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PowerPoint Part3 DuBois


									Training & Development
    in Organizations

   Dr. Cathy DuBois
       Fall 2009
       Part 3

Training Related Issues
  for Employees and
      Chapter 9

Employee Development
           Why is Employee
        Development Important?
   Shift from Industrial to Information Age
    (Better Talent makes a Difference!)
   Demand for High-caliber Managerial
    Talent: „Bench Strength‟
   Talented People are Scarce
   Talented People are Mobile and
    Commitment is Short-term
        Building and Retaining Talent
         = Employee Development
   Improve Performance in Current Roles
   Stimulate Individual development & career growth
   Attraction, Motivation, Retention Strategy
   Satisfy Needs for Growth and Feeling “Invested In”
   Build Organizational Capacity for Future Success
   HR system integration
      Reward & performance management systems

   Challenge is to balance employee needs/wants with
    “reality” and company goals and HR needs
          Most Companies
    Fall Short in Development!
              McKinsey Survey Results
                       12,000 Managers

                       Hi Perf           Low Perf
Meetings include frank 52%                26%
and open discussion
Managers accountable        13%            3%
for action plans
Identify A, B, C            37%           21%
Turn assessment into        28%            8%
action plans
      How do High Performing
     Companies Manage Talent?
   Talent Management is Part of Every
    Managers Job
   Use Strategies for Attracting and Retaining
   Recruit Talent at All Levels
   Differentiate Employee Performance -
    Invest and Grow “A” & “B” Performers
   Development: Stretch Jobs, Candid
    Feedback, Coaching and Mentoring
      Examples of Employee

   Center for Creative Leadership
    Assessment Center
   GE‟s Leadership and Career
    Management Programs
   IBM‟s Management Development
    Blended Learning Model (see Text)
    Center for Creative Leadership
         Assessment Center
   Sunday - Assessment and group exercises
   Monday - Receive 360-degree feedback
   Tuesday - Team exercise participation and
   Wednesday - Adventure learning
   Thursday - Receive counseling and test
   Friday - Identify goals and action plans
    GE “Reality Check”: Perf. Appraisal
    Differentiate Employee Categories
   A Players (10-20%): “High Potentials”
       Create significant value directly and through
        their leadership of others
       Accelerate their development /retain them
   B Players (60-70%): “Solid Contributors”
       Consistent contributors (majority of
        company‟s managers)
       Developed to realize more of their potential
    GE “Reality Check”: Perf. Appraisal
    Differentiate Employee Categories
   C Players (10-20%): “Low Performers”
       Marginal employees, barely deliver
        acceptable results
           C players block progress and frustrate As & Bs
       Action plan:
         Outline specific skills and results that must be
         Timeline; Coaching support will be provided

         If unsuccessful, move to another job or ask to

          leave company
      Managerial Accountability

   GE: Managers accountable for
    progress of A, B, & C players
   SunTrust: 20% of bank heads‟
    bonuses depend on meeting talent
    building goals
      The Development Pipeline
1. Insight
   What the Org needs from employees,
     how others view them, self-insight
2. Motivation
     Org incentives, personal incentives
3. New knowledge & skill acquisition
4. Real world practice
5. Accountability
Development Planning: Steps

   Assessment
   Goal Identification
   Action Plan
     Steps
     Resources needed

   Establish Criteria
   Establish Timetable
Development Plan Components

    Competencies
      Strengths
      Areas for Improvement

    Career Goals
        Short-term & Long term
    Next Assignments
    Training and Development Needs
       Development Activities
1. Assessment
    Personality tests, assessment center,
     interviews, 360-degree feedback, self-
2. Courses
    Traditional & hi-tech delivery, SDL,
     university progams
        Development Activities

3. Job Experiences
     In-place, Rotation,Transfer, Upward,
      Downward, International...
4. Relationships
     Mentoring, Coaches
     Professional Associations
       Weaknesses of Employee
        Development Efforts
   Just another “benefit”
   Lack of management support and
   Disconnect between individual
    development needs and business needs
   Failure to project future business needs
    and market conditions
   Role confusion
      Chapter 10

Special Issues in Training
   and Development
      Special Issues in T&D:
      External Environment

   School-to-Work Transition
   Welfare-to-Work Programs
   Legal Issues
   Cross-Cultural Training
   Managing Diversity
                Legal Issues
   Employee injury during training
   Employee injury from incomplete training
   Breach of confidentiality or defamation
   Inappropriate use of copyrighted material
   Excluding protected classes from training
   Disparate treatment of protected classes
   Requiring attendance of offensive programs
   Revealing discriminatory information
   Not accommodating trainees with disabilities
        Cross-Cultural Training

   Dimensions of cultural differences
   Training of employees & families:
     Pre-departure
     On-site

     Repatriation

   Implications of cultural differences
    for training
            Cross-cultural HRM

   Reasons for international assignments
    failure rates:
       Poor adjustment to culture and physical
       Inability of spouse & family to adjust
       Lack of emotional maturity
       Lack of technical competence
       Concerns with repatriation
              Dimensions of
        Cross-Cultural Differences
   Uncertainty Avoidance
       Structured vs. unstructured situations
   Masculinity-Femininity
       Value assertiveness, competitiveness, competition,
        making $
   Power Distance
       Expectations for unequal distribution of power
   Time Orientation
       Long term vs. short-term
             Keys to success for
           expatriate assignments
   Selection
       How does the employee deal with change?
        stress? are they open-minded? self-confident?
        what about family support? technically
   Preparation
       How will they be evaluated? compensated?
       Provide site visit, orientation, language training
   Repatriation
Personality Dimensions of Successful
      International Executives

    Attracts Organizational Attention
     and Investment
    Takes or Makes Opportunities to
    Receptivity to Learning
    Changes as a Result of Experience
        Managing Workforce Diversity
   What is Diversity?
   Why is Diversity important?
   Managing Diversity through compliance
   Managing Diversity through training
     Attitude awareness & change programs
     Behavior-based programs

   Characteristics of successful diversity
        Concern with Diversity at
        home and abroad: Why?
   Changing composition of the labor market
   Political correctness
   Increasing global competition
   Publicity and legal challenge to “glass ceiling”
   Litigation on access and treatment issues
   Increase use of teams
   Business value
   Talent Management: Attraction, Motivation,
       Characteristics of Diversity
         Programs that Work
   CEO commitment
   Diversity is a business objective
   Career-tracking and compensation is fair
   Executives experience what it is like to be a
   Training in skills (conflict resolution,
    communications, team building)
   Celebrate differences
   Increase and maintain diverse population
       Diversity training elicits
         different reactions:
   “It was hard to say goodbye to the
    other trainees because I felt a bond
    with each person... it changed my
   “White men were blamed for everything
    from slavery to the glass ceiling”. The
    instructors seemed to feed into white
    male bashing.”
         Special Issues in T&D:
        Internal Company Needs

   Basic Skills training
   Melting the Glass Ceiling
   Joint Union-Management Programs
   Succession Planning
   Developing Managers with Dysfunctional
   Training & Pay Systems
        Procter & Gamble Problem

   1991 study of employee turnover
     2 out of 3 good performers who quit
      to work elsewhere were women
     because P&G only promotes from

      within retention was critical
    Procter and Gamble (con‟t)

   Survey data
       women feel less valued
   Womens‟ perceptions
     consensus building devalued
     wanted flexible hours not part time

      work - didn‟t mind long hours
     Procter & Gamble: Solution

   Set goal of 40% women at each level of
    brand management by 2005
   “Innovative products”
       “Mentor Up” - Junior women mentor senior
        men on issues affecting women
       Repackage family-friendly benefits
       Internal ad campaign to convince women
        they can succeed at P&G
    Procter and Gamble: Results

   Women‟s job satisfaction up 25%
   Company‟s highest-ranking women
    became first women on executive
   Women represent 31% of General
    Managers (likely to oversee business
   Turnover rate comparable to men
             Contributions of
            Training to Society
   Programs for people in need:
       At-risk youth programs
       School to work transition programs
       Welfare to Work programs
   Legislative requirements
       Protect workers (fairness, safety, etc.)
       Protect public (licensure, etc.)
   Labor market maintenance
       balance labor supply & demand, retraining
                 Contributions of
            Training to Organizations
   Attract, retain, motivate employees:
       Orientation, career development
       Remediate labor market gaps/shortages
   Organizational stabilization:
       Rectify performance problems
       legal requirements (EEO, unions, etc…)
       Retain employees w/ opportunities for growth
   Organizational changes:
       Implementation of new technology / teams
       Prepare employees for future growth / succession
       Increase / manage organizational knowledge
              Contributions of
           Training to Individuals
   Performance management / enhancement
   Increase human capital
   Career development
      develop & meet personal career goals

       (career progress &/or change)
      address unforseen circumstances (lay-offs,

   Self development (non-career related)
  Chapters 11 and 12

Career Management
 Career Challenges

A pattern of work related
experiences that span the
 course of a person‟s life.
            Career Motivation

 Career Resilience:
   capacity to cope with problems in work/career
 Career insight:
   self-knowledge of interests, skills, abilities and
    how they relate to career goals
 Career Identity:
   link between worker values & their work
          Career Models

   Traditional Career
     Linear
     Predictable

     Company takes responsibility

   Protean Career
     Frequently changing
     Unpredictable!

     Employees take responsibility
    Traditional Model of
    Career Development
 4 Stages
 1. Exploration - Apprentice
 2. Establishment - Colleague
 3. Maintenance - Mentor
 4. Disengagement – Sponsor

Roles, activities and relationships differ
 at each stage – Table 11-3
        Environmental Pressures
          Influencing Careers

 Business Competition
   mergers, acquisitions, downsizings
 Internationalization
 Technological advances
   Increase in Knowledge work
 Culturally diverse workforce
 Work/family balance challenges
   dual careers, single parents, telecommuting
           Comparison of Traditional Career
                and Protean Career
       Dimension          Traditional Career         Protean Career
Goal                      Promotions                Psychological
                          Salary increase              success
Psychological contract    Security for commitment  Employability for
Mobility                  Vertical                 Lateral
Responsibility for Mgmt   Company                  Employee
Pattern                   Linear and expert        Spiral & transitory
Expertise                 Know how                 Learn how
Development               Reliance on formal       Reliance on job
                            training           experiences/relationships
        What is Career Management?

   The process through which employees:
     Become aware of their own interests, values,
      strengths, & weaknesses
     Obtain information about job opportunities

      within the company
     Identify career goals

     Establish action plans to achieve career goals
          Organizational Benefits of
        Career Management Programs

       Improve Morale / Motivation
       Succession Planning
       Potential for Improved Performance
       Decrease Turnover
       Organizational Learning / Knowledge Retention
       Decreased Recruitment & Selection Costs
       Decreased Training Costs
            Employee Benefits of
        Career Management Programs

   Organizational support & resources
     Bonds to organization, momentum
 Career progress
     Improved performance on present work
      assignment; developmental attitude
     Build human capital for future work
   Personal life spillover
     Satisfaction, finances, community opportun.
             Development of a Career
              Management System
   Develop Job/Career System
       Job Analysis!!
       Group jobs into families
       Identify career paths
            Within job families
            Among job families
       Integrate the network of paths into a system
   Develop Policies and Procedures
       Forms, timelines, roles & responsibilities,
        accountabilities, communication
               Career Management
 Self Assessment
   Skills (strengths/weaknesses), interests, values,
    aspirations, etc.
 Reality Check
   opportunities available, resources, constraints,etc.
 Goal Setting
   specific, challenging, attainable/realistic
 Action Planning
   clear steps & checklists with timelines
           Parallel Roles in
         Career Management

   Individual             Manager
     Self-Assessment        Coach
     Reality Check          Appraiser

     Goal Setting           Advisor

     Action Planning        Referral Agent
     Evaluation of CM Programs

   Job-related tracking:
     Career progress of employees
     Available of quality internal candidates

   Satisfaction-related tracking:
     Employees
     Managers
        Mentoring Functions
 Career                Psychosocial
  Functions              Functions
   Sponsorship           Role modeling
   Coaching              Counseling
   Protection            Acceptance and
   Exposure
                          Friendships
   Challenging work
            Career Management

   When an individual works for an organization that
    lacks a CM program, what steps/actions should an
    individual take to manage his/her career?
   When a manager works for a company that has no
    CM program, what can/should a manager do to
    support employee career development?
   What incentives are there for organizations to
    implement formal career management systems?
               Challenges in
            Career Management
   Employee Socialization
   Dual-Career Paths
   Plateauing
   Balancing Work and Life!
       Policies accommodating work and non-work
   Coping with Job Loss
   Dealing with Older Workers
           Employee Socialization
   3 Phases:
       Anticipatory Socialization
       Encounter
       Settling-In
   Things to learn:
       Organizational history & goals
       Organizational culture (language, politics)
       Organizational members (who does what)
       Performance requirements
              Reasons for Plateauing
   Organization responsible:
       Inappropriate discrimination based on protected class
        status (common: age, race, gender)
       Unfair pay decisions / dissatisfaction with pay raises
       Lack of training opportunities; skill obsolescence
       Confusion about job responsibilities / career options
       Organizational hard times: few opportunities available
   Person responsible:
       Lack of ability
       Low need for achievement
       Personal constraints
Types of Work-Life Conflict

   Time-based
   Strain-based
   Behavior-based
   Location-based

   Table 12-5 Alternative
    work schedules & arrangements
      Chapter 13

     The Future of
Training & Development
           Future Trends for T&D
   Impacts of Technological Innovation
   Growth of T&D used Strategically for
    Competitive Advantage
   Growth in Training Department Partnerships
    & Outsourcing
   Use of T&D from „Change Model‟ perspective
   Growth of T&D role in Benchmarking &
    Process Reengineering
         Technological Innovation

   Impacts for T&D:
     Growth of new training technology use
     Demand for training in virtual work

     Training departments will better store &

      use intellectual capital
     Training departments will become „Virtual

        Organizational Development
   Change Management:
       Overcoming resistance to change
       Managing the transision
       Shaping political dynamics
       Using training to understand new tasks
   Change Interventions:
       Survey feedback
       Process consultation
       Group interventions

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