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					Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102:97-101. 1989.

              T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters1                                                        Materials and Methods
            Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
                                                                               Transplant production—Seed of pansy cultivars (Table 1)
                      University of Florida
                                                                           were sown in flats filled with peat:vermiculite medium (1:1
                     Bradenton, FL 34203
                                                                           v:v, amended with dolomite, superphosphate and minor
                                                                           elements) on 21 Dec. 1987 and 24 Aug. 1988. Seedlings
Additional index words, variety trial, annuals.
                                                                           were transplanted into 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch containerized
                                                                           cells filled with the same peat:vermiculite medium. Trans
Abstract. Pansy (Viola x      Wittrockiana) cultivars were                 plants received liquid fertilizer as needed during produc
evaluated for earliness of flowering, flower diameter and                  tion. No plant growth regulators were used in this study.
color, plant dimensions, growth habit, uniformity, longevity
and overall appearance during the spring and fall of 1988.                 Table 1. Pansy cultivars evaluated during 1988 and their seed suppliers.
Fifty-five cultivars in the spring and 40 cultivars in the fall
were grown in field plots on raised, polyethylene-mulched                      Cultivar                      Season Evaluated7      Seed Supplier
beds in full sun. Spring: Range of time from sowing to the
                                                                           Armado series
first flower was 78 to 90 days. Twenty-six cultivars flowered
                                                                             Yellow w/Eye                            F             Royal Sluis
in 82 days or less, whereas 9 cultivars flowered later than 86               White                                   F             Royal Sluis
days. 'Imperial White' was tallest at 7.9 inches, and 24 cul                  White w/Eye                            F             Royal Sluis
tivars were equal to or less than 6.0 inches tall. When rated              Beacon Bicolor                           S,F            Sakata
                                                                           Black Prince                              S             Sakata
on a 1 to 10 scale (poorest to best) for overall appearance
                                                                           Crown series
uniformity and vigor, 18 cultivars had ratings >9 and 45                      Azure                                  S             Sakata
cultivars were rated >8. Plant losses were noted as the season                Azure Improved                         s             Sakata
progressed with greatest plant loss for 'Imperial Ocean' at                   Cream                                 S,F            Sakata
                                                                              Mix                                   S,F            Sakata
92%. Fall: The time from sowing to the first flower ranged
                                                                              Orange                                 S             Sakata
from 83 to 103 days. 'Icequeen' was later than any other                                                             S,F           Sakata
cultivar at 103 days. Fifteen cultivars flowered in less than                 Yellow Splash (Yellow Lip)             S,F           Sakata
68 days. 'Cream Crown' produced flowers with the largest                   Crystal Bowl series
diameter at 3.1 inches. The 'Waterford' series of cultivars pro                Mix                                   S,F           Sakata
                                                                               Purple                                S,F           Sakata
duced the smallest flowers. Plant heights ranged from 3.8 to                                                                       Bodger
                                                                           Dancer Mix                                 S
7.0 inches. Twenty-one cultivars were rated >8.                            Delft Mix                                  F            Sluis & Groot
                                                                           Faces series
                                                                              Deep Blue                               S            German (Grimes)
    Florida ranks third nationally in reported wholesale
                                                                               Mix                                    s            German (Grimes)
value of flowering and foliar type bedding plants, exclusive                  Orange                                  s            German   (Grimes)
of geraniums (1). The 1988 national wholesale value of                       Red 8c Yellow                            s            German   (Grimes)
these products was $33,971,000. Flat sales contributed                       White/Rose                               s            German   (Grimes)
                                                                                                                      s            German   (Grimes)
$16,213,000 and containers contributed $24,221,000 to                        Yellow
                                                                           Happy Face Mix                             s            Bodger
this total.                                                                                                           F            Sluis & Groot
    Pansies produced for garden and landscape use ac                       Imperial series
counted for 4% of the total bedding plant crop in 1988 (4).                   Blue                                   S,F           Takii
They ranked fifth in popularity and seventh as a planned                      Gold                                   S,F           Takii
                                                                              Gold Princessy                          s            Takii
increase item for 1989. Although a minor species in a total
                                                                              Mix                                    S,F           Takii
production scheme, pansies provide a wide selection of col                    Ocean                                   S            Takii
ors for use during cooler winter months in Florida.                           Orange                                 S,F           Takii
    New and standard pansy cultivars were evaluated in                         Orange Prince                         S,F           Takii
                                                                               Pink Shades                            S            Takii
field trials at the Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
                                                                               Purple                                 S            Takii
during the spring (Feb.-May 1988) and fall (Oct. 1988-Jan.
                                                                               Red                                   S,F           Takii
 1989) of 1988 to determine those which are best suited for                    Rose                                   s            Takii
landscape use in central Florida. The fifty-five entries in                    Silver Princess                        F            Takii
the spring and forty entries in the fall included 24 major                     White                                  S            Takii
                                                                               Wine Fashion                           S            Takii
cultivar series.
                                                                               Yellow                                 S            Takii
                                                                           Lyric Mix                                 S,F           Goldsmith
                                                                           Majestic Giants Mix                       S,F           Sakata
                                                                           Maxim series
                                                                              Deep Blue                               F            Sakata
   'Biological Administrator I and Center Director, respectively.             Mix                                    S,F           Sakata
   Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. N-00035.     Medallion series
   Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experi      Blue/Blotch                             S            Harris Moran
mental results and should not be used as recommendations for crop pro          Deep Rose Blotch                       S            Harris Moran
duction. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended and     Roc Mix                                   S,F           Sluis & Groot
no endorsement is implied.                                                 Shazam                                     F            Vaughan's
   Acknowledgement: Our thanks to Sierra Chemical Co. of Milpitas, CA      Spring Magic series
for the contribution of OsmocoteR fertilizer.                                  Blue/Blotch                            S             Harris Moran

 Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: 1989.                                                                                                               97
 Table 1. Continued                                                  Table 2. Temperature and rainfall for 1988-1989 and 33-year averages
                                                                        (3) for Bradenton. FL.
      Cultivar                 Season Evaluated7     Seed Supplier
                                                                                                1988-1989                          33-year
     Orange/Blotch                      F          Harris Moran
     Rose                               S          Harris Moran                        Daily Temp.                      Daily Temp.
   Ultra Violet                      S,F           Harris Moran                               (° F)                            ( •F)
                                                                                                             Rainfall                         Rainfall
   White                                S          Harris Moran
                                                                     Month/year        Max.           Min.     (in.)    Max.           Min.    (in.)
   Yellow/Blotch                        S          Harris Moran
Springtime series
                                                                       Feb. 88          74            49      2.34      73             51      3.25
   Clarity Mix                       S,F           Harris Moran
                                                                       Mar. 88          78            55      5.27      77             55      3.39
     Lemon Splash                       F          Harris Moran
                                                                       Apr. 88          84            60      0.77      82             60      1.59
Super Majestic series
                                                                       May 88           86            63      2.55      87             64      3.14
   Ocean                                S          Sakata
   Ocean Improved                       S          Sakata              Oct. 88          85            62      0.58      85             64      2.83
Ultima Mix                           S,F           Sakata              Nov. 88          81            61      5.15      78             57      2.00
Universal series                                                       Dec. 88          73            50      0.92      73             52      2.37
   Mix                                  S          Goldsmith          Jan.89            79            56      2.66      71             49      2.63
   Violet                               F          Goldsmith
Viking Mix                           S,F           Goldsmith
Waterford series
   Apricot                           S,F           Ball
   Azure Blue                        S,F           Ball              Shades' and 'Faces Deep Blue' in earliness to flower (Table
   Deep Blue                            F          Ball              3). The range among all entries was 78 to 90 days. Nine
   Mix                                  F          Ball              entries were similar to 'Imperial Orange Prince' in being
   Red                                  F          Ball
                                                                     the latest to flower. Color selections within cultivar series
                                     S,F           Ball
     White                           S,F           Ball              were not similar in length of time to first flowering for the
     Yellow                          S,F           Ball              'Imperial', 'Spring Magic', 'Waterford', 'Crown' or 'Faces'
7S = spring, F = fall.
yFleuroselect Gold Medal Winner.
                                                                         Flower diameter ranged from 2.0 inches for 'Waterford
                                                                     Yellow' to 3.0 inches for 'Super Majestic Ocean Improved'.
    Field preparation and crop management—Beds of EauGal-            Five other entries were similar to 'Super Majestic Ocean
lie fine sand were formed to a width of 30 inches on 4.5 ft          Improved' in flower diameter and all flowers were greater
centers in the spring and a width of 33 inches on 5 ft               than or equal to 2.8 inches. Ten entries were similar to
centers in the fall. Slow release fertilizer at 1672 lb/bedded       'Waterford Yellow' in flower diameter, including all of the
A OsmocoteR 18-2.6-11.2 (N-P-K) in the spring and 1542               remaining 'Waterford' color selections.
lb/bedded A in the fall was broadcast over the full bed                  Plant height ranged from 4.8 inches for 'Orange
surface and incorporated to a depth of 3-4 inches. Beds              Crown' to 7.9 inches for 'Imperial White'. 'Imperial White'
were fumigated with 67% methyl bromide:33% chloropic-                was significantly taller than any other entry. Twelve entries
rin and covered with black polyethylene in the spring and            were similar to 'Orange Crown' in mature plant height and
white polyethylene in the fall. The fields were irrigated by         all were less than or equal to 5.7 inches. Plant diameter
seepage via lateral ditches spaced every 40.5 ft. The trial          ranged from 6.0 inches to 10.0 inches for 'Rose Crown'
area was in full sun. Plants were set on 12 inch centers with        and 'Imperial White', respectively. Seven entries were simi
3 staggered rows per bed on 11 Feb. and 27 Oct. and                  lar to 'Imperial White' and 15 entries were similar to 'Rose
drenched with 1600 ppm N-P-K from a 20N 8.7 P 16.6 K                 Crown' in plant diameter.
fertilizer. Four replications of 6 plants per cultivar were              Percentage plant mortality was tabulated through 16
arranged in a randomized complete block design.                      May 1988, and was taken as an indicator of heat tolerance.
     Metalaxyl was applied as a drench at transplanting to           'Imperial Ocean' had the greatest plant losses at 91.7%.
revent damp-off in both seasons. Other pesticides were               This was followed by 'Imperial Red' at a 66.7% loss. All
utilized as needed to control botrytis, lepidopterous                other cultivars had plant losses less than 50%. Thirty-four
worms, aphids, whitefly and thrips in the spring and bot             entries were not significantly different than the two cul
rytis, lepidopterous worms, leafminer, and whitefly in the           tivars with zero plant loss.
fall. The pansy evaluation plots were in a mixed species                Eighteen entries were given an overall subjective rating
production area so all pests were not necessarily problema           equal to or greater than 9.0 (superior); forty-five entries
tic to pansy production.                                             were greater than 8.0. Since ratings were given on 31 Mar.,
     Data collection—Cultivars were evaluated for flowering          they did not reflect final plant mortality figures. Forty en
time, flower size and color, plant growth habit, mature              tries were not significantly different from 'Faces Deep
plant dimensions, longevity and other horticultural qual             Blue', which received a rating of 9.9. Color selections
ities. Subjective ratings for overall appearance were as             within the following series were not similar in overall rat
signed to field plots based on a 0 to 10 scale (0 = all plants       ings: 'Imperial', 'Spring Magic', 'Crown' and 'Faces'.
dead and 10 = excellent). Vigor, floriferousness, habit and              Subjective evaluations during the season highlighted
uniformity were considered in this single rating. Temper             the following: 'Spring Magic Rose' had superior deep floral
ature and rainfall information (3) is contained in Table 2.          color which resisted fading. 'Faces White with Rose', 'Faces
                                                                     Red and Yellow', 'Faces Deep Blue' and 'Faces Yellow' all
                           Discussion                                provided uniform, vigorous plants which were floriferous
                                                                     with flowers directed upwards and tilted out for a good
    Spring—Of the fifty-five cultivars in trial, 22 were simi        floral display. The 'Imperial' series colors 'Yellow', 'Wine
lar to 'Dancer Mix', 'Waterford Yellow', 'Imperial Pink              Fashion', 'Purple' and 'Gold Princess' all received high rat-
98                                                                                               Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: 1989.
Table 3. Growth and performance of pansy (Viola x Wittrockiana) cultivars in field beds at the Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton,
   FL (Feb.-May 1988).

                                               Days             Flower               Plant             Plant
                                                to             Diametery            Height           Diametery            Plant
             Cultivar                         Flower2             (in.)               (in.)             (in.)          Mortality"         Ratingw

Dancer Mix                                    78 qv             2.3 1-t             6.6   b-i          8.5 b-g          33.3 b-e          8.9 a-e
Waterford Yellow                              78 pq             2.0 u               5.8   e-j          7.8 d-k          41.7 be           9.1 a-c
Imperial Pink Shades                          78 pq             2.2 n-t             6.7   b-e          8.4 b-i          27.1 b-f          8.4 a-f
Faces Deep Blue                               78 pq             2.2 n-t             6.0   b-i          8.6 b-g           4.2 ef           9.9 a
Crystal Bowl Mix                              79o-q             2.2 q-u             5.6 f-k            7.8 d-k          20.8   c-f        8.4 a-f
Faces Yellow                                  79o-q             2.1 tu              5.9 d-j            7.8 d-k           0.0   f          9.6 ab
Waterford Azure Blue                          79n-q             2.1 q-u             6.5 b-f            8.5 b-h          20.8   c-f        8.1 b-f
Yellow Splash Crown (Yellow Lip)              79n-q             2.6 d-h             5.6 f-k            8.3 b-i           8.3   d-f        8.9 a-e
Crystal Bowl Purple                           79m-q             2.3 1-t             5.1 jk             6.8 j-n          12.5 c-f          9.3 a-d
Rose Crown                                    79m-q             2.3 m-t             5.4 h-k            6.0 n            33.3 b-e          7.9 c-g
Waterford White                               79m-q             2.1 s-u             6.4 b-f            8.8 a-e          25.0 b-f          9.4 a-c
Imperial Ocean                                801-q             2.6 d-h             6.3 b-g            7.3 f-n          91.7a             8.4 a-c
Springtime Clarity Mix                        80k-q             2.2 n-t             5.6 f-k            8.1 b-j          41.7 b-d          8.3 b-f
Imperial Yellow                               80k-q             2.1 q-u             6.5   b-f          8.5 b-h          16.7 c-f          9.3 a-c
Maxim Mix                                     80k-q             2.3 m-t             5.9   d-j          8.0 b-j           8.4 c-f          9.5 ab
Ultima Mix                                    80k-q             2.3 m-t             5.9   d-j          8.0 c-j          16.7 c-f          8.5 a-f
Faces Mix                                     80k-q             2.1 q-u             5.6   f-k          7.3 f-n          33.3 b-e          7.6   d-g
Waterford Scarlet                             81j-q             2.2 p-u             6.9   be           7.5 e-m          44.2 be           9.0   a-e
Faces White with Rose                         81j-q             2.3 j-r             6.1 b-i            8.1 b-j           8.4 c-f          9.6   ab
Crown Mix                                     81j-q             2.4 i-q             6.3 b-g            8.1 b-j          12.5 c-f          7.6   d-g
Imperial Wine Fashion                         81j-q             2.6 e-i             6.1 b-i            7.6 e-1          33.3 b-e          9.0   a-e
Imperial Gold Princess                        81j-q             2.4 i-q             6.1 b-i            7.2 g-n          16.7 c-f          9.5   ab
Beacon Bicolor                                81j-q             2.3 k-s             6.7 b-e            8.5 b-g          20.9 b-f          9.4   a-c
Roc Mix                                       81j-q             2.4 i-q             6.0   b-i          7.8 d-k          37.5 b-e          7.9 c-g
Spring Magic Rose                             81 i-q            2.5 g-n             6.4   b-f          8.6 b-g           16.7 c-f         9.1a-d
Imperial Rose                                 82h-q             2.8 a-d             6.9   b            7.0 h-n          20.9 c-f          8.9 a-e
Azure Crown Improved                          82g-p             2.4 h-o             6.2   b-h          7.0 j-n          41.7 b-d          8.6 a-f
Spring Magic Ultra Violet                     82g-p             2.3 k-s             6.6   b-e          9.2 a-d          45.0 be           7.1 fg
Super Majestic Ocean                          82g-o             2.9 a-c             6.3   b-g          8.5 b-g          12.5 c-f          9.0 a-e
Cream Crown                                   82g-o             2.9 a-c             5.4   g-k          8.8 a-e          25.0 b-f          8.6 a-f
Universal Mix                                 82g-o             2.1 r-u             6.0   d-j          7.5 e-m           4.2 ef           8.3 b-f
Medallion Blue with Blotch                    83 f-n            2.5 g-m             6.4   b-f          8.0 b-j          21.7   b-f        8.6 a-f
Faces Orange                                  83f-n             2.3 j-r             5.7   f-i          6.8j-n           29.2   b-e        8.5 a-f
Imperial White                                83e-m             2.7   c-g           7.9   a           10.0 a            28.3   b-f        8.9 a-e
Imperial Purple                               83e-m             2.6   e-j           6.0   d-j          8.1 b-j           0.0   f          9.1 a-d
Super Majestic Ocean Improved                 83e-m             3.0   a             6.3   b-g          8.6 b-g          20.9   c-f        9.3 a-c
Faces Red & Yellow                            83e-l             2.2   o-t           5.3   i-k          7.3 n-f          20.8   c-f        8.6 a-f
Medallion Deep Rose with Blotch               84e-l             3.0   ab            6.3   b-g          8.3 b-i          25.0   b-f        8.9 a-e
Black Prince                                  84d-k             2.6 e-j             6.2   b-h          9.5 ab            4.2   ef         9.4 a-c
Imperial Orange                               84c-j             2.3 m-t             5.7   f-k          6.5 k-n          45.8   be         8.6 a-f
Imperial Mix                                  85b-i             2.5 g-n             6.0   c-j          7.6 e-1          37.5   b-e        7.1 fg
Spring Magic Yellow with Blotch               85b-h             2.1 q-u             5.5   g-k          6.3 1-n           8.3   d-f        7.5   e-g
Imperial Gold                                 86 b-g            2.7   c-f           5.7   f-i          8.0 c-j          20.9   c-f        8.4   a-f
Happy Face                                    86 b-g            2.8   b-e           6.7   b-d          8.6 b-g           8.4   c-f        8.5   a-f
Imperial Blue                                 86 b-g            2.4   h-p           6.0   b-i          7.3 f-n          25.0   b-f        8.6   a-f
Imperial Red                                  86a-f             2.5   f-1           5.9   d-j          8.0 c-j          66.7   b          8.8   a-e
Spring Magic White                            86a-f             2.4 i-q             5.8   d-j          8.7 a-f          25.0   b-f        9.0   a-e
Lyric Mix                                     87a-e             2.5 e-k             6.4   b-f          9.3 a-c          25.0   b-f        8.3   b-f
Spring Magic Blue with Blotch                 87 a-d            2.3 m-t             6.0 b-i            7.7 e-1          20.8   c-f        8.4 a-f
Majestic Giants Mix                           88a-c             2.8 a-d             6.3 b-g            7.9 c-j          41.7   b-d        8.5 a-f
Waterford Apricot                             88 ab             2.2 q-u             5.5 g-k            6.7j-n           33.3   b-e        7.9 c-g
Viking Mix                                    88 ab             2.6 d-h             5.6 f-k            7.7 e-1          41.7   b-d        7.5 e-g
Azure Crown                                   89 ab             2.7 c-g             6.4 b-f            7.0 j-n          41.7   b-d        8.4 a-f
Orange Crown                                  89 ab             2.4 h-o             4.8 k              6.1 mn           12.5 c-f          6.5 g
Imperial Orange Prince                        90 a              2.4 i-q             6.2 b-h            7.6 e-m          20.8 c-f          8.5 a-f

zFrom sowing 21 Dec. 1987.
yMeasured 31 Mar. 1988 at peak performance.
"Percentage of plants dead per plot by trial termination 16 May 1988.
wRated 31 Mar. 1988 at peak appearance. Overall rating scale: 0 = all plants dead, 1 = v. poor, 5 = accerptable, 10 = excellent.
vMean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

ings based on vigor, uniformity and flower cover. 'Black                    and 'Super Majestic Ocean Improved'. Cultivars examined
Prince' was uniform and vigorous, but the petals had a                      as color mixes showed that 'Dancer Mix' was floriferous
rough, paper-like texture. The best of the 'Waterford'                      and produced multiple blooms very early. 'Crown Mix'
series were the yellow, white and red. 'Beacon Bicolor' had                 produced plants of various plant habits (upright vs. pros
a very attractive flower color, was very floriferous and pro                trate) and flower size which differed by flower color. 'Uni
duced bushy plants. Other cultivars favored were 'Crystal                   versal Mix' produced plants of uneven size. 'Viking Mix'
Bowl Purple', 'Yellow Lip Crown', 'Super Majestic Ocean'                    had plants of uniform size, but produced few flowers.

Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: 1989.                                                                                                          99
Table 4. Growth and performance of pansy (Viola x Wittrockiana) cultivars in field beds at the Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton,
   FL (Oct. 1988-Jan. 1989).

                                                Days              Flower              Plant             Plant               %
                                                  to            Diametery            Heighty          Diametery           Plant
             Cultivar                          Flower7             (in.)               (in.)             (in.)         Mortality54        Rating'

Spring Magic Ultra Violet                       83 kv             2.2 i-n            7.0 a             14.6 a            0.0 c            8.1 b-h
Waterford Yellow                                83 k              1.9p               5.5 b-j            9.1 f-1          0.0 c            8.8 a-d
Ultima Mix                                      84 jk             2.3 f-k            5.5 b-j           10.2 b-h          8.3 be           7.6 b-i
Waterford Azure Blue                            84 jk             2.0 n-p            5.4 b-k           10.0   c-h        0.0 c            6.6 h-j
Waterford Mix                                   84 jk             2.1 k-p            6.2   a-c          9.9   d-i        8.4 be           7.8   b-i
Universal Violet                                86i-k             2.1j-o             6.1   a-f         10.4   b-g        0.0 c            9.7   a
Armado Yellow with Eye                          86i-k             2.5 b-g            4.7   i-1          7.2   mn         4.2 be           8.6   a-e
Rose Crown                                      86i-k             2.6 b-d            4.8   h-k          8.1   1-n        0.0 c            7.1   e-j
Delft Mix                                       87i-k             2.1j-o             4.4   kl           7.2 mn           0.0 c            6.8 g-j
Crystal Bowl Mix                                87i-k             2.2 i-n            5.4   b-k          9.6 e-k          5.0 be           7.3 d-i
Maxim Mix                                       87i-k             2.3 g-1            5.6   b-i          9.2 e-1          0.0 c            8.9 a-c
Crystal Bowl Purple                             87h-k             2.1j-o             6.1   a-g          8.9 h-1          0.0 c            8.3 a-g
Waterford Red                                   87h-k             2.0 m-p            5.4   b-k          8.2 k-n          0.0 c            7.9 b-i
Roc Mix                                         87h-k             2.6 be             5.8   b-h          9.6 e-k           0.0 c            8.3 a-g
Imperial Mix                                    88g-k             2.5 b-f            5.9   b-g          9.5 e-1          0.0 c            8.4   a-f
Waterford White                                 89f-j             1.9 op             5.9   b-g          9.7 e-k          0.0 c            8.7   a-d
Imperial Orange Prince                          89f-j             2.3 e-k            5.7   b-i          9.3 e-1          0.0 c            8.3   a-g
Maxim Deep Blue                                 89f-j             2.2 h-m            5.2 c-k            9.8 d-j          0.0 c            8.9   a-c
Armado White with Eye                           90e-i             2.5 c-h            6.3 ab             9.8 e-j          8.4    be        8.4   a-f
Imperial Gold                                   91 e-i            2.7 b              5.0 g-k            9.2 e-1          4.2    be        8.4   a-f
Waterford Scarlet                               91e-              2.2 i-n            6.1 a-e            8.4 j-m          0.0    c         8.6   a-e
Shazam Mix                                      91d-              2.7 b              5.1 d-k            9.6 e-k         12.5    b         7.0   f-j
Springtime Clarity Mix                          91 d-             2.4 d-j            5.6 b-i           10.1 b-h          0.0 c            7.5 c-i
Springtime Lemon Splash                         91 d-             2.5 b-g            6.2 a-d            9.9 c-h         25.0   a          5.8j
Imperial Red                                    91 c-i            2.5 b-e            4.5 j-1            8.1 1-n          0.0   c          7.4 c-i
Spring Magic Orange with Blotch                 91 c-i            2.3 f-k            5.1 e-k           10.0 c-h          0.0   c          8.8 a-d
Crown Mix                                       91 c-i            2.7 b              5.5 b-j           10.4 b-h          0.0   c          7.6 b-i
Cream Crown                                     93b-h             3.1a               5.3 b-k           11.5b             0.0   c          9.1 ab
Beacon Bicolor                                  93b-g             2.2 i-n            6.0 b-g           11.2   b-d        0.0 c            8.8   a-d
Viking Mix                                      94b-f             2.7 b              5.5 b-j            9.9   c-h        0.0   c          7.3   d-i
Majestic Giants Mix                             94b-f             2.7 b              5.6 b-i           11.4   be         5.0   be         7.9   b-i
Lyric Mix                                       95b-f             2.6 b-e            5.3 b-k           10.5   b-f        4.2   be         7.3   d-i
Yellow Splash Crown (Yellow Lip)                95b-e             2.7 b              5.2 b-k           10.0   c-h        0.0   c          8.0   b-i
Armado Pure White                              95b-e              2.4 c-i            4.8 h-1            9.1 f-1          0.0   c          7.6 b-i
Waterford Apricot                              96b-e              2.1j-o             4.7 h-1            9.0 f-1          0.0   c          7.9 b-i
Imperial Orange                                96b-e              2.4 d-j            5.1 f-k            8.9 g-1          0.0   c          8.8 a-d
Imperial Silver Princess                       97b-d              2.2 i-n            3.81               6.9 n            0.0   c          8.5 a-f
Imperial Blue                                  97 be              2.7 be             5.2 c-k            8.4 i-1          0.0 c            7.8 b-i
Waterford Deep Blue                             97 b              1.9op              6.3 ab            10.6 b-e          0.0 c            8.0 b-i
Icequeen                                       103 a              2.01-p             5.3 b-k            9.9 d-j          0.0 c            6.5 ij

'From sowing 24 Aug. 1988.
yMeasured 21 and 22 Dec. 1988.
"Percentage of plants dead per plot by trial termination 10 Jan. 1989.
wRated 9 and 10 Jan. 1989. Overall rating scale: 0 = all plants dead, 1 = v. poor, 5 = acceptable, 10 = excellent.
vMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

    Fall—Of the forty entries examined 'Icequeen' was sig                   'Imperial', 'Spring Magic' and 'Springtime' series were dis
nificantly later to flower than any other entry at 103 days                 similar in plant dimensions for color selections within each
from sowing (Table 4). The number of days to first flower                   group. 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' produced plants of the
ranged from 83 for 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' and 'Water                   largest diameter, and had an untamed appearance even
ford Yellow' to 103 for 'Icequeen'. Thirteen other entries                  while covering the bed.
were similar in earliness to 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' and                    'Springtime Lemon Splash' had the highest percentage
'Waterford Yellow'. Inconsistencies were evident among                      of plant losses at 25%. Twenty-three entries had no plant
color selections with respect to flowering for the following                losses.
cultivar series: 'Waterford', 'Imperial', 'Crown', 'Armado'                     Overall subjective ratings were made in Jan. at the end
and 'Spring Magic'.                                                         of the trial period. Twenty-one entries were rated above
    Flower diameter ranged from 1.9 inches for 'Waterford                   8.0 and only 4 below 7.0. Seventeen entries were similar to
Yellow' to 3.1 inches for 'Cream Crown'. 'Cream Crown'                      'Universal Violet' (rated 9.7) in rating.
had significantly larger flowers than any other cultivar.                       Favorable characteristics were found for the following:
Ten cultivars, which included six other 'Waterford' selec                   'Universal Violet' produced vigorous, spreading plants
tions, were not significantly different from 'Waterford Yel                 with many small, dark flowers. 'Cream Crown' was perhaps
low'. The 'Imperial' and 'Crown' entries were dissimilar in                 misnamed as it produced lemon flowers with a dark gold
flower size within each respective series.                                  blotch. However, it was a very vigorous and prolific cul
    Plant height ranged from 3.8 inches to 7.0 inches and                   tivar. 'Maxim Deep Blue' had good plant uniformity with
plant diameter from 6.9 inches to 14.6 inches. 'Waterford',                 plants lateral in habit. It was vigorous and very floriferous.

100                                                                                                   Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: 1989.
'Maxim Mix' was the best mixed color entry; however, it            Plants were very large in the fall and became unkempt
had uneven plant size as the primary fault. Plant habit            looking. 'Icequeen' was very late to flower and flowering
varied slightly. While most color selections of'Maxim' were        was very sparse and irregular. 'Springtime Lemon Splash'
more lateral, the rust with gold bicolor was obviously more        produced cream colored flowers with a very dark blotch.
upright. There was a favorable matching among 'Maxim'              This was distinctly different than the color observed in a
color selections for flower size and flower number. 'Spring        trial at this location in fall, 1987 (2), at that time the color
Magic Orange with Blotch' produced bushy, vigorous                 was a light yellow with a medium purple blotch.
plants with good flower presentation. The dark orange
flowers had a small dark blotch and were upturned for                                         Literature Cited
good display. 'Beacon Bicolor' had very dark blue lower
petals capped with bluish-white upper petals. Plants were          1. Anonymous. 1989. Florida Agriculture. Foliage, floriculture and cut
                                                                      greens. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Orlando, FL April,
bushy, lush and vigorous. 'Imperial Orange' produced a
shaded, clear orange flower where the lower petals were            2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1988. Observations of flowering bed
darker than the upper and lines in the lip petals were occa           ding plants. Spring and fall 1987. Bradenton GCREC Research Report
sional. 'Imberial Orange' produced vigorous, fairly uni               BRA 1988-12.
form plants. 'Waterford Yellow' was very floriferous and           3. Stanley, C. D.   1988. Temperature and rainfall report for 1987.
                                                                      Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1988-11.
produced very showy plants; some lines in the lip were
                                                                   4. Voight, A. O. 1989. Prices strengthen in '88 bedding plant season—'89
occasionally seen.                                                    production prospects bright but maturing. PPGA News, Vol. 20, No. 1.
    Unfavorable traits were found in the following: 'Spring
Magic Ultra Violet' had an erratic halo flower marking.

Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102:101-106. 1989.

                                    FLORIDA LANDSCAPING
                    Julia F. Morton                                ican Washington palm (Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl.),
                     Morton Collectanea                            which was first brought to Florida in the 1920's by boxcar
                     University of Miami                           loads (41). One of the reasons for the present popularity
                   Coral Gables, FL 33124                          of this palm with landscape contractors is that many of
                                                                   them, especially those from out-of-state, are misled by the
Additional index words. Washingtonia robusta,      W. filifera,    specific name, robusta and believe it to be the stout-trunked
California fan palm, desert palm.                                  Washingtonia so commonly grown and admired in Califor
                                                                   nia. It is necessary, therefore, to explain the differences
                                                                   between the two species of this genus which have been the
Abstract. South Florida is burdened by a plethora of exotic
                                                                   subject of much botanical confusion and even believed to
trees and other plants which have been introduced as useful
                                                                   represent at least 4 different species instead of the actual
species but have proven to be not only undesirable but also
                                                                   two (25). One must beware of the older literature (2, 3, 6,
rampant weeds. We now need to be concerned about the
                                                                   20, 31, 39).
increased planting of the Mexican Washington palm ( Wash
 ingtonia robusta H. Wendl.). It appears attractive when
                                                                                           California Fan Palm
young; grows rapidly; has a skirt of dead leaves the first few
years, becomes nude with age, when the slender trunk, ulti             Washingtonia filifera (L. Linden) H. Wendl., the Califor
mately too tall for a hurricane area, looks like a telegraph       nia fan palm, desert palm (or hula palm in Hawaii) (30),
 pole with a small tuft of leaves at the summit; and it has        casually noticed by surveyors for the Pacific Railroad and
become a weed. Seeds sprout in any nook, beside steps, in          the Mexican Boundary Survey (1849-1853), was not re
 planters, and hedges. I have seen such volunteers disrupt         corded by a botanist until 1861 and then given only a
 masonry and threaten the roof overhang. Unfortunately,            speculative name, Brahea?. Not until 1879 did some young
 some landscaping contractors are misled by the specific           seedlings growing in a Belgian greenhouse attract the at
 epithet "robusta" and believe they are planting the thicker-      tention of the palm specialist, Dr. H. Wendland, who bes
 trunked, more leafy, shorter, slower-growing and hardier de       towed upon them the generic name in honor of George
 sert fan palm, W. filifera (L Linden) H. Wendl., of California,   Washington (though this had previously been applied to
 northern Baja California and Arizona.                             Sequoia species). There still remains utter confusion as to
                                                                   the source of the seeds. Neowashingtonia superseded
   South Florida's loss of thousands of "Jamaica Tall'             Washingtonia in 1897 but was not widely accepted and soon
coconut palms from lethal yellowing disease has stimulated         was abandoned (31).
a demand for other tall palms. Besides disease-resistant               The specific name, filifera (at first, filamentosa), refers
hybrid coconuts (now in short supply), more than a dozen           to the numerous, threadlike filaments dangling from the
other species have been adopted by wholesale producers             deep divisions of the circular, gray-green, rigid, leaf blade
over the past few years (32).                                      which may be 4-6 ft across and dies after 1 yr (3). Another
   Fast-growing palms are preferred and, unfortunately,            distinguishing feature is that the long (4-6 1/2 ft) petiole
one that is becoming planted in large numbers is the Mex-          bears spines only on the lower half and is green except for

 Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: 1989.                                                                                                101

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