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					BREAKEVEN: Price of uranium at which COE of breeder equals that of LWR with direct disposal

red: back-end; blue: front-end; green: uranium;        user input

                                                                       Time (years)
                                                                     Before     After
Fuel-cycle Costs                                        Cost ($)    Loading Discharge
LWR with direct-disposal
     Uranium ($/kgU)                                      $327.79          2.0
     Conversion ($/kgU)                                     $6.00          1.5
     Enrichment ($/SWU)                                   $100.00          1.0
     LEU fuel fabrication ($/kgHM)                        $250.00          0.5
     Interim storage ($/kgHM)                             $200.00                      4.0
     Geologic disposal ($/kgHM)                           $400.00                      0.0
LMR
     Difference in capital cost ($/kWe)                   $200.00
     Uranium ($/kgU)                     FALSE              $6.00          1.0
     Core Fuel Fabrication ($/kgHM)                     $1,500.00          0.5
     Blanket Fuel Fabrication ($/kgHM)                    $250.00          0.5
     Reprocessing ($/kgHM)                              $1,000.00                      1.0
     Geologic disposal, core ($/kgHM)                     $200.00                      0.0
     Geologic disposal, blanket ($/kgHM)                  $200.00                      0.0

  2 Regulated Utility                     Reactor owner (1=government, 2=regulated utility, 3=private venture); see table belo
 5% Discount Rate (%/yr)                  General discount rate for fuel-cycle services

Other Fuel-Cycle Variables
LWR
     Design burn-up of LEU (33, 43, 53 MW-d/kg)                53
     Residence time in reactor (yr)                             5
     Product enrichment (%)                                4.40%
     Efficiency (net kWe/kWt, %)                          33.00%
     Feed assay                                            0.71%
     Loss during conversion (%)                            0.50%
     Loss during enrichment (%)                            0.50%
     Loss during fabrication (%)                           1.00%
LMR
     Annual core loading (kgHM/MWe-yr)                       11.5
     Annual blanket loading (kgHM/MWe-yr)                    25.5
     Residence time of core elements (yr)                       3
     Residence time of blanket elements (yr)                 3.25
     Make-up fraction in blanket (%)                       2.40%
     Cost of depleted uranium ($/kgHM)                          6

LWR/LMR
    Construction time (yr)                                     6
    Interest on capital during construction (%/yr)          6.4%
    Interest during construction cost (% of capital)       18.9%
    Preoperating costs (% of capital)                      10.0%
    Contigency factor (% of capital)                       10.0%
    Taxes + Insurance (% of capital/yr)                     0.0%
    Annual refurbishment cost (% of capital/yr)             0.0%
     Capacity factor (%)                                 90.0%
     Time over which capital is repaid (yr)                  30
     Fixed charge rate (% of capital/yr)                 12.3%
     Contribution of extra capital to COE ($/kWh)   $0.004487


Parameters for b-binomial distribution     Interest During Construction Computation
11.8 a 1=uniform, infinite=binomial            Year Fraction     Discount   Product
0.65 p p (% of schedule at which 50%              1    0.0115     1.4509    0.0167
        of cummulative costs spent)               2    0.0656     1.3637    0.0895
6.33 b 1=uniform, infinite=binomial               3    0.1795     1.2816    0.2301
        These shape factors, a and b,             4    0.2964     1.2046    0.3571
        are based the IDCs in CISAC               5    0.2984     1.1321    0.3378
        (1995); these also produce a              6    0.1485     1.0640    0.1580
        good fit to the STATS IDCs.               7
                                                  8
                                                  9
                                                 10
                                                 11
                                                 12
                                                 13
                                                 14
                                                 15
                                                 16
                                                 17
                                                 18
                                                 19
                                                 20
                                               Sum     1.0000               1.1892
at of LWR with direct disposal




                                Notes

             Calculated Breakeven Price



             Includes shipping
             NPV; includes shipping


             price = natl U if true; DU if false
             Time same as LEU
             Time same as LEU
             Includes sf, Pu, U shipping, HLW storage

             NPV; includes shipping


gulated utility, 3=private venture); see table below




             Use if NU = FALSE, or DU cheaper



             set by "owner"; see table below
             see calculation below


             set by "owner"; see table below
set by "owner"; see table below
set by "owner"; see table below



                                                     Owner/Operator
                                                         Regulated Private
                                             Government    Utility    Venture
       Interest during construction (%/yr)         4.0%        6.4%     13.9%
                Fixed Charge Rate (%/yr)           5.8%     12.3%       20.8%
               Taxes + Insurance (%/yrr)           0.0%        0.0%      0.0%
                     Recovery Period (yr)             30           30       30
Interative Solution: Find cost of uranium that equalizes cost of electricity

Cost of Electricity ($/kWh)
Light-water Reactor
   Cost of uranium ($/kg)                             10.00    1,000.00     371.36    325.51    327.80
   Enrichment:uranium cost ratio                      6.199       0.098      0.262     0.299     0.297
   Optimum tails assay (nat. U feed)                0.422%      0.052%     0.106%    0.116%    0.115%
   Feed:Product mass ratio                           13.759       6.597      7.100     7.196     7.190
   Number of SWU per kg product                       4.944      12.970      9.912     9.570     9.588
   Cost of fresh LEU ($/kgHM)                       $0.0028     $0.0250    $0.0119   $0.0109   $0.0109
   Cost of spent-fuel storage, disposal ($/kgHM)    $0.0012     $0.0012    $0.0012   $0.0012   $0.0012
   Cost of Electricity ($/kWh)                      $0.0040     $0.0262    $0.0131   $0.0121   $0.0121

Breeder reactor
   Extra capital cost                               $0.0045     $0.0045    $0.0045   $0.0045   $0.0045
   Cost of core elements                            $0.0022     $0.0022    $0.0022   $0.0022   $0.0022
   Cost of blanket elements                         $0.0008     $0.0008    $0.0008   $0.0008   $0.0008
   Cost of make-up uranium                          $0.0000     $0.0000    $0.0000   $0.0000   $0.0000
   Cost of reprocessing core + blanket              $0.0038     $0.0038    $0.0038   $0.0038   $0.0038
   Cost of HLW disposal                             $0.0008     $0.0008    $0.0008   $0.0008   $0.0008
   Total                                            $0.0121     $0.0121    $0.0121   $0.0121   $0.0121

Cost Difference                                     $0.0081    -$0.0141   -$0.0010   $0.0001   $0.0000
          Solution
 327.79     327.79
  0.297      0.297
0.115%     0.115%
  7.190      7.190
  9.588      9.588
$0.0109    $0.0109
$0.0012    $0.0012
$0.0121    $0.0121


$0.0045   $0.0045
$0.0022   $0.0022
$0.0008   $0.0008
$0.0000   $0.0000
$0.0038   $0.0038
$0.0008   $0.0008
$0.0121   $0.0121

$0.0000   $0.0000
Light-water Reactor                                 NPV         COE
with Direct Disposal             Unit Cost       ($/kgHM)     ($/kWh)
Uranium                        $327.79 $/kgU      $2,651.16   $0.0073   0.115%
Conversion                       $6.00 $/kgU         $47.12   $0.0001     7.190
Enrichment                     $100.00 $/SWU      $1,016.88   $0.0028     9.588
LEU fuel fabrication           $250.00 $/kgHM       $256.17   $0.0007
Interim storage                $200.00 $/kgHM       $128.92   $0.0004
Geologic disposal              $400.00 $/kgHM       $313.41   $0.0009
TOTAL                                             $4,413.66   $0.0121

Liquid-metal Fast
Breeder Reactor                   Unit Cost                   ($/kWh)
Extra Capital Cost              $200.00 $/kW                  $0.0045
Core element fabrication      $1,500.00 $/kgHM                $0.0022
Blanket element fabrication     $250.00 $/kgHM                $0.0008
Uranium make-up                   $6.00 $/kgU                 $0.0000
Reprocessing                  $1,000.00 $/kgHM                $0.0038
Geologic disposal               $200.00 $/kgHM                $0.0008
TOTAL                                                         $0.0121
Optimum tails assay
Feed:Product mass ratio
SWU per kg product