Augmented Reality in Medicine

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					 Augmented Reality in Medicine


 HMDs & other display devices



Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
              Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Outline
   Introduction
   HMDs
     Optical& Video See-Through
     Applications

   Image Overlay Systems
     System  Design
     Applications

   Technological Issues & Problems

                   Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                                 Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Displays
   Head Mounted Displays
     With a common display
     Virtual retinal display

   Handheld Displays
   Projection Displays
     Stationary
               projectors
     Headworn projectors

   Image Overlay Systems

                   Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                                 Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
HMDs
 Optical See-Through
 Video See-Through




             (Courtesy of Ronald Azuma, HRL Laboratories)




            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                   May 13th, 2004
HMDs
 Optical See-Through
 Video See-Through




             (Courtesy of Ronald Azuma, HRL Laboratories)




            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                   May 13th, 2004
General Applications for HMDs
 City guide
 Army training
 Repair instruction
 Much more other
  applications with other
  display devices


             Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                           Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Applications in Medicine
 Projecting CT data onto the patient brings
  “X-ray vision”
 Visualization of anatomical joints in motion
 Ultra-sound projections
 Tracking surgery tools
 Surgery/Birth simulations


                                                            (Courtesy of Jannick P. Rolland, University of Central Florida)
             Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                           Frederik Bender                                   May 13th, 2004
Image Overlay System
   Computer graphic workstation
   Semi transparent display
   Position tracking system
   Software to correlate
    Positions and transform
    images


                                                     (Courtesy of Mike Blackwell, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh)

                Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                              Frederik Bender                                   May 13th, 2004
Semi-Transparent Display
   Standard Flat Panel Liquid Cristals Display
     Images are very dim
     Low transparency

   Display/Mirror Combination
     Image   should be positioned “in” the patient




                 Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                               Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
3D Simulation
 Solution: Different image for each eye
 Methods:
     Crystal   Eye System
         Works with alternating images and a pair of
          “shutter glasses”
     VRex
         Polarizes every other scan line of the monitor in
          the opposite direction

                   Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                                 Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Special Applications
 Positioning implants
 Proper placing of screw
 Neurosurgical procedures
 Surgical education




            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Technological Issues & Problems

 System latency
 Field of view
 Viewpoint matching
 Occlusion




            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
System Latency
 Discrepancy in perceived and
  superimposed scene
 Objects doesn’t look “fixed” anymore
 Rendering is main problem
 Video ST better than Optical ST?




             Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                           Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Field of View
 Overlay & Peripheral FOV
 Large FOV vs. high resolution




            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Viewpoint Matching
 Camera viewpoint must match the
  observer viewpoint
 Discrepancy can lead to
  perceptual anomalies
 The “mirror solution”
 Interpupillary distance


                                                    (Courtesy of Jannick P. Rolland, University of Central Florida)

            Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                          Frederik Bender                                 May 13th, 2004
Occlusion
 Difficult to join real and virtual objects
 Requires depth map of both scenes
 Easier with Video ST displays




              Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                            Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004
Conclusion
 No “universal” system for all applications
 Still some problems that need to be solved
 Good prospects to be used in future




             Haupteseminar: Augmented Reality in Medicine
                           Frederik Bender                  May 13th, 2004

				
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