Grade 7 Science Review Sheet: Cluster 2 Particle Theory of Matter I. You should understand the following terms: 1. matter 2. solids 3. liquids 4. gases 5. properties 6. mixture 7. heterogeneous 8. homogeneous 9. mechanical mixture 10. solution 11. pure substance 12. particle 13. theory 14. particle theory of matter 15. solute 16. solvent 17. dissolve 18. soluble 19. insoluble 20. distillation 21. sieving 22. filtration 23. magnetism 24. settling 25. saturated solutions 26. unsaturated solution 27. concentrated 28. solubility 29. dilute 30. agitated 31. temperature 32. heat energy 33. mechanical energy 34. chemical energy 35. thermometer 36. degrees 37. Fahrenheit 38. Celsius 39. thermal pollution 40. melting 41. evaporation 42. freezing 43. condensation 44. sublimation 45. radiation 46. conduction 47. heat insulators 48. convection II. You should be able to answer the following questions: 1. What is matter? 2. What are the three states of matter? 3. The characteristics that are used to describe matter are called what? 4. True or False: Every material has its own set of properties. 5. Name three properties of water. 6. Do different materials ever share some of the same properties? 7. What is formed when two or more substances are combined? 8. True or False: All materials can be described by a single set of properties. 9. True or False: In a mixture, each kind of matter keeps its own properties. 10. Mixtures that are made up of parts that keep their own properties are said to be what? 11. Materials that have only one set of properties are called what? 12. Give an example of a heterogeneous mixture. 13. Give an example of a homogenous mixture. 14. A substance made of more than one kind of material, in which the different materials can easily be identified is called what? 15. Why is soda water considered to be a mechanical mixture? 16. What is a solution? 17. True or False: All solutions are liquids. 18. A material that is composed of only one type of particle is called what? 19. Give an example of a pure substance. 20. True or False: Pure substances can be solids, liquids or gases. 21. When is a theory generally accepted by scientists? 22. The theory that scientists use to explain the properties of various mixtures and substances is called what? 23. According to the particle theory of matter, all matter is made up of what? 24. According to the particle theory of matter, each pure substance has its own kind of what? 25. True or False: Two different pure substances could contain particles that were exactly the same. 26. What will eventually happen if drink powder is added to a jug of water and stirred? 27. In a drink powder and water solution, which is the solute and which is the solvent? 28. Any substance into which a solute may be dissolved is called what? 29. When a solute is completely mixed with a solvent, what is formed? 30. True or False: Particles have an attraction to each other. 31. True or False: Any solute, if stirred enough, can be dissolved in a solvent. 32. True or False: If two materials are combined in a mixture, they can never be separated again. 33. List several methods of separating different components in a mixture. 34. True or False: There is no limit as to how concentrated a solution can become. 35. The limit to how concentrated a solution can become is called what? 36. What do you do to a solution when you weaken its strength by increasing the amount of the solvent? 37. If you dilute a solution, it will make it more concentrated. 38. Name three factors that will affect the rate at which dissolving takes place. 39. Name three things you could do to help a sugar cube dissolve quicker in a cup of coffee? 40. The relative measure of how hot or cold something is, measured on a scale is called what? 41. What other forms of energy can be transformed into heat energy? 42. True or False: The sense of touch is always a reliable indicator of temperature. 43. Name something that is a more reliable indicator of temperature than the sense of touch? 44. A device used to measure temperature is called what? 45. True or False: Thermometers have scales. 46. What unit of measure is used on thermometers? 47. What are the two most common scales used to measure temperature? 48. What are the freezing point and the boiling point of water on a Fahrenheit scale? on a Celsius scale? 49. Why would an alcohol thermometer be better than a water thermometer to measure outdoor winter temperatures in Manitoba? 50. True or False: Heat causes particles to move faster. 51. What name is given to the accidental warming of the environment? 52. Name some properties of all solids. 53. Name some properties of all liquids. 54. Name some properties of all gases. 55. What happens to the particles in materials when they are heated or cooled? 56. The process by which a solid changes to a liquid is called what? 57. The process by which a liquid changes to a gas is called what? 58. The process by which a gas changes to a liquid is called what? 59. The process by which a liquid changes to a solid is called what? 60. The process by which a solid changes to a gas or a gas changes to a solid without becoming a liquid is called what? 61. Name three ways in which heat can be transferred from one object to another? 62. The transfer of energy in a special form of wave that can travel though many materials or empty space is called what? 63. True or False: Heat from the sun reaches us through conduction. 64. The process of transferring heat through direct collisions between particles is called what? 65. Why is metal a better conductor of heat than wood? 66. Give four examples of good heat insulators. 67. The method of transferring heat through the movement of fluids is called what? 68. Why does warm air rise? Answers: 1. Matter is any material that occupies space and has mass. 2. Solids, liquids and gases 3. properties 4. True 5. Answer may include: clear, colorless, odorless liquid; freezes at 0°C and boils at 100°C. 6. Yes; for example, there are other clear, odorless liquids besides water. 7. a mixture 8. False; for example, a multi-colored rock. 9. True 10. heterogeneous 11. homogenous 12. Answers could include: salad dressing, soda water, orange juice, milk, strawberry jam 13. Answers could include: antifreeze, Kool Aid, air 14. mechanical mixture 15. The different materials in it can easily be identified; the water and the bubbles. 16. A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances; the distinct properties of the different substances that make up the solution are combined into one set of properties. 17. False: solutions can be solids (sterling silver: silver and copper), liquids (ocean water: water and salt) or gases (air: oxygen, nitrogen and other gases). 18. a pure substance 19. gold, oxygen, water 20. True: gold, oxygen, water 21. when it has been repeatedly tested and shown to be consistent 22. the particle theory of matter 23. extremely small particles 24. particle, different from the particles of other pure substances. 25. False 26. It will dissolve. 27. The drink powder is the solute and the water is the solvent. 28. a solvent 29. a solution 30. True 31. False. Some substances are insoluble; for example, fat in milk. 32. False 33. distillation, evaporation, sieving, filtration, magnetism, settling 34. False. Eventually, if enough solute is added, the solution will eventually become saturated. 35. solubility 36. dilute it 37. False 38. temperature, agitation, surface area exposed to the solvent 39. break the sugar cube up, stir the coffee, or heat up the coffee 40. temperature 41. mechanical energy, chemical energy, electricity 42. False: The sense of touch can be fooled such as when your hands are already very cold or very hot and they are then placed into lukewarm water. 43. a thermometer 44. a thermometer 45. True 46. degrees 47. the Fahrenheit scale and the Celsius scale 48. freezing: 32°F boiling: 212°F freezing: 0°C boiling: 100°C 49. Alcohol has a lower freezing point. The water in a water thermometer would freeze so you couldn’t measure very low temperatures. 50. True 51. thermal pollution 52. Solids have a definite size and shape. 53. Liquids have a definite size or volume but no fixed shape. They take the shape of their container. 54. Gases have no definite shape or size. They expand to fill all parts of their container and can be easily compressed into a smaller space. 55. As materials are heated their particles move faster and spread apart so they expand. When they are cooled, their particles slow down and move closer together so they contract. 56. melting 57. evaporation 58. condensation 59. freezing 60. sublimation 61. radiation, conduction, convection 62. radiation 63. False: through radiation 64. conduction 65. The particles are closer together; there are more collisions between the particles so more conduction occurs. 66. glass, wood, rubber, plastic, inner layers of clothing, Styrofoam 67. convection 68. It is lighter; the particles are farther apart.
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