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RADIO CONTROL




               A Beginners Guide




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volume 5                           Please take one
  2                                                                                                              GREAT      HOBBIES



                               Welcome to Great Hobbies and the wonder-       r
                         ful world of Radio Control! If you are new to the
                         hobby, you will most certainly have an exciting
                         journey ahead of you. There is an aspect of radio
                         control for just about everyone and we hope this
                         publication will help you find your niche and give
                         you an idea of what you will need to get started.
                               We are also happy that you have found Great
    Jim Ewing            Hobbies, Canada’s largest and leading dealer for
 President and Founder
                         radio control products. Our goal is to help you attain
                         the most enjoyment from your hobby as possible.
      We have been serving modelers, like yourself, from coast to coast
and around the world for 20 years now, and endeavor to give you the
best service, selection and pricing possible.
                                                 e
         In Radio Control, A Beginners Guide we will briefly introduce
you to all forms of radio control modeling. We will touch on the basics
of each discipline and help you become familiar with some of the con-
cepts, equipment and jargon. We will also suggest products that would
be ideal for the first time modeler.
            If radio control is not your interest check out our website for
some of the other items Great Hobbies has to offer. We carry free flight
and control line model airplanes, model rockets, plastic models, kites
and a great selection of neat educational products and toys.




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Pricing
All pricing in this publication is accurate only at the time of printing. We will en-
                                                                                            Stratford
deavour to keep prices as constant as possible, however, all prices, descriptions,          Prince Edward Island
specifications and availability are subject to change without notice. Please confirm
pricing with either our 1-800 operators (1-800-839-3262) or on our web site (www.
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Payment
We accept payment by Visa & Master Card for phone, fax and on-line orders. We will          Edmonton
also accept C.O.D. payment for orders within Canada. A Canada Post COD charge
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ders by cheque, money order or wire transfer. Please ensure there is enough funds
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allow three extra weeks for cheques to clear and any NSF cheques will be charged $25
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Taxes                                                                                                                         5144 - 75th Street
Orders to destinations within Prince Edward Island will be charged 5% GST and 10%
PST. Orders to destinations within Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland
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Shipping
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                                                                                                  What’s Inside
which may include applicable COD, over-length, or insurance fees. All orders are sent
insured for loss.                                                                           Getting Started in R/C Aircraft .................... 4
Returns                                                                                     Introduction to Model Engines .................... 7
If you receive a product which you have ordered and it is not what you had expected,
you may return the product within 30 days from date of invoice for a refund on the
price of the product or credit to an alternate purchase. Fuel, glow plugs, batteries,       R/C Aircraft Glossary................................ 8
books, paints, adhesives, and opened software cannot be returned. Any item being
returned must be in new, unused condition and include the original packaging.
Also, you MUST call our 1-800-839-3262 line to obtain return authorization. Do              Getting Started in R/C Sailplanes ................10
not use a product unless you intend to keep it! We will not accept used merchandise
and we will not accept packages sent to us COD.
                                                                                            Getting Started in Electric Aircraft ..............13
When returning an item, include a written explantation for the return as the person pro-
cessing your package will not necessarily be the same person you speak to on the phone.
                                                                                            Getting Started in R/C Helicopters...............16
If, by error, we have sent you a product which was not what you had ordered, we
will be happy to replace the item for you. Call 1-800-839-3262 for authorization and
return instructions.
                                                                                            Introduction to Radio Systems ...................19
Defective Merchandise                                                                       Radio Glossary ......................................20
If you receive a product and find that it is defective right out of the package, you may
obtain return authorization from Great Hobbies and return it within 30 days for repair
or replacement. If you receive a kit and there are parts missing, you must approach the     Simulators ...........................................22
manufacturer directly for replacement parts. Once an item has been used you must re-
fer to the manufacturers warranty. The manufacturer, not Great Hobbies, is responsible
for all manufacturing defects and liabilities.
                                                                                            Getting Started in Model Boats ..................23
Limit of Liability                                                                          Getting Started in R/C Cars & Trucks............26
Great Hobbies accepts no responsibility for crash damage, liability, and/or loss of
kits, radios, engines, accessories, etc. incurred during operation of a model. In most
cases, it is very difficult, if not impossible to determine whether crash damage was        Introduction to Batteries ..........................30
actually due to equipment failure or operator error. Great Hobbies maintains no re-
sponsibility for inadvertent errors in our promotional literature. All prices, specifica-
tions and availability are subject to change without notice.                                Model Aeronautics Association of Canada.....31
                                                     w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
4                                                                                                               GREAT          HOBBIES




                                                                                                                        $499.99
                                                                                                                                 X

                                                                                                               Required to Complete



                                                                                                                                     $4.79


                                                                                                                                 $18.99


                               -                                                                                                 $24.99


  Getting Started in R/C aircraft...                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                                             o
Welcome to the world of radio controlled model airplanes. This
certainly must be one of the most exciting and enjoyable hobbies
in existence, encompassing so many different interests. What other
hobby involves aerodynamics, woodworking, composite materials,
electronics, mechanics, small motors, drafting, artistry, fresh air and
the outdoors, and club activities—practically all at the same time?
     If you have not already seen an R/C aircraft in action, head to the
local club field when there is some activity, meet some of the fliers
and get to enjoy it first hand. Once you see it, you’ll be hooked!
     The first thing one must realize about a radio controlled model                                                          $499.99
aircraft is that it is not a toy. The model, is a real aircraft which flies
and operates by the same principles as its full-scale counterpart—the
only difference is size and weight. Models fly at speeds between 10                                            Required to Complete
and 160 MPH with the average trainer flying between 40 and 60
MPH! These are not slow vehicles, nor can they be flown in an aver-       r
age backyard—they require space! And just like their bigger broth-
ers, they require a learned skill to be controlled properly. It is not
                                                                                    $4.79                           $24.99
simply a matter of pushing a button to take off, another to land, etc.
     Most people, after they have become acquainted with the hob-
by, realize it is more complex than they may have first believed — it                                  $4.99
is more than just boys playing with their toys! By the same token, the
challenge of learning the new skills required makes the hobby that
much more enjoyable and satisfying. It is not a hobby with which                                                    $18.99
one easily gets bored! You will garner years of enjoyment from the                          $9.99
hobby, especially if you get started on the right foot.
                                There are two steps you should take to
                           get yourself flying the fastest and in the most
                           enjoyable way. The first is to get involved
                           with the local club or group of people that fly    R/C Pilot’s                   Getting Started
                           in your area. Their experience and help will       Handbook                      in R/C Planes
                           be invaluable to you in both building your         MAN2020                       MAN2025
                           aircraft and learning to fly. The second is to     $26.99                        $26.99
                           outfit yourself with a good trainer aircraft for
                           your first plane. This is not the time in your
                                                                                                                                             -
                           modeling career to build and fly that P-51
                           Mustang you’ve been fantasizing about.

                 C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g            R a d i o           C o n t r o l   D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                        5
                                                                                                                                 Kadet LT-40
   What You Will Need...                                                                                       Almost Ready-to-Fly & Kit Versions
     The following is a description of the items required to start flying
a glow-powered, radio controlled model aircraft. Keep in mind, there
is a wide selection available for each one of these items.

The Plane
      As mentioned previously, you should select a model that is de-
signed specifically for training the new pilot. Typically these aircraft                                                                             F
will have a high wing, simple sturdy construction, excellent plans and                                                                       SIGRC67ARF
instructions, and be easy to fly. In this guide, we show you some of the
best choices for a model and what you will require to go with it.
                                                                                                                                     $163.99
      Perhaps the first decision to make with regard to your first model is             Required to Complete Both Versions
whether you want to build a complete kit or just do some simple assembly
with an “Almost-Ready-to-Fly” (ARF) model. An ARF model will usually
have the bulk of the construction completed and it will even be covered.
Usually the only assembly to be done is joining the wing halves, adding                                                                 $4.79
the tail surfaces, mounting the radio system, engine and landing gear, and                  $149.99
connecting the control surfaces. The building of a complete kit is more
involved, and certainly takes more time, but on the same token, it is usu-
ally more satisfying to those so inclined. Also, when you build your own                                                              $18.99
model from a box of wood and plastic parts, you become familiar with air-  r
craft construction and if the day comes when you have to do some repair
work, you may find it easier, having done the building in the first place.
      You will notice on the previous page that you can also get an ARF        $109.99                                               $24.99
combo which comes with just about everything you will need, plus
it has more of the work done for you—the engine and radio come
installed! Generally it will take less than an hour to get it flying!
      Another consideration when choosing your first plane is how many
                                                                                $9.49               $3.19
control functions or channels (one radio channel—not to be confused
with frequency—for each function) you wish to use. Trainer aircraft are
available in both three channel and four channel configurations. Most
aircraft fly with four channels, these being the Rudder, Elevator, Throttle,                                          $9.99
and Ailerons. Trainers, however, can also fly without the use of ailerons. A              $5.99
greater dihedral (angle of the wings from the horizontal) on these trainers
makes them more stable and can also produce gentle turns using rudder
only. Usually a three channel model flies more slowly and is easier to fly
than one with four functions and a flatter wing. Four channel models can        $2.29              $0.99                                $6.49
usually handle the wind a bit better, however, and most trainers tend to
be configured this way. Check with your local instructor to see which type
of model he recommends and is more comfortable teaching with. If you
are learning on your own—which we strongly do not recommend— you
                           —
should have a much better chance with a three channel model than a four.
We would also recommend using a simulator for learning (page 22).
      There are generally a number of additional items that will be
necessary when building a kit. Most kits supply the airframe of the            Build your own!
model and do not contain such things as the radio system, the engine,                                                                Kadet LT-40 Kit
wheels, covering material, and items related to the engine such as fuel                                                                         SIGRC67
tank, fuel tubing, propeller, spinner, etc. ARF models usually contain                                                               $136.99
most items except radio, engine and propeller. With each model we
                                                                                              Additional Items for Kit
offer here, we will show you all the items necessary to complete it.
                                                                                                     Plus you will need the basic tools as
The Radio                                                                                            described on the following page.
     Along with your aircraft, you will need a radio to control it. Most
                                                                               $4.99
aircraft radio systems have four or more channel capability and come
with just about everything you need including the rechargeable bat-
tery packs. Refer to our Introduction to Radio Systems section (page
                                                          s                                           $17.99+up
   )
19) for more information on this.
     One thing you may want to look for when buying your first                 $7.99
radio is “buddy box” capability. The “buddy box” is where two ra-
dio transmitters may be connected together through a cable—the
instructor holds one and the student holds the other. The student
                                                                                           Model Engine Fuel
can have control over the model as long as the instructor holds a
spring loaded trainer switch on his transmitter. If the student gets into
trouble, the instructor releases the switch and regains full control of
the model. This can greatly decrease the learning time and also be
good insurance against accidents with the novice pilot. Check with
the local club or instructor to see if they have “buddy box” capability
and if so, you may wish to purchase a compatible radio system.                                        CANNOT
                                           w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   6                                                                                                           GREAT     HOBBIES

                                                                                                      Basic Tools
The Engine
    To power your model airplane you will require an engine. The
most common type of engine for model aircraft is the glow engine. Gas
engines are not common in trainer aircraft. For more information on               $2.69
engines refer to our Introduction to Model Engines section (page 7).
                                                  s

Tools and Adhesives                                                                                  $18.99
      Whether you’re building a complete kit or just assembling an ARF
model you will certainly need a few basic tools and some adhesives.              $9.99
      The most common tools used in building kits include a modeling
knife (such as a #1 Hobby Knife), T-pins (for holding parts over your
full-size plans), a small razor plane, a fine razor saw, small screw driv-
ers, pliers, etc. A sealing iron will be needed to apply covering to the
completed airframe. A drill with standard size bits can come in very
handy as well. Other, more expensive tools such as a Dremel® rotary                                       $4.59
tool are also of benefit to the modeler but are not absolutely necessary
to the beginner.
      There are a variety of adhesives used in building models and you
will need some of these for completion of your project. The most com-
                                                                                 $19.99
monly used adhesive today is the cyanoacrylate (similar to the famous                            Cyanoacrylate Adhesives
“Crazy Glues”). These are now specially formulated for working with
wood in various thicknesses and setting speeds.
      The thin cyanoacrylate is the fastest curing (usually 3 to 5 sec-
onds!) and is best suited to balsa wood where the joint is good fitting
and has a solid contact surface. The parts should be joined first and
then the thin cyanoacrylate applied to the joint. The glue will wick
into the joint and form a solid bond. The thicker or “gap-filling” cya-             $4.99        $7.99
noacrylate is great for general purpose building where balsa, spruce
or light plywood is involved. Apply the adhesive to the parts and then
join. Drying time is in the order of 5 to 10 seconds. The thickest cya-
noacrylate, also referred to as “slow-setting”, can be used like the
“gap-filling” cyanoacrylate where slightly longer cure times might be             Buy any 3
desired. Drying is in the order of 30 seconds to a minute.
      All cyanoacrylates may be cured more quickly with the aid of an                 #GHPHD20
accelerator or “kicker” which is sprayed onto the joint after gluing.
Another family of adhesives which is very popular in constructing
models is Epoxy. This is a two part adhesive which is mixed and then              Save 17%               $6.99             $6.99
applied to the surface to be bonded. Epoxy is especially useful when
working with foam parts as it will not attack the Styrofoam. Epoxies are
very strong and many kits recommend it specifically for certain parts
of the construction.
                                                                                                  Optional Field Gear
Field Equipment
     There will also be a few basic items needed for airplane support
at the field when you are actually ready to fly your model.
     First, you will need fuel (usually sold by the case) and a way of
getting it from the container into the fuel tank. This could be as simple
as a bulb fuel pump or hand pump, or more complex like a battery
powered electric fuel pump.
     The second basic necessity is power for your glow plug. As described
in our Introduction to Model Engines section (page 7), a glow engine
needs to have current flowing through the element in its glow plug before
it can start running. This current is supplied by a 1.2 to 1.5 volt battery or
by an adjustable circuit called a glow driver, frequently found on power
panels. The power panel gets its power from a 12V battery.
     Additional field support items should include a prop/glow plug
wrench, a safety-stick for starting your engine, and a few basic tools.
     Once into the hobby, most modelers will go with field support
consisting of the following: A flight box to hold everything; a power
panel; a 12 volt battery to power the power panel; a charger to charge
the 12 volt battery; a glow plug clip to apply power to the glow plug
from the power panel; an electric fuel pump which can be operated
from the power panel; fuel line, filters, and cap fittings for the fuel
container to connect to the pump and the fuel tank; a 12 volt electric
starter which can be powered from the power panel; a 4-way glow
plug/prop wrench; miscellaneous tools; spare glow plugs; and spare
propellers. The level of field support you choose initially will usually
depend on how much you want to spend right away.
                  C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g             R a d i o      C o n t r o l     D e a l e r
    1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                         7
    Introduction to Model Engines...                                                   Gas Powered Engines
                                                                                             Gas powered engines (using gaso-
 Radio controlled models may be powered by various types of engines in-                line) are becoming very popular in pow-
 cluding electric motors, 2-cycle glow engines, 4-cycle glow engines, and              ering larger model cars, boats and planes.
 gas engines. Each have their own advantages and disadvantages and all                 They don’t usually come in sizes suitable
 are widely used by thousands of modelers all over the world. Refer to the             for medium and smaller size models, but
                                                      )
 section Getting Started in Electric Aircraft (page 13) for more information           for the large models they provide good
 on electric motors.                                                                   power at a reasonable cost and are inex-
                                                                                       pensive to run. A spark plug provides the
 Glow Powered Engines                                                                  fire and no external power is required in
   Model glow engines come in two forms 2-cycle and 4-cycle. Both use                  starting. Fuel is usually a gas and oil mixture. Boat and car versions
  “glow fuel” which is a methanol based fuel with castor and/or synthetic oil          are usually equipped with a recoil pull starter for an easy start.
  as a lubricant. The major difference in the two types is the way fuel is de-
  livered to, and exhaust is expelled from the engine during operation.                Where Do You Start?
        In a 2-cycle engine the fuel/air mix-                                               For straight simplicity, ease of maintenance, overall performance
  ture (as metered by the carburetor) is                                               and lower cost, we generally recommend that the beginner choose a
  forced into the combustion chamber                                                   two-cycle glow engine for their first model aircraft. Choose an engine
  during the down stroke of the piston.                                                that is in the upper portion of the displacement range recommended
  During the upstroke the mixture is com-                                              for the model. You can always throttle back and you have reserve
  pressed and when the piston reaches                                                  power if you need it to get out of a spot.
  the top of its stroke, the glow plug ignites
  the compressed gases, forcing the piston                                             Ball Bearings or Bushings?
  down. On the way down exhaust gases                                                       You can get engines with either ball bearing supported crank-
  escape through the exhaust port while                                                shafts or with just bushings. Ball bearing engines usually have better
  the fuel mixture enters the chamber. The entire power cycle takes 2 strokes          performance, run smoother, and last longer with proper maintenance
  of the piston.                                                                       but are more expensive than those with bushings.
        In a 4-cycle engine the fuel/air mixture (as metered by the carbure-
  tor) is brought into the combustion chamber during the downstroke of                 Ringed or ABC?
  the piston through a valve operated by the crankshaft. On the upstroke                     The piston and cylinder for model engines are generally co-
  the valve closes and the mixture is compressed. When the piston reaches              structed in one of two methods—ringed or ABC. At one time, ringed
                                       the top of its stroke, the glow plug ignites
                                                                                       engines were the norm. In a ringed engine, an aluminum or iron pis-
                                       the mixture forcing the piston down. On
                                                                                       ton with a steel ring around its perimeter, moves in an iron sleeve.
                                       the next upstroke of the piston, a second
                                                                                       The ring provides the compression when operating.
                                       valve opens and allows the exhaust gas-
                                                                                             More recently the majority of engines utilize what is known as
                                       ses to escape. The fuel mixture again
                                                                                       ABC construction. The term ABC comes from the fact that the first en-
                                       enters on the down stroke. The entire
                                                                                       gines produced this way consisted of an Aluminum piston moving in a
                                       power cycle takes place in 4 strokes of
                                                                                       Brass cylinder that was Chrome plated. More recently, different com-
                                       the piston.
                                                                                       binations of metals have be used in their construction such as using
                                             The glow plug is common to both
                                                                                       an aluminum piston in a chrome-plated aluminum cylinder or using
                                       2-cycle and 4-cycle engines and is
                                                                                       an aluminum piston in a nickel-plated brass cylinder. These engines
                                       made up of a tiny little coil of platinum
                                                                                       are still often referred to as ABC, however. In all cases the piston and
                                       wire. To start the engine, an electric cur-r
rent, supplied by a 1.5 volt battery, must run through the coil to heat it. The
r                                                                                      cylinder are matched at the factory to give a perfect fit and provide
engine is then turned over to get it running. Once the combustion cycle has
e                                                                                      optimum compression.
s
started, the coil in the plug can retain heat between firing and current is not              Ringed engines are easy to flip start, they generate good power, are
necessary.
n                                                                                      inexpensive to restore compression after long usage by simply replac-
      The mixture for both types of glow engines is usually adjusted by two            ing the ring, and are generally slightly cheaper. ABC engines start easily
needle valves on the carburetor. One needle valve adjusts mixture for idle
n                                                                                      by hand, give more power than their ringed counterparts, have a good
a
and low speed operation while the other is for high speed mixture adjust-              lifespan, and are less susceptible to damage with a lean run. They are
ment. Engines for control line models do not usually have carburetors and
m                                                                                      slightly more expensive to buy and more expensive to restore compres-
o
operate only at full throttle. A needle valve is mounted at the air intake and         sion if required as the entire piston/cylinder assembly must be replaced.
a
adjusts mixture at high speed only.                                                    No extended break-in is required for an ABC engine.
      Throttle control for R/C engines is usually accomplished via a rotating
b
barrel in the carburetor. This barrel controls the amount of fuel/air mixture          Schnuerle Porting
g
going to the combustion chamber and is activated by a small arm mounted                     Schnuerle porting refers to the way the fuel/air mixture enters
on the side of the carburetor.
o                                                                                      the combustion chamber in a 2-cycle engine. Rather than a single
      Two-cycle engines are the most common model aircraft power plant.                port opposite the exhaust as with conventional porting, Schnuerle
They are simple, light, easy to operate and easy to maintain, and are gener-
T                                                                                  r   porting has several ports on three sides of the cylinder giving great-
a
ally inexpensive. They operate at a high RPM with a high pitched sound.                er power. Most model 2-cycle engines are now Schnuerle ported.
Four-cycle engines are growing in popularity and produce a lower, more
F
scale-like sound. They produce their power at lower RPM than two-cycle
s                                                                                      Glow Plugs
e
engines. Because of their valves, they have a higher part count and thus are               There are two lengths of glow plugs available. The short ones are
u
usually more expensive than two-cycle engines. They may also require a                 generally used on engines of .15 cu in displacement and smaller. The
bit more maintenance and adjustment than their two-cycle counterparts but
b                                                                                      long plugs are used on all engines larger than .15. Please follow the
they are not difficult to operate and maintain and they sure sound great!
t                                                                                      manufacturers recommendations when choosing a glow plug.

                                                w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   8                                                                                                                            GREAT         HOBBIES

 The following are some terms related to             layer of paint to finish it and make it resistant        the engine throttle.
 model aircraft with which you may wish              to the exhaust of the engine. Covering materi-           Flying Stab - A flying stab is where the sta-
 to become familiar.                                 als come on a roll and in many different colors          bilizer/elevator is one complete unit which all
                                                     and may be cut to rough shape before being               moves to control the pitch of the aircraft.
Aileron - An Aileron is a moveable surface on        ironed onto the airframe.                                Foam Rubber - Foam rubber is used to wrap
the trailing edge of the wing which provides                         - Crucifix tail refers to a stabilizer   the radio receiver and receiver battery pack in
directional control of the roll of the aircraft.     that is mounted part way up the fin. This is a           the plane so that they will be isolated from the
A Strip Aileron is an aileron that is narrow         compromise between the conventional tail                 vibration of the running engine.
and usually takes up the entire, or most of the      and the T-tail, combining some of the major              Fuselage - The fuselage is the body part of the
                                                                                                                        e
trailing edge of a wing. A Barn-door Aileron         advantages of both.                                      aircraft which holds the passengers, cargo, or
is wider and takes up a smaller portion of the       Dihedral - The Dihedral of a wing is the V-              in the case of an R/C aircraft, the radio system.
trailing edge towards the wing tip.                  shape the wing makes or the angle between the            Glide Ratio - The glide ratio is defined as
                                                     wing and the horizontal. Usually the greater the         the distance traveled in a horizontal direction
                                                     dihedral angle the more stable the aircraft will         compared with the vertical distance dropped
                                                     be (to a point) and is common in trainer type            on a normal glide. A 10 to 1 glide ratio means
                                                     aircraft. A flat wing with little or no dihedral is      that the aircraft would loose one foot of alti-
                                                     less stable and more suited to aerobatics.               tude for every ten feet of distance traveled.
                                                     Elevator - The Elevator is the horizontal                Hinges - The hinges are used to connect the
                                                     moveable control surface at the tail of the              moveable control surfaces of the aircraft to
                                                     model connected to the stabilizer. It controls           the fixed surfaces and allow smooth, easy
                                                     direction in pitch.                                      movement. They may take several forms
Airfoil - The Airfoil is the shape of the cross      Engine mount - An engine mount supports the              including hinge points, pinned hinges,
section of the wing. The front of the airfoil is     engine in an aircraft. Some aircraft use wood-           “living” hinges, etc.
the leading edge and is usually a rounded sec-       en rails to which the engine is mounted while            Landing Gear -The landing gear of the aircraft
                                                                                                                              r
tion. The back of the airfoil is the trailing edge   others require a shaped nylon or aluminum                refers to the support between the wheels and
and usually tapers to nearly a point. The distance   mount. The wooden rail type would usually be             the wing or fuselage. It is usually formed from
between the two is the wing chord.                                                                                      metal, wire or a nylon/fiberglass
The top surface of the airfoil is usu-                                                                                  combination.
ally always curved to allow smooth                                                                                      Pitch - The pitch refers to the angle of
airflow and produce lift.                                                                                               the aircraft in the up or down direction.
Ballast - Ballast is extra weight                                                                                       Polyhedral - Polyhedral refers to
added to a glider to help it pen-                                                                                       the multiple angles that wing panels
etrate better in windy weather or to                                                                                    make with the horizontal. A wing
increase its speed. Ballast is usually                                                                                  with polyhedral has more than two
added in tubes in the inner portion                                                                                     wing panels and the angle of the
of the wings or in the fuselage at the                                                                                  wing changes at each joint.
center of gravity.                                                                                                      Propellers - The propeller is the
Center of Gravity - The Center of                                                                                       device that converts the rotational
Gravity is the position in the aircraft                                                                                 action of the motor into movement
where if a point was placed, the                                                                                        of air that creates the thrust to power
plane would balance. The “C of G”                                                                                       the aircraft. The size of an aircraft
should usually be found along the centerline         included in a kit while the molded type may              propeller is described by two numbers—the
of the aircraft at a distance approximately 1/3 of   or may not be included, depending upon the               diameter in inches times the pitch in inches.
the way behind the leading edge of the wing.         kit. It is possible to get mounts specifically for       For example, a 10 x 6 propeller is a prop of
                                                     a particular engine, although many generic               10” diameter and having 6” of pitch. The di-
Clevis - The Clevis is a small fastener at the
                                                     type mounts are available to fit certain engine          ameter is simply the length of the prop. The
end of a pushrod, usually made from nylon
                                                     size ranges.                                             pitch is described as the distance the propel-
or metal, which connects the pushrod to the                                                                   ler will move ahead in a perfect or solid me-
control horn. Clevises may frequently be re-         Fin - The Fin, also known as the “vertical
                                                     stabilizer”, is the fixed vertical surface at the        dium, at 100% efficiency, in one revolution.
ferred to as links.                                                                                           That is to say, if you were to rotate your 10 x
Control Horn - The Control Horn is a small brack-    rear of an aircraft. It provides yaw stability
                                                                                                              6 propeller exactly once, your plane would
et mounted on a control surface to transfer the      for the aircraft.
                                                                                                              move ahead 6”, assuming this could be done
movement of the pushrod to the control surface.      Flap - The Flap is a control surface found on            with no slippage.
Control Surface - A moveable surface, at-            some aircraft, usually located on the inboard
tached to the airframe of an aircraft, which         trailing edge of each wing. Flaps may be low-
controls the direction of the aircraft.              ered to increase the lift of the aircraft by simu-
Conventional Tail - A Conventional Tail is           lating an under-camber airfoil.
one with the stabilizer mounted directly on          Flat Bottom - A Flat Bottom Wing is when
the fuselage and is the usual configuration of       the lower surface of the wing is primarily flat
an aircraft. These are the simplest to construct     between the leading and trailing edges. This
and seem to be most popular.                         type of wing has high lift and is common on
Covering - The covering of an aircraft is the        trainer type aircraft.
skin which is applied to the airframe, closing       Flex Cable -A Flex Cable is a special type of                 Different sizes of motors require different
it in. On R/C aircraft it is commonly a fabric       pushrod which is very flexible and can bend              size propellers to keep their operating RPMs in
or plastic film which is heat applied with an        around corners even more easily than a flex-             an optimum range. You can refer to our web
iron. Plastic covering, once applied, gives a        ible pushrod. These are generally made with              site at www.greathobbies.com for a chart that
                                                     a metal cable running inside a plastic tube              indicates which size propellers are generally
durable, shiny finish and requires no further
                                                     and are popular in controlling                           suitable for various sizes of engines—both 2-
treatment. Fabric covering usually requires a
                                                                                                               y             y
                                                                                                              cycle and 4-cycle.
                 C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g               R a d i o           C o n t r o l              D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                     9
                                                   nose of the aircraft. The spinner may be made gear (see landing gear, page 8)  r
                                                   from plastic or aluminum and functions pri- V-Tail - A V-Tail is a special tail surface con-
                                                   marily to improve looks and aerodynamics.             figuration where the horizontal stabilizers and
                                                   Spoiler - A Spoiler is a control surface more elevators are mounted at an angle between 30
                                                   commonly found on gliders and jet aircraft which and 45 degrees in a V-shape and the vertical
                                                   is used to slow down the aircraft and decrease lift. fin is eliminated entirely. The stabilizers pro-
                                                   They are rarely found on conventional aircraft. vide stability in both pitch and yaw while the
                                                   They may be mounted on either the top or bot- moveable surfaces provide directional control
                                                   tom of the center portion of the wings.               in both pitch and yaw.
                                                   Stabilizer - The Stabilizer is the fixed hori- Wheel Collars - Wheel Collars are small
Some aircraft or airboats may require a pro- zontal surface at the rear of an aircraft. It pro- metal collars fastened with a set screw to the
peller that pushes the air rather than pulls it. vides pitch stability for the aircraft.                 axle of an aircraft on either side of the wheel.
These are called Pusher Propellers and they Symmetrical - A Symmetrical airfoil is curved
                                                                                                         This prevents the wheel from coming off the
are also available. A given engine would re- on the bottom to the same degree as it is on the
                                                                                                         axle or rubbing against the landing gear.
quire the same size pusher prop as it would a top. If a line was drawn from the center of the
                                                                                                         Wheels- The wheels for an aircraft come in
“tractor” type. Pusher propellers are required
                                                   leading edge to the center of the trailing edge several styles including treaded, non-treaded,
as most glow engines will only operate cor-      r
                                                   the upper and lower halves of the airfoil would scale tread, air-filled, and super lightweight.
rectly in one direction, so reverse operation is
                                                                                                     r
                                                   be symmetrical. This is ideal for aerobatic air- Most brands of wheels are available in sizes
not possible. The main exception to this is the
                                                   craft and most lift is created by the angle of in- from 1¾” to 6”, in 1/4” increments.
Cox reed valve engines which will usually run
as comfortably backward as forward.                cidence of the wing to the flight path.               Wing - The wing of the aircraft is the large
      3-Blade propellers are also available for Tail Dragger - This refers to the landing horizontal surface which produces the lift
use in model aircraft. They are not quite as gear configuration where the main landing and allows the aircraft to fly. Wing place-
efficient as the 2-blade props, but the may be gear with two wheels is placed forward of ment may be on the upper part of the fu-
useful in certain applications. A general rule the center of gravity and one small wheel, selage known as a high wing plane. This is
of thumb for selecting a 3-blade prop for your called a “tail wheel”, is mounted under the more common on trainer type aircraft as a
engine is to reduce the applicable 2-blade size tail of the aircraft.                                    high wing model is more stable due to the
by one inch in the diameter measurement.           Tow-hook - The tow-hook is a small metal pendulum effect of the fuselage. A wing
For example, if you are running a                                                                                      mounted on the bottom of the
.40 size engine you would usu-                                                                                         fuselage is referred to as a low-
ally use a 10 x 6 2-blade propel-                                        Stabilizer                                    wing aircraft and is more suit-
ler. If you wish to run a 3-blade                                                                 Elevator             able for aerobatic type aircraft as
propeller, a good choice would                                                                                         stability is more neutral and ma-
be a 9 x 6 3-blade. Three blade                                                      Fin                               noeuvres such as rolls and loops
props are quite often used where                                                                                       are more easily done.
they are more scale looking than                                                                                       Wing Area - The Wing Area
                                          Canopy
2-blades, or when a smaller di-                                                                                        is the total surface area of the
ameter propeller is required due                                                                     Rudder            wing of the aircraft, usually cal-
to restricted clearance.                                                                                               culated by the wingspan times
Pushrod Connectors - The                                                                                               the wing chord, although more
pushrod connector is another                                                                                           complex calculations re used on
means by which a pushrod may                                        Tow hook                                           unconventional wing plans.
                                                      Fuselage
be connected to a servo. The con-         T-tail                                                                       Wing Chord -The wing chord of
nector is mounted onto a servo arm                                                                                     an aircraft is the distance from the
and the pushrod wire is secured by a set screw. hook mounted on the bottom of the glider fuse- front or “leading edge” of a wing to the back
Pushrods - The pushrods are part of the lage at approximately the center of gravity and or “trailing edge”
control linkage which connects the servo to which the hi-start or winch is connected.                    Wing loading - Wing loading is defined as
part of the radio system to the control sur- Tricycle Landing Gear- Tricycle refers to the the weight of the aircraft divided by the wing
faces of the aircraft. Pushrods may consist landing gear configuration with a single steer- area. It is usually expressed in ounces per
of a firm piece of balsa or fiberglass rod able nosewheel mounted in front of the center square foot.
with threaded wire and clevises fastened to of gravity, and a set of main landing gear with Wing Seating Tape- Wing seating tape is
both ends, or they may be the flexible type two wheels positioned just behind the center mounted on the fuselage wing saddle where
and take the form of a wire or one plastic of gravity. Tricycle landing gear is usually a the removeable wing fits and isolates the wing
tube running inside another with the ability little easier to use when learning.                         from vibration as well as to form a seal to keep
to turn around corners.                            T-tail - The T-tail refers to a stabilizer that is exhaust gases from entering the structure.
Roll - The roll refers to the rotation of the air- mounted on top of the fin. This brings the Wing Span -The Wingspan of an aircraft is
craft around it’s centerline (one wing up and stabilizer away from the turbulent air-flow the length of the wing as measured from wing
one wing down).                                    of the wing and makes pitch control more tip to wing tip.
Rudder - The Rudder is the moveable control responsive. It also gets the stabilizer out of
         r
surface at the tail of the model connected to harms way when landing on rough terrain. The                                      W       n
the fin. It controls direction in yaw              T-tail construction is usually more fragile than
Semi-symmetrical - A semi-symmetrical the conventional tail, though, and are more
airfoil has a curved wing bottom surface but difficult to build.
to a lesser degree than the top surface. It is a Under-camber - An Under-camber airfoil
                                                                                                                                 Ail
                                                                                                                                 Ailerons
compromise between the flat bottom and the has the lower surface of the wing curved in-
symmetrical airfoil. This is a very popular air- wardly almost parallel to the upper surface. Wing Tip - The very outer edge of a wing.
                                                 r
foil on sport type aircraft.                       This type of airfoil produces a great deal of
                                                                                                         Yaw- The yaw refers to the angle of the air-     r
Spinner - The spinner is the cone shaped ob- lift but is not common in R/C models.
          r                                                                                              craft in the side to side direction.
ject mounted to the engine prop shaft on the Undercarriage - Another name for landing

                                           w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
 10                                                                                                          GREAT      HOBBIES

                                                                                                                                Radian
 Getting Started in R/C Sailplanes...                                                                                   Ready-to-Fly Combo
     One very popular category for Radio Controlled aircraft is the
glider or sailplane. It is also an excellent way to get into the R/C aircraft         O
hobby as it is less expensive and somewhat less complex than pow-
ered aircraft. Even though a glider is not powered, it can sustain flight
                                                                                 $259.99
for quite long periods of time and some glider designs can reach quite
high speeds. Many gliders are light and very stable making them an
excellent choice for a beginner to learn to fly.
     There are two basic ways for a glider to retain or gain altitude
once airborne and these are thermal lift and slope lift.                                                                Required to
                                                                                                                         Complete
THERMAL SOARING
      Thermal lift is created by areas of warm air rising from the land.
As the land heats up with the warmth of the sun, the air above it will
begin to warm by the heat radiating from the land. This is especially
true over terrain such as a freshly plowed field or a paved parking area.
As the air heats, it will begin to rise and allow cooler air to move in to
replace it. This air, in turn, will heat up, rise, and you will get a con-                                              $3.99
tinuous current of rising air. As long as the air is rising at a rate greater
than a glider sinks while in flight, the glider can sustain lift.
      Gliders designed for thermal soaring are generally of similar shape
with long, slender wings for greater lift and a sleek body for low drag. Many
will have wings with polyhedral (a multiple dihedral) and the tail surfaces
may take several forms such as a conventional tail, crucifix tail, T-tail, or
V-tail. Thermal gliders are generally grouped into four different classes.

Hand Launch — The smallest is the “hand launch” glider with a span
up to 1.5 meters (59”). These models are, as the name implies, launched
by hand and it is up to the pilot to remain airborne for as long as possible.
It would certainly help to have a good throwing arm with these models!
“Hand Launch is perhaps not the best class with which to start for the begin-
ner as generally these models are small enough to require miniature radio
equipment which is more expensive than the standard size equipment.

Two Meter — The second, and most popular size of glider is the “2-Me-
           r                                                                                                            Spectra Select
ter” with a wingspan of up to 2 meters (78”). These models will usually                                                             Combo
accommodate standard radio equipment and require 2 channels of con-
trol – the rudder for steering and the elevator for pitch. Many have de-
tachable wing panels for easy transportation and storage. Launching is                                                 $274.99
best accomplished by either hi-start or winch as will be discussed later.

Standard Class — The third class of sailplane is the “standard class”
with wingspans of up to 100”. These models will accommodate stan-
dard radio equipment of 2 to 4 channels, the additional options being
flaps and spoilers. Again, launching is best accomplished by either
hi-start or winch as discussed later.

Open Class — The fourth and largest size of sailplane is the “open                              Required to Complete
class” and this encompasses all gliders including those over 100” in
span. Again 2 to 4 channels of control are the norm and launching is
best accomplished by winch as will be discussed later.
     Once airborne, if lift is poor or the pilot is unskilled, the glider may                             $2.99
only remain aloft for a couple of minutes. But if there is reasonable lift
and the thermal pilot has a bit of experience, he should be able to keep
his craft aloft for 5, 10, 15 minutes, or as long as there is lift.
                                                                                $62.99                                     $3.99
SLOPE SOARING
      Slope lift is generated by a breeze hitting the face of a cliff or
sloping land as depicted in the accompanying diagram. As the breeze
hits the vertical surface, it has no where to go but up. As with thermal
soaring, as long as the upward movement of the air is greater than the
sink rate of the glider, the craft will remain aloft.
      All classes of glider will work well in slope lift although some
are suited better than others, depending on the amount of wind. Glid-
ers designed for thermal soaring are better suited to light winds when
slope soaring unless they can be ballasted for a higher wing loading.
When there is lots of wind available, take out a glider that is designed
specifically for slope soaring for a really exciting time. These craft are
usually designed with shorter, swept wings, sleek fuselages, and are
extremely fast and agile. Many look like jets, are capable of most aero-
batic manoeuvres and will sustain flight as long as there’s a breeze!

                 C a n a d a ’ s                L e a d i n g             R a d i o       C o n t r o l   D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                                11
                                                                                 Build an ARF!                                              Save an Additional $10
   Launching Methods...                                                                                           Choose a sailplane kit and everything needed to complete it
                                                                                    and you can take $10 off the total (Refer to Great Deal number GHPHD13 when ordering).
      Launching a glider in slope lift is as simple as tossing the model
out over the slope, however, launching for a thermal flight takes a bit more                                                                                      lplane
equipment. There are four basic ways of getting a thermal model into flight,                                                                                      Start ARF
a hi-start, a winch, a glow engine power pod, and an electric motor.

HI-START
      The hi-start is basically a very long sling-shot. It consists of a
length of surgical tubing (usually 50 to 100 feet) staked to the ground
at one end and fastened to about four times as much nylon line (200
to 400 feet) at the other. A parachute/ring assembly on the end of                                                                                               GPMA1060
the nylon line is clipped to a hook on the bottom of the glider at ap-
proximately the center of gravity. The tubing is stretched to almost four
                                                                                                                                                             $79.99
times its length. When the pilot lets go of the model, it will soar at a
very steep angle until the tubing has relaxed and the model is at peak                                                                      Fling 2M Sailplane
altitude (anywhere from 250 to 400 feet). At that time, the line will                                                                                Almost Ready-to-Fly
drop off the hook and the parachute will guide the line back to the
ground. Since launches are always made into the wind, the parachute
will carry the line back toward the general location of the launch. The
hi-start is an excellent choice for the beginning sailplane pilot.

WINCH
     The winch will launch a glider in a manner very similar to that of                                                                                          GPMA1062
a hi-start, but the mechanism to accomplish this is much more com-                                                                                        $124.99
plex and much more expensive. Generally winches are homemade
and consist of an electric motor, powered by a 12 volt car battery,                                                                                     Gentle Lady
driving a drum onto which the nylon towline is wound. Again, a para-                                                                        Almost Ready-to-Fly Version
chute is used for retrieval of the line. The motor is operated by a foot
switch which is quite often pumped by the operator so as not to over-   r
power smaller gliders. The power of a winch is substantially greater
than that of a hi-start and that is why it is more suitable for the larger
models found in “open class”.
                                                                                                                                                                   GOL060A
POWER POD
      The third method of glider launch is by glow engine power as-
                                                                                                                                                          $187.99
sist. This is basically a small engine mounted in a pod atop the center                         Required to Complete these ARF’s
of gravity of the model. It is used to bring the model to altitude and
then it is shut off or runs out of fuel. This is a great way for attaining
very high altitudes with your model but gliding performance will suf-
fer with a pod mounted engine due to the extra drag.                                                       $68.99                           $9.99
ELECTRIC MOTOR
     A fourth method, which has become very popular with the ad-
vancement in NiCd technology, is an electric motor launch. The elec-
tric motor is mounted in the nose of the aircraft and will quite often                                            $2.99
have a folding prop which will fold back against the fuselage to reduce            $4.99
drag when the motor run has completed. The motor is powered by a
6 or 7-cell rechargeable NiCd battery pack and will run for between 3
and 5 minutes. If a separate motor control is utilized, the motor may
                                                                                                  $6.49                                                    $3.99
be turned on and off during flight to regain altitude if lift is poor. The
disadvantage of the electric motor launch is that the extra weight of
the battery will increase wing loading and reduce the glide ratio.

   What You Will Need...
THE GLIDER                                                                       Radio Control Sailplanes
     Just as with powered aircraft, there are some glider kits that are better
suited to the beginner than others. A good choice would be something in
the 2-meter class requiring only 2 channels of control, a kit with a sturdy
construction, and good building instructions. This type of aircraft is rec-
ommended regardless of whether you plan to thermal or slope soar. Mod-
els designed specifically for slope soaring are quite a bit faster and not as
conducive to learning to fly. Save one of these for your second model.                                                                                          MAN2003
                                                                                                                                                             $15.49
                                            w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   12                                                                                                                            GREAT           HOBBIES

     As with powered aircraft, you have the choice of building a mod-        Build a kit!                                                Save an Additional $10
                                                                                                               Choose a sailplane kit and everything needed to complete it
el completely or just doing the final assembly of an Almost-Ready-               and you can take $10 off the total (Refer to Great Deal number GHPHD13 when ordering).
to-Fly (ARF) kit. Your choice should simply be driven by your desire
to build. There are a few additional items you are bound to need to                                                                                                   rit
complete your model, but the list is much shorter than that required                                                                                                   on
to finish most powered aircraft. Refer to the Getting Started in RC
                         )                                      )
Aircraft section (page 4) and Aircraft Glossary section (page 8) for
        t                                     y
more discussion on accessories, components and definitions.
                                                                                                                                                                       30
THE RADIO                                                                                                                                                 $74.99
      Along with your sailplane, you will need a radio to control it.
Since many sailplanes have only two moveable control surfaces (rud-
der & elevator) you can often get away with a simple, inexpensive
                                                                s
2-channel system. Refer to our Introduction to Radio Systems section
           )
(page 19) for more information.                                                                                                                      Gentle Lady
      Although your first glider will most likely only need two channels                                                                                     Kit Version
of operation, you may wish to opt for buying a four channel system.
Most four channel systems come complete with rechargeable batter-       r
ies while the two and three channel systems do not. It is safer to fly ra-                                                                                       GOL060
dio controlled model aircraft or sailplane with rechargeable NiCd bat-
teries. If you recharge before you go flying each time, you will know
                                                                                                                                                          $62.99
the condition of the batteries and won’t end up with radio malfunction
due to dead batteries mid-flight—not pretty. There are some nice 2 and
three channel systems available now with a single stick for sailplane
operation. You may wish to convert them to NiCds, however.
      One thing you may want to look for when buying your first ra-
                                                                                                                                                                Riser
                                                                                                                                                                      Kit
dio is “buddy box” capability. The “buddy box” is where two radio
transmitters may be connected together through a cable, the instruc-
tor holding one and the student holding the other. The student can
have control over the model as long as the instructor holds a trainer                                                                                             GRC52
switch on his transmitter. If the student gets into trouble, the instruc-
                                                                                                                                                          $49.99
tor releases the switch and regains full control of the model. This can
greatly decrease the learning time and also be good insurance against
accidents with the novice pilot. Check with the local club or instruc-
tor to see if they have “buddy box” capability and if so, you may wish                            Required Items for These Kits
to purchase a compatible radio system.
      There are some radios available with special functions included              Plus you will need the basic tools as
that are useful with more sophisticated gliders. These certainly are not           described on page 6 and the items required
necessary for the beginning modeler, however.                                      for an ARF sailplane on page 11.

TOOLS AND ADHESIVES
      Please refer to the “tools and adhesives” section of our Getting
Started in R/C Aircraft (page 5). The requirements are the same.
                       t
                                                                                     $4.99                 $14.99 & up
                                                                                            Hi-Start Launch for 2-Meter Sailplane
FIELD/LAUNCH EQUIPMENT
     If you plan to do primarily slope soaring with your model, you will
need virtually no field support equipment short of a few tools for minor
repairs/adjustments. If you are planning to do some thermal soaring, your     $36.99
needs will vary depending upon which method you choose to get aloft.                        OR

Hi-Start — Launching with a Hi-start is probably the simplest and
cleanest way to become airborne and, as a result, it is the most popu-
lar. The only item you will need is your hi-start. Refer to the opposite      $74.99
diagram for hi-start operation.

Glow Engine Power Pod — Most 2-meter gliders require a .049 en-
gine for power pod launch. You will require one of the Cox or Norvel
.049 engines, a power pod, paint or finishing material for the power
pod if required, and a ½A starter kit, which usually has everything you
need including fuel, starting battery, wrench, and glow head clip.

Electric Power Launch — Many electric powered gliders come with
the electric motor and prop assembly as part of the kit. The only ad-
ditional items needed would be a battery (usually two, so you can fly
with one battery while the other is on charge) and a fast charger that
will operate from your 12V car battery while at the flying field.

                C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g            R a d i o          C o n t r o l                   D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                   13
                                                                                        Astro Flight makes cobalt motors especially for models using rare
   Getting Started in Electric Aircraft...                                        earth magnets. These motors have a different designation which is based
      One of the fastest growing areas of radio control in recent years is        on the size of a glow engine of equivalent power. Their Cobalt 05 would
electric aircraft. Many factors have contributed to this growth including         be, in theory, equivalent to a .05 glow engine, or a typical ½A. This is
quickly advancing battery technology and construction techniques, cou-            only an approximation and should be taken with a “grain of salt.”
pled with a shortage of good flying sites for larger, noisier aircraft, such as         Other variations on electric motors include “brushless motors”
those that are glow or gas powered. Electrics are quiet. They produce no          and “External Rotary Brushless Motors”.
exhaust fumes, and can be quite small and light—some small enough, in
                                                                                        Brushless motors have windings that remain fixed (so the wires that
fact, that they can be flown indoors in a large gymnasium or hangar.
      An improvement in motor technology has also provided greater                send power to them can be soldered directly) and the magnets rotate
interest in the field. Motors have gotten smaller, more powerful, with            with the shaft. The disadvantage of these motors is that a special con-
better magnets, and now there are brushless motors with less friction,            troller is required to supplied pulsed current to the windings to provide
less wear, and less maintenance.                                                  the changing induction and thus motion. Early versions also required
      There are several components to electric flight and we will                 “sensors” to sense the position of the armature to aid in supplying the
touch on each briefly.                                                            proper pulse. Newer versions are able to accomplish this without the
                                                                                  additional sensor and are called “sensorless” brushless motors.
The Aircraft                                                                            External Rotary Brushless Motors are unique in that the entire outer
      Although just about any model aircraft can be electric powered,             can rotates with the shaft. The windings are mounted on a sleeve to a
performance will be far superior if the model is designed specifically            backplate, which is essentially a motor mount. The drive shaft fits into
for the purpose. The key factor for a good performing electric model is
                                                                                  the sleeve, supported by bearings and is fixed, along with the magnets,
lightness—the airframe must be strong, but more importantly light.
                                                                                  to the outer can.
      Electric models can be of almost any size, but the most popular
are in the small to medium size range. The smaller models may be                        Although brushless motors require a more complex controller,
only a couple of feet in wingspan, weigh merely ounces, and have                  they have the great advantage of having no brushes to wear out, mean-
only a stick for a fuselage.                                                      ing less maintenance, and a lower friction. Dirty brushes and poor
      For a model to be classified as an “Indoor Flyer”, it should be ex-         contact is never an issue.
tremely light (ounces, in the single digits!), fairly small wingspan, be eas-
ily controlled, and fly very slowly. There are some exceptions where the          Batteries
model may fly faster, but it must be extremely agile and quick on the                   Batteries have come along way in the past number of years and
controls to contain its movement in the confined space—not for the faint          continue to evolve, almost monthly. Capacity per size/weight unit is al-
of heart! Indoor models are meant to be flown indoors in such facilities          ways increasing, meaning you can get either greater performance or lon-
as a large gymnasium, an arena, or a hangar. They may also be flown               ger run times for the same size pack as you may have used in the past.
outside, however, they should be restricted to almost calm conditions.                  Your battery pack supplies the power that runs your motor. Battery
Their slowness in flight also means their wind penetration is almost nil.         packs are made up of cells of batteries and come in a wide range of sizes
      The next step up is the “Park Flyer”. These models are heavier and          and capacities. The voltage of a battery pack depends on the number of
slightly faster than their indoor counterparts, penetrating wind slightly         cells and the type of cell. You now commonly find battery packs with
better (not very strong winds, mind you), but are still able to fly in a          Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) cells, Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells, or
reasonably confined area such as a park or large yard. This is a very             Lithium Polymer (Li-Po). All of these cells are rechargeable and have a
popular category of electric model and currently accounts for almost              reasonably long lifetime of many charge/discharge cycles.
half of the selection available.
                                                                                        NiCd batteries were developed by Sanyo in 1963, have been in use
      There is another term used to describe light electric models and
                                                                                  with model aircraft the longest and have evolved greatly since first intro-
that is the “Slow Flyer”. Different people use this term in different
                                                                                  duced. Capacities and charge rates have improved dramatically and the
ways, however, it usually refers to both Indoor and Park Flyers. Some
consider it a category between indoor and park, where it is slightly              cells are available in a wide variety of sizes. Each NiCd cell has a nomi-
larger and heavier than a standard Indoor model, but can still be flown           nal voltage of 1.2 volts and is generally considered discharged when
in a reasonably large venue indoors or outdoors.                                  reduced to 1.1 volts. Some variations of NiCds have the ability to deliver
                                                                                  quite high current rates and, can be recharged at a high rate. Generally,
Power Systems                                                                     NiCd batteries can be charged and discharged over 500 times.
     There are three basic types of power systems used in electric flight.              NiMH batteries were developed in 1990 and are very similar to
These are: direct drive, where the propeller is fastened directly to the motor    the more common NiCd. A Nickel Metal Hydride cell has a voltage
drive shaft; gear drive, where the prop is connected to the motor through         of 1.2V and cell shapes and sizes are similar to NiCds. One of the
a series of gears to reduce the speed of the prop compared to the motor           major differences between NiCds and NiMH cells is that for a com-
speed; and ducted fan, where a multi-blade fan unit is mounted directly           parable size cell, the NiMH will have a higher capacity (double in
to the motor and operates inside a shroud or duct. Ducted fan systems,            some cases) and be a bit lighter, but cannot be charged or discharged
although less efficient than prop systems, are ideal for jet-style projects.      at as high a rate due to a higher internal resistance. This is of concern
Direct drive systems use smaller propellers rotating at the motor speed
                                                                                  in high-demand current applications. NiMH packs cannot deliver as
and are suitable for models that fly faster. Gear drive systems turn the prop
slower, allowing for larger props and suitable for slower flying models.          much current and would be better suited to models where duration
     The motors that drive these systems vary widely in size and power            and light weight are more of a factor than power and speed (the trade
and newer technology is offering some interesting design changes.                 off between performance and duration will be discussed later). NiMH,
     The standard electric motor is that developed by Mabuchi, one of             like NiCd cells, can be charged and discharged over 500 times.
the worlds largest electric motor manufacturers. These motors carry des-                Li-Po batteries are the most recent addition to electric flight and
ignations that are based on the physical size of the motor—the length of          are quite different from the previously mentioned types. Their claim to
the motor come in millimeters, times ten. Two of the most popular sizes           fame is high capacity, light weight. Li-Po have 3.6 volts per cell with a
are 38mm and 54mm which are designated 380 and 540, respectively.                 high energy density, minimizing battery size and weight. They are also
Often, these get rounded up and get prefaced with “SPEED”, a name                 not packaged similarly to the NiCd or NiMH, but are typically square
coined by Graupner, one of Europe’s most prominent model manufac-                 and flat. The newer versions of these polymer based cells are also ca-
turers. The “380” motor would then be referred to as a “SPEED 400”.               pable of over 500 charge/discharge cycles.
                                             w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   14                                                                                        GREAT HOBBIES
                                      Mini Super Cub                                  O
                                                                                                Firebird Freedom
                                                 Electric RTF
                                                                                   $174.99                 Electric RTF




                                          O l
                                      $149.99


                                                  SkyFly                         O              Cessna 182 Skylane
                                                Electric RTF
                                                                             $199.99                       RTF Electric
                                                                                      X




                                     $124.99


                                                                                O                NexSTAR Select EP
                                           Sky Pilot EP
                              O                     3-Ch RTF                 $539.99                     Brushless RTF

                           $162.99                                                    X




                                                                           HOBP9953
                                                                        $179.99
                                             Super Cub                         O                  Firebird Phantom
                          O           Ready-to-Fly Park Flyer                $94.99                        RTF Electric
                        $199.99
Comes with everything
     you need!




                                        Replacement Parts
            Aircraft               Prop       Battery     Main Wing                            Tail Assembly
Mini Super Cub -
Sky Fly -
Sky Pilot -
Super Cub -
Firebird Freedom -
Cessna 182 Skylane -
NexSTAR Select EP -
Firebird Phantom -
                C a n a d a ’ s   L e a d i n g          R a d i o   C o n t r o l        D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                     15
    In most cases, the battery pack that powers your motor, also powers               Peak chargers are the ideal solution, but again there are many
the radio components mounted in the aircraft. This saves the weight of           variations. Usually peak chargers are designed for a specific type of
a separate pack. The on-board electronic components have a function              battery, i.e.. NiCd, NiMH, or Li-Po as the operation has to be different
called BEC (battery eliminator circuit) that ensures the proper voltage          for each. Some chargers are designed to handle more than one type.
to the receiver and servos from the battery pack.                                      Taking NiCd cells as an example, the charger monitors the voltage of
      Obviously, you would not want the battery pack to become so fully          the pack while the charge is taking place. When a NiCd is fully charged it
drained from powering the motor that the receiver and servos would no            will stop increasing in voltage and will actually drop back in voltage slight-
longer be able to function. Protection to prevent this from happening is         ly. The charger detects this drop in voltage and automatically shuts off or
provided through an “auto cut-off” feature in the speed control. Once the        reduces to a trickle charge rate. This is called a “Peak Detection Charger”.
voltage level of the battery pack is reduced to a certain level, this function         Peak chargers have many benefits: They are simple to use—usu-
will turn the motor off leaving enough battery power to keep on-board            ally just connect the power source and battery and push a button.
electronics functioning until the plane can be glided in for a landing.          They will not overcharge your battery pack. They always give your
                                                                                 battery the maximum charge possible.
Performance vs Duration                                                                Peak chargers cost a bit more but they are very much worth it!
     This would be a good time to discuss the trade-off between per-
                                                                                 They are simpler, safer, and will generally save you the difference in
formance and duration. Any given battery contains a certain amount
                                                                                 cost in ruined battery packs from overcharging with the other types
of electrical energy or power. You can either take a lot of power out
                                                                                 of high-rate chargers.
of a battery for a short period of time or you can take a small amount
                                                                                       When choosing a charger there are many things you must con-
of power out for a longer period of time. This is the trade-off between
performance and duration. If you want to go fast and have all kinds              sider. Some of these include: What power source do you have—AC or
of climbing power you are going to do it for a short period of time.             DC? What types of cells do you have? How many cells are in the packs
If you want to have long flights, you are going to have to preserve              you are charging? How fast do you need these packs charged?
power. You cannot have your cake and eat it too!                                       When using anything other than an overnight or trickle charger, en-
     Of course you can also compromise where you can get some moder-       r     sure that the charger is being attended should something go wrong. High-
ately hot performances for a medium length of time. In any case, the goal is     rate chargers always have the potential for overheating a pack, or worse,
to have the most efficient setup possible with the smallest amount of wasted     and someone should always be around to intervene if a problem arises.
energy so that almost everything goes towards your flight performance.
                                                                                 Radio Equipment
Chargers                                                                               Some electric aircraft can use the same radio equipment normally
       Given that all batteries used to power electric aircraft are rechar-      used for combustion powered aircraft while others require equipment
gable, a charger will be necessary for continued enjoyment of the                with smaller components. Receivers and servos are now available in
hobby. If life was simple, there would be one charger that will fast             incredibly small sizes and this has contributed to the popularity of in-
charge any type of pack quickly and without supervision, have all                door electric flying where size and weight are critical.
the features you need including reporting each pack’s capacity, and                    The main airborne components of a standard radio system are
sell for less than $20 . . . . alas, life is not simple. There are countless     the receiver, a servo for each control function, a battery pack, and
chargers available, each with their own set of features in ranges from           a switch harness to control the power going to the components. For
simple to complex, from cheap to expensive. The charger you need                 electric models, an electronic speed control is necessary and replaces
will depend on many things—the type of cells you are charging, the               one servo to control the throttle of the motor. As mentioned earlier, a
number of cells in the pack, the capacity of the pack, whether you               Battery Eliminator Circuit (BEC) is usually used so that power can be
want a discharge or cycling function, whether you are charging in the            obtained from the battery powering the motor, eliminating the need for
field or from an AC source, and not least of which, your budget.                 a separate pack to power the radio.
       Some chargers can only be used where there is 110VAC power                      The size of the aircraft and the power required to execute a specif-
available. These are called AC chargers. Others are powered by only a            ic function will determine the size of the servos required—larger servos
12VDC source and these are called DC chargers. Some have the capabil-            have more torque. The same holds true to the speed control—the bigger
ity to operate from both power sources and are called AC/DC chargers.            the motor and the more current it will require, the larger the speed con-
DC chargers are ideal for keeping you flying at the field but will be of         trol will have to be both in size and in its current carrying capability.
little help at home to maintain your batteries if you don’t have a 12VDC               Receivers will vary in size in relation to the number of channels
source there. Likewise, AC chargers are great for home use but will do           (functions) they can handle—7-channel receivers are generally larger
you little good while out at the field. AC/DC units are good choices if you      than 4-channel units. Also, some receivers have been made smaller
only want to buy one charger! Some chargers can only charge up to a              by having limited range. Indoor models do not require long range ca-
certain number of cells while using 12VDC as the power source.                   pability as the model will rarely get more than a couple hundred feet
       There are three types of chargers you can buy and many varia-             from the person flying it. Receivers used strictly for this purpose can
tions on each. These are a fixed rate charger, a timed charger, and a
                                                                                 be smaller, lighter and still operate perfectly at that distance. It should
peak charger. The fixed rate is usually AC powered, you plug it in the
                                                                                 be noted, however, that these receivers should not be used outdoors
wall, plug your battery into it, and it charges at a fixed current rate.
                                                                                 where the model flies at any distance, and they are definitely not to be
They have their place when charging at low rates, however, caution
                                                                                 used with combustion powered aircraft as range can quickly be lost
should be taken as these fixed rate chargers can overcharge your bat-
                                                                                 endangering the aircraft, people and property in the vicinity.
tery pack. Most have no provision for reducing the charging current to
                                                                                       Electronic speed controls also come in a variety of sizes and
trickle once fully charged and your pack can be damaged.
                                                                                 power capabilities. Some are so tiny that they appear to be merely an
       Timed chargers are usually basic high-rate chargers. They are
cheap and not very sophisticated in design. They may be powered by               “interruption” in the wire going between the receiver and the motor!
either AC or DC or both. You simply connect the charger to the power             These would generally be suitable for the smallest and lightest of mod-
source, attach your battery, and set the timer (usually 15 to 20 minutes).       els, requiring minimal power. The greater the power handling capabil-
The charge current is supplied to the battery until the timer runs out at        ity of the motor controller, usually the larger it will be physically.
which time it simply shuts off. These chargers are not the best solution               Speed controls may have many added features including: built-
in most situations. The main thing they have going for them is that they         in BEC (as described earlier); auto-cutoff (also described earlier); safe
are generally inexpensive. If your battery is not fully discharged before        power-on arming that ensures motor will not accidently turn on; soft-
charging with these timed chargers, it can be overcharged, damaging the          start; auto-shut-down on loss of signal; and others. Brushless motors
battery. Also, you are never sure that your battery gets a full charge.          require different speed controls than brushed motors.

                                            w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   16                                                                                                                                GREAT           HOBBIES
                                                                                                                                 Choose one of the helis and the accessories
   Getting Started in R/C Helicopters...                                        Combo Packages!                                     shown below to complete your package!
                                                                                       RAPTOR 50 TITAN
      R/C Helicopters are probably the most challenging aspect of our
hobby, as they are mechanically complex by nature, and require 100%
concentration while operating. If the mechanics of the chopper have
been well setup the machine will be predictable and stable. When a
helicopter is setup incorrectly the model becomes hard to control, and
unstable. A properly tuned helicopter is still very challenging to fly, and
is much like trying to balance a small marble in the center of a glass
plate.
      The first thing a modeler must realize is that an r/c helicopter works
                                                                                                                                                     $1199.97
on the same principles as the full-size aircraft does, and controlling the            RAPTOR 30V2 PRO ARF
chopper is just as difficult. Because we are not sitting in the model the
helicopters orientation relative to where the pilot is standing can con-
stantly change, offering even more of a challenge. Just like a full-scale
helicopter, flying a model is a skill that must be acquired from practice.
Many pilots take advantage of flight simulators, which are designed for
use with modern PC computers. The initial investment of a simulator
can be expensive, however within your first few gutturals crashes it will
have paid itself off. Although building and flying a model helicopter
can be complex, it is also extremely satisfying. Being able to accu-                                                                                 $1164.97
rately control a vehicle which you can hover, fly forward, backward,
sideways, inverted etc. is very exciting. Today’s model helicopters far                  HAWK PRO
surpass the performance of a full-scale chopper, and can do almost any
maneuver imaginable.
      Before flying your helicopter it is recommended that you see an
experienced modeler. They can help you properly setup your model,
and do the initial test flight which will require some slight adjustments.
It’s extremely important to have the mechanics accurately setup for
safe and easy operation. The instructor can also provide many useful
tips and tricks that he/she has learned over the years. A flight simulator                                                                           $1118.96
is highly recommended, as it will greatly shorten your learning stages.
                                                                                Purchase any Combo above and save 10% off any listed item below
   How a Chopper Works...                                                                     that was ordered at the same time.
      Basically, there are two different types of helicopters, those that
                                                                                                                                            Deluxe Univer
have collective pitch and those that do not. A collective pitch (CP)                                        Carry Master Field Box          Ball Link Plie
helicopter has the ability to change the pitch of both main rotor blades                                    Combo
simultaneously. This provides a very positive, and instantaneous re-                                                                        $17.99
sponse on other vertical thrust axis. As the pilot increases pitch the                                      $187.99
helicopter will gain altitude, and when pitch is reduced the model will
loose altitude. Helicopters without collective pitch depend on main
                                                                                                                       Fuel Filters (3) Hardened Hex Driver Set
rotor speed for lift, which is controlled directly by motor rpm. To make
                                                                                                                       $2.29 $29.99
the helicopter rise the pilot must increase the throttle, which in turn
increases the rotor speed, hence providing more lift. To loose altitude
the pilot decreases the throttle, which lowers the rotor speed and de-                               Crankshaft Locking Tool
                                                                                                     30-90
creases lift. Because it takes a short amount of time for the rotor to                                                            Hex Sha
spool up and down there is a slight lag in the vertical control axis.           Remote Glow Plug
Most current helicopters are of the collective pitch variety.                   Adapter              $18.99                       $14.99
      On a standard collective pitch helicopter there are four con-
trols and these are operated by five channels of your radio sys-                $9.99                        RC Foam Rubber                     Velcro Cable Ties

tem. These controls are the collective pitch, fore/aft command,                  Heli-max                    $4.79                              $2.99
roll command, and yaw command. The collective pitch must                         Training Gear
also be coupled with the throttle of the engine, so that when more
                                                                                                                                                $1.99
load is put on the main rotor blades by increasing the pitch,                    $18.99
more throttle is applied to help overcome the additional drag.                                           Heli Blade Balancer         Pitch Gauge w/Pouch
      The left stick of your transmitter simultaneously controls the collec-
tive pitch and throttle by moving the stick up/down, and the tail rotor pitch                            $29.99                      $32.99
by moving the stick left/right. Your right stick controls both cyclic oper- r
ations; fore/aft and roll, which in airplane terms is elevator and aileron.                                         Resources
       The engine of a helicopter drives both the main rotor and
the tail rotor via a series of gears (and sometimes belts). All ni-
tro and gas powered helicopters have a centrifugal clutch, simi-                Basics of RC                                   Ray’s Authoritative
lar to what can be found in a chain saw. As the motor rpm in-                   Helicopters III                                DVD Series
creases the clutch engages and begins to turn both rotor systems,               MAN2034                                        RHTDVDSET
                y
this normally happens j
                      pp                                  y,
                               just above idle. Generally, at this point
                                                          y            p        $33.99                                         $62.99
                 C a n a d a ’ s                L e a d i n g             R a d i o               C o n t r o l                D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                     17
there is no pitch applied to main rotor blades, and thus no lift. The                                       Blade CX2 Coaxial
throttle is increased until the main rotor is brought up to the desired                                            RTF Electric Heli
speed. Once this is achieved the rotor rpm stays constant and lift is ad-
justed via collective pitch. Because for every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction, when the engine is forcing the rotor blades to
turn in one direction, the body of the helicopter will naturally want to
rotate in the opposite direction, this is due to engine torque. The func-
tion of the tail rotor is to correct this tendency. The tail rotor blades
provide enough thrust to keep the helicopter pointed in one direc-                                                        EFLH1250
tion.
      The yaw command is controlled by the increase or decrease of
                                                                                                                    $237.99
pitch on the tail rotor blades. The cyclic control permits the main ro-
tor blades to be varied independently making the helicopter move in                                             Blade CP Pro 2
a horizontal direction. If one of the rotor blades increases pitch as it                                                      c Heli
approaches the rear while he opposite blade decreases in pitch while
approaching the front during its rotation, more lift will be produced
in the rear, tilting the helicopter forward. The same principle applies
for side to side and rearward movement, allowing the helicopter to
fly in any direction. The control of the cyclic and collective pitch is
transferred from the electronic servos to the rotor blades via the swash                                                       1350
plate. Part of the swash plate is stationary while the other part is al-                                            $309.99
lowed to rotate with the rotor head. Control linkages are connected
from the servos to the stationary part of the swash plate as well as from                                      Mini Titan E325
the rotating part of the swash plate to the rotor head.                                                            ARF w/Motor/ESC
      When flying a chopper small control inputs are continually re-
quired by the pilot to correct for deviations in the flight path. The more
accurately the chopper is set-up, the fewer number of corrections are
required by the pilot.

What Happens If the Engine Stops?                                                                                       TTT4710A11
      An auto-rotation is a way for the helicopter to land successfully
after a loss of power from the engine to the rotor drive system. This is
                                                                                                                    $279.99
accomplished with the aid of a special device known as an auto-rota-
tion clutch which allows the rotor blades to free-wheel in one direc-                                         T-REX 450SE V2
tion. As soon as power has been cut, the throttle/collective control is                                           Black w/Motor/ESC
brought back all the way. This will usually bring the main rotor blades
to have a slight amount of negative pitch.
      As the helicopter starts to descend, the air moving through the
blades will keep them spinning, much like a windmill. The spinning
blades, due to their drag act like a parachute reducing the helicopters
                                                                                                                       AGNH1250CB
descent rate. When the helicopter nears the ground, the pilot increases
the collective pitch to a positive value. The momentum of the blades                                                $689.99
                                                                             Required to Complete Mini Titan or T-REX 450SE
is converted to lift, slowing the descent of the helicopter down further,
enabling it to land softly.


   What You Will Need...                                                     $93.99                            $95.99

The following is a description of the items you will require to start fly-
ing a radio controlled model helicopter.
                                                                                                 $62.99
The Helicopter
      When choosing your first helicopter you must first decide which
type of chopper you wish to purchase, a collective pitch or a fixed
pitch machine. We strongly recommend a coaxial (dual rotor) heli-
copter, such as the E-Flite Blade CX2. These type of models come              $439.99                   $7.49
as a ready to fly package, and are priced very well. It’s dual counter
rotating rotors provide double the stability of a traditional single-rotor
helicopter. Because this does away with the need for a tail rotor there
are far less moving parts, making the helicopter easier to work on, and
cheaper to repair. The Blade CX, and Blade CX2 are designed primar-      r
ily for indoor use, so your practice will not be limited by weather con-
ditions. Keep in mind when learning to fly a helicopter you are bound
to have a crash or two, and parts are going to have to be replaced.
Thankfully replacement parts are very inexpensive for these types of             $4.59                    $249.99
        p
helicopters.

                                          w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   18                                                                                                                    GREAT        HOBBIES

  Unlike aircraft where there are specific trainer models geared solely       that a gyro be used in every helicopter. Controlling an overly sensitive
for the first time modeler, the differences between helicopters is more       tail of a helicopter is most frustrating and the gyro can help make the
subtle with the major difference being size and precision. The larger         flying much easier and more pleasurable. Gyros are made by most
and more precise a machine is, the better it will fly. These machines         radio manufacturers for operation compatible with their systems.
would make great training helicopters but they are usually a lot more
expensive, with high precision parts, and would be very costly to re-         The Engine
pair in the case of a crash. They are better suited toward competition
                                                                                  The helicopter engine is similar to a 2-cycle aircraft glow engine
and the experienced modeler where accidents are fewer.
                                                                              with the exception of a larger heat sink head for better cooling, and a
     Keep in mind, when learning to fly a helicopter you are bound to
have a crash or two and parts are going to have to be replaced. Replac-       carburetor with improved mid-range adjustment.
ing parts on a precision machine could really run you a bill! A good              Different motors facilitate different starting methods. Some come
choice would be a machine designed for a .30 size engine, a stable            with a pull start system for very simple starting. Others use a hex start
flyer with collective pitch, and one with a good availability of parts.       where an electric starter is used in a manner similar to starting an
                                                                                                                    airplane. When purchasing the
The Radio                                                                                                           helicopter engine, the muffler is
      If you do not plan to purchase
                                                                                                                    not included. Usually the muf-
a coaxial helicopter or one of the
ready to fly combos, a proper he-                                                                                   fler comes with the helicopter kit.
licopter radio is required, which                                                                                   Please refer to our section Intro-
differs from a standard aircraft                                                                                    duction to Model Engines (page7)
radio.There are certain helicop-                                                                                    to learn more about engine opera-
ter functions that must be mixed                                                                                    tion.
electronically and these are found
only in radios designed for this
purpose. More and more often,
one is able to find radio systems
that have functions suitable to both aircraft and helicopters. If you         Tools
think you may be involved in both aspects of the hobby, you may wish               Since the helicopter is purely a mechanical device, tools required
to choose a system capable of flying all types of aircraft.                   for assembly include items such as screw drivers, ball drivers, nut driv-
      Other things to think about when purchasing a helicopter system         ers, wrenches, pliers, etc. In addition to these there are a couple of
are the servos and battery pack. It is desirable to choose servos that        specialty tools that come in handy when assembling and setting up the
have output shafts that are ball bearing supported. Since the pressure        mechanics of your helicopter.
and vibration on the servos in a helicopter is usually greater than in             One tool you may want to consider to assist in assembly is a set
a plane, bushing servos tend to wear out very quickly and lose their          of ball link pliers. The ball link is the most popular linkage piece on a
precision which is extremely important in the controlling of a helicop-       helicopter and virtually all choppers use them. The ball link pliers
ter. Because you are using a minimum of five servos and a gyro (to be         greatly assist in the removing and adjusting of these links. A second
discussed later) in a helicopter, and more frequent control nputs, it is      tool that is extremely valuable during set-up is the rotor blade pitch
best to have a larger battery pack than the standard 600 maH pack that        gauge. This device can help you line up your rotor blades so that your
comes with most radios. A pack in the range of 1000 to 1200 maH is            pitch is correct. A blade pitch gauge can go along way to helping
a better battery to consider. Many helicopter radios take both of these       avoid costly crashes and frustration down the road. So much of your
concerns into consideration and come packaged with BB servos and a            chopper’s well being depends on how well it is set up initially and
large battery pack.                                                           maintained throughout its lifetime.
                                                                              Field Equipment
Gyroscope                                                                        The field equipment you require will depend largely on the type of
       A gyroscope, or gyro, is an electro-mechanical device used in a        motor you have chosen for your helicopter. If you have a glow motor
helicopter to help semi-automate the response of the tail rotor. In the       with a recoil pull-starter, you will only require the basics of a fuel can
                                                                              & pump for carrying and pumping fuel to your chopper, and a glow
case of an R/C chopper, the device fits electrically between the re-          plug igniter to supply current to the glow plug during starting. If you
ceiver and the servo that controls the pitch of the tail rotor blades. A      do not have a pull start, in addition you will undoubtedly need an
sensor measures any unwanted change in yaw of the aircraft and will           electric starter powered by a 12 volt batter to turn the engine over.
correct the situation by increasing or decreasing the tail rotor pitch to        Please refer to the Introduction to R/C Aircraft section (page 6) for
stabilize the movement.                                                       more information on field support equipment. It is virtually identical.
       Although not absolutely necessary, it is strongly recommended


Cyclic/Collective Pitch Mixing (CCPM)                                         mechanical levers and linkage to create the mixing. The electronics
     With the advance of radio control systems, more complex mixing           within the radio control the proper mixing to accomplish the cor-   r
functions are capable within the electronics. This has helped simplify        rect control. eCCPM greatly simplifies the helicopter, reducing the
mechanical linkage requirements for both aircraft and helicopters.            parts count and increasing the precision of the model-simpler linkage
     Initially model helicopters utilized a control system that did not       means less play and slop!
require any mixing. This system utilizes one servo to control roll (side      It also makes the helicop-
to side cyclic), one servo for pitch (fore and aft cyclic), and a third for   ter easier to set up.
collective pitch. A combination of levers and linkages isrequired to                Because all three
connect the servos to the swash plate in order to accomplish the cor-     r   servos used in eCCPM
rect control input.                                                           are used to raise and
     A special mixing function called eCCPM or electronic Cyclic/             lower the swashplate,
Collective Pitch Mixing is now available with most current helicopter         greater lifting and hold-
radio systems. eCCPM allows the servos to be mounted in such a                ing power is available for
way as to be directly connected to the swash plate with no complex            more accurate control.

                 C a n a d a ’ s              L e a d i n g            R a d i o           C o n t r o l           D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                                        19
   Introduction to Radio Systems...                                             for elevator, one for ailerons and
                                                                                one for throttle. Simpler models may
      The radio system is your link between you and your model. They omit the ailerons and some even the
may seem complicated at first but with a little study, all aspects of the throttle (common with smaller ½A
radio system can be easily understood. We will attempt to introduce models). With no throttle in in an
you to the radio system here and explain a few of the features found on aircraft, the model would be flown
many of the systems available today.                                            with full throttle until the fuel has
      Radios are separated into two groups, those used for model aircraft run out. It would then be glided in
and those used for surface models. Although the operation, electronics, for a landing without power. Addi-
and mechanics for both types of systems are virtually identical, they
                                                                                tional radio channels may be used
operate on different sets of frequencies. The separation is stipulated
                                                                                for things such as retractable land-
by law and it is to protect the safety of the modeler and those in the
                                                                                ing gear, operating flaps, bomb drop,
vicinity. A flying aircraft can be dangerous if it becomes uncontrolled
                                                                                camera actuation, glider release, etc.
and the frequency separation helps avoid an aircraft being interfered
with by someone operating a car or boat. In addition to a difference Helicopter Radios
in frequencies, some surface radios are also available as a pistol grip               Model helicopters usually require different functions in a radio
control which is ergonomically easier when controlling cars and boats. than model aircraft. Their controls are different with more mixing
A pistol grip for aircraft would be impractical.                                functions required. Usually a helicopter will operate with a mini-
      The first criteria one usually looks for when choosing a radio is the mum of 5 channels, the throttle and collective pitch channels both
number of control functions or channels. (Note that the term channels
                                                                                being controlled by one movement of the throttle control stick. Gen-
here refers to the number of controls and does not have anything to do
                                                                                erally, radios capable of helicopter control will also have aircraft ca-
with the frequency on which the radio operates.) Generally modern
                                                                                pability as well. It is simply a matter of selecting either the helicopter
radio systems are available with anything from 2 to 10 channels.
                                                                                or aircraft program.
Surface Radios                                                                        Typically, the right stick would control the cyclic function of the heli
           Radios used for surface                                              with the up-down movement controlling the fore-aft cyclic and the side-
models generally have from 2 to                                                 to-side motion controlling the left-right cyclic. The left stick would control
4 channels with 2-channel units                                                 the tail rotor with the side-to-side motion while both throttle and collective
being the most popular. One                                                     would be the up-down motion through a mixing function.
channel would be for the steer-     r
ing of the model while the other                                                       What Comes With Your Radio...
would be for control of the speed
and direction (forward or reverse).
Although 2-channel radios can be                                                  Transmitter
                                                                                  The transmitter is the control box which you hold that converts
found with 2 sticks for control, pis-                                             your human control movements into electrical impulses and
tol grip radios are most popular for                                              sends them via radio waves to the receiver in your model.
controlling surface models. They
feature a wheel for steering and
                                                                                                              Receiver
finger trigger for throttle control. Brakes are activated by using the throttle                               The receiver is the small electronic unit in your model
channel by pushing the trigger rather than pulling it. More than 2 channels                                   which converts the radio signal from your transmitter into
might be desirable if your vehicle has a multiple speed transmission.                                         electrical control signals which can be sent to your servos.


Glider Radios                                                                          Servos
                                                                                       Servos are the devices in the model which actually produce
      Gliders usually require 2 channels of control, one for rudder and                the control movements. They convert the electrical signals
one for elevator and any 2 or more channel aircraft system would be                    from your receiver into physical movement to control your
suitable. Additional channels may be utilized for ailerons, flaps, spoil-              model. A different servo is required for each control function
ers, etc. on more sophisticated models. These same models may also                     or radio channel.

require special mixing for additional functionality. In this case, one
should choose a radio with the proper mixing.                                                                        Batteries
                                                                                                                     Virtually all 4-channel and greater systems come com-
       For the first time glider pilot, however, a simple 2-channel system
                                                                                                                     plete with rechargeable NiCd battery packs for both re-
should do just fine. At one time, these 2-channel radios took the form of                                            ceiver and transmitter.
2-stick units such as those used for surface models. This was not the best
arrangement for controlling an aircraft because the elevator was on one                Dual Charger
stick with an up-down action and the rudder was controlled with the                    A dual charger will come with any system that is complete
other stick—side to side action. Now, single stick 2 and 3-channel radios              with NiCd batteries. It will charge both the receiver pack and
                                                                                       the transmitter pack at the same time.
are available with both rudder and elevator functions on the one stick.
      Most radios with fewer than four channels don’t come with Re-
chargeable NiCd batteries. It would be a good idea to convert to re-                                                 Switch Harness
chargeables for glider use.                                                                                          A switch harness is provided to turn off the power to the rev-
                                                                                                                     eiver and servos in the model. It goes between the battery
                                                                                                                     pack and reciever and also has a lead for charging.
Aircraft Radios
     Model Aircraft may require anything from 2 to 8 or even 10 chan-
                                                                                       Servo Accessories
nels of control, depending on complexity. The average aircraft will                    Most radio systems will come with additional servo arms
generally require at least 4 channels of control, one for rudder, one                  and hardware for mounting them.


                                               w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   20                                                                                                                        GREAT       HOBBIES

   The following are some terms used in                one of the operating functions of a radio sys-sys-   End Point Adjustment - The ability to ad-
                                                                                                                                                  ad-
   regard to radio systems with which you              tem. For example, a 4-channel radio system           just one end of a servo travel only. Similar to
                                                       would have four control functions: aileron,          Adjustable Travel Volume, but for adjustment
   may wish to become familiar.
                                                       rudder, throttle and elevator.                       on one side of neutral only.
Adjustable Function Rate (AFR) - Ad-
                                 Ad-                   Crystal - An electronic component of the             Exponential Rate - Exponential Rate is
justable Function Rate (AFR) - Similar to ATV,         radio that determines the frequency of op-    op-    where the servo movement is not directly
                                       indepen-
AFR allows end point adjustment indepen-               eration. There is one in the receiver and            proportional to the amount of control stick
dent of dual rate or exponential settings.             one in the transmitter.                              movement. Over the first half of the stick
Adjustable Travel Volume (ATV) - An                    Digital Trims - Digital trims utilize a spring       travel, the servo moves less than the stick.
adjustment that lets you preset the maximum                                                  potentiom-
                                                       loaded slide switch rather than a potentiom-         This makes control response milder and
travel of a servo to either side of neutral.           eter to adjust trims using digital messages.         smooths out level flight and normal flight
Aileron Extension - The aileron extension              Direct Servo Controller (DSC) - Allows               maneuvers. Over the extreme half of the
(servo extension) is a cable with connectors on                                                     um-
                                                       full function of an aircraft’s servos via an um-     stick travel, the servo gradually catches up
either end which goes between the receiver             bilical cord. This permits adjustment of radio       with the stick throw, achieving 100% servo
and a servo. This allows the servo to be placed        functions without switching on the RF portion        travel at full stick throw for aerobatics or
at a greater distance from the receiver than the       of a transmitter.                                    trouble situations.
cable that comes on the servo will allow. It also      Dual Aileron Extension - The Y-Harness               Fail Safe (FS) - An electronically pro-    pro-
permits easier removal of a wing when the ser-  r
                                             ser-      is a cable which plugs into a single channel         grammed mechanism in most PCM radios
vo that controls the aileron is mounted in the         in a receiver and two servos. This allows both       to automatically return a servo or servos to
wing and the receiver is in the fuselage (which        servos to be operated from the same channel.         neutral or a preset position in case of radio
is usually the case). One aileron extension is         Dual Conversion - Dual conversion refers             malfunction or interference.
usually included with a radio system of four or        to the method in which the receiver processes        Flight Modes - The ability for a radio
more channels. Aileron Extensions of various           the incoming signal. Generally a dual con-   con-    system to switch between different types of
lengths are available from different manufac-
                                       manufac-                                                    inter-
                                                       version receiver is less prone to outside inter-r    flying, particularly in helicopters. Different
turers. Please note: long aileron extensions can       ference and is the preferred type of receiver.       parameters may be committed to the trans-trans-
sometimes cause radio interference problems            Dual Rates (D/R) - Dual Rate allows the              mitter’s memory and selected using a “flight
unless “noise traps” are used.                         modeler to choose between two different              mode” switch.
Amplitude Modulation (AM) - Was ini-         ini-      control sensitivities. With the dual rate switch     Frequency Flag - The frequency flag is
                                       modula-
tially the primary means of radio modula-              in the “OFF” position, 100% servo throw is                                                 transmit-
                                                                                                            a marker that is mounted on your transmit-
tion used in R/C until recently. The control           available for maximum control response. In           ter to indicate what frequency your system
information is transmitted by varying the              some more sophisticated systems this “OFF”           is operating on to alert other modelers so as
amplitude of the signal. AM is now used in             position may be adjusted to provide anywhere         not to cause interference. See the section on
only less sophisticated systems.                       from 30% to 120% of normal full throw. In            frequencies below for more information on
Buddy Box - The ability to connect two                 the “ON” position, servo throw is reduced            radio frequencies.
transmitters together for training purposes.                                                     desen-
                                                       and the control response is effectively desen-       Frequency Modulation (FM) - Now the
Channel - There are two definitions for the            sitized. The amount of throw in the Dual Rate        most common method of radio modulation
word channel in radio control. It can refer to         “ON” position is usually adjustable from 30%         in RC, FM is less prone to interference than
the channel number or frequency of opera- opera-       to 100% of total servo movement. The mod-   mod-     AM. Information is transmitted by varying
tion of a control system. It may also refer to         eler can tailor the sensitivity of his model to      the frequency of the signal
                                                       his own preferences.

     As mentioned earlier, there are different
frequencies used for controlling aircraft and                                                   Frequencies
surface models. Government has allotted one
aircraft frequency band (72 MHz) and one sur-  r
                                             sur-      A1    26.995                14      72.070                40     72.590              66     75.510
                                         control-
face vehicle band (75 MHz) for use in control-         A2    27.045                15      72.090                41     72.610              67     75.530
ling models. The separation is for public safety.      A3    27.095                16      72.110                42     72.630              68     75.550
Each band has quite a number of individual             A4    27.145                17      72.130                43     72.650              69     75.570
frequencies. In addition, some equipment may           A5    27.195                18      72.150                44     72.670              70     75.590
be available on 27 MHz which is the CB band            A6    27.225                19      72.170                45     72.690              71     75.610
or on 50 & 53 MHz which is for Amateur Ra-   Ra-       B1    53.100                20      72.190                46     72.710              72     75.630
dio operators and a Radio Amateur’s operating          B2    53.200                21      72.210                47     72.730              73     75.650
license is required to use equipment on these          B3    53.300                22      72.230                48     72.750              74     75.670
                                                       B4    53.400                23      72.250                49     72.770              75     75.690
frequencies. These Amateur Radio frequencies
                                                       B5    53.500                24      72.270                50     72.790              76     75.710
may only be available on some equipment and
                                                       B6    53.600                25      72.290                51     72.810              77     75.730
would always be on a special order basis only.         B7    53.700                26      72.310                52     72.830              78     75.750
     Frequencies have been given channel               B8    53.800                27      72.330                53     72.850              79     75.770
numbers (not to be confused with the function          00    50.800                28      72.350                54     72.870              80     75.790
channels of a radio system). For each frequency        01    50.820                29      72.370                55     72.890              81     75.810
for model use, there is a corresponding channel        02    50.840                30      72.390                56     72.910              82     75.830
                                           adja-
number. Please refer to the chart on the adja-         03    50.860                31      72.410                57     72.930              83     75.850
cent column for the radio frequencies which            04    50.880                32      72.430                58     72.950              84     75.870
are currently allotted for model control use in        05    50.900                33      72.450                59     72.970              85     75.890
Canada along with their channel number.                06    50.920                34      72.470                60     72.990              86     75.910
                                                       07    50.940                35      72.490                61     75.410              87     75.930
Please note that radio frequencies for model           08    50.960                36      72.510                62     75.430              88     75.950
aircraft and radio frequencies of surface models       11    72.010                37      72.530                63     75.450              89     75.970
like boats and cars are different! DO NOT use an       12    72.030                38      72.550                64     75.470              90     75.990
aircraft radio for a surface vehicle and vice versa.   13    72.050                39      72.570                65     75.490

                  C a n a d a ’ s                L e a d i n g             R a d i o          C o n t r o l            D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                21
Idle Up -The function of a helicopter radio to have adjustable pitch curve points on a he-
                                                                                       he-               on more complex radios and is used to per-  per-
to first bring the throttle and rotor speed up       licopter radio—the more the better. That way        form a snap roll maneuver by simply pressing
before adding collective pitch.                      one can customize the collective response                                                 program-
                                                                                                         one button. The function is usually program-
Mixing - See Programmable Mixing below g             according to the type of flying.                                                              eleva-
                                                                                                         mable to give a combination of rudder, eleva-
Mode I - The control stick configuration             Pulse-Code Modulation (PCM) - A spe-       spe-     tor and aileron control.
with the rudder and elevator being con-      con-                                             modu-
                                                     cial digital encoding of a frequency modu-          Sub Trim - A radio function which allows
trolled by the left stick while the right stick      lated signal. FM is still utilized, however, the    very precise electronic centering of servos.
controls the throttle and ailerons. This is          control information is in the form of a digital     Switch Harness - The switch harness is
popular in Europe.                                   word rather than just a pulse width, as is used     mounted in your model and it connects be-     be-
Mode II - The control stick configuration            with standard AM or FM. Using PCM adds              tween your receiver and the NiCd battery
with the ailerons and elevator being con-    con-    additional protection against interference          pack. It provides a power ON/OFF switch to
trolled by the right stick while the left stick      from various sources.                               the radio in your model and it also allows
controls the rudder and throttle. This is the        Servo Control Arms - Servo Control Arms             your charger to be connected to your model’s
normal set-up for aircraft in North America.                                                 mount-
                                                     are the plastic output horns which are mount-       battery pack for charging.
Mode IV - The control stick configuration            ed to the output shaft on your servos. These        Synthesized Frequency - A more sophis-  sophis-
with the rudder and elevator being controlled        come in various sizes and styles for different      ticated method of controlling the frequency of
by the right stick while the left stick controls     control applications. Most servos will come                                                 Synthe-
                                                                                                         a radio control system than crystals. Synthe-
the ailerons and throttle. This is similar to        with an assortment of arms so you can cus- cus-                                                how-
                                                                                                         sizing is more expensive than crystals, how-
Mode 1 except that the sticks are reversed.          tomize to your own specific control needs.          ever, it gives you the opportunity of selecting
Some find this mode more desirable for flying        Servo Extension - Same as aileron extension.        from a whole band of frequencies on which
aerobatics than the default Mode II.                 Servo Reversing - This feature allows the           to operate. This allows you to obtain a clear
Model Memory - Allows the storage of                                                          direc-
                                                     modeler to reverse a servo’s rotation direc-        frequency at the field—no more waiting for a
information for more than one model. Very            tion at the flip of a switch. Permits servos        crystal controlled frequency to become clear.
convenient for only having to set reversing,         to be mounted in the most convenient way            Trainer System - The trainer system fea-     fea-
trim, mixing, etc for a model once and still         without concern for their rotation direction.       ture allows two transmitters of similar design
be able to use the transmitter for more than         The proper movement can then be selected            to be connected together via a cord (trainer
one model.                                           when the installation is completed.                 cord) so that one transmitter may be used by
Modulation - The way the electronic con-     con-    Servo Torque - The measure of power of              an instructor and the second one by a stu-   stu-
trol information is sent from your transmitter       a servo as measured in ounce-inches (the                                                        sim-
                                                                                                         dent when learning to fly. The instructor sim-
to the receiver through radio waves.                 number of oz. the servo can push with a 1”          ply has to hold a switch on his transmitter
Noise Traps - A noise trap is a small elec- elec-    control arm)                                        to give the student’s transmitter full control.
tronic device which is wired into a long servo       Servo Tray - A Servo tray is a plastic tray         If the student gets into trouble, the instructor
extension to reduce radio interference and to        which facilitates mounting your servos eas- eas-    can release the switch and he has full control
boost the control signal going to the servo.         ily in your model. The tray is molded to hold       of the model.
These are recommended for use where long                                                        con-
                                                     your servos securely and ensure positive con-       Variable Trace Rate (VTR) -This radio
servo leads are necessary.                           trol to your control surfaces. Different trays      function is similar to exponential except it
Pitch Curve - The pitch curve is the rela-   rela-   may hold anywhere from one to four servos           uses two linear responses to determine the
                                        transmit-
tion between the position of your transmit-          and are shaped for different uses and servo         servo sensitivity on the first and second half
ter control stick for collective pitch and the       positions in your model.                            of the control stick movement.
actual pitch of the rotor blades. It is desirable    Snap Roll Button - This feature is found            Y-Harness - Same as a Dual Aileron Extension.

                                                          Programmable Mixing
Programmable Mixing is the electronic cou-  cou-     on the position of the controls.                    aileron channels. Upon applying Crow Mixing,
pling of one channel to another. One control                                                             the flaps go down while both ailerons go up.
input will yield output to two different servos.     Elevon Mixing - Mixes the elevator and              CCPM Mixing - Cyclic/Collective Pitch
                                                     aileron functions, especially useful for delta-     Mixing is used exclusively in helicopters and
Aileron/Rudder Mixing - Adds rudder                  wing models where the elevator and ailerons         eliminates much of the complicated linkages
                                           trans-
control when aileron is input from the trans-        are the same control surfaces. Each surface         required on a conventional setup. CCPM is
mitter aileron stick.                                is connected to a separate servo (one servo         a system which mounts 3 servos below the
                                                     plugged into the aileron channel and the                                                      direct-
                                                                                                         swashplate, with short, straight linkages direct-
V-Tail Mixing - Used when there is a V-Tail
                                                     other plugged into the elevator channel), the       ly to the swashplate at 120 degree intervals.
                                             ele-
on the aircraft rather than the conventional ele-
                                                     surfaces will act as both ailerons and elevator,    With CCPM, complex collective and cyclic
vator and rudder. Each control surface of the V      depending on the position of the controls.          mixing is accomplished electronically, rather
is connected to a separate servo. Operating the      Flap/Elevator Mixing - Couples the flaps            then mechanically. As a result, many parts are
elevator control stick will move both surfaces       and elevators such that when the flaps are          eliminated, along with excessive control sys-sys-
                                              for-
up for back stick or both surfaces down for for-r    lowered, the elevator will be automatically         tem play—not to mention the quicker build-build-
ward stick. Moving the rudder control stick left     adjusted to prevent pitching of the model.          ing time and lower required maintenance.
will move the left surface of the V down and         Elevator/Flap Mixing - Couples the eleva-  eleva-   Differential Ailerons - This type of mix-   mix-
the right surface up. Moving the rudder control      tors and flaps such that when control is input      ing is accomplished by having separate ser-  ser-
stick to the right will move the left surface of                                                   op-
                                                     to the elevators, the flaps will move in the op-    vos on each aileron, plugging one into the
the V up and the right surface down.                                                              per-
                                                     posite direction. This permits the model to per-r   aileron channel and the other into another
Flaperon Mixing - Mixes the Flap and                 form tighter maneuvers in the pitch attitude.       unused channel. The two channels can be
Aileron functions so that when each aileron          Crow Mixing - Primarily used in gliders for         programmed to both operate from the aileron
is connected to a separate servo (one servo          spoiler action by mixing the flaps and ailerons.    control stick, however the travel volume for
plugged into the aileron channel and the oth-oth-                                                 sep-
                                                     It is necessary for the ailerons to be using sep-   each aileron may be adjusted separately giv- giv-
er plugged into the flap channel), the surfaces      arate servos, plugged into separate channels        ing more deflection in one direction (usually
will act as both ailerons and flaps, depending       and the flap servo to be independent of both        up) than in the other.
                                           w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   22                                                                                                                  GREAT      HOBBIES

  Simulators can be an invaluable tool for improving your flying
  skills or learning if you are just beginning. Here’s why...
     To simulate or not to simulate—is that the question? Well, for more       Real Flight G4.5
                                                                               w/USB Mode 2
and more modelers, the answer is yes! R/C flight simulators have be-
come a mainstay of the industry and for some very good reasons.
      First, and foremost, simulators can go a long way in teaching you        $249.99
how to fly. We have consistently found that beginners who have spent           Features:
some time on an R/C simulator will solo faster and have fewer prob-
lems when at the field controlling the real thing than their counter-   r
parts that have had no simulator training.
      Even if you already know how to fly, simulators can help in ad-
vancing your skills. There are many manoeuvres of aerobatics, for in-
stance, that one may be very hesitant about trying with your actual
model (or perhaps you have not yet built the model capable of doing
a specific manoeuvre). With a simulator you have the opportunity to
attempt the manoeuvre with no consequence to the outcome—other
than a bruised pride—and the chance to repeat the manoeuvre over
and over until it becomes second nature. You can even program your
virtual aircraft with certain characteristics to closely model what you
would be flying when at the field.
      We highly recommend using one of our great R/C flight simula-            Included Aircraft:
                                                                               I                :
tors to learn to fly helicopters. While you can learn to fly without it,
you will learn faster if you start with a Simulator. Not to mention that
the fuel savings and crash repair savings will quickly pay you back for
the investment. The simulator does not lose it’s usefulness once you           Included Helicopters:
                                                                               I
are hovering either. You will use it to learn all of your aerobatics such
as inverted hovering before trying it on the real thing. Not to mention
it’s a lot of fun!                                                             Included Photofield Sites:
                                                                               I                        :
                                                                                                  3D Sites:
Features
      Simulators, just like computers themselves, have come a long way in
the past few years. The additional power of the hardware has allowed simu-     Minimum System Requirements
lator developers to come out with some pretty sophisticated modeling.
     In every case, the model is represented by a graphic on the screen
moving against a graphical background, the complexity of graphic de-
pending on the sophistication of the modeling being used. The more                                                                FS One Sim w/Mode 2
detailed and realistic the model and background, the more computer                                                                           Controller
power that is required to produce it.
                                                                               Features:
                                                                                                                                     $124.99
     Some simulators provide a transmitter for you to control the virtual
model while others allow you to use your own transmitter. The benefit of
using your own system is that you can retain the same feel you are used
to in flying and also utilize the same features of your transmitter that you
are accustomed to using. Of course, those that come with transmitters are
ideal for people that do not yet have a radio control system.
     Every simulator gives you a wide range of variables to control
your model, its shape and flying characteristics, the background or
flying field you fly from, as well as environmental variables such as
wind. You can basically specify just about everything about your mod-
el and the conditions in which you are flying.
     Most simulators let you fly the model from different perspectives.
Usually, when using the simulator for training, you will want to fly the
model from the ground, just as you would an actual model. But you
are not limited to that. Try flying from the cockpit, from a chase plane,
or even from above the model—the choice is yours.                              Included Aircraft:
                                                                               I

     Another feature you will find is a wide selection of pre-pro-
grammed models all ready for you to fly. You are not limited to flying
just one type of aircraft. Perhaps you would like to try a trainer, a          I
                                                                               Included Helicopters:
biplane, a ducted fan, or a glider. Perhaps you are primarily an aircraft
pilot but would like to try a helicopter, just to see what it is like. No      Minimum System Requirements
problem, most simulators give you lots of different models to choose
from as well as locations from which to fly them!

                 C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g             R a d i o                  C o n t r o l   D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                  23
                                                                                                                                              King Fisher
   Getting Started in Model Boats...                                                                                                                          n
       Boats have been a popular aspect of R/C Modeling for many
years and they take several forms: scale replicas, racing hydroplanes,                                   $358.99
deep vees, airboats, and sail boats. These may be powered by electric
motors, glow engines, gas engines, or even steam engines and their
construction may be from wood, fiberglass, or molded plastic.
       Wooden hull boats are usually the most intricate to assemble as
the hull is generally made up of many pieces of wood fitted or planked
onto a framework. Care must also be taken to ensure the hull is water-
tight and that the wood is finished with a paint or resin to protect it
from the water. Wooden boats are usually the least expensive boat kits
but require the most work to finish.                                                                                                            TTT5301GA1
       Fiberglass models will come with their hulls preformed with very
little construction necessary. Most of the work consists of detailing
                                                                                                              Maje
                                                                                                              TTT53
or constructing the deck and installing running hardware and radio
equipment. Fiberglass kits tend to be the most expensive as much
work is done by the manufacturer in laying up a fiberglass hull.
       Boats preformed from ABS plastic are becoming very popular as
they combine simplicity and ease of assembly with lower production
costs giving you a boat that is Almost Ready to Float (ARF) costing
much less than a fiberglass equivalent and requiring less work to fin-
ish. With these boats, both the hull and the deck are molded and quite
often will be already joined at the factory. Not only that, many of these
kits come with motor and running hardware installed with only the
radio to install and the decals to be applied!
                                                                                                                       Lobma
                                                                                                                       TTT5301




                                                                                     Included with Fishing Boats




Scale Boats
     Scale boats encompass just about all kinds of boating where the            Servos, forward/reverse 50A ESC, 4.5A Pb-Acide sealed battery, charger &
                                                                                radio all included in the box for the King Fisher, Catherine, Majestic, and
model is designed to look and perform like its full size counterpart. Al-       Lobmaster Thunder Tiger Fishing boats.
though a few scale boats are powered by glow, gas or steam, the major-   r
ity of scale boats are electric powered. Unlike the electric hydroplanes
and deep vees where speed is of a concern, the scale electrics are gen-                                                                      Reef Racer II
erally powered by lower RPM, lower amperage, higher torque motors.                                                                                 Ready-to-Run
Six or twelve volt lead acid or gel type batteries are generally used and
will give long running times of from a half hour to several hours on a
single charge. Speed is controlled by either a mechanical or an elec-
tronic speed control with forward and reverse. The radio controls the
speed with one channel and the steering, via a rudder, with the other.
                                                                              AQUB14A3
     Boating lends itself nicely to operational accessories such as lights,
winches, cranes, and water pumps as the additional weight is not a det-
riment to performance; in fact, quite often additional weight is neces-
sary to make the boat float at the scale waterline. These accessories can
be powered with the same 6 or 12 volt battery that powers the motor
and additional channels on the radio can be used for activating them.
Devices are available that can be added to your radio system to allow         AQUB14A1        AQUB14A2         AQUB14A4          AQUB14A5         AQUB14A6
several different functions to be controlled by one channel.
                                                                                                                             Required to Complete
     In addition to the boat kit you will usually require a two or more
channel radio system (on a surface frequency), an electric motor, a
speed control, running hardware including shaft and propeller, a bat-                    $87.99
tery, and a charger for the battery.
   y             g                  y                                                                                                           $3.99
                                           w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
 24                                                                                                                  GREAT HOBBIES
Racing Boats                                                                                                          Formula Hydroplane
       Racing Boats take several forms including hydroplanes, tunnel                                                   1/12 Scale Nitro Ready-to-Run
hulls and deep vees; each being classified by the shape of the bottom
of the hull. Tunnel hulls and hydros have flatter bottoms and ride on
a small surface area when up to speed. Hydroplanes ride on two side
sponsons and the very aft center portion of the hull. They may use
either inboard or outboard power. Tunnel Hulls run on two long spon-
sons which extend much of the length of the hull on either side. They                                                                       PRB3200
are usually outboard powered as there is no center portion of the hull                                                               $439.99
to support running hardware. Both tunnels and hydros require a very                  Required to Complete Nitro Formula Hydro.

smooth water surface and are not suitable for choppy conditions.
                                                                                     $26.99                                    $32.49


                                                                                        $26.99           $19.99                     $3.99
                                                                                                                         Apache Catameran
                                                                                                                               Ready-to-Run Electric




      The deep vee is a popular racing boat, available for either in-                                                                       PRB3400
board or outboard power. The hull is “V” shaped and can cut through                                                                  $209.99
the water, maintaining speed in rough conditions. Although not as                           Required to Complete Apache
fast as the hydro or tunnel hull, it may be a better choice if your rac-
ing site has a lot of chop.
      In the past, the glow engine has been the most popular power for
racing boats, however, with the rapid growth in R/C car technology,                  $38.99                                      $32.99
electric power has become quite popular in smaller models giving ex-
cellent results. Large, gas powered deep vees are also becoming popu-
                                                                                                         $3.99
lar. They usually come with very little assembly necessary and opera-                                                             Blackjack 55
tion is simple with pull recoil starters on converted “whipper snipper”                                                              RTR Catamaran
motors!
      What you need in addition to the boat kit will depend on the type
of boat it is and the amount of prefabrication that has been done. Gen-
erally you will require a two channel radio (on a surface frequency),
a motor appropriate to the model, running hardware, and if electric,
a battery pack and charger. Electric set-ups for racing boats are usu-
ally very similar to R/C cars and you can find more information on the
                                                                s
required support equipment in our Getting Started in R/C Cars section                                                                       PRB2850
(page 26). Many of the electric racing boats come almost ready to run                                                            $1,499.99
in which case the running hardware, motor, and speed control are quite                  Required to Complete Shockwave 55
often included. A few even come packaged with a radio. If you choose                                                               12
                                                                            Plus you will need 2-cycle
a glow powered boat, you will also require field support equipment for
starting the engine. Please refer to our Getting Started in R/C Cars sec-
                                                                            oil and gas!                                          $3.99
tion for more information on this. Most of the equipment is identical.                                                         ThunderCat 31
                                                                                                                                                RTR




                                                                                                                                            PRB2750
                                                                                                                                     $499.99
                                                                                       Required to Complete ThunderCat 31



                                                                                                  $3.99                 $32.99
                                                                                                     Plus you will
                                                                                                     need suitable
                                                                                     $24.99           glow fuel!                $38.99
                C a n a d a ’ s              L e a d i n g            R a d i o        C o n t r o l          D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                    25
                                                                                                                     Alligator Tours Airboat
                                                                                                                                       Ready-to-Run




                                                                                  $337.99

                                                                                                  Required to Complete




Airboats                                                                                                 $3.99
      Airboats are a great introduction to boating, especially for those                                                             $18.99
already involved in R/C aircraft. They use almost all the same equip-
ment used in model aircraft, including an aircraft engine, propeller,
and support equipment. (Please note, you cannot use an aircraft fre-                             $24.99
quency radio in your boat. Your must use a radio on a frequency for                                                                     $4.79
surface vehicles.) The engine is mounted on a pedestal on the back of
the boat and steering is accomplished by either an air or a water rud-                                                               Sanibel 36
der. In addition to your airboat kit you will require a 2-channel radio
                                                                                                                                                 Run
(on a surface frequency), an aircraft glow engine, and support equip-
ment to start and run the engine. Please refer to our Getting Started
                                 )
in R/C Aircraft section (page 6) for more information on field support
               t
equipment.




                                                                                   $374.99



                                                                                  Required to Complete




                                                                                                     $3.99

                                                                                                                                      Static Kits
                                                                                                                                          1/12 Scale
Sailboats
     The sailboat is another popular form of boating which offers
scale realism, relaxation or excitement—whichever you choose—
and inexpensive operating costs. Sailboats are completely wind
powered and operate the same as the full size. One channel of the          Peterboro Canoe
radio controls the sails (main and jib) via a winch or sail arm servo.
The sails can be taken in or let out according to your point of sail.      $37.99                                                   Indian Girl Canoe
A second channel controls a rudder for steering.
     In many places, regattas and races are held with the boats
                                                                                                                                       $37.99
grouped into classes where similar boats race. Sailboats are usu-
ally classed by the amount of sail area they have.                                                                                       sapeake 17
     In addition to your kit, you will require a two channel radio
(on a surface frequency), and for the larger models, a sail control                                                                    $49.99
servo or winch. There is virtually no field equipment required for
most sailboats.
                                                                           $54.99
                                                                           These kits are designed for static display and are not radio controlled.
                                         w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   26                                                                                                        GREAT        HOBBIES

                                                                                                                          Revo 3.3 4WD
   Getting Started in R/C Cars & Trucks...                                                                           RTR Nitro w/Radio/ Engine
Cars and Trucks have been the fastest growing category of radio con-
trol in the past decade and rightly so. They are fast, exciting, and
something everyone of all ages can take part in at their own level.
R/C land vehicles fit into four main interest categories: Off Road Bug-
gies, On Road Cars, Monster Trucks, and Stadium Race Trucks. In
addition, you can find any of these types of vehicles powered either
electrically or by nitro/gas.

Off Road Buggies
     The Off Road Buggy has been a very popular R/C vehicle and                                                           O
is the vehicle that started the R/C car craze. They are of open-wheel                                                 $599.99
design with lots of ground
clearance, full-travel suspen-
sion and knobby tires for lots
of grip. They can travel al-                                                                                               Savage X 4.6
most anywhere; the rougher                                                                                   Ready-to-Run Nitro w/Radio/Engine
the terrain the better. Off                                                                     O
Road Buggies can be found
in both two (2WD) and four                                                                   $519.99
wheel drive (4WD). The most
common size is 1/10 scale although you can also find them in 1/8
through 1/4 scale. Off road buggies are both electric and nitro pow-
ered. Larger versions would normally be powered by gas.

On Road Cars
      On Road car racing has really become popular and in many ar-
 eas has exceeded Off Road in popularity.
      On Road racing has branched into two streams of activity, one
                                                   being the original On
                                                   Road cars which are
                                                   extremely low to the                                                T-Maxx 3.3 4WD
                                                   ground and are fash-                                              RTR Nitro w/Radio/Engine
                                                   ioned after the full size
                                                   NASCAR and Indy style
                                                   cars. They must have a
very smooth surface for running, usually a paved outdoor or carpet
indoor track. A gym floor or concrete surface is not suitable as they
are too slippery and the car will “spin out” too easily.
     The second is the newer parking lot racing, known as sedan or tour-   r
ing car racing, where cars are fashioned after a broader range from sports
cars, to Indy cars, to stock cars, etc. They are designed to work well on
pavement and are more capable in the dirt than the original On Road.
     The On Road cars can reach very high speeds and both oval
track racing and road racing are popular. Electric on road cars are                                                $489.99
generally 1/12 and 1/10 scale while the nitro-powered versions are
1/10 and 1/8 in scale. More recently, the “micro” size vehicles have
come into their own, being only 1/18 scale in size.                                            Required to Complete


Monster Trucks
      Monster Trucks are the big boys of off road and although not as                           $11.49
fast as the buggies, they can climb, pull, crush, and generally make
themselves known on any terrain. Monster Trucks are characterized
                                                                                                                               $18.99
by four huge, deep tread
tires, usually in 4WD con-                                                                $16.99
figuration, and some even                                                                                                     $32.99
with four wheel steering.
Quite often two electric mo-                                                   $3.99
tors will power these brutes                                                           Also Required to Complete Savage X
for lots of torque. Nitro ver-r
sions are also popular. The
common size for these ve-
hicles is 1/10 scale although                                                                             $26.99
models are inching towards                                                                   $38.99
the larger size of 1/8 scale.

                 C a n a d a ’ s               L e a d i n g             R a d i o      C o n t r o l    D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                  27
Stadium Racers                                                                                                                                     Mini T
      Stadium Racers are a combination Off Road Buggy and Monster                                                                            1/18 RTR Electric
Truck and they have become just about the most popular facet of R/C
vehicle. They sport truck bodies and knobby truck tires on 1/10 scale
off road cars, and boy, do they
move! They are available in
both electric and nitro-pow-
ered versions. The electrics
have performance similar
to their buggy counterparts
and they share many of the
same parts. The nitro ma-
chines have come along way in the past number of years and have                        Required to Complete
surpassed electric in popularity. They are very dependable, quite rug-                                                                   O
ged, and very fast.                                                                                                               $124.99
                                                                                                                                     T
                                                                                                        $3.99
   What You Will Need for Electrics...
The Vehicle                                                                                                                       RC18T 4WD Truck
      Vehicles are available pre-built and packaged with a radio system
                                                                                                                                  1/18 Ready-to-Run Electric
or in kit form that requires assembly. The model will usually include all
parts necessary to assemble the car. Some kits, especially on road cars,
                                                                                                        $199.99
may require the motor, body, and electronic speed control as an extra
purchase. Ready-to-run packages come with just about everything.
     The body is usually a clear Lexan plastic that requires being cut
out and painted with a special polycarbonate paint. It is painted on
the inside leaving the smooth and shiny plastic surface on the outside.
The remainder of the chassis goes together with simple tools such as
screw drivers, nut drivers, pliers, etc. and rarely needs special shap-
ing or finishing. Purchasing your model in kit form is advantageous as
you learn how the car works during assembly. This experience can be               Required to Complete
valuable when it comes to maintaining and tuning your car.

The Radio                                                                                            $3.99
     Most radio systems for R/C cars and trucks are simple, 2-channel
units that are much less expensive than those used for aircraft.
They will usually not come with rechargeable batteries so it will be
                                                                                                                                              Mini LST2
                             necessary to purchase 8 alkaline cells                                                                          1/18 RTR Electric
                             to power the transmitter. Most systems
                             today are equipped with a Battery Elimi-
                             nator Circuit (BEC) in the receiver so that
                             the radio in the vehicle can be powered
                             by the motor’s battery pack. Recharge-                  $249.99
                             able NiCds may also be used for the
                             transmitter and are available separately.
                             The biggest decision in selecting a ra-
                             dio system is whether to go with a 2-
                             stick or pistol grip transmitter. Pistol grip
                             is more popular with the racing crowd as
                             it gives the driver better control over the car                                         Required to Complete
                             and has a more natural feel. For more in-
                             formation on radio systems, refer to our
Introduction to Radio Systems section (page 19).
                               s                                                                                                             $3.99
The Battery Pack
     A rechargeable battery pack is required to run virtually all electric
cars and trucks. These are typically made up of 6 or 7 NiCd cells wired
together in a pack which is removable for charging. Most racers will           Radio Control Power
have several battery packs, running with one while another is charging.        Tuning                            R/C Car Basics
Charge times are usually about 20 minutes.                                     MAN1013                           MAN1020
      Matched battery packs are also available and these give you the
most power right till the end of the pack’s discharge. All NiCd cells          $29.99                            $34.99
are not created equal and some will have more capacity than others.
A 6-cell pack, made up of six different NiCd cells, will only give good
power while all six are delivering their best. If one cell drops off first,
the pack will have lost its oomph and that could be critical in a race                                       -
(not so serious for sport running).

                                           w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
  28                                                                                                      GREAT       HOBBIES

In other words, a pack is as good as its weakest cell! A matched pack
                                                                                                                                       y
                                                                                                                                       5
is assembled from cells that have been tested for capacity, all cells be-
ing more or less equal, delivering the same power and lasting about
the same duration. See more about batteries (page 30).

The Charger
     There are various types of chargers available for R/C car packs
and these are powered from either 110 VAC or 12 VDC or both.
Overnight chargers are inexpensive and give a good charge, equal-
izing the cells in the pack (every pack should be slow charged at                                                     O
an overnight rate every four to six charges). However, they are slow,                                               $168.99
taking 10 to 15 hours for a complete charge. This makes them im-
                              practical for use at the track unless
                              you have a lot of packs charged and
                              ready to go. Most beginners to the                                                          Rustler XL-5
                              sport will get a timed charger that                                                         RTR w/Radio/ESC
                              will operate from both wall current
                              and a 12V car battery. That way you
                              can charge from your home or at the                   l
                              track from a car if no AC is available.         $179.99
                              After the battery is connected, a dis-
                              charge circuit is turned on discharge
the pack completely. This ensures that all cells are in the same charge
state and that you will not overcharge the pack. After discharging,
a timer is turned on and the pack charges for as long as the timer is
set. Most chargers will take between 15 and 25 minutes to charge
a 1400maH pack. These chargers usually also have a trickle charge
mode where the pack may be charged at the overnight rate.
     Another popular charger, used by most competitors and ad-                                                       Stampede XL-5
vanced racers, is the “peak detection charger”. These units have elec-
                                                                                             O                            RTR w/Radio/ESC
tronic circuitry which can detect when a battery has had a full charge.
You can plug the battery in, activate the charge, and leave it until the                  $179.99
unit kicks back to the trickle charge rate. These also take approxi-
mately 15 to 25 minutes to charge.

The Motor
     Electric Motors for R/C cars and trucks are almost all of the “Ma-
buchi 540” design with a many different kinds of winds and number
of winds of the armature. The different winds give a different com-
promise between speed and torque. They
are broken down into two main classes,
                                                                                  Required to Complete All of the Above
stock and modified.
     Stock motors must be run as is and
cannot be opened for modifications. Modified
motors can have their timing changed                                               $38.99              $32.99
(position of the magnets with respect to the
armature) or whatever modifications the
driver wishes to make. Modified motors
generally have more power than stock mo-
                                                                                                                  $3.99
tors but will drain the battery pack faster. Be careful when installing                                            Wheely King 4WD
a modified motor in a vehicle meant for a stock one. The gears and                                                         1/12 RTR Truck
the speed control may not be able to handle the extra demands of the
greater torque and higher current.

Speed Controls
      There are two basic kinds of speed controls used in R/C vehicles,
the mechanical kind and the electronic kind. Many of the kits (but not
                                                                     r
all) will come with a mechanical unit. These are generally 3-speed for-
ward, 3-speed reverse and are less expensive than the electronic ones.                                               $259.99
Electronic speed controls are far superior to the mechanical ones as
they give precision control of the current going to your motor, fully
proportional from stop to full speed; they almost always have brakes              Required to Complete Wheely King
and may or may not have reverse. Some electronic speed controls are                                 8 AA Alk li
available with radio systems as a substitute for one of the servos.
                                                                                                   $3.99
                C a n a d a ’ s              L e a d i n g            R a d i o   C o n t r o l     D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                             29
                                                                                                                       Nitro Sport SE
   What You Will Need to Go Nitro...                                                                                     1/10 Ready-to-Run
The Vehicle
      Just as with the electric cars and trucks, you can get your model
already pre-assembled or in kit form. These models are built very sim-
ilarly to the electric ones except the transmission and gear train are
sturdier to withstand the added stress of the more powerful glow or
gas engines. The engine may or may not come with the model.
                                                                                                     O
The Radio
     Your needs for a radio system will be the same as for an electric
                                                                                                 $309.99
model except you will need batteries to power the radio in your vehicle.
There is no battery pack for the motor to run a BEC. You will also have to
make the decision of either a stick control or pistol grip set-up. Refer to our                                          Nitro 3 EVO+
                                                   )
Introduction to Radio Systems section (page 19) for more information.
                               s                                                                                    4WD Ready-to-Run Nitro

The Engine
      Most combustion powered vehicles are currently using 2-cycle
glow engines unless the vehicle is 1/6 scale or greater in size where gaso-
line motors are common. Glow car engines are similar in operation to
model aircraft engines. Refer to our Introduction to Model Engines sec-
                                                                     s                                                    350Z—
            )
tion (page 7) for a more detailed description of glow engine operation.

Track Equipment                                                                       Y          e
      Nitro-powered cars and trucks are very similar to model aircraft                 $387.99
in their support equipment needs. First you will need fueland a way                                                      NSX—
of getting it from the container into the fuel tank. This could be as
simple as a bulb fuel pump, a hand-pump, or as elaborate as a battery                                                Nitro Firestorm
powered electric fuel pump. The second basic necessity is power for
                                                                                                                        RTR Stadium Racer
your glow plug. As described in our Introduction to Model Engines,
a glow engine needs to have current run through its glow plug before
it can start running. This must be supplied by a 1.2 to 1.5 volt battery
or by an adjustable circuit called a glow driver, frequently found on
power panels. A third item that is sometimes required is an electric
starter. Some glow powered vehicles come with recoil pull starters
and some do not. If the engine you choose does not, you will need a
starter, a 12V battery to power it, and a battery charger to charge the
battery.                                                                                                              $324.99
      Once into the hobby, most modelers will go with field support
consisting of the following: A field box to hold everything; a power
panel; a 12 volt battery to power the power panel; a charger to charge                Required for              Required for
the 12 volt battery; a glow plug clip to apply power to the glow plug             Rustler & RS4 3 EVO       XXX-NT & RS4 3 EVO
from the power panel; an electric fuel pump which can be operated
from the power panel; fuel line, filters, and cap fittings for the fuel
container to connect to the pump and the fuel tank; a 12 volt electric              $32.99
starter which can be powered from the power panel; a 4-way glow                                                    $26.99
plug wrench; miscellaneous tools; and spare glow plugs. The level of
field support you choose initially will usually depend on how much
you want to spend.
      True gas-powered vehicles are always equipped with a recoil pull
                                                                                            $38.99
starter and require very little in the way of field equipment. Gasoline
and a method for getting it into the tank is about all that is necessary.
                                                                                       Required to Complete All of the Above
Replacement and After Market Parts
     Just about every individual part is available for every vehicle that
we carry. Many of the parts we will carry in stock for quick repair and
                                                                                                 $11.49             $3.39
even if we don’t have it in stock, we can get it for you quite easily.
     Along with the stock replacement parts, there are many aftermar-  r
ket parts available for R/C cars and trucks. These many parts include
wheels, tires, bodies, suspension, steering assemblies, transmissions,                     $16.99
decals, etc. Some are made specifically for a given car while others
are generic and will fit many different models. Most aftermarket parts
are designed to improve the performance of your car in one way or
another. After you get into it, give some hop-ups a try!                                       $3.99                     $18.99
                                             w w w . g r e a t h o b b i e s . c o m
   30                                                                                                                             GREAT HOBBIES
                                                                                                                                   External Charge Jack
   Introduction to Batteries...
     Most of the batteries we use in our hobby today are the recharge-
able type. There are several kinds of rechargeable batteries and these
include NiCd (Nickel Cadmium), NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride), Li-Po
(Lithium Polymer), lead-acid, sealed lead-acid, and gel-cell, among
others. NiCds are used to run our radio systems as well as power our
                                                                                Futaba       JR / Hitec
model cars, boats, and planes. Generally they are wired together in             ERN124       ERN147
packs of four or more cells, depending on the application. NiMH are
relatively new and are being widely accepted for the same applica-
                                                                                $3.49 $3.49
tions as NiCds. Li-Po cells are very new technology and are quickly
                                                                                                                             Expanded Scale Voltmeter
finding their way into model applications, particularly in powering
electric model aircraft. The lead acid and gel-cell batteries are usually
6 or 12 volt and used to power flight boxes and electric scale boats.
     Since NiCds are the most commonly used in radio control, I will
limit discussion here to that type only. For more information on bat-
teries, please refer to our web site or our full, 320-page catalog.

NiCd Batteries                                                                  A definite must for your flight box!
                                                                                Can save your plane from undue              HANESV
      Battery packs to operate our radio systems and to power our
models are made up of individual NiCd cells. The size of the pack               crashes when used regularly.                $19.99
is determined by both the number of cells and the capacity of those
cells. The cells in a pack are wired in series with the overall voltage
                                                                                                                                 Sure Cycle Battery Cycler
of the pack being determined by the number of cells. Each NiCd cell
has a nominal voltage of 1.2V so the nominal voltage of the pack
will be 1.2 times the number of cells.
      The capacity of the pack is determined by the capacity of each cell
and this is rated in milliamp-hours (maH)—the average current drawn
times the time in hours. A NiCd cell of 1000maH capacity will ideally sup-
ply 1000ma of current for one hour, although efficiency is usually some-
what less (about 5 to 8% less). It will also ideally supply 2000ma of current                                                    HAN9525
for a half hour or 500ma of current for 2 hours (again, less about 5 to 8%).                                                     $74.99
      When operating a radio control system it is very important to know
the condition of the batteries powering it. The life of your model, and                                                          Quick Field Charger Mk II
the safety of those around it, depends on this. Always be certain your
transmitter and receiver battery packs are fully charged before you op-
erate your model. Your transmitter will usually have a meter indicating
the current state of your transmitter battery making it easy to monitor
during operation. One way you can determine the state of your receiver
battery is to plug an expanded scale voltmeter (ESV) into your pack and
measure the voltage under load. Doing this after each flight during a
flying session is a good habit to acquire. Consider using an external
charge jack on your model to more easily facilitate this.
                                                                                                                              $68.99
      All radio systems that come with rechargeable NiCds will also in-
clude a dual charger for charging both the transmitter and receiver packs.
This is an overnight charger and will generally take about 14 hours to get                                               Transmitter NiCd Conversion
a complete charge. Fast chargers are also available for charging at the field
which can be convenient for having a long day of flying or if your system
                                                                                Quickly converts your transmitter to
got left on by mistake and your batteries are drained.                          rechargeable status! Includes 8 ‘AA’
      If a NiCd battery is repeatedly fully charged and then used an            NiCd cells and charger
amount that is less than full capacity (let’s say you charge and regu-
larly have three or four flights in a session), after a period of time,         Universal Connector       JR Connector
                                                                                DYM1910                   DYM1900
it may not be able to deliver any more than the capacity frequently
used. This is called NiCd memory. To get maximum potential from                 $32.99                    $32.99
your NiCds it is desirable to avoid this condition. Discharging your
batteries completely on a periodic basis will help. There are devices                                                                      Alkaline Batteries
available called cyclers that will automatically do this for you. In
addition, they will measure the capacity of your batteries so you will
                                                                                  AAA Alkalines (4)                      C Alkalines (2)
always know the condition of them. This is ideal for detecting bad                GHPAAA4                                GHPC2
batteries before they destroy a model. Cyclers, used properly, will
usually pay for themselves in saved aircraft.
                                                                                  $3.99                                  $4.99
      NiCd batteries are not environmentally friendly. They contain               AA Alkalines (4)    9v Alkalines (1)   D Alkalines (2)
Cadmium which is dangerous to the environment. These batteries                    GHPAA4              GHP9V              GHPD2
must be recycled and cannot be simply discarded in the waste.                     $3.99               $3.99              $4.99
                 C a n a d a ’ s                L e a d i n g             R a d i o           C o n t r o l                D e a l e r
   1-800-839-3262                                                                                                                                                                  31
   Model Aeronautics Assoc. of Canada...
     It’s Aeromodeling and it’s been around since man’s early at-
tempts at flight. In the past fifty years Aeromodeling has come a long
way from kid’s toys. Today you can build model airplanes of incred-
ible realism and fly them as expertly as a pilot sitting at the controls.
     So if video games don’t offer you the challenge they once did,
you’re ready for live action in three dimensions. Turn off your TV,
grab a friend or the whole family, and come to the wild blue world
                                                                                       Model Aeronautics Association of Canada
                                                                                           Unit 9, 5100 South Service Road, Burlington, ON L7L 6A5
of aeromodeling. It’s a wonderful form of self-expression. And, as                                  Tel: (905) 632-9808 Fax: (905) 632-3304
you will see, it has something for everyone.                                               E-mail: maachq@on.aibn.com       Website: www.maac.ca

                                                                                                    2007 Membership Form
                                                                                               Junior Membership (under 18 yrs as of Jan 1)                                    $21.00

                                                                                               Junior Membership without magazine                                              $10.00

                                                                                               Open Membership (18 yrs or over as of Jan 1)                                    $75.00


                                                                            Name:____________________________________________________________


                                                                            Address:__________________________________________________________


                                                                            City:______________________________________________________________

Why Aeromodelers Join MAAC
                                                                            Prov:____________________________ Postal Code:______________________
     The Model Aeronautics Association of Canada is here to help
you get started, answer your questions, provide guidance, and make
aeromodeling a hobby and sport that will be safe and fun.                   Tel:_____________________________ Fax:______________________________
     There are many chartered clubs in Canada, each with one or
more airfields for its members. MAAC helps its clubs by working with
                                                                            E-mail:____________________________________________________________
local zoning boards, parks and school districts to get and keep prop-
erty for flying.
     Through MAAC, members are protected by liability insurance             Birth Date:________________________________________________________
that covers them while building and flying their models, insures its
                                                                            ANNUAL FEES: Payable January 1st each year. GST included in fees shown — R127633378.
clubs, and also the owners of the flying fields.                            The rights of membership shall terminate on December 31st of each year. Current year fees
     Contact MAAC for information on the club near you. Your local          are non-refundable.
club would be happy to get you started.
                                                                            PUBLICATIONS: Model Aviation Canada, known as MAC Mag, is the official publica-
Direct Benefits                                                             tion of MAAC. Publications are supplied to members on a bi-monthly basis.

                                                                            DECLARATION: I will abide by the rules and regulations that have been established, or
                                                                            will in future be established by the Model Aeronautics Association of Canada. I understand
                                                                            that my failure to comply with the Safety Code may result in failure of liability for any
                                                                            damages or claims. I also acknowledge that while operating a model aircraft in any of the
                                                                            50 United States, insurance coverage will only be provided by Model Aeronautics Associa-
                                                                            tion of Canada and I will abide by the official AMA safety code and use only approved
                                                                            United States frequencies for radio control aircraft while flying in the 50 United States.
Indirect Benefits

                                                                            Visa/MC:____________________________ Exp: _________________________


                                                                            Signature:____________________________ Date: ________________________
                                                                                                     (parent or guardian must sign if applicant is under the age of 18)

                                                                                Copy this page. Fill it out and fax or mail it to address at top. Enclose payment by cheque or credit card.
                                                                                                                  Please allow 3 to 5 weeks for processing.
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