European Union And T by malj


									    IBM PROJECT


       TUBA DAĞCAN   20311918
       ALPER DEMĠR   20311923
                          SHORT HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION

         During the first half of the twentieth century, Europe was devastated by two world
wars. Some of the most important factors behind these extensive wars were nationalistic
tendencies and territorial conflicts, and after the latest war, Europe was basically torn into
two: a Western Europe associated with the Western World with the USA as the leading
nation; and a Central and Eastern Europe annexed to the Soviet Union. In the Western
European bloc there was a strong division between the individual countries, and there was
only very limited trade and economic cooperation between them. But the traumatic events of
the wars gave rise to new visions and hopes of a better and more harmonious future for
Europe. Particularly the Chancellor of the new Federal Republic of Germany, Konrad
Adenauer, and the Foreign Ministers of France, Robert Schuman, and Belgium, Paul-Henri
Spaak, were central forces behind the process which, at the beginning of the second half of
the century, became the starting point of the budding European Union (EU), an unprecedented
cooperation between nation states.
         The ultimate goal of these endeavors was to create a European identity based on
common values and a common desire to develop a Europe free of wars. The philosophy was
that lasting peace among the European countries was best furthered by economic prosperity.
To achieve this goal, the founding fathers of the EU had to weave the countries of Europe into
a fabric of economic interdependence; an interdependence that would eliminate conflicts by
achieving mutual gains through specialization and foster economic growth by creating a
dynamic framework for the European economies. The answer to this challenge was economic
integration. In the strict sense of the concept, economic integration is the removal of trade
barriers and the introduction of free movement of factors of production. But the concept is
broader and also includes concerted efforts to address specific policy areas such as monetary
stability, the survival of certain sectors, or assistance to underdeveloped regions.

                   Main Historic Events of The Formation of the European Union
                           Treaty (year of      Year of
         Institution                                         Landmarks of economic integration
                             ratification)  implementation
  European Coal and Treaty of Paris              1951        Common policy for coal and steel
  Steel       Community         (1951)                       production. Members: France,
  (ECSC)                                                     Germany, Italy, Belgium, the
                                                             Netherlands, and Luxemburg
  European Economic Treaty of Rome               1958        Customs union. Free mobility of
  Community (EEC)               (1957)                       factors of production. Members: as
  Euratom                 Treaty of Rome         1958        Non-military utilization of nuclear
  (European        Atomic       (1957)                       power. Member: as ECSC
  Energy Community)
  First enlargement        Revised treaty        1973        New members: UK, Denmark, and
                                (1972)                       Ireland
  Second enlargement       Revised treaty        1981        New member: Greece
  Third enlargement        Revised treaty        1986        New members: Spain and Portugal
  The Single Market             Single         1986-92       Formation of the Internal Market
                            European Act
  The European Union          Maastricht         1993        Plans for establishing the Economic
  (EU)                      Treaty (1992)                    and Monetary Union from 1
                                                           January 1999
   Fourth enlargement      Revised treaty      1995        New members: Austria, Finland,
                              (1994)                       and Sweden
   The European Union       Amsterdam          1998        Obligations for increased efforts to
   (EU)                    Treaty (1997)                   improve employment
   The European Union      Revised treaty      1999        Establishment of the Economic and
                              (1990)                       Monetary Union (EMU) with the
                                                           main aim of introducing one
                                                           common currency; the euro.
   Fifth enlargement       Revised treaty      2004        New members: the Czech Republic,
                              (2003)                       Estonia,     Latvia,     Lithuania,
                                                           Hungary, Poland, Slovenia and
   Sixth enlargement       Revised treaty      2007        New members: Bulgaria and
                              (2006)                       Romania


         Turkey has been part of the history of European integration for the past half century.
After the Second World War, when the Council of Europe was established, one of the first
resolutions of the Council of Ministers was to invite Turkey to this European organization
whereby Turkey became a member from its inception in 1949. In addition to the Council of
Europe, Turkey has been, most of the time, the founding member of many European
organizations. Turkey joined the north Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1952, three years after
its establishment. The role turkey played in the south-eastern flank during the cold war period
was certainly an important and substantial contribution when Russian missiles and Red Army
troops were heavily deployed alongside the West German border not only in the DDR
(Deutsche Democratic Republic), but also in all the Warsaw Pact countries.
         On 11 November 1957, in Ankara, a new government was presenting its programme
to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, where the establishment of the European
Economic Community was discussed in great detail. Prime Minister Menderes, referring to
the “common market” and “economic initiatives in Europe”, was bold enough to say that this
new organization was expected to lead to a “Political Union” in Europe and Turkey could not
stay outside this new formations Turkey was already a member of all the European
Institutions, from the Council of Europe to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and
OECD. On 31 July 1959 Turkish government applied to the community for the establishment
of an Association. The response of the Commission was so swift that after receiving in
Turkish application, expletory negotiations with the Turkish delegation started on 28
September 1959. “Agreement Establishing an Association Between the European Economic
Community and Turkey” signed on 12 September 1963 was adopted by the Council Decision
of 23 December 1963 and entered into force in December, 1964, after it was ratified not only
by the Turkish Parliament (T.B.M.M.), but also by all the Member State Parliaments.
         The Ankara Agreement envisaged the progressive establishment of a Customs Union
which would bring the Parties closer together in economic and trade matters. In the meantime,
the EEC would offer financial assistance to Turkey. Under the First Financial Protocol which
covered the period 1963-1970, the EEC provided Turkey with loans worth 175 million ECU.
The agreement envisioned three phases: a five-year preparation period, a transition period
(two separate periods of 12 and 22 years as of 1973) and a final period. A Customs Union was
planned to be completed by the end of the transition period. With the ending of the
preparation period on 13 November 1970, the responsibilities of the two sides were
determined in an Additional Protocol which took effect in 1973. According to the Additional
Protocol, the free movement of goods, Turkey‟s harmonization with the EC‟s Common
Agricultural Policy, the free movement of people and services, and harmonization with EC
legislation on issues such as transportation and economy were to be realized. With the signing
of the Additional Protocol, Turkey has accepted abolishing customs duties on the EU‟s
industrial exports and adopting the common external tariff of the EC. According to this a
transition period of 12 years for lifting tariffs on industrial goods and a 22-year-long tariff
removal calendar for weak industrial sectors were foreseen.
        Turkey applied for full membership of the EC on 14 April 1987. In its avis on the
application, the European Commission argued that priority must be given to achieving the
aims of the Single European Act and that it was undesirable to start accession negotiations
with any country before 1993. In addition, the Commission saw a number of specific
problems in relation to Turkey:
        (i) Turkey‟s economic position was regarded as weak;
        (ii) There were some political differences between Turkey and a member-state of the
EC, namely Greece (which was openly opposing Turkey‟s membership at this time), and
        (iii) There were problems that might pose substantial obstacles to membership
concerning human rights, minorities and the quality of democracy. Nevertheless, the
Commission considered that Turkey might qualify for membership at some point and
therefore advocated the strengthening of relations under the association agreement. The
Council of Ministers endorsed the avis of the Commission on 3 February 1990. Commission
opinion basically underlined Turkey's eligibility for membership, yet deferred the in-depth
analysis of Turkey's application until the emergence of a more favorable environment. It also
mentioned that Turkey's accession was prevented equally by the EC's own situation on the eve
of the Single Market's completion which prevented the consideration of further enlargement.
Although it did not attain its basic objective, Turkey's application revived Turkey-EC
        The Common Union covers the conditions where all production factors, including,
goods, labor, services, and capital are in free circulation and the countries involved enjoy the
advantages of being a Member State in terms of political and economic stability. Whereas,
Turkish case, only free movement of goods is achieved through the custom union, free
movement of workers and services have not been implemented, in spite of the fact that a
definite time-able for labor was provided in 1970 Protocol parallel to the provisions of
customs union. Since Turkey is not a Member of the Union yet, the advantages of
membership like credit facilities can not be realized. When Turkey‟s situation is compared to
those Member States which receive financial support, it can be seen that the disadvantages of
Turkey faces wider. Taking into consideration all factors, together with development
characteristic of the association, The European Community made solemn declaration
concerning the financial co-operation during the Association Council Meeting where the
Decision on Customs Union was taken on 6 March 1995.
        The Community Declaration Concerning Financial Co-operation was made during the
Association Council meeting where the Decision 1/95 concerning the customs union was
taken. The Community Declaration makes it clear that in order to adapt its industrial sector to
the new competitive situation created by the Customs Union and improve its infrastructure
linkage with the European Union, as well as to reduce the difference between its economy and
that of the Community, Turkey will need substantial financial resources, in particular long-
term loans and technical assistance. Nearly three billion US dollars were involved as financial
support to Turkey. The transfers envisaged within this framework have so far failed to
materialize due to the lack of political will on the part of the EU.

        In Summit meeting of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union that
a new and comprehensive enlargement process was launched on 12 and 13 December 1997
with the announcement that six countries, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia,
Estonia and Greek Cypriot Administration was going to start accession negotiations almost
immediately at the end of March, 1998.
        There was a second group of countries which would have to wait somewhat longer,
but they would benefit from closer economic ties through accession partnerships. They
included Bulgaria, Romania, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia. Accession partnership according
to Luxemburg Conclusions of the EU Council, will mobilize all forms of assistance to the
applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe within a single framework which will cover
each applicant, the priorities and the financial resources available for that purpose.
        The Luxemburg Summit, after deciding to launch accession negotiations with the
Greek Cypriot Administration in Cyprus, in violation of the Treaties and the 1960
Constitution, argued that the accession negotiations will contribute positively to the search
offer a political solution to Cyprus problem. Representatives of the Turkish Cypriot
Community will be included in the accession negotiation delegation of the so called
Government of Cyprus which has no constitutional legitimacy. Thereby, the EU reduces the
Turkish side in Cyprus to a minority status, whereas under the 1960 Constitution of Cyprus.
The fact that the Greek Cypriot Administration is recognized by the U.N and others does not
remedy the constitutionality of the regime in the south. Thus, the Greek Administration in
Cyprus does not fulfill the Copenhagen criteria as it does not have a legitimate constitution.
        The Luxemburg Summit, in this comprehensive, inclusive and ongoing process of
enlargement where all submitted states are destined to join the European Union on the basis of
the same criteria and that they are participating in the accession process on an equal footing,
created a totally different and indeed an inferior category for Turkey.
        Turkey was excluded form the enlargement process, the Summit requested the
Commission to draw up a strategy to prepare Turkey for accession by bringing it closer to the
European Union in every field. These remarks were not only contradictory, but also could not
hide the open discrimination displayed against Turkey. It was obvious that Turkey was not
evaluated within the same framework; the same well intended approach and objective criteria
as the other candidate countries.
        Turkish Government‟s evaluations of the Luxemburg Council conclusions were well
balanced. Every effort was made not to damage the existing association relations. In fact,
whereas the Luxemburg Conclusions on Turkey was totally irresponsible, Ankara reacted in a
responsible manner. It was announced that EU-Turkey relations was to continue with
determination and confidence to advance on the path drawn by Atatürk and its will for
integration with the EU despite the position laid out at the default of the Community in its
obligations an commitments toward Turkey in terms of financial support.
        In March 1998, the European Commission announced a European Strategy for Turkey
to prepare the country for accession by bringing closer to the EU in every field.. This strategy
is to consist of the following: development of the possibilities afforded by the Ankara
Agreement, intensification of the custom union, implementation of financial cooperation,
approximation of law and adoption of the Union acquis, participation to the decided case by
case in certain programme and in certain agencies.

        Six months after the Luxemburg Summit meeting, Heads of State and Government of
the fifteen Member States meeting in Cardiff on 15 and 16 June 1998, welcomed the
Commission‟s confirmation that, t will submit at the end of 1998,its first regular reports on
each candidate‟s progress towards accession. In the case of Turley, reports will be based on
Article 28 of the Association Agreement and the conclusions of the Luxemburg Council. With
this reference to Article 28, it is understood that a report will be made, whether the
Association has advanced far enough to justify envisaging full acceptance by Turkey of the
obligations arising out of full membership.
        Cardiff Council, having considered the Commission‟s European Strategy to Prepare
Turkey for Membership, according to the conclusions of the summit, declared that “taken as a
package, this strategy provided the platform for developing our relationship on sound and
evaluation basis”. The Council also invited Commission to carry forward this strategy
including tabling of any proposal necessary for its effective implementation. Although this
move was interpreted as an indication that it was fully realized that a serious mistake was
made in Luxemburg, this strategy still constituted a separate treatment for Turkey which
constituted an open discrimination among other candidates.


        The European Council met in Cologne on June 3-4 1999 to consider issues after the
Treaty of Amsterdam came into force. Romano Prodi presented his plan for the future
Commission's work and reform program. The Council designated Javier Solana for the post of
Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union (with Pierre de Boissieu as his
deputy) and High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). In
relation to the European Security and Defense Policy, a major element of the CFSP, the
council declared that the EU "must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by
credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to
respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO." The Council also
adopted the declaration on Kosovo, decided on a common policy on Russia (first use of the
CFSP), and called for an EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.
        Compared to the previous Government in Germany, the new Coalition Government
which came to power in October 1998 seemed to have taken a more positive line regarding
Turkey's quest for EU membership. However, the objections of some EU Member States
prevented this initiative from being realized. As a consequence, the EU refrained from taking
a decision to include Turkey in the accession process.


        The European Council met in Helsinki on 10 and 11 December 1999. It adopted the
Millennium Declaration. It has taken a number of decisions marking a new stage in the
enlargement process. Steps have also been taken to ensure that the Union itself will have
effective, reformed institutions, a strengthened common security and defense policy and a
competitive, job-generating, sustainable economy.
        The recognition of Turkey as a candidate for accession at the Helsinki European
Council in December 1999 ushered a new era in the relations between Turkey and the EU. For
both parties, Helsinki marks a qualitatively new beginning and a process of strategic mutual

         On March 19th, 2001, Council of Ministers adopted the National Programme for the
Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA) in response to the Accession Partnership adopted by the
European Council on March 8th, 2001. National programme is a comprehensive operational
plan, drawn up by each candidate country. Turkey‟s NPAA specifies the laws and regulations,
institutional and administrative reforms and human and budgetary resources Turkey intends to
deploy in each priority area identified on the way to full membership to the EU with respect to
the priorities listed in the accession partnership. A turning point in the modernization process
of Turkey, the National Programme will be the means for the political, economic and social
transformation of the country. It is important that such a challenging task of fulfilling a wide
range of reforms be realized with the consensus of and participation from the entire nation
including the private sector, NGOs, academic circles and for sure, the Turkish people
them. Since the public sector will give the initial stimulus to this process through its
legislative and executive power, a sound coordination among all the public bodies bears great
importance for the success of the implementation stage. Secretariat General for EU has
undertaken the task of coordinating and harmonizing the necessary work carried out by the
public organizations. National Programme will be revised each year in accordance with the
requirements and priorities of Turkey, annual developments, the Accession Partnership
document and Progress Report.
         During the whole year, the EU on its side, worked to finalize its internal procedures on
Turkey‟s participation to the Community programs and the adoption of the single framework
for financial assistance to Turkey. The related decisions were finally adopted by the Council
on 17 December 2001. With the single framework, from now on PHARE procedures will be
applied in EU-Turkey financial cooperation. As far as Community programs are concerned,
Turkey will be able to participate in them as of 2002, with the completion of the Framework


        The EU‟s heads of state and government meeting at the European Council in Laeken,
Belgium on 14-15 December, took what could be the first step towards a European
constitution by adopting the „Laeken Declaration – The Future of the European Union.‟
  As part of the debate on the future of Europe, the European Council decided to appoint
former French President Giscard D‟Estaing to chair a political Convention to debate the many
questions on the EU‟s agenda against the background of enlargement, the need to bring
European institutions nearer to its citizens and Europe‟s new role in a globalized world.
        Turkey‟s recent concrete steps as regards European Security and Defense Policy,
together with the recent developments in Cyprus also had a positive impact on this
conclusion. Another important decision taken at Laeken is that Turkey will be taking part in
the Convention on the future of Europe on an equal basis with the other candidates. This can
be considered as a progressive step, in the sense that the EU considers Turkey to be part of a
common future. Thus, a clear membership perspective along the lines of the other candidates
has been given to Turkey.


       The European Council met in Nice on 7, 8 and 9 December 2000. Proceedings began
with an exchange of views with the President of the European Parliament, Ms Nicole
Fontaine. The European Council pointed to the importance of implementing the operational
recommendations approved by it in Helsinki for the working of the Council and took note of
the report on the new co-decision procedure. It reiterated its commitment to supporting the
Commission's administrative reform. It noted with satisfaction the measures adopted by the
Council and the Commission in order to improve the effectiveness of the Union's external
action. The European Council welcomed the progress made in implementing the pre-
accession strategy for Turkey and was very pleased at the agreement reached on the
framework Regulation and on the Accession Partnership at the Council meeting on
4 December 2000. It highlighted the importance of that document for establishing closer
relations between the Union and Turkey along the lines mapped out by the Helsinki European
Council conclusions. Turkey requested swiftly to submit its national programme for adoption
of the acquis, basing it on the Accession Partnership.


The Union welcomed the important steps taken by Turkey towards meeting the Copenhagen
political criteria and the fact that Turkey had moved forward on the economic criteria and
alignment with the acquis, as registered in the Commission's Regular Report. This had
brought forward the opening of accession negotiations with Turkey. The Union encouraged
Turkey to pursue its reform process and to take further concrete steps in the direction of
implementation, which would advance Turkey's accession in accordance with the same
principles and criteria as are applied to the other candidate States. The Council was invited to
prepare in time for the Copenhagen European Council the elements for deciding on the next
stage of Turkey's candidature, on the basis of the Commission's Strategy Paper and in
accordance with the conclusions of the European Councils in Helsinki, Laeken and Seville.


18. The European Council recalled its decision in 1999 in Helsinki that Turkey is a candidate
state destined to join the Union on the basis of the same criteria as applied to the other
candidate states. It strongly welcomed the important steps taken by Turkey towards meeting
the Copenhagen criteria, in particular through the recent legislative packages and the
subsequent implementation measures which covered a large number of key priorities specified
in the Accession Partnership. The Union acknowledged the determination of the new Turkish
government to take further steps on the path of reform and urges in particular the government
to address swiftly all remaining shortcomings in the field of the political criteria, not only
with regard to legislation but also in particular with regard to implementation.. The Union
encouraged Turkey to pursue energetically its reform process. The Commission was invited to
submit a proposal for a revised Accession Partnership and to intensify the process of
legislative scrutiny. In parallel, the EC-Turkey Customs Union should be extended and
deepened. The Union would significantly increase its pre-accession financial assistance for
Turkey. This assistance would from 2004 be financed under the budget heading "pre-
accession expenditure"


The European Council welcomed the commitment of the Turkish government to carry
forward the reform process, in particular the remaining legislative work by the end of 2003,
and supported its on-going efforts made in order to fulfil the Copenhagen political criteria for
opening accession negotiations with the Union. Taking into account progress achieved,
significant further efforts to this end were still required. With a view to helping Turkey
achieve this objective, the Council adopted recently a revised Accession Partnership, which
set out the priorities that Turkey should pursue, supported by substantially increased pre-
accession financial assistance. In accordance with the Helsinki conclusions, fulfilment of
these priorities would assist Turkey towards EU membership. The Accession Partnership
constitutes the cornerstone of EU-Turkey relations, in particular in view of the decision to be
taken by the European Council in December 2004.


The European Council welcomed the considerable and determined efforts by the Turkish
government to accelerate the pace of reforms, many of which are significant in political and
legal terms. The legislative packages so far adopted, the first important steps taken to ensure
effective implementation, as well as the progress in addressing many priorities under the
Copenhagen political criteria and in the revised Accession Partnership had brought Turkey
closer to the Union. Turkey had also made significant progress in meeting the Copenhagen
economic criteria. However, further sustained efforts were needed, in particular as regards
strengthening the independence and functioning of the judiciary, the overall framework for
the exercise of fundamental freedoms (association, expression and religion), the further
alignment of civil-military relations with European practice, the situation in the Southeast of
the country and cultural rights. Turkey also had to overcome macro-economic imbalances and
structural shortcomings. The European Council underlined the importance of Turkey's
expression of political will to settle the Cyprus problem.The European Council encouraged
Turkey to build on the substantial progress achieved so far in its preparations for launching
accession negotiations and underlined its commitment to working towards full
implementation of the pre-accession strategy with Turkey, including the revised Accession
Partnership, in view of the decision to be taken by the European Council in December 2004
on the basis of the report and recommendations of the Commission.


The European Council recalled its previous conclusions regarding Turkey, in which, at
Helsinki, it agreed that Turkey was a candidate state destined to join the Union on the basis of
the same criteria as applied to the other candidate states and, subsequently, concluded that, if
it were to decide at its December 2004 meeting, on the basis of a report and recommendation
from the Commission, that Turkey fulfils the Copenhagen political criteria, the European
Union would open accession negotiations with Turkey without delay.
The European Council welcomed the decisive progress made by Turkey in its far-reaching
reform process and expressed its confidence that Turkey will sustain that process of reform.
Furthermore, it expected Turkey to actively pursue its efforts to bring into force the six
specific items of legislation identified by the Commission. To ensure the irreversibility of the
political reform process and its full, effective and comprehensive implementation, notably
with regard to fundamental freedoms and to full respect of human rights, that process would
continue to be closely monitored by the Commission, which was invited to continue to report
regularly on it to the Council, addressing all points of concern identified in the Commission's
2004 report and recommendation, including the implementation of the zero-tolerance policy
relating to torture and ill-treatment. The European Union would continue to monitor closely
progress of the political reforms on the basis of an Accession Partnership setting out priorities
for the reform process. The European Council welcomed Turkey's decision to sign the
Protocol regarding the adaptation of the Ankara Agreement, taking account of the accession
of the ten new Member States. In this light, it welcomed the declaration of Turkey that "the
Turkish Government confirms that it is ready to sign the Protocol on the adaptation of the
Ankara Agreement prior to the actual start of accession negotiations and after reaching
agreement on and finalising the adaptations which are necessary in view of the current
membership of the European Union".
The European Council, while underlining the need for unequivocal commitment to good
neighbourly relations welcomed the improvement in Turkey's relations with its neighbours
and its readiness to continue to work with the concerned Member States towards resolution of
outstanding border disputes in conformity with the principle of peaceful settlement of disputes
in accordance with the United Nations Charter. In accordance with its previous conclusions,
notably those of Helsinki on this matter, the European Council reviewed the situation relating
to outstanding disputes and welcomed the exploratory contacts to this end. In this connection
it reaffirmed its view that unresolved disputes having repercussions on the accession process,
should if necessary be brought to the International Court of Justice for settlement. The
European Council would be kept informed of progress achieved which it would review as
The European Council welcomed the adoption of the six pieces of legislation identified by the
Commission. It decided that, in the light of the above and of the Commission report and
recommendation, Turkey sufficiently fulfilled the Copenhagen political criteria to open
accession negotiations provided that it brings into force these specific pieces of legislation. It
invited the Commission to present to the Council a proposal for a framework for negotiations
with Turkey. It requested the Council to agree on that framework with a view to opening
negotiations on 3 October 2005.


The European Council reviewed progress made in the acquis screening and welcomed the
start of substantive accession negotiations with Turkey. Turkey was expected to share the
values, objectives and the legal order set out in the treaties. The Union is committed to
support Turkey in its efforts to comply with the Unions standards and membership
obligations, including the Copenhagen criteria. The European Council recalled, in line with
previous conclusions, that the current negotiations were based on each country's own merits
and that their pace will depend on each country's progress in preparing for accession
measured against the requirements set out in the Negotiating Framework. This included the
fulfilment of Turkey's obligations under the Association Agreement and under its Additional
Protocol, full implementation of which would be evaluated in 2006 as agreed in the
Declaration of the European Community and its Member States of 21 September 2005, as
well as the implementation of the revised Accession Partnership. The European Council
recalled that the Council would ensure, in the course of 2006, a follow up on the progress
made on all the relevant issues. The European Council called on Turkey to intensify the
reform process and to implement it fully and effectively, so as to ensure its irreversibility and
sustainability as well as to progress towards the complete fulfilment of the Copenhagen
criteria, including the commitment to good neighbourly relations. In this context, any action
which could negatively affect the process of peaceful settlement of disputes should be

European Integration     An Economic Perspective        Jorgen Drud Hansen

Parameteres of Partnership: The U.S – Turkey – Europe   Hüseyin   Bağcı,     Jackson   Janes,
Ludger Kühnhardt

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