion in full sun throughout the      production requires intensive          enhance the consumer’s overall
entire day. The field and soil       management. The site should            shopping experience.
should be well drained. Wind         have ready access for production
protection is highly desirable for   equipment and removal and              Preparing the Bed
all plants. Windbreaks serve to      handling of the harvested prod-          Plants should be grown in beds
reduce water stress on plants and    uct. Study the proposed site for       raised 4–6 inches to maximize
help prevent stem breakage and       ease in movement of materials          drainage. Poorly drained soil
floral damage. It is important to    and plants into it to begin produc-    should be corrected by placing
consider any competitive effect      tion, within the site while pro-       drain lines 10–12 inches deep
which may occur from the roots       ducing and harvesting the crop,        under the beds. Check for the
of any plant used as a windbreak.    and of the harvested crop to           existence of a hardpan in the soil.
The site should have sufficient      storage and packing areas. The         A deep-rooted cover crop such as
cold air drainage to avoid recur-    idea is to maximize efficiency of      alfalfa may help to break up the
ring early or late season frosts.    the labor required for all produc-     hardpan. A well-drained soil
A source of irrigation water is      tion and marketing functions.          environment is essential for
essential. If animal foraging is a     If a pick-your-own marketing         maximum root development and
problem, fencing may be required.    strategy is your choice, a site with   reduces the potential for root rot
                                     easy access is critical. Easy access   problems.
8

   Organic matter should be             A worker can efficiently reach            Biennial: A plant that normally
incorporated into the beds to           only 2 feet into a bed to make a       requires two years to complete its
a depth of 10–12 inches. The            proper cut and remove the flower       life cycle. It will grow and produce
addition of organic matter is best      without damage to the crop.            leaves, but produces flowers and
if incorporated in the fall, but can      Bed length also is set to maxi-      seed pods only after subsequently
be done anytime before planting         mize the area in production versus     undergoing a cold period, usually
if the nitrogen status of the soil      the area in aisles. The limiting       the second year.
is monitored. Remember that for         factor to bed length is labor             Perennial: A plant which has
beds planted to perennials, it may      efficiency. The maximum distance       a life span of more than two years,
not be possible to work additional      a worker should carry harvested        but flowers for only a set period
organic matter deep into the soil       flowers is about 50–60 feet.           during the season.
until the plants are divided or         Planting beds should be 100–
replaced. For these beds, sufficient    120 feet long.                         Fresh Cut Flowers—
organic matter should be added                                                 Annuals
initially to provide a soil structure   What To Grow:                            Ageratum houstonianum—Floss
with optimum aeration and               The Ideal Crop                         flower; in demand for blue flower;
drainage.                                 An ideal cut flower crop, either     a variety to try is ‘Blue Horizon.’
   Always have the soil tested for      fresh or dried, would have the           Ammi majus—Queen Anne’s
nutrient content before adding          following characteristics:             lace, snowflake; white lacy head
any fertilizer to the planting bed.      • low cost of production—             can be dyed.
Production decisions made                  materials and labor                   Antirrhinum majus—Snapdragon;
without adequate information are         • high value and unlimited            tall spike required, varieties to try
merely guesses and can be costly.          demand                              are Rocket and the Potomacs.
If nitrogen levels are low and large     • high production per square foot       Callistephus chinensis—China
amounts of organic matter have             of bed space                        aster; many cutting strains avail-
been added, an application of            • extended production and             able, the Florett Series is an extra-
20–45 pounds of actual nitrogen            marketing season                    double, large-flowered type.
per acre prior to planting may           • long productive life                Caution: aster yellows, a disease
be appropriate.                          • ability to sell fresh and to sell   transmitted by insects, is devastat-
   Marketing strategy, plant growth        surplus as a dried or preserved     ing and difficult to control.
habit, and labor efficiency deter-         floral product                        Celosia cristata—Cockscomb,
mine the ideal size of a planting        • postharvest vase life of at least   feather or plume Celosia; for the
bed. If a pick-your-own market             7 days                              red crested flower try the Chief
strategy is the choice, beds should      • resistance to diseases and pests    Series. The Sparkler Series is a red
be narrow—about 2 1⁄2–3 feet wide          of all types                        feather-type to try. Wheat celosia
—so consumers easily can pick            • resistance to heat and drought      bear slender white plumes during
their flowers without damaging             stress                              summer heat and are rose tinted
the crop. Bed length should be           • long stems (18 inches)              under cool nights of fall.
about 25 feet, with sodded aisles        • easy harvest and handling             Centaurea cyanus—Cornflower,
to provide customers with quick          • aesthetically pleasing and/or       bachelors’ buttons; frilly buttons
and clean access to any product            fragrant flowers, foliage, or       of white, pink, and blue.
they desire. Traditional produc-           stems                                 Centaurea americana—
tion beds are 3–4 feet wide               No single species or variety         Cornflower; much larger flowers
depending on the growth habit           of plant material will meet all        than C. cyanus, lilac-pink color.
of the crop.                            of these criteria. They are pre-         Clarkia amoena—Godetia; try
   Bed width is set to allow maxi-      sented here to provide a means         the Grace Series; prefers cool
mum light penetration to the            of evaluating the relative desir-      temperatures.
center of the bed and to facilitate     ability of producing a crop of a         Consolida regalis—Larkspur;
harvesting. The wider a bed is, the     specific plant.                        Giant Imperial Strain is the
better the ratio of production                                                 standard strain; try Qis Series
space to aisle space and the greater    Definitions                            and ‘Blue Cloud.’
the return per acre. Tall, dense           Annual: A plant that lives,           Dianthus barbatus—Sweet
flower growth habits reduce the         grows, and dies with a completed       William; old types are biennials,
amount of light reaching lower          life cycle within a single year,       new types act like true annuals;
leaves in the center of the bed.        usually blooms continually during      try the new Pride of Park Avenue
                                        its life cycle.                        Series.
                                                                                                                    9

   Eustoma grandiflorum—                Fresh Cut Flowers—                       E. x zabelii. Eryngium alpinum
Lisianthus, sweet lissies; Yodels                                                is the most difficult to grow, but
are the standard variety but
                                        Perennials                               is the largest-flowered with several
also try the Echo Series and               Achillea filipendulina—Yarrow,        great blue cones surrounded by
the Heidi Series.                       fernleaf yarrow; try ‘Gold Plate’        prickly calyx frills.
   Gypsophila elegans—Annual            and ‘Coronation Gold.’ For other            Gypsophila paniculata—Perennial
baby’s breath; most commonly            colors try ‘Jambo’ (soft yellow),        baby’s breath; the standard “filler”
grown are the large-flowered white      ‘Lilac Improved’ (lilac pink),           of the floral industry; used fresh
form, but the smaller-flowered          ‘Lusaka’ (pure white), ‘Nakuru’          or dried; suited to dry, light, and
pink, rose, and purple also have a      (purple and white), ‘Sawa Sawa’          slightly alkaline soils. Vegetatively
market. Recommended for fresh           (dark purple), and ‘Wesersand-           produced plants have large, fully
use only.                               stein’ (light pink).                     double flowers; ‘Perfecta’ is the
   Helianthus debilis cucumerifolius       Artemisia ludoviciana—White           standard. Can be seed grown, but
—Sunflower; relatively small            sage; grown for the silver-gray          will have smaller flowers and only
flower of yellow to white and           foliage which is used fresh or in        a portion will have double flowers.
shades of mahogany and rust.            dried form. ‘Silver King’ and ‘Silver       Liatris—Gayfeather, blazing star;
Try ‘Sunbright’ and ‘Full Sun,’         Queen’ are standard cultivars.           one of the longest lasting and
regularly branched plants which            Asclepias incarnata & Asclepias       finest cut flowers; native to Kansas;
do not produce pollen. In our           tuberosa—Butterfly flower; rose-         well adapted to our climate and
trials, pollen production has           purple and neon orange respec-           soils; long-lived plants. Produce
proven to be a quality objection-       tively; easy to grow, shippable,         for local markets only; over-supply
able to the consumer. Pollen shed       and long-lasting cut flowers.            in national market.
from the vase causes a mess.               Aster novi-belgii & Aster                Paeonia—Peony; herbaceous
   Iberis amara—Rocket candytuft;       ericoides—Aster; hybrids of both         types are among the choicest
fragrant and early bloomer.             species are good cut flowers;            of fresh and dried cut flowers;
   Limonium sinuatum—Annual             ‘Monte Casino’ is the standard           extremely long-lived; short harvest
statice; try Excellent Series,          variety grown, the Master Series         season but can be stored cool and
Qis Series, and the Turbo Series.       is among the best of the new             dry for up to 12 weeks. Kansas has
Surplus production may be               hybrids.                                 a competitive advantage in the
marketed in dried form.                    Astilbe—Astilbe, false spirea;        commercial production of peonies
   Molucella laevis—Bells of Ireland;   requires moist soil in summer;           because of climate. Plants require
apple green “flowers” (calces);         color range of white, pink, red,         3–5 years from planting to reach
surplus production may be used          and lavender.                            productive potential. Demand
in dried form.                             Chrysanthemum x superbum—             currently exceeds supply for both
   Nigella damascena—Love-in-a-         Shasta daisy; most popular from          fresh and dried flowers.
mist; delicate flowers for fresh use;   cuttings is ‘T.E. Killin’ and ‘Alaska’      Platycodon grandiflorum—Balloon
allow surplus production to set         from seed; prolific bloomers             flower; large bellflowerlike
fruit for sale as fresh material,       adaptable to most soils; plants are      blooms follow balloonlike buds;
further surplus fruit may be used       not long-lived without frequent          adapts to a wide range of soil
in dried form.                          division.                                types; will tolerate some shade.
   Scabiosa atropurpurea—Pin-              Echinops bannaticus, Echinops            Salvia farinacea—Blue salvia,
cushion flower; dense, rounded,         exaltatus, Echinops ritro, Echinops      mealycup sage; strong grower in
rich colored, flower heads.             sphaerocephalus—Globe thistle;           extreme heat; can be used as fresh
   Zinnia elegans—Zinnia; several       rich blue to very light blue;            or dried material; try ‘Victoria,’
flower types and sizes available.       excellent producers for either           ‘Catima,’ and ‘Blue Bedder.’ Salvia
Never water overhead; subject to        fresh or dried markets; long-lived,      is sensitive to methyl-bromide
leaf diseases. The dahlia-flowered      but should not be transplanted.          treated soil.
‘Giant Mammoth,’ the cactus-               Eryngium amethystinum &                  Scabiosa caucasica—Pincushion
flowered ‘Zenith’ and the State         Eryngium planum—Eryngo,                  flower; a traditional florists’ cut
Fair series are reported to be the      sea holly; easiest of the eryngo         flower; easy to grow and adaptable
best of the large flowering zinnias.    to grow; excellent fresh or dried;       to most soils; try ‘Fama’ and
Try the Pumila Series, Ruffles and      small silvery-blue to purple-blue        ‘Complement,’ lilac blue or white
Cut-and-Come-Again for smaller          flowers; try ‘Donau,’ ‘Blue              seed strains.
sized flowers.                          Star,’ ‘Blue Diamond,’ ‘Silver              Solidago—Goldenrod; hybrids
                                        Stone,’ and ‘Fluella.’ Larger-           from Holland are better than our
                                        flowered types are E. bourgatti and      native species; easy, trouble-free,
10

and adaptable to most soils. Note:     Consolida regalis (larkspur)           Limonium suworowii (rattail)
Goldenrod does not cause               Daucus carota (Queen Anne’s lace)      Limonium tataricum (German)
hayfever symptoms.                     Echinops (globe thistle)               Lunaria (money plant)
                                       Eryngium (seaholly)                    Nigella (love-in-a-mist,
Fresh Cut Flowers—Bulbs                Eucalyptus                                devil-in-the-bush)
  Allium—Flowering onion; all          Chrysanthemum parthenium               Papaver somniferum (poppy pods)
species are good fresh cut flowers;      (feverfew)                           Rosa (roses)
easy to grow and adaptable to any      Gomphrena golbosa (globe               Tanacetum (tansy)
well-drained soil. The best species      amaranth)                            Xeranthemum (common
for cutting are: A. aflatunense,        Grass and Grains (Wheat, black           immortelle)
A. caeruleum, A. giganteum, and       bearded and Durum; rye, oats,           Zea Mays (corn)
A. spaerocephalum.                    rice, buffalo, quaking, barley,           When choosing plants to grow,
  Gladiolus—Gladioli; staggered       canary, flax, hare’s tale, milo,       start with a test plot. Begin small
planting for continuous harvest;      sorghum,)                              and learn how to grow the plant
plant new corms each year; dig         Gypsophila perfecta & G. paniculata   and determine if it is suitable and
and sell corms each fall. Standard       (baby’s breath)                     economical to produce under your
item for florist and farmers’          Helichrysum bracteatum                specific conditions. You should be
market sales. Try both standard          (strawflower)                       able to produce a high-quality
and “baby” glads; the new hybrid       Helipterum manglesii (Rhodanthe)      product before expanding produc-
Parigo Series is an intermediate       Helipterum manglesii (Acroclinum)     tion beyond the experimental
type glad.                             Hydrangea                             stage. Keep a journal. You will find
  Lilium—Lily; the Asiatic and         Lavandula (lavender)                  little or no information available
Aurelian hybrids along with the        Lepidium (peppergrass)                on many plant materials you may
Oriental hybrids L. auratum, L.        Limonium latifolia (latifolia)        wish to grow. Your experience will
rubellum, and L. speciosum are best    Limonium caspicum (caspia)            be useful for production decisions
for commercial cut flower produc-      Limonium sinuatum (annual             in subsequent seasons.
tion. Try the white flowered             sinuata)
Oriental hybrid ‘Casa Blanca.’

Fresh Cut Flowers—
Flowering Woody Stems
  The stems of Forsythia, Salix,
and Chaenomeles can be cut when
dormant, held cool and forced
into bloom as fresh flowers for
late winter and early spring sales.

Dried Materials—
Flowers and
Miscellaneous Plant
Parts
   The following list of the top
30 flowers for drying is the
result of a membership survey
by the Association of Specialty
Cut Flower Growers.
 Achillea (yarrows)
 Ammobium (herb)
 Artemisia (silver king, queen, and
    annual Sweet Annie)
 Branches of Plants (myrtle, cedar,
    willow)
 Iberis sempervireas (candytuff)
 Carthamus tinctorius (safflower)       Foxtail,
 Celosia cristata (cockscomb)           Milo, Wheat
                                                                                                             11




                                               Planting

When to Plant                          Biennials                                 place over winter, they
  Planting dates depend on your          Biennials should be planted             typically will bloom at the
target market and on plant             in the fall to ensure an adequate         same time. Extended bloom
classification—whether it is an        cold treatment before regrowth            periods can be achieved by
annual, biennial, or perennial. In     starts in the spring. The overwin-        digging in the fall, placing in
general, the peak demand for the       ter cold treatment is required for        40oF storage, and planting
retail florist trade is from fall      more uniform flowering. If beds           every 2–3 weeks beginning in
through Mother’s Day. Field            or plants are not ready for plant-        mid-spring. Examples in this
production of fresh cut flowers for    ing in the fall, some alternatives        group are liatris and lilies.
this market should include plant-      exist. Placing the plants into cold    2. nonhardy plants which have
ing for maximum harvest in the         storage or spraying them with             storage organs and must be
spring and fall seasons. Farmers       500–1,000 parts per million of            dug each year. Continuous
markets typically operate from late    gibberellic acid will substitute for      bloom periods are relatively
spring until frost in the fall.        overwintering the plants in the           easy to achieve by staggering
Consistent production throughout       bed. While these alternatives do          the planting dates from spring
this period is most desirable.         promote flowering, production             through mid-summer. The
                                       quantity and quality are reduced          additional labor required
Annuals                                compared with fall-planted stock.         to dig, store, and replant
   Annuals are planted into the          Biennials tend to bloom in              increases their cost of produc-
field as soon as the danger of frost   a condensed time period. Stag-            tion. The economics of
is past. Using transplants will        gered plantings typically will not        producing each species should
bring the crop into flower earlier     result in staggered periods of            be analyzed before extensive
and may return higher prices early     bloom. Most biennials will bloom          production is undertaken.
on if you are able to harvest for      at the same time unless subjected         Examples in this group are
the Mother’s Day market. Sequen-       to cold storage or gibberellic acid       anemones, dahlias, gladiolus,
tial plantings may be required         treatments. Some biennials are            and ranunculus.
to assure a continuous supply          excellent cut flowers but because      3. cold-hardy plants which have
of product throughout the market       of this concentrated, all-at-once         rhizomes or a clump-forming
season. Staggered plantings—two        bloom habit, few are grown as             growth habit and may be left
weeks apart into July—are com-         commercial crops.                         undisturbed for a few to
mon for many annuals. Trans-                                                     several years before being
plants may be used initially to        Perennials
                                                                                 divided. After the first year,
hit the earliest possible market,         Perennials are placed into
                                                                                 plants in this category tend to
with later plantings direct seeded.    categories based on the presence
                                                                                 bloom together, typically
When choosing cultivars, be            or absence of storage organs and
                                                                                 within a week or so of the
careful to select those suitable for   whether they must be dug in the
                                                                                 same time each year. Bloom
cut flower production. Many            fall and replanted each spring.
                                                                                 periods can be extended
annuals have been developed for          1. cold-hardy plants which have
                                                                                 slightly through cultivar
use as bedding plants and are not           storage organs and can remain
                                                                                 selection. Examples of plants
suited for commercial cut flower            in the ground for several
                                                                                 in this group are peony and
production.                                 years. If allowed to remain in
                                                                                 shasta daisy.
12

How to Plant                          of bed space and not the number         on growth habit of individual
  In general, transplants should      of flowers per plant. In general,       species and the growing
be planted shallow, with the roots    the closer the spacing of annuals       conditions.
placed just below the soil surface.   the more flowers produced. A               It should be noted that closer
Planting too deep reduces oxygen      4- to 6-inch spacing within the         spacings produce more flowers per
exchange between the newly            row and 6–8 inches between rows         square foot of bed, but also reduce
developing root system and the        is ideal for most annual flowers.       air circulation within the bed.
atmosphere, slowing growth. Too       This will vary depending on the         Poor air circulation could increase
deep planting encourages the          growth habit of each species and        the likelihood of foliar diseases.
development of root and stem          on the specific environment of the      If powdery mildew or leaf spot
rots. The soil around the trans-      planting site.                          fungus is a common problem on
plants should be firmed to remove        Perennials left in place each year   a species you intend to produce,
large pockets of air but not so       have the potential to crowd each        then a slightly wider spacing may
much so as to pack the soil. All      other to an extent that may reduce      be appropriate.
plants should be watered as soon      overall production in succeeding
                                                                              Crop Support
after planting as possible. Delay-    years. Plants that may be divided
                                                                                Some cut flowers may need
ing the application of water to the   every 3 years (shasta daisy) may be
                                                                              support to ensure a high percent-
newly planted crop may severely       planted closer than plants which
                                                                              age of straight stems. A plastic or
reduce overall production.            may be divided every 20 years or
                                                                              nylon material in rolls of either
                                      more (peony).
Plant Density                                                                 a 4- or 6-inch mesh is a popular
                                         In general, perennials are
  A closely spaced crop of annual                                             supporting material. It is laid out
                                      planted at about a 1-foot spacing,
flowers will usually produce more                                             horizontally and suspended above
                                      within and between rows. Peonies
flowers over the growing season                                               the bed by attaching to steel fence
                                      are planted 3 feet apart in a single
than a crop at wider spacing. The                                             posts placed along the edges of
                                      row or staggered in a double row,
essential criteria in cut flower                                              the bed. Other methods exist and
                                      with a 3-foot spacing within each
production is the number of                                                   any method which produces the
                                      row and 2 feet between rows.
flowers produced per square foot                                              desired result with low cost and
                                      Plant density will vary depending
                                                                              minimal labor is acceptable.


                                                                              Zinnia
                                                                                                              13




                                                How to
                                                 Grow


     Specialty cut flowers are a high-dollar crop. Their value is measured in dollars per square
     foot, not dollars per acre. Withholding or delaying application of any input, which reduces
     flower production or quality, is false economy.


Watering                               around each plant. Spacing of         crop needs. Higher rates are
   Specialty cut flowers grown         irrigation lines depends on soil      required in the initial phases
in the field, for fresh or dried       type and structure. Coarse, open      of growth while you are building
markets, will require more total       soils require closer spacing than     the size of the plants. Lower rates
water than many other field crops.     dense, fine soils. The irrigation     are required as a crop approaches
To maintain floral quality and         system plan should be developed       harvest. For crops with a harvest
peak production, the plants must       by a competent designer, with the     that extends throughout the
be watered frequently, sometimes       grower having a thorough under-       growing season, lighter and more
daily with some soil types. A water    standing of the system and its        frequent application of nitrogen
source of sufficient volume and        operation.                            may be necessary to reduce the
quality should be readily available       Irrigation should be scheduled     nonproductive cycle between
to the production area. Growers        based on the soil moisture status     flushes of bloom. Nitrogen defi-
in Kansas should not attempt           in the root zone. Proper irrigation   ciency is the most common
to produce cut flowers without         management provides sufficient        nutrient problem. Many growers
supplemental watering. Natural         but not excessive water to the        incorporate 25–45 pounds of
rainfall is not sufficient nor         crop. Water stress will reduce        actual nitrogen per acre before
reliable. Without supplemental         production and quality of a crop.     planting. Minor element deficien-
watering, production may not           A consistently saturated soil will    cies are common in areas of
be economically realistic.             reduce growth and promote the         Kansas with alkaline water or soils.
   Overhead watering is not            development of root rot. The
                                       amount and frequency of water         Weed Control
recommended. It may physically
                                       required will vary with the             Weeds must be controlled in
damage the flowers, cause spotting
                                       weather and stage of maturity         the field production of cut flow-
on the petals, splash soil onto the
                                       of the crop.                          ers. Competition with weeds
foliage, and promote the spread of
                                                                             reduces the quantity and quality
disease. Some type of drip irriga-     Fertilizer                            of floral production. A bed full of
tion is recommended. It has the
                                         Before initiating any fertilizer    weeds increases the time required
advantage of placing the water on
                                       program, always test the soil for     to harvest, raising labor costs. Due
the ground where it is needed and
                                       nutrient content. The increased       to limited production of many
not on the flowers or foliage.
                                       water requirement of cut flowers      species of specialty cut flowers,
   The basic principle in designing
                                       creates an increased requirement      only a few herbicides are labeled
an irrigation system for cut flowers
                                       for fertilization. The application    for use. Contact your county
is to place the water uniformly
                                       of fertilizer should coincide with
14

Extension agent for an update
on herbicides labeled for flower
production.
  Weed barriers can be used. They
have the added benefit of restrict-
ing soil splash onto foliage and
flowers from rain and irrigation.
The most common barriers in use
are plastics and paper. The major
disadvantage with plastic mulches
may be in their disposal after
removal from the bed. The barri-
ers restrict water evaporation from
the soil surface, reducing loss and
maintaining a more consistent soil
moisture content.
  Straw and wood chips have been
used as mulches to reduce weed
competition, improve water
retention, and reduce temperature
fluctuations within the soil. Being
organic materials, they slowly
decompose and increase organic
matter in the soil. They are            Columbine
applied in a 2- to 4-inch layer and
must be reapplied each year.
  A hoe and hand weeding are           chemical pesticides. Monitoring        increase the spacing between
the best methods for control.          insect species and keeping records     plants slightly to improve air
Availability and cost of labor may     as to insect numbers and location      circulation around the foliage.
be prohibitive in all but the          are integral parts of the program.     Powdery mildew and black leaf
smallest production situations.           Biological controls using para-     spot are two of the most common
                                       sites, predators, and pathogens        foliar diseases. Botrytis attacks
Insect Control                         can help keep insect levels in         flowers during cool damp weather.
   Good cultural practices are the     balance. They are especially useful    Improper watering or frequent
best insect control available. A       when the grower specializes in         rains may cause some root rot
healthy, actively growing plant        only a few crops. Biologicals tend     problems. These can be minimized
is more resilient to insect attack.    to be specific to an insect on a       by planting on raised beds. Occa-
The ideal approach is a preventa-      crop. It is easier to manage an        sionally Fusarium and Verticillium
tive program. Control insects          insect on a crop than it is to         wilt have become problems. Aster
early, when they are first detected.   manage several insects on a            Yellows Virus can be devastating
Do not wait until a serious infesta-   variety of crops.                      on susceptible crops.
tion occurs. Less chemical can be         All chemicals should be applied       The best approach to disease
applied to a smaller area to           intelligently. Always apply at the     control is a preventative program.
control these hot spots as they        lowest possible effective rate.        Manage the crop. Don’t neglect it.
develop than would be required to      Learn the life cycles of all insects   Practice good sanitation; keep the
spray the entire crop. Aphids, leaf    associated with the culture of your    field free of weeds and plant
hoppers, spider mites, and thrips      crops. Know which stage of each        debris. Adjust planting density for
are the most common insects            insect’s life cycle is susceptible     each species to allow sufficient air
encountered.                           to which chemical spray. Spray         circulation within the bed. Con-
   Integrated pest management          only when control is possible.         trol leaf hoppers and thrips to
(IPM) is the process of using all                                             reduce the potential for spreading
the different methods of control-      Disease Control                        virus. Rogue out diseased plants
ling insects in an integrated            Foliar fungus diseases are the       and remove from the production
approach. The main goal is to          most serious disease problem           area. Table 1 describes diseases
reach an acceptable level of insect    on cut flowers. If mildew or other     common to many flowering
control with minimal use of            foliar diseases are a recurring        plants.
                                       problem, it might be wise to
                                                                                                    15

Table 1. Diseases Common to Flowering Plants

Host                   Disease                               Symptoms
Aster                  Botrytis stem and petal rot           Small brown to black lesions
                       (Botrytis cinerea)                    develop on the stems or petals.
                                                             During humid weather, a dusty gray
                                                             growth of the fungus covers diseased
                                                             tissue.
                       Rust                                  Yellow, orange, or dark red pustules
                       (Several fungi)                       form on leaves. Severe infection may
                                                             result in premature defoliation.
                                                             Generally not a serious problem.
                       Powdery mildew                        White powdery patches develop
                       (Erysiphe sp.)                        on leaf surface.
                       Fusarium wilt                         Young plants may develop a root
                       (Fusarium oxysporum f. callestephi)   and topple over. Older plants may
                                                             be stunted and yellow, and
                                                             eventually wilt and die. A brown
                                                             discoloration can be found in the
                                                             vascular system.
                       Aster yellows                         Affected leaves develop yellowing
                       (Mycoplasmalike organism)             of veins. Growing points turn light
                                                             yellow-green and give rise to
                                                             abnormal growth.


Canna                  Bud rot                               Infected leaves develop large
                       (Xanthomonas cannae)                  irregular spots as they unfurl from
                                                             the bud. The bacteria (which reside
                                                             in the bud) also attack flower stems
                                                             or petals.


Chrysanthemum          Leaf spots                            Small circular spots develop on
                       (Alternaria and Septoria sp.)         leaves. Extensive spotting may cause
                                                             premature defoliation.
                       Botrytis blight                       Generally restricted to the
                       (Botrytis cinerea)                    greenhouse, this disease causes
                                                             blighting of flower petals. A dusty,
                                                             gray growth covers diseased tissue
                                                             during humid conditions.
                       Aster yellows                         See discussion under aster.
                       (Mycoplasmalike organism)
                       Virus diseases                        Several viruses affect chrysan-
                                                             themum; includes mosaics,
                                                             distortion, rosetting, and yellowing.
                       Wilt                                  Leaves turn yellow and die from the
                       (Verticillium sp. and Fusarium sp.)   bottom of plant toward top. Infected
                                                             plants are stunted or killed.


Cosmos                 Powdery mildew                        White powdery growth on surface
                       (Erysiphe sp.)                        of leaves.
16

Host                     Disease                                     Symptoms
Dahlia                    Crown gall                                 Large wartlike swelling forms on
                         (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)                 crowns of diseased plants.
                         Wilt                                        Lower leaves on affected plants turn
                         (Fusarium sp. and Verticillium alboatrum)   yellow and wilt. Symptoms progress
                                                                     toward top of the plant. Brown or
                                                                     black streaks may develop in the
                                                                     vascular system. Plants are stunted
                                                                     or killed.
                         Root rot                                    Aboveground symptoms similar
                         (Various fungi)                             to wilt; however, roots are discolored
                                                                     and rotted.
                         Powdery mildew                              White powdery growth on the
                         (Erysiphe sp.)                              surface of leaves.


Delphinium or Larkspur   Stem rot                                    Large, circular patches of plants may
(Delphinium)             (Sclerotium sp.)                            die during warm weather. Affected
                                                                     plants develop a serious root rot
                                                                     and collapse. Small, tan to brown,
                                                                     round fungal structures called
                                                                     sclerotia associated with dead plants.
                         Powdery mildew                              White powdery growth on surface
                         (Erysiphe and Sphaerothaeca sp.)            of leaves.


Gladiolus                Fusarium crown (corm) rot                   During the growing season, leaves
                         (Fusarium oxysporum f. gladioli)            on affected plants turn yellow
                                                                     prematurely. During storage, corms
                                                                     develop a dry rot. Diseased corms
                                                                     produce spindly, weak plants the
                                                                     following year.


Hollyhock                Rust                                        Small yellow spots appear on the
(Althlaea)               (Puccinia malvacearm)                       upper surface of the leaves. Brick-red
                                                                     pustules or blisters form on the lower
                                                                     leaf surface.


Iris                     Iris leaf spot                              Circular to oval straw-colored spots
                         (Didymellina macrospora)                    develop on leaves; spots surrounded
                                                                     by a brown to purple margin.
                         Bacterial soft rot                          Leaves of affected plants develop
                         (Erwinia caratovora)                        a water-soaked appearance. Rhizomes
                                                                     develop a foul-smelling soft rot; the
                                                                     disease often follows injury caused
                                                                     by the iris borer.
                         Scorch                                      Central leaves wither and die back
                         (Cause unknown)                             from tips. Affected leaves may turn
                                                                     reddish-brown. Rhizome remains
                                                                     firm but center of roots rot leaving
                                                                     outer layer. Roots collapse and can
                                                                     easily be pulled from the rhizome.
                                                                                                        17

Host                      Disease                                 Symptoms
Lily                      Botrytis blight                         Orange to reddish-brown circular
(Lilium)                  (Botrytis eliptica)                     spots on leaves, stems, buds, and
                                                                  flowers. Grayish fungal growth
                                                                  appears in spots during wet weather.


Marigold                  Aster yellows                           Affected leaves first develop
(Tagetes)                 (Mycoplasmalike organism)               yellowing along veins. Growing
                                                                  points turn light yellow-green and
                                                                  give rise to abnormal growth.
                          Botrytis blight                         Browning and decay of flowers.
                          (Botrytis cinerea)                      Grayish fungal growth appears on
                                                                  infected petals during wet weather.
                          Fusarium wilt                           Discoloration and decay of root
                          (Fusarium sp.)                          and lower stem. Interior of lower
                                                                  stem may have a pinkish-red
                                                                  discoloration.


Narcissus                 Basal rot-bulb rot                      A dry rot develops in roots, then
(Daffodil) (Narcissus)    (Fusarium oxysporum Penicillium spp.)   spreads to center of bulb and out.
                                                                  Bulbs turn dark brown and pink
                                                                  (Fusarium) or bluish-green
                                                                  (Penicillium); fungal growth may
                                                                  form between scales.


Pansy                     Anthracnose                             First symptoms are small spots
(Viola, Violet) (Viola)   (Colletotrichum violae-tricoloris)      on leaves with a dark margin.
                                                                  Spots enlarge and dark concentric
                                                                  rings develop within them. Spots
                                                                  on petals have a dark center and
                                                                  light brown border. Stem lesions are
                                                                  elongated, brown, and water soaked.
                          Botrytis blight                         Soft, slimy decay of leaves and
                          (Botrytis cinerea)                      flowers. Gray fungal growth develops
                                                                  on infected plant parts during wet
                                                                  weather.
                          Rust                                    Yellowish-orange spots on upper leaf
                          (Puccinia violae)                       surface; spots are pale green on
                                                                  underside of leaf. Petioles and stems
                                                                  may also be infected. Brown and
                                                                  black pustules develop later in
                                                                  growing season.


Peony                     Botrytis blight                         Sudden wilting of shoots. Brown
(Paeonia)                 (Botrytis cinerea)                      or black rot can be seen at the base
                                                                  of stems, below ground. Grayish
                                                                  fungal growth visible on stems just
                                                                  above soil line. Infected flowers turn
                                                                  brown, and large, irregular brown
                                                                  areas develop on leaves. Fungal
                                                                  growth may also develop on infected
                                                                  plant parts.
18

Host              Disease                       Symptoms
Peony continued   Phytophthora blight           Infected stems, leaves, blossoms,
                  (Phytophthora cactorum)       and buds are brown and leathery.
                                                Black cankers form on stems and
                                                cause them to fall over.
                  Red spot, measles             Small, dark red circular spots
                  (Cladosporium paeoniae)       on leaves. Spots coalesce to form
                                                blotches that are dark purple
                                                on lower surface.
                  Iron chlorosis                Interveinal yellowing of leaves.
                                                Scorching of leaf margins may occur
                                                in severe cases.


Phlox              Leaf spot                    Most spots appear as small, dark
                  (Several fungi)               circular lesions on lower leaves.
                                                Some spots may have light centers.
                                                Spotting may cause drying and
                                                premature death of leaves.
                  Powdery mildew                White powdery growth on leaves.
                  (Erysiphe cichoracearum
                  and Sphaerotheca humili)


Salvia            Powdery mildew                White powdery growth on leaves.
                  (Erysiphe sp.)


Snapdragon        Anthracnose                   Sunken spots on older stems and
(Antirrhinum)     (Colletotrichum antirrhini)   leaves are pale yellow to gray with
                                                a brown border. Small black fruiting
                                                bodies of the fungus are visible
                                                within the spots.
                  Powder mildew                 White powdery growth on leaves.
                  (Oidium sp.)
                  Rust                          Powdery orange pustules on leaves
                  (Puccinia antirrhini)         and stems. Later in the season
                                                pustules turn black. Plants wilt
                                                and die quickly.


Stocks            Powdery mildew                White powdery growth on leaves.
(Matthiola)


Sweet Pea         Powdery mildew                White powdery growth on leaves.
(Lathyrus)        (Microsphaeria sp.)
                                                                          19

Host       Disease                  Symptoms
Tulip      Botrytis blight (Fire)   First symptoms are small brown
(Tulipa)   (Botrytis tulipae)       spots on foliage and flowers. Spots
                                    enlarge and form blighted areas with
                                    a grayish center and dark margin.
                                    During wet weather, gray fungal
                                    growth may be seen in blighted
                                    areas. Stems may rot and small bulbs
                                    may be infected. Bulb lesions are
                                    yellow to brown and may contain
                                    small black fruiting bodies of the
                                    fungus.


Yucca      Leaf spot                Irregular brown spots on leaves.
           (Kellermania anomala)



Zinnia     Leaf spot-blight         Small reddish-brown leaf spots with
           (Alternaria zinniae)     gray centers. Dark brown cankers
                                    may develop on stems and flowers
                                    may be spotted or blighted.
           Powdery mildew           White powdery growth on leaves.
           (Erysiphe sp.)



           Lily
20




                                                 Harvest

   Many authors have stated that        crush stems, restricting the flow      the water-conducting channels—
flowers should be harvested at the      of water into the stems and            xylem—of the flower and cause
peak of perfection. Although this       shortening the vase life of the        decay.
advice seems straight forward,          flowers. Knives, shears, and              Floral preservatives also provide
it is ambiguous considering the         harvest containers should be           food in the form of simple sugars,
differences in flowers and con-         routinely disinfected before each      like sucrose. Providing the flower
cepts of peak of perfection. For        use. A mild chlorine bleach            with food lengthens vase life and
the consumer, the peak of perfec-       solution (1:10) is adequate. Har-      brightens the flower color.
tion is when the flower is showing      vested flowers should be placed in        Floral preservatives can be made
its best color and form, and lasts      tepid water (110oF) with a floral      from scratch, but beginners
the longest. For the grower, the        preservative added. When using a       should use commercially prepared
wholesale broker and the florist,       preservative, put flowers in plastic   products until they become
it is the stage when the flower will    containers. Preservative chemicals     familiar with their crops’ handling
hold up in the marketing chain          may react with a metal container.      requirements and water quality.
the longest and meet the expecta-          Floral preservatives have many
tions of the consumer.                  components that lengthen the
   Table 2 lists the optimal stage      vase life of flowers. First, they
of development for harvesting a         acidify the water. Flowers keep
wide range of specialty cut flowers     longer in acid water (pH 3.5).
for the direct market. Flowers for      Water tests should be conducted
wholesale markets should be less        to determine the pH of your water.
developed to allow for handling         Most water in Kansas is hard or
and shipping time.                      alkaline (pH > 7.0), especially city
   For the longest vase life, flowers   water. If your water is very hard,
should be harvested in the morn-        it may require additional acid.
ing before the heat of the day. The        Chemically softened water
flowers are cooler and have more        should not be used in any stage of
water in them. Less energy will         cut flower production or handling.
be required to cool the flowers and     The high level of sodium in
wilting will be less of a problem.      chemically softened water can
Flowers should be removed from          be toxic to flowers. If large-scale
the field as soon as possible and       production is being considered,
placed in a cooler at 40oF or a cool    installation of a water deionizer is
place that is less than 60oF until      recommended to ensure a reliable
they can be sorted, graded, pack-       source of high-quality water.
aged, and shipped to market.               Floral preservatives contain
   Special attention should be          chemicals that stop or slow the
placed on harvest equipment.            growth of microorganisms. A
Knives or shears should be sharp        low pH also retards microorganism
so all stems can be cut cleanly.        growth. Microorganisms can plug          Chives
Dull cutting instruments can
                                                                                                       21

Table 2. Optimal Development Stage of Cut Flowers for Direct Sale

Common name                            Species                    Stage of development
                                                                  1
Acacia                                 Acacia spp.                ⁄2 florets open
Yarrow                                 Achillea filipendulina     fully open flowers
                                                                  1
True Monkshood, Officinal Aconite      Aconitum napellus          ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
African Lily                           Agapanthus umbellatus      ⁄4 florets open
                                                                  1
Allium, Ornamental Onion               Allium spp.                ⁄3 – 1⁄4 florets open
Peruvian Lily                          Alstroemeria hybrids       4–5 florets open
                                                                  1
Hollyhock                              Althea rosea               ⁄3 florets open
                                                                  1
Joseph’s Coat, Amaranth                Amaranthus                 ⁄2 florets open
  Fountain Plant, Tampala
Poppy Amemone                          Anemone coronaria          buds beginning to open
Anthurium                              Anthurium spp.             spadix almost fully developed
                                                                  1
Snapdragon                             Antirrhinum majus          ⁄3 florets open
                                                                  1
Columbine                              Aquilegia hybrids          ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
Astilbe                                Astilbe hybrids            ⁄2 florets open
English Daisy, True Daisy              Bellis perennis            fully open flowers
Bouvardia                              Bouvardia hybrids          flowers beginning to open
Calendula, Pot Marigold                Calendula officinalis      fully open flowers
China Aster, Annual Aster              Callistephus chinensis     fully open flowers
Camellia                               Camellia japonica          fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Canterbery Bells                       Campanula spp.             ⁄2 florets open
Cattleya Orchid                        Cattleya spp.              3–4 days after opening
                                                                  1
Cockscomb                              Celosia argentea           ⁄2 florets open
Bachelor’s Button, Cornflower          Centaurea spp.             flowers beginning to open
                                                                  1
Wallflower                             Cheiranthus cheirii        ⁄2 florets open
Mums                                   Chrysanthemum spp.         fully open flowers
Hardy chrysanthemum                    Chrysanthemum morifolium
                                         Standard cultivars       outer petals fully elongated
                                         Spray cultivars
                                           Singles                open but before anthesis
                                           Anemones               open but before disk flowers start
                                                                    to elongate
                                           Pompons & decorative   center of older flower fully open
                                                                  1
Clarkia                                Clarkia elegans            ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
Kaffir, Lily, Clivia                   Clivia miniata             ⁄4 florets open
Larkspur, Annual Delphinium            Consolida ambaigua         2–5 florets open
                                                                  1
Lily-of-the-Valley                     Convallaria majalis        ⁄2 florets open
Coreopsis, Tickseed, Lance Coreopsis   Coreopsis grandiflora      fully open flowers
Spiral flag                            Costus spp.                almost fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Montebretia                            Crocosmia crocosmiflora    ⁄2 florets open
Cyclamen                               Cyclamen persicum          fully open flowers
Cymbidium Orchid                       Cymbidium spp.             3–4 days after opening
Dahlia                                 Dahia variabilis           fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Delphinium                             Delphinium spp.            ⁄2 florets open
Dendrobium Orchid                      Dendrobium spp.            almost fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Sweet William                          Dianthus barbatus          ⁄2 florets open
Carnation                              Dianthus caryophyllus
                                         Standard cultivars       half-open flowers
                                         Spray cultivars          2 fully open flowers
22

Common name                            Species                    Stage of development
                                                                  1
Common Foxglove, Finger Flower,        Digitalis purpurea             ⁄2 florets open
 Purple Foxglove, Fairy Glove
Leopard’s bane                         Doronicum causasicum       almost open flowers
Globe Thistle                          Echinops ritro             half-open flowers
                                                                  1
Desert-candle, King’s Spear            Eremurus robustus              ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
Heather                                Erica spp.                     ⁄2 florets open
Flea Bane                              Erigeron hybrids           fully open flowers
Sea Holly                              Eryngium spp.              fully open flowers
Amazon Lily, Star of Bethlehem         Eucharis grandiflora       almost open flowers
Poinsettia                             Euphorbia pulcherrima      fully extended bracts
Lisianthus                             Eustoma ressellianum       5–6 open flowers
Freesia                                Freesia hybrids            first bud beginning to open
Crown Imperial                         Fritillaria imperialis     half-open flowers
Perennial Gaillardia, Blanket Flower   Gaillardia x grandiflora   fully open flowers
Annual Gaillardia, Blanket Flower,     Gaillardia pulchella       fully open flowers
 Indian Blanket
Gardenia                               Gardenia jasminoides       almost fully open flowers
Transvaal Daisy, Gerbera,              Gerbera jamesonii          outer row of flowers showing pollen
  Baraberton Daisy, Veldt Daisy
Glads                                  Gladiolus cultivars        1–5 buds showing color
Climbing Lily                          Gloriosa superba           almost fully open flowers
Perennial & Annual Baby’s Breath       Gypsophila spp.            flowers open but not overly mature
Common Sunflower                       Helinathus annuus          fully open flowers
Sunflower Heliopsis, Hardy Zinnia,     Heliopsis helianthoides    fully open flowers
  Orange Sunflower, False Sunflower
Christmas Rose, Winter Rose,           Helleborus niger           half-open flowers
 Black Hellebore
Daylily                                Hemerocallis spp.          half-open flowers
Amaryllis                              Hippeastrum hybrids        colored buds
Bearded Iris                           Iris germanica             colored buds
Dutch Iris                             Iris hollandica            colored buds
Corn Lily, African Corn Lily           Ixia spp.                  colored buds
                                                                  1
Kalanchoe                              Kalanchoe hybrids              ⁄2 florets open
Torch-Lily, Common Poker Plant,        Kniphofia uvaria           almost all florets showing color
 Flame Flower
                                                                  1
Sweet Pea                              Lathyrus odoratus              ⁄2 florets open
Edelweiss                              Leontopodium alpinum       fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Tall Gayfeather, Blazing Star,         Liatris spicata                ⁄2 florets open
  Button Snakeroot
Tiger, Asiatic, Oriental lilies        Lilium spp.                colored buds
Statice, Sea-Lavendar                  Limonium spp.              almost fully open flowers
                                                                  1
Lupine                                 Lupinus mutabilis              ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
Common Stock                           Matthiola incana               ⁄2 florets open
Bee-Balm, Fragrant Balm, Oswego Tea    Monarda didyma             almost open flowers
                                                                  1
Common Grape Hyacinth                  Muscari botryoides             ⁄2 florets open
                                                                  1
Garden Forget-me-Not,                  Myosotis sylvatica             ⁄2 florets open
 Woodland Forget-me-Not
Daffodil, Narcissus, Jonquil           Narcissus spp.             “Goose neck” stage
                                                                  1
Catmint                                Nepeta faassenii               ⁄2 florets open
                                                                                                          23

Common name                             Species                      Stage of development

Nerine                                  Nerine bowdenii              oldest buds almost open
Love-in-a-Mist, Devil-in-the-Bush,      Nigella damascena            open flowers
Chincherinchees, Sea Onion              Ornithogalum spp.            colored buds
Peony                                   Paeonia spp.                 colored buds
Poppy                                   Papaver spp.                 colored buds
Paphiopedilum Orchid                    Paphiopedilum spp.           3–4 days after opening
Phalaenopsis Orchid                     Phalaenopsis spp.            3–4 days after opening
                                                                     1
Summer Phlox, Garden Phlox,             Phlox paniculata             ⁄2 florets open
  Fall Phlox, Perennial Phlox
Tuberose                                Polianthes tuberosa          majority of florets open
                                                                     1
Polyanthus Primrose                     Primula spp.                 ⁄2 florets open
Ranunculus                              Ranunculus asiaticus         buds beginning to open
                                                                     1
Common Mignonette                       Reseda ordorata              ⁄2 florets open
Roses                                   Rosa hybrids
                                          Red and pink cultivars     first 2 petals beginning to unfold, calyx
                                                                        reflexed below a horizontal position
                                          Yellow cultivars           slightly earlier than red and pink
                                          White cultivars            slightly later than red and pink
Black-eyed Susan, Yellow Oxeye Daisy,   Rudbeckia spp.               fully open flowers
  English Bulls-eye
Pincushion Flower                       Scabiosa spp.                half-open flowers
Siberian Squill, Blue Squill            Scilla siberica              half-open flowers
Showy Stonecrop Sedum, Live-forever     Sedum spp.                   fully open flowers
                                                                     1
Goldenrod                               Solidago spp.                ⁄2 florets open
Stephanotis, Wax Flowers                Stephanotis floribunda       fully open flowers
Bird-of-Paradise Flower                 Strelitzia reginae           first floret open
African Marigold                        Tagetes erecta               fully open flowers
                                                                     1
Columbine Meadow Rue                    Thalictrum apguilegifolium   ⁄2 florets open
Globeflower                             Trollius spp.                half-open flowers
Nasturtium                              Tropaeolum majus             fully open flowers
Common Garden or Late Tulips            Tulipa gesneriana            half-colored buds
                                                                     1
Speedwell                               Veronica spp.                ⁄2 florets open
Sweet Violet, English Violet,           Viola odorata                almost open flowers
 Garden Violet, Florists Violet
Pansy, Ladies Delight                   Viola x wittrockiana         almost open flowers
Calla Lily                              Zantedeschia spp.            just before the spathe begins
                                                                       to turn downward
Zinnia                                  Zinnia elegans               fully open flowers
24




                                          Postharvest




     Herbs


  After flowers are removed from      by flowers, but can come from             The stem tips of most spike
the field and placed in the packing   other sources including decaying       type flowers will bend upward
shed, the stems should be cut         plant material, old flowers, ripen-    if laid horizontally. This is known
under water. Stems will accept        ing fruit, gasoline and propane        as negative geotropism. Spike type
water as long as the xylem is not     combustion and welding. Careful        flowers should be stored and
blocked. Air bubbles drawn up         selection of a location for the        shipped upright.
into the xylem when the stem          storage area away from motors             Bruising and breaking flowers
was cut in the field can block the    and welding equipment is               reduces their aesthetic value and
upward movement of water. The         important. Sanitation and good         therefore their economic value.
air bubble blockage may be            inventory management should            Wounds also allow entry of many
eliminated by removing an inch        eliminate decaying plant material      disease organisms and increase
of stem under water.                  and old flowers. Flowers should        ethylene production by the flow-
  Fresh cut flowers are extremely     not be stored in the same facility     ers. Careful handling to prevent
sensitive to temperature and          as ripening fruits and vegetables.     damage is imperative to ensure
humidity. Because they have such      Good air circulation in the storage    a long-lived, high-quality flower.
a high surface-area-to-volume         area will help dilute any ethylene
ratio, they can lose water and wilt   which may be present.                  Pulsing
quickly if not kept under low            Some species are so sensitive         Pulsing is a chemical treatment
temperature and high humidity         to ethylene that you need to do        of flowers to prolong the vase life.
conditions. The flower tissue has     more to protect them (Table 3).        The treatment is not continuous
a high metabolic rate, so cooler      Silver thiosulfate (STS) reduces the   and typically lasts for 2–12 hours.
temperatures are necessary to         harmful effects of ethylene and        Silver thiosulfate (STS), and
slow metabolism. Most flowers         is available from most suppliers       5–10 percent sucrose solutions
should be stored at 32–35 oF and      of commercial preservatives. Silver    are chemicals often pulsed into
90–95 percent relative humidity if    is a heavy metal that can pollute      flowers. These solutions are put
they are to be kept awhile.           groundwater and soil. There are        in the holding water and the
  Flowers are sensitive to ethylene   systems available to recycle the       flowers are held at various tem-
gas. Ethylene is produced naturally   STS and recover the silver.            peratures for a certain time period.
                                                                             Different species and different
                                                                                               25

cultivars require different pulse        Table 3. Flowers Particularly Sensitive to Ethylene
treatments. Although pulse
treatments have not been deter-          Agapanthus umbellatus          Freesia hybrids
mined for many specialty cut             Alstroemeria hybrid            Solidago spp.
flowers, there are too many              Anemone spp.                   Kniphofia uvaria
different treatments to cover            Astilbe spp.                   Lilium spp.
in this publication.                     Gypsophila spp.                Aconitum napellus
Marketing and Selling                    Bouvardia hybrids              Phlox paniculata
   Flowers can be marketed to            Campanula spp.                 Scabiosa spp.
a flower wholesaler, a retail florist,   Dianthus spp.                  Rosa Spp.
or directly to the public at a           Centaurea cyanus               Antirrhinum majus
farmers market or farm market.           Delphinium spp.                Matthiola incana
Each market has advantages and           Dendrobium spp.                Lathyrus odoratus
disadvantages. Direct to the public
                                         Eremerus robustus
is the easiest market to enter.
Sorting, handling, and packaging
usually are minimal as is the
capital investment. A wide variety
of species and cultivars may be
sold with success. The disadvan-
tage is the volume of sales may
limit the income.
   Wholesalers will accept large
volumes of flowers. You will have
to package, sort, and grade flowers
to their specifications, and they
may not accept some specialty
flowers. They set the price for your
flowers. It takes awhile for the
grower and wholesaler to develop
a good working relationship.
   Retail florists buy from whole-
salers. If you market directly to the
florist, you cut out the middleman
and can get a higher wholesale
price for your flowers. Florists may
not be as concerned with packag-
ing as wholesalers. Both florists
and wholesalers will insist on high
quality. Florists may be more
interested in specialty flowers than
wholesalers. You will have to deal
with several florists to sell the
same volume you would to a
wholesaler. The market or markets
you choose to enter must provide
sufficient profit margins for you
to stay in business.




                                           Poppy
26




                                             Summary

     Lavender, Goldenrod,
     Thistle




     Recommendations
              1.   Keep a journal.
              2.   Experiment with test plots, before expanding production.
              3.   Understand cut flowers are a high-value, intensively managed crop.
              4.   Understand that a high-quality product is essential for success.
              5.   Set prices to ensure profits. Price cutting without lowering costs can have
                   a drastic effect on profitability.


References                               Dole, J.M. and M.A. Schnelle.       Various issues of The Cut Flower
  Aker, S.M. and W.E. Healy.          “The Care and Handling of Cut        Quarterly, a publication of the
1988. “Producing Cut Flowers—         Flowers.” Oklahoma State Univer-     Association of Specialty Cut
General Field Crop Management.”       sity Cooperative Extension Ser-      Flower Growers.
University of Maryland Coopera-       vice. OSU Extension Facts No.          Ball Seed Co. production notes
tive Extension Service. Enterprise    6426.                                for cut flower growers.
Guide of Southern Maryland Fact          Koch, Mark and Sally Nakasawa.
Sheet 468.                            1991. “Top 30 Flowers For Dry-
                                      ing.” Association of Specialty Cut
                                      Flower Growers. The Cut Flower
                                      Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 3.
                                                                                                    27




                                            Suppliers

  Suppliers in this publication      Northrup King Seed Co.         McHutchinson Co.
are listed for identification. No    Maryland Plants and Supplies   Vaughn Fletcher
endorsement is intended, nor is      9586 Deereco Rd.               418 Kingsley
criticism of similar suppliers not   Timonium, MD 21093             Liberty, MO 64068
mentioned.                                                          816-781-1818
                                     Park Seed—Wholesale
                                     HG6 Cokesbury Rd.              Yoder Brothers
Cut Flower Seed                      Greenwood, SC 29647–0001       Fritz Thomas
Ball Seed Co.                                                       1234 East Dunklin St.
250 Town Road                        Penn Seed Co.
                                                                    Jefferson City, MO 65101–4116
West Chicago, IL 60185               Rt. 309, Box 390
                                                                    800-347-7651
                                     Dallas, PA 18612
W. Atlee Burpee Co.                                                 Stuifbergen Bulb Export Co.
50375 Park Ave.                      Vaughan Seed Co.
                                                                    Pete Stuifbergen
Warminster, PA 18974                 5300 Katrine Ave.
                                                                    1645 SE. Decker
                                     Downers Grove, IL 60532
The Country Garden                                                  Lee’s Summit, MO 64063
Rt. 2                                Harris Moran Seed Co.          816-524-0840
Crivitz, WI 54114                    3670 Buffalo Rd.
                                                                    Express Seed Co.
                                     Rochester, NY 14624
Express Seed Co.                                                    Paul Orrick
201 West Main St.                    Stokes Seeds, Inc.             300 Artino St.
Smethport, PA 16749                  Box 548                        Oberlin, OH 44074–1263
                                     Buffalo, NY 14240
H.G. German Seeds                                                   Sunbay Farms
Box 398                              Leen de Mos                    Watsonville, CA
Smethport, PA 16749                  P.O. Box 54–2690 AB’s          Charles Barr Jr.
                                     Gravenzade                     408-724-7577
Germania Seed Co.                    The Netherlands                FAX 408-724-5829
5952 North Milwaukee
                                                                    Headstart Cut Flower Plugs
Chicago, IL 60646                    Plugs, Transplants,            408-842-3030
Gloeckner                            and Bulbs                      FAX 408-842-3224
15 East 26th St.                     Vandenberg Bulb Company
New York, NY 10010                                                  Ball Seed Co.
                                     P.O. Box 532                   Adrian Holmes
Johnny’s Select Seeds                Chester, NY 10918              Rt. 2, Box 79
Albion, ME                           914-469-9161                   Pomona, KS 66076
                                     FAX 914-469-2015               785-566-3511
L. Daehnfeldt
P.O. Box 15   DK-5100                Bradbury Farms                 Vaughan Seed Co.
Odense C., Denmark                   19738 West Bradbury Rd.        Joe Rawley
                                     Turlock, CA 95380              Box 3473
                                     209-668-7584                   Lawrence, KS. 66046
                                     FAX 209-668-7928               785-843-8080
28

Bluebird Nursery, Inc.         Floralife, Inc.              Praxis
P.O. Box 460                   120 Tower Dr.                Allegan, MI
Clarkson, NE 68629             Burr Ridge, IL 60521         616-673-2793
800-356-9164                   708-325-8587
                                                            Brinkman Horticultural
FAX 402-892-3713               FAX 708-325-4924
                                                            Stoney Creek, Ontario,
                               Forestry Suppliers Inc.      Canada
Preservatives and Dyes         P.O. Box 8397                416-643-6630
Robert Koch Industries, Inc.   Jackson, MS 39284–8397
Rt. 1, Box 4HH                                              Better Yield Insects
                               US 1-800-650-0776
Bennett, CO 80102                                           Windsor, Ontario,
                               FAX 1-800-543-4203
303-644-3763                                                Canada
FAX 303-644-3045               Precision Blend Inc. (PBI)   519-727-6108
                               705 North Shore Dr.
Gard/Rogard, Inc.                                           Mycogen Corp.
                               Mound, MN 55364
Garden Environmental Group                                  San Diego, CA
                               612-472-5443
903 Armstrong St.                                           619-453-8030
Algonquin, IL 60102            Synthetic, Organic,          Whitmire Laboratories
1-800-433-4273                                              St. Louis, MO
                               and Biological Controls
Floralife Inc.                                              1-800-325-3668
                               FMC Corp
120 Tower Dr.                  1563 East County Line Rd.    JRM Chemical Inc.
Burr Ridge, IL 60521           #402                         13600 Broadway Ave.
708-325-8587                   800-468-0441                 Cleveland, OH 44125
Fax 708-325-4924               FAX 601-956-9510             800-962-4010
Pokon & Chrysal USA                                         FAX 216-475-6517
                               Kentucky Garden Supply
7977 NW. 21st St.              731 Red Mile Rd.             Research Organics Inc.
Miami, FL 33122                Lexington, KY 40504          4353 East 49th
1-800-247-9725                 800-432-9510                 Cleveland, OH 44125
Fax: 305-477-1284                                           800-321-0570
                               ARBICO Inc.                  216-883-1576
SEGO International, Inc.       P.O. Box 4247 CRB
503-796-0133                   Tucson, AZ 85738             BioLogic Company
FAX 503-222-417                800-767-2847                 P.O. Box 177–BG
Vita Flora Inc.                Fax: 602-825-2038            Willow Hill, PA 17271
P.O. Box 1690                                               717-349-2789
                               Bunting Biological
Lakesville, AZ 85929           P.O. Box 2430                IPM Laboratories, Inc.
602-368-6800                   Oxnard, CA 93034             Main St.
The John Henry Co.             805-986-8265                 Locke, NY 13092–0099
P.O. Box 17099                 Fax: 805-986-8267            315-497-3129
Lansing, MI 48901              Phero Tech, Inc.             Organic Control Inc./ORCON
517-323-9000                   7572 Progress Way            5132 Venice Blvd.
FAX 517-323-4707               Rt. 5                        Los Angeles, CA 90019
Smithers-Oasis Co.             Delta, British Columbia,     213-937-7444
P.O. Box 118                   CanadaV4G 1E9                FAX 213-937-0123
Kent, OH 44240                 604-940-9944                 Hydro-Gardens, Inc.
216-673-5831                   FAX 604-940-9433             Colorado Springs, CO
                               American Insectaries         719-495-2266
Cleaning Supplies              Escondido, CA                Gerhart Inc.
Dillon Floral Corp.            619-432-0485                 North Ridgeville, OH
P.O. Box 180                                                216-327-8056
                               Abbott Laboratories
Bloomsburg, PA 17815
                               North Chicago, IL            Necessary Trading Co.
717-784-5770
                               1-800-323-9597               New Castle, VA
                                                            703-864-5103
                                                                                            29

Biotactics                       Epic Products Inc.          Speedling Manufacturing
Riverside, CA                    17395 Mt. Hermmann          Box 283
714-685-7681                     Fountain Valley, CA 92708   Sun City, FL 33586
                                 714-641-8194
Applied Bionomics                                            Holland Transplanter Co.
                                 FAX 714-641-8217
Sidney, British Columbia,                                    510 East 16th St.
Canada                           Moore Paper Boxes, Inc.     Holland, MI 49423
604-656-2123                     2916 Boulder Ave.
                                                             Powell Manufacturing Co.
                                 Dayton, OH 45414
Richters                                                     P.O. Drawer 707
Goodwood, Ontario,               Boas Box Co.                Bennetsville, SC 29512
Canada                           5610 Lancaster Ave.
416-640-6677                     Philadelphia, PA 19131      Irrigation Equipment
                                 215-477-7700                American Plant Products
Koppert B.V.
                                 FAX 215-477-1240            9200 NW. 10th
The Netherlands
31-189140444                                                 Oklahoma City, OK 73127
                                 Seeding and Planting        1-800-654-4583
Brinkman B.V.                    Equipment                   Smith Irrigation
The Netherlands
                                 Cole Manufacturing Co.      Box 232, North Main St.
31-174811333
                                 Box 9216                    Kensington, KS 66951
Soluble Organic                  Charlotte, NC 28299         Good Earth Gardens
                                 (Planet Jr. Seed Drill)
Fertilizers                                                  Jerry Edson
                                 Earthway Products           Rt. 1, Box 139
Seagro Corporation
                                 P.O. Box 547                Clearwater, KS 67026
3601 10th SE.
                                 Briston, IN 46507           316-773-1494
East Wenatchee, WA 98801
509-884-1600                     (garden planters)           Kansas City Cut Flower Farms
(fish-based)                                                 Ethan Kayes
                                 Tillage and Bedding         4223 Gibbs Road
California Spray Dry Co.         Equipment                   Kansas City, KS 66106
P.O. Box 5035
                                 Ahrens Nursery              913-432-1330
Stockton, CA 95205
209-948-0209                     Rt. 1                       Chesmore Seed Co.
(spray-dried blood)              Huntington, IN 47542        1302 South 4th
                                 812-683-3055                St. Joseph, MO 64501
ENP Inc.
                                 Kennco Mfg. Inc.            816-279-0865
P.O. Box 218
Mendota, IL 61342                Box 1158
                                 Ruskin, FL 33570            General Materials
800-255-4906
(fish-based)                     813-645-2591                Century Florists Supply Co.
                                                             Main Office: P.O. Box 325
American Meat Protein            Guy Farm Equip. Co.
                                                             Detroit, MI 48232–2562
2515 Elwood Drive                15219 Hwy. 14
                                                             313-872-0300
Ames, IA 50010                   Woodstock, IL 60098
                                                             FAX 313-872-7907
515-292-1021                     815-338-0600
                                                             Midwest Office: P.O. Box 411807
(spray-dried blood)              Lely Corporation            Kansas City, MO 64141–1807
                                 Box 1060                    816-474-3610, FAX 816-471-2733
Containers, Harvest,             Wilson, NC 27893
                                                             Craftware Pottery
Holding, Packing                 919-261-7050
                                                             Mary Beavers
Lomey Mfg. Corp/Spotless Group                               233 North 19
P.O. Box 5314
                                 Transplanting Equipment     Lincoln, NE 68503
Asheville, NC 28813              Ellis Manufacturing Co.     402-474-1622
1-800-423-2314                   Box 246
                                 Verona, WI 53593            Clifford Sales & Marketing
FAX 704-626-9210
                                                             Nick Clifford
                                 Mechanical Transplanter     44 Granada Way
                                 Box 1008B                   St. Louis, MO 63124
                                 Holland, MI 49423           314-432-5806
30




McHutchison Co.                TENAX Corporation       Vaughan Seed CO.
Vaughn N. Fletcher             8291 Patuxent Range     Joe J. Rawley
418 Kingsley                   Jessup, MD 20794        Box 3473
Liberty, MO 64068              800-356-8495            Lawrence, KS 66046
816-781-1818                   Fax: 301-725-5910       785-843-8080
American Plant Products        Premier Brands Inc.     Wheeler Arts
Rod Lewis                      Tobin Standard          Dept. CFQ
9200 NW. 10th St.              Dan O’Meara             66 Lake Park
Oklahoma City, OK 73127–9722   931 West 8 St.          Champaign, IL 61821–7101
405-787-4833                   Kansas City, MO 64101   217-359-6816
                               816-842-3838            FAX 317-359-8716
Swecker–Knipp Inc.
Dennis Whitegon                Ball Seed Co.           Stuppy Greenhouses
900 NW. Jackson                P.O. Box 335            Bruce Holden
Topeka, KS 66608               West Chicago, IL        P.O. Box 12456
785-234-5652                   800-323-BALL            1212 Clay St.
                               FAX 800-234-0370        North Kansas City, MO 64116
Gard’N-Wise Distributors
                                                       800-877-8025
1515 East 29th St. North       A.H. Hummert Seed
Wichita, KS 67219              Sheryl Shaefer          Nexus Greenhouse
316-838-1474                   2746 Chouteau Ave.      10983 Leroy
                               St. Louis, MO 63103     Northglenn, CO 80233
Temkin Int., Inc.
                               314-771-0646            303-457-9199
21007 Superior St.
Chatsworth, CA 91211
818-709-1066
(sleeves)
                                                                                                                       31




                                          Recommended
                                             Reading

Flowers for Sale: Growing                Alberta Supernaturals. Buck              The Complete Book of Cutflower
and Marketing Cut Flowers—               Godwin. Available from Olds              Care. Mary Jane Vaughan. Timber
Backyard to Small Acreage;               College Bookstore. Olds College,         Press.
A Bootstrap Guide. Lee Sturdivant.       Olds, Alberta, CANADA TOM                    The most comprehensive-yet-
San Juan Naturals. P.O. Box 624S.        1PO ($8, including postage).                 concise guide to postharvest
Friday Harbour, Washington 98250.            The best book for the large-scale        handling and care for growers,
     A thorough introduction to the          grower of drying flowers (statice,       wholesalers, and retailers.
    commercial cut flower business.          strawflowers, grains, and much
                                                                                  Identification of Insects and
    Includes a step-by-step plan for         more).
                                                                                  Related Pests of Horticultural
    starting a flower growing and
                                         Commercial Field Production of           Plants—A Pictorial Guide. Ohio
    selling business.
                                         Cut and Dried Flowers, (Proceed-         Florists Association.
Fresh (Cut) Flowers for Designs.         ings from a National Symposium               An unbound, 48-page compila-
Postproduction Guide I. Care and         sponsored by the CACP and ASHS).             tion illustrating the different life
Handling. Retail and Consumer                Includes marketing, coopera-             stages and crop damage of major
Care Information. John N. Sacalis.           tives, costs, propagation, select-       insect, mite, and related pest
Pfeifer Printing Co., Columbus, OH.          ing a crop, woodies, grasses,            groups. Describes stages for
                                             weeds, diseases and pests of             effective pesticide use. Color
Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia
                                             everlastings, post-harvest,              pictures. Send $25 to Ohio Florists
of Herbs, Rodale Press.
                                             annuals, and wildflowers.                Association, 2130 Stella Ct.,
Ball Red Book. (15th edition) Vic            Available for $25, payable to the        Columbus, OH 43215–1033.
Ball, editor. Geo. J. Ball Publishing.       University of Minnesota. Send to
                                                                                  Diseases and Pests of Ornamental
622 Town Road, West Chicago, IL              Extension Special Programs,
                                                                                  Plants. Pascal P. Pirone. Wiley–
60185-2698.                                  405 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles
                                                                                  Interscience.
    The basic book on greenhouse             Ave., University of Minnesota,
    growing written for growers.             St. Paul, MN 55108.                  Florist Crop Production and
                                                                                  Marketing. Kenneth Post.
Care and Handling of Flowers             Commercial Flower Forcing,
                                                                                  Orange–Judd Co. Out of print,
and Plants. (2 volumes) 1985. C.L.       A. Laurie, D.C. Kiplinger, and K.S.
                                                                                  but copies are available from The
Holstead. The Society of American        Nelson. McGraw–Hill.
                                                                                  American Botanist Booksellers,
Florists.                                    Basic guide to greenhouse produc-
                                                                                  P.O. Box 143, 9526 Lexington
                                             tion of out-of-season materials.
The Complete Book of Cut Flower                                                   Ave., Brookfield, IL 60513.
Care. 1988. M.J. Vaughan. Timber         Commercial Flower Growing.                   The former standard of the indus-
Press. Portland, OR.                     John P. Salinger. Butterworths               try, sometimes out of date, but still
                                         Horticultural Books.                         a detailed and worthy volume.
Handling, Precooling, and Tem-
                                            The closest thing to a complete
perature Management of Cut                                                        Park’s Success With Seeds. Park
                                            text on field production of flowers
Flower Crops for Truck Transpor-                                                  Seed Co. P.O. Box 46, Greenwood,
                                            and although it was written in
tation. 1979. Roger E. Rij, James F.                                              SC 29648–0046.
                                            New Zealand, it adapts fairly well
Thompson & Delbert S. Farham.                                                         Simple yet the most comprehen-
                                            to American conditions (much of
USDA-SEA AAT-W-5.                                                                     sive guide to seed propagation.
                                            the bibliography is Californian).
32

Postharvest Handling and                          Lists each species with informa-          Provides information on germi-
Storage of Cut Flowers, Florist                   tion on hardiness, color, height,         nation, lighting, crop time, field
Greens, and Potted Plants. J.                     and uses in arrangements.                 production, and varieties.
Nowak and R.M. Rudnicki. Timber
                                              The Commercial Storage of                 Kieft’s Growing Manual. Kieft
Press. Portland, OR.
                                              Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist           Bloemzaden BV. Blokker, Holland.
    A comprehensive, text-book
                                              and Nursery Stocks. Ag Hand-              Available from ASCFG. $10.
    approach to this subject.
                                              book 66. 1990. USDA Agricultural              For annual, biennial, and peren-
Specialty Cut Flowers (Proceedings            Research. U.S. Government                     nial cut flowers and ornamental
from the 2nd National Conference              Printing Office, 1305 SW. 1st,                grasses grown from seed.
of the ASFG).                                 Portland, OR 97201. $7.00.
                                                                                        Everlasting Flowers for Pleasure
    Includes wholesale distribution,              Concise descriptions of condi-
                                                                                        and Profit. Jeannette Verhelst.
    trends, marketing, costs, getting             tions required for best shelf life.
                                                                                        $11.00. Jeannette Verhelst, Box
    started, new varieties, callas, iris,
                                              Refrigeration and Controlled              178, Radville, Saskatchewan,
    bulbs, statice, IPM, perennials,
                                              Atmosphere Storage for Horticul-          Canada, SOC2GO.
    everlastings, and woodies. Avail-
                                              tural Crops. Northeast Regional              Excellent resource written by
    able for $25 ($20 to members)
                                              Agricultural Engineering Service.            a grower for growers.
    from the ASCFG.
                                              #22. 1990. Cooperative Extension,
                                                                                        Manual of Herbaceous Ornamen-
Specialty Cut Flowers (proceedings            152 Riley–Robb Hall, Cornell
                                                                                        tal Plants. Steven M. Still. Stipes
from the 3rd National Conference              University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
                                                                                        Publishing Co. 10–12 Chester St.,
of the ASCFG).                                $5.25.
                                                                                        Champaign, IL 61820.
    Includes aster, yarrow, post-harvest,         Construction diagrams for cold
                                                                                             The reference for descriptive
    woodies, IPM, delphinium,                     storage and controlled atmo-
                                                                                             information on herbaceous plant
    co-operatives, new varieties, auctions,       sphere facilities.
                                                                                             materials.
    larkspur, stock, everlastings, custo-
                                              Marketing of Floricultural Prod-
    mers, computers. Available for $25                                                  Manual of Woody Landscape
                                              ucts in the United States, An
    ($20 to members) from the ASCFG.                                                    Plants: Their Identification,
                                              Annotated Bibliography. Susan C.
                                                                                        Ornamental Characteristics,
Ornamental Grasses, The Amber                 Whitmore and Henry Gilbert.
                                                                                        Culture, Propagation, and Uses.
Wave. Carole Ottesen. McGraw–                 USDA, National Agricultural Lib-
                                                                                        Michael A. Dirr, Stipes Publishing
Hill. $29.95.                                 rary. Bibliographies and Literature
                                                                                        Co., 10-12 Chester St., Cham-
    A general overview plus details on        of Agriculture, Number 66. USDA’s
                                                                                        paign, IL 61820.
    the production and uses of over 70        NAL, Beltsville, MD 20705.
                                                                                            The reference for descriptive
    varieties. Highly useful appendices.          A comprehensive list of journals,
                                                                                            information on woody plant
                                                  books, newsletters, associations
Ornamental Grasses and                                                                      materials.
                                                  and government reports on
Grasslike Plants. A.J. Oakes.
                                                  marketing. Includes addresses for     Competitive Advantage. Michael
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990. ISBN
                                                  national market price reports.        E. Porter. The Free Press a Division
0-442-23931-9. $68.95 approx.
                                                                                        of Macmillan, Inc. 866 Third
    Comprehensive examination of              Holland Bulb Forcers Guide.
                                                                                        Avenue, New York, NY 10022.
    grasses and their production.             (4th edition) A.A. DeHertogh.
                                                                                            How to create and sustain a
                                              International Flower Bulb Center,
Ornamental Grasses R. Grounds.                                                              competitive advantage.
                                              Hillegom, Netherlands.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.
                                                  The basic reference for flower        Production and Operations
Dried Fresh Flowers from Your                     production from bulbs.                Management. Norman Gaither.
Garden. Elizabeth Bullivant.                                                            CBS College Publishing. 383
                                              Potpourri . . . Easy as One, Two,
Pelham Books/Stephen Greene                                                             Madison Avenue, New York, NY
                                              Three! Dody Lyness. Berry Hill
Press. London, UK. $31.95.                                                              10017.
                                              Press. 7336 Berry Hill #8, Palos
    Reference with imaginative ideas                                                       A basic, introductory book on
                                              Verdes, CA 90274. $6.95.
    on uses for flowers. Informative                                                       operations management:
                                                  Resource for fragrance crafters
    chapter on hydrangeas.                                                                 planning products, processes,
                                                  and dried floral designers.
                                                                                           and facilities. How to plan and
The Encyclopaedia of Everlastings.
                                              Ball Culture Guide: The Encyclo-             control operations for productiv-
The Complete Guide to Growing,
                                              pedia of Seed Germination. Ball              ity and quality.
Preserving, and Arranging Dried
                                              Seed Co. 622 Town Road, West
Flowers. Barbara Radcliffe Rogers.
                                              Chicago, IL 60185. $27.
Weidenfeld & Nicholson.
                                                                                                                  33




                                             Directories

  A membership directory of                 A quarterly publication tailored to   “Cut Flowers: Production and
wholesale florists and florist              the interests of fragrance crafters   Marketing.” C. Kopolow. January
suppliers is available from WF &            and dried flower designers. Cur-      1989. 7 pages. Send a self-
FSA, P.O. Box 7308, Arlington, VA           rent trends in herbal growing,        addressed, gummed label to Agri-
22207, 703-241-1100.                        floral trends, recipes for scented    Topics, National Agricultural
                                            potpourri mixtures, and drying        Library, Room 111, 10301 Balti-
“Floral Marketing Directory &
                                            techniques. Articles are slanted      more Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705.
Buyer’s Guide” is available from
                                            toward the interests of home-
the Floral Marketing Division of                                                  “Dried Flowers.” C. Kopolow.
                                            based businesses.
the Produce Marketing Associa-                                                    November, 1989. 8 pages. Send
tion, P.O. Box 6036, Newark, DE         “Florist Review” magazine keeps           a self-addressed, gummed label
19714–6036, 302-738-7100                you in touch with the retail trade.       to Agri-Topics, National Agricul-
($25 for PMA members, $50 for           Florist Publishing Co. 111 North          tural Library, Room 111, 10301
nonmembers).                            Canal St., Suite 545, Chicago, IL         Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD
                                        60606, 312-782-5505.                      20705.
Magazines,
                                        “Flowers &” is published monthly          ”Herbs.” S. Whitmore and H.
Bulletins, Newsletters                  by Teleflora for retailers in “the        Shimizu. December 1989. 6 pages.
“Growing for Market.” Lynn              business of flowers.” Write to            Send a self-addressed, gummed
Byczynski, editor. Fairplain            Teleflora, Teleflora Plaza, Suite         label to Agri-Topics, National
Publications. P.O. Box 365,             260, 12233 West Olympic Blvd.,            Agricultural Library, Room 111,
Auburn, KS 66402. $24.                  Los Angeles, CA 90064.                    10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville,
   A monthly journal of news and                                                  MD 20705.
   ideas for market gardeners.          “American Vegetable Grower”
   Articles on crop culture, han-       magazine offers articles on prac-         “Peonies.” J. MacLean and S.
   dling, marketing, merchandis-        tices well suited to the field flower     Whitmore. n.d. 4 pages. Send
   ing, and profiles of successful      grower. Meister Publishing Co.            a self-addressed, gummed label
   growers provide subscribers with     Willoughby, OH 44094.                     to Agri-Topics, National Agricul-
   timely information and ideas.                                                  tural Library, Room 111, 10301
                                        The USDA issues bi-weekly
                                                                                  Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD
“Supermarket Floral” magazine is        reports on cut flower prices in
                                                                                  20705.
a free monthly publication from         various centers across the country.
The Packer. P.O. Box 2939,              Available from Federal–State              Cornell Recommendations for
Shawnee Mission, KS 66201,              Market News, 630 Sansome St.,             Commercial Floriculture Crops,
800-255-5113.                           Rm. 727, San Francisco, CA 94111.         Part 1: Cultural Practices. Part 2:
     Covers all aspects of the super-                                             Disease, Pest, and Weed Control.
                                        “Forcing Flower Bulbs” includes
     market floral department.                                                    Cornell Cooperative Extension,
                                        information on growing bulbs
                                                                                  Ithaca, NY 14853.
“Potpourri Party-Line.” Dody            for cut flowers. The pamphlet
Lyness, editor. Berry Hill Press.       is available from Leo Berbee
7336 Berry Hill #8, Palos Verdes,       Bulb Co. 18443 S.R. 4 N., P.O. Box
CA 90274.                               370, Marysville, OH 43040,
                                        513-642-0511.
34




                                        Organizations




     Calla Lily, Violet, Tulip

     The Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers is a national network of commercial field
     growers. The Association’s basic purpose is to provide cultural, technical, and marketing
     information through conferences and a quarterly bulletin.



   For further information, contact   through their annual seminars,       The International Freeze-Dry
Judy Laushman, Executive Direc-       trade show, and growers school.    Floral Association emphasizes the
tor, ASCFG, 155 Elm St., Oberlin,     A bi-monthly newsletter keeps      promotion, marketing, and use of
OH 44074, 216-774-2887.               members up-to-date on issues       freeze-dried florals. Contact the
  The Kansas Greenhouse Growers       affecting the industry. For more   IFDFA at P.O. Box 71272, Clive, IA
Association is an organization of     information or to join the KGGA,   50325.
growers providing support to the      contact Alan Stevens, KGGA
Kansas floriculture industry, and     Executive Secretary, 216 Waters
offering educational opportunities    Hall, Kansas State University,
                                      Manhattan, KS 66506–4029.
35
                                 Alan B. Stevens
                               Extension Specialist
                     Floriculture & Ornamental Horticulture

                                  Karen L. B. Gast
                                Extension Specialist
                              Postharvest & Marketing


      Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification
    purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar
                             products not mentioned.
             Publications from Kansas State University are available on the
                    World Wide Web at: http://www.oznet.ksu.edu
   Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes.
  All other rights reserved. In each case, credit Alan B. Stevens and Karen L. B. Gast,
    Specialty Cut Flowers—A Commercial Growers Guide, Kansas State University,
                                       June 1992.


Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station
and Cooperative Extension Service
MF-1034                                                                           June 1992
It is the policy of Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative
Extension Service that all persons shall have equal opportunity and access to its educa-
tional programs, services, activities, and materials without regard to race, color, religion,
national origin, sex, age or disability. Kansas State University is an equal opportunity
organization. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work, Acts of May 8 and
June 30, 1914, as amended. Kansas State University, County Extension Councils, Extension
Districts, and United States Department of Agriculture Cooperating, Marc A. Johnson,
Director.
File code: Horticulture & Landscaping 1

								
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