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									                  University of Maryland College Park
                           Occupational Health
                 Animal Handler Health and Safety Program
                                      Revised 6/8/10

Purpose

The purpose of the Animal Handler Health and Safety Program (AHHSP) is to
protect the health of personnel and laboratory animals by providing:

1.   Health and safety information related to the use and care of animals.
2.   Occupationally indicated immunizations.
3.   Clinical care for individuals with animal related injuries and illnesses.
4.   Appropriate personal protective equipment

General

1. The AHHSP is part of the University’s Occupational Health Program.
   Occupational Health is located in the Health Center in Room 0106. Hours of
   operation are 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM Monday through Wednesday. Appointments
   may be made by calling (301) 314-8184.

2. University groups responsible for this program are:

     University Health Center (UHC)
     Urgent Care: (301) 314-9144
     Occupational Health: (301) 314-8172
     http://www.health.umd.edu/

     Department of Environmental Safety (DES)
     (301) 405-3960
     http://www.des.umd.edu/

     Institutional Animal Care and Use Office (IACUC)
     Amanda Underwood, IACUC Manager
     (301) 405-5037
     http://www.umresearch.umd.edu/IACUC/

     Department of Laboratory Animal Resources (DLAR)
     Dr. Doug Powell, University Attending Veterinarian
     (301) 405-4921
     http://www.umresearch.umd.edu/IACUC/carf.htm

Eligibility

1. Enrollment in the AHHSP is required prior to working with any species of
   vertebrate animals.
                                               Animal Handler Health and Safety Program


2. Direct animal contact is defined as touching live animals, unpreserved animal
   tissues or body fluids, dirty animal cages, dirty cage accessories, animal waste or
   carcasses.

3. Enrollment is required for the following groups when direct animal contact is
   anticipated:
           A. Faculty
           B. Animal caretakers
           C. Animal care or research technicians
           D. Graduate students and post doctoral fellow in teaching and research
              labs
           E. Undergraduate students working in research labs
           F. Student employees
           G. Facility Management employees (Pest Control) Animal facility
              employees

4. Indirect animal contact is defined as entering areas where animals are used or
   housed, but without handling or touching the animals.

5. Enrollment in the AHHSP is not required for individuals with indirect animal
   contact working in areas such as laboratories, maintenance, housekeeping,
   security, and any animal environment. Academic departments that use animals,
   Facilities Management, and the UMD Police Department will be provided the
   AHHSP. Facility supervisors will provide training as outlined in the AHHSP to
   individuals assigned to designated animal zones.

6. Enrollment in the AHHSP is not required for students in course curricula that
   require the use of vertebrate animals. Course instructors will provide training as
   outlined in the AHHSP.

7. Visiting scholars and volunteers who handle vertebrate animals are required to
   enroll in the AHHSP if they handle animals for more than 3 months during their
   visit or work with bats for any amount of time. They are not required to
   participate in the AHHSP if they already participate in an analogous program at
   their home institution.

8. Organizers of University sanctioned events (e.g., Ag Day) will provide training as
   outlined in the AHHSP to all volunteer workers. Appropriate hand washing
   stations and signage to alert visitors of potential hazards will be provided.

Procedure

The mandatory requirements for enrollment are:

1. Completion of the Animal Handler Risk Assessment form, available at
   http://www.health.umd.edu/facultystaff/occupational. The form must be signed
   by the Principal Investigator (PI) or supervisor. The Risk Assessment form must

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                                              Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

   be updated any time there is a change in animal related duties, animal species, or
   the health status of the participant that may be affected by continued animal
   exposure (e.g., asthma). If species are added or deleted, the Risk Assessment
   form should be re-submitted listing ALL animals, not just the new species.

2. Completion of the Animal Handler Immunization and Allergy History form, also
   available at http://www.health.umd.edu/services/occupationalhealth.html. If
   available, documentation of tetanus vaccination within the last 10 years should
   accompany this form.

3. Submission of completed Risk Assessment and Immunization/allergy forms to
   Occupational Health/Health Center, Campus Drive, Bldg. 140, Room 0106,
   College Park, MD 29742. Review and approval of the completed forms by
   Occupational Health is required before the individual is cleared to work with
   vertebrate animals. Notification of program enrollment is sent to the individual’s
   supervisor. Participants can access their clearance records at
   https://des.umd.edu/training/viewanemp.cfm.

4. Completion of training.

   A. Participants must complete the Principal Investigator/Animal User (PI/AU)
      training sponsored by the University Attending Veterinarian. Excerpts of the
      AHHSP description will be provided to training recipients.

   B. Individuals who have indirect animal contact and are not enrolled in the
      program should complete animal-specific training at the discretion of the
      facility manager where they work. This training is provided by the facility
      managers and will be documented at the facility level.

   C. Posters entitled “Safety Concerns in Animal Areas” shall be posted in animal
      areas, labs that use animals and associated common areas. The posters
      address allergies, zoonotic diseases and traumatic injuries. A list of common
      practices that can protect personnel from animal related hazards is also
      provided.

   D. Training for students in course curricula where animals are used is directed by
      the course syllabus and provided by the instructor.

   E. Volunteers and visiting scholars must complete animal-specific training
      depending on their work functions. Conducting and documenting this training
      is the responsibility of sponsoring faculty or staff.

   F. Subject matter for training is listed in Appendix A.

Program Elements

1. General


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                                           Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

A. Enrollment in the AHHSP is typically granted for three years. Individuals with
   medical concerns may require annual evaluations. Enrollment is tracked in a
   database maintained by Occupational Health and the Department of
   Environmental Safety. To maintain enrollment, individuals must update the
   Immunization and Allergy History form every three years, unless otherwise
   indicated, and immunizations must be current.

B. Limits: The AHHSP is not meant to cover all the specific concerns that might
   be encountered in animal facilities, areas or labs, or to limit the requirements
   established for these sites. Nor does this program intend to establish
   requirements for experiments that have special safety requirements such as
   the use of infectious disease organisms, hazardous chemicals, lasers or
   radiation sources, or for individuals with special health needs such as
   pregnancy or immune deficiency.

C. Specific Risks

   1. Tetanus vaccination is required every 10 years to work with any vertebrate
      animal.

   2. Individuals working with bats, feral animals and sheep are required to
      schedule an appointment with Occupational Health for further evaluation.

   3. Rabies immunization is provided to individuals who have direct contact
      with research animals potentially infected with rabies; who work with
      potentially infected organs or perform post-mortem examinations on
      selected animals with a history of poorly defined neurological disorders;
      or who capture or destroy wild animals on campus. Immunization and
      titer schedules are based on CDC guidelines. Titers will be drawn every
      two years (Risk Category considered frequent.)

   4. Individuals who are at risk for asthma and/or animal allergies based on
      their Laboratory Animal Handler Immunization and Allergy History form
      will be notified by Occupational Health to schedule an appointment for
      further evaluation. Any individual with a history of respiratory problems,
      animal allergy, or any other related medical problem that the healthcare
      provider deems appropriate may require a baseline pulmonary function
      test before working with animals.

   5. Individuals at risk of exposure to Q-fever include those who handle or use
      products of parturition or material contaminated by them (i.e., placenta,
      amniotic fluid, blood or bedding) from sheep, cattle or cats; and/or
      individuals with valvular or congenital heart defects, vascular grafts and
      those who are immunosuppressed. These individuals are advised of the
      potential risks involved and medical clearance for duty will be determined
      on a case-by-case basis by the medical provider.



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                                             Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

   6. Nonhuman primates are not housed at the University. For injuries
      associated with non-fixed nonhuman primate tissues, CDC guidelines will
      be followed.

D. Injuries and Exposures. Individuals who have an injury or an exposure from
   working with or around animals need to adhere to the following procedures:

   1. Perform the necessary first aid.

   2. Report to the Information Desk at the Health Center. If after hours, advice
      may be obtained from the After Hours Nurse Line at (301) 314-9386. If
      the injury is potentially severe, individuals should call 911 or report to the
      nearest emergency room.

   3. Employees and supervisors must complete the Report of Work-Related
      Injury forms. The forms can be found at:
      http://www.des.umd.edu/riskcomm/wcomp/form/wcomp.pdf

   4. Individuals must report the injury as soon as possible to their sponsoring
      faculty member, instructor or supervisor.

E. Medical Records. Occupational Health records are maintained by the Health
   Center. Workers’ compensation records are maintained by the Department of
   Environmental Safety.




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                                               Animal Handler Health and Safety Program


                               Appendix A - Training

   1. Needle use and disposal. After use, needles should be immediately placed in
   an acceptable sharps disposal container. These containers should always be in the
   immediate area where needles are used and never overfilled. If recapping of
   needles is required, a one-handed technique should be used.
   Disposal of the containers is through DES at:
   https://des.umd.edu/apps/Waste/login.cfm

2. Hand Washing. Even when using gloves, hand washing is important in the
   prevention of the spread of infectious organisms or other contaminants to both
   personnel and animals. While the use of exam gloves will greatly decrease the
   spread of contaminants from a person’s hands, they will not completely eliminate
   this transfer due to micro- breaks in the glove materials, regardless of type. To be
   effective, hand washing for 15 to 30 seconds with soap coupled with copious
   rinsing with free flowing water is required. In situations where hand washing is
   impractical, or as a supplement to hand washing, alcohol-based hand sanitizing
   agents are recommended for use. In all situations, hands should be washed after
   handling any potential source of infection; when exiting any animal facility or
   laboratory; and prior to consuming any food or drink.

3. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

   A. PPE requirements for working with animals used at the University are listed in
      the tables found in Appendix A. PPE requirements vary between species,
      facilities and activities. Open-toed shoes and exposed legs are generally not
      allowed in animal rooms.

   B. While masks (surgical or dust/mist respirators) are not required in most
      situations, their use is recommended if potential exposure to animal allergens
      is a concern. Signage recommending the use of face masks will be placed in
      all areas housing animals that produce allergens. Dust/mist respirators
      provide better protection from allergens than surgical masks. If respiratory
      protection is necessary or requested, the Department of Environmental Safety
      must be contacted ((301) 405-3960) to evaluate respiratory hazards and
      recommend appropriate respiratory protection devices. If dust/mist respirators
      are used on a voluntary basis, contact the Department of Environmental Safety
      to schedule one-time, required training.

   C. Non-disposable personal protective clothing such as lab coats or scrubs should
      be laundered on-site in specified laundry rooms or by a professional laundry
      service aware of potential hazards (not at home). A designated hook/storage
      area to hang protective clothing should be used before leaving the facility
      instead of wearing it back to the office or other public areas leading to
      contamination of those environments.



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                                                Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

   D. In course curricula that require the use of animals, PPE must be used as
      directed by the course syllabus.

4. Food and Drink. Food and drink intended for human consumption are not
   permitted in animal or laboratory areas. The application of cosmetics or contact
   lenses is not permitted in animal or laboratory areas.

5. Pregnancy. If an individual plans to become pregnant or finds she is pregnant,
   she should contact her personal physician to discuss potential hazards in her work
   environment.

6. Chemical Safety. Hazardous chemicals used in laboratories and research animal
   facilities must be listed on the site’s Chemical Hygiene Plan. The plan must also
   include work practices, procedures and policies to address potential hazards.
   Training in the handling of hazardous chemicals is the responsibility of DES and
   the PI (http://www.des.umd.edu/compliance/factsheet/chemhygiene.html).
   Hazardous chemicals used in facilities that are not associated with laboratory
   operations must be included as part of the University’s Chemical Information
   List. Hazard Communication training regarding hazardous chemicals is the
   responsibility of DES and the facility manager
   (http://www.des.umd.edu/compliance/factsheet/hazcom.html).

7. Biological agents. Training in the handling of biological agents used in animal
   laboratories and animal facilities is the responsibility of the PI, with assistance
   from DES as requested.
   (http://www.des.umd.edu/biosafety/infectious/index.html).

   Regulated waste. Hazardous and regulated waste must be handled in accordance
   with the University of Maryland waste disposal guidelines found at
   http://www.des.umd.edu/hw/pickup/wdg/wdg.html. DES must be contacted for
   pick up of regulated medical waste containers at:
   https://des.umd.edu/apps/Waste/login.cfm

8. Physical Injuries. Physical injuries can occur from bites and scratches by bats,
   ferrets, rabbits, rodents, swine, or any animal with claws and teeth or from their
   immediate surroundings. Physical strain or trauma from working with animals
   may occur when lifting the animals improperly or using inadequate/improper
   restraint techniques. The key to prevention of these types of injuries is proper
   training of research personnel by qualified individuals who have a background in
   performing restraint with the species and procedures to be performed.

9. Zoonotic Diseases. Zoonotic diseases are those that can be transmitted from
   animals to humans. Zoonotic diseases for each species used at the University are
   described below. Although not common, there is a potential for exposure to such
   diseases when handling animals and/or tissues. The prevention, detection, and
   eradication of zoonotic diseases from the animal facility are a primary concern of
   all who work with the animals. Unfixed animal tissues, animal waste materials,


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                                                Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

   as well as the animals themselves may also transmit zoonotic diseases. The use of
   proper PPE can reduce this risk.

10. Allergic Hazards. Allergic hazards are associated with breathing or contacting
    animal hair, dander, or protein allergens. Exposure may cause acute allergies to
    these (or similar allergens) or the development of allergies later in life. To reduce
    exposure to allergens, and therefore sensitization, individuals should wear PPE
    required for the species or procedure to be performed.

11. Rodent and Rabbit Species

   A. Zoonotic Disease: Most zoonotic threats from rodents come from wild caught
      species used for research, the use of contaminated rodent products or from
      feral rodents gaining access to research animals. Table 1 lists some prevalent
      pathogens that are transmissible from rodent and rabbit species to humans that
      can be of concern. The two most common zoonotic pathogens associated with
      rodents are Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis virus and Hantavirus.

    B. Allergy: Allergic skin and respiratory reactions are quite common in
       personnel working with laboratory animals. Hypersensitivity reactions to
       animal allergens are serious occupational health problems that develop in
       many individuals after repeated exposure. Hypersensitivity reactions include
       nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, itching of the eyes, asthma and a
       variety of skin manifestations such as redness, localized itching and flaking
       skin, and hives. Of the species used in biomedical research, the guinea pig,
       rabbit, mouse and rat appear to be the most allergenic. Urinary and salivary
       proteins from the animal’s fur, bedding, and caging are known sources of
       allergens.

       Methods of prevention involve using engineering controls, administrative
       controls, and. In practice this will include reduction of direct animal contact
       time, use of biological safety cabinets, filter tops on animal cages, ventilated
       caging rack systems, HEPA filtered bedding dump stations, and protective
       clothing, surgical masks, or respirators when working with these species.

   C. Wounds: Training in proper handling and restraint of rabbits and rodents is the
      single most effective measure in protecting personnel from bites and scratches
      from these species. Bite protection gloves can be helpful when working with
      fractious rodent species, and wearing long sleeves while handling rabbits can
      help in avoiding scratches

   D. Protective Measures. Table 2 outlines recommendations for specific activities
      associated with different risks of exposure from rodent and rabbit species.

13. Carnivore Species

   A. Zoonoses: The most commonly used carnivore used at University laboratories
      is the ferret. Rabies is the most significant zoonotic disease associated with

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                                              Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

       carnivores and is typically transmitted through bites and scratches and rarely
       by fomites (virus-contaminated inanimate objects). A number of parasitic
       organisms are also of concern. Even though research animals go through a
       specific quarantine process, because they may be from random sources, they
       can still contract and harbor certain zoonotic diseases. In addition, personnel
       who work with carnivores must be aware that they can serve as vectors for the
       transmission of infectious agents between their own animals and the same or
       similar species that they support at UMCP. Table 3 lists some prevalent
       pathogens transmissible from carnivores to humans that can be of concern.

   B. Allergies. Allergies to ferrets can occur and may sensitize workers to other lab
      species such as mice and rats. Allergies to cats are most commonly due to
      major allergen proteins in the saliva and in sebaceous glands of the skin that
      coat oil on the hair shaft. Allergic reactions to cats can come from contact
      with the fur or aerosolization/inhalation of the proteins. Methods of
      prevention include reduction in contact with the fur of cats (i.e., avoidance, or
      full coverage of arms and hands), and possibly the use of a surgical mask if
      aerosol contact is a potential (i.e., spraying down cages or runs).

   C. Wounds. Besides rabies, bites and scratches from all carnivores, but especially
      cats, are often associated with bacterial infections that can cause significant
      morbidity, but rarely mortality.

   D. Protective Measures. Table 4 outlines recommendations for specific activities
      associated with different risks of exposure from carnivore species.

14. Ungulate Species

   A. Zoonotic Disease. Zoonotic diseases associated with ungulate holding
      facilities are usually limited when the animals are kept in closed herds with
      proper vaccination and herd health programs. However, if they are kept in
      outdoor housing areas, they can still acquire and harbor certain zoonotic
      diseases. Of particular concern is the rickettsial disease caused by Coxiella
      burnetii, commonly known as Q Fever which can be found in sheep, goats and
      cattle, but is most prevalent in sheep. Q fever has a high infection rate
      throughout the US. Individuals at risk of exposure to Q-fever include those
      who handle or use products of parturition or material contaminated by them
      (i.e., placenta, amniotic fluid, blood or bedding) from sheep, cattle or cats;
      and/or individuals with valvular or congenital heart defects, vascular grafts
      and those who are immunosuppressed. These individuals are advised of the
      potential risks involved and medical clearance for duty will be determined on
      a case-by-case basis by the medical provider. Characteristics of infection with
      Coxiella burnettii:

       1. The incubation period averages 20 days, with a range of 14-39 days.

       2. Signs and symptoms of acute infection include the sudden onset of severe
          headache, fever of 104o F or greater, chills and myalgias. The patient may

                                          9
                                               Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

           present with pneumonitis or clinical hepatitis. Treatment is initiated as
           soon as diagnosis is suspected.

       3. Serologic confirmation of the diagnosis is accomplished three months later
          using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing of serum samples obtained at
          the time of initial report, at two weeks and every 30 days from that day for
          three months. Samples are sent to the Maryland state Health Laboratory.
          The employee’s work status depends upon the severity of the symptoms.

           Although rare in the United States, caution should be used when handling
           non-fixed neural and ocular tissue from cattle because of the possibility of
           exposure to prions related to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Table 5
           lists some prevalent pathogens transmissible from ungulates to humans
           that can be of concern.

   B. Allergies. Allergies to cattle and horses have been reported, but are much less
      common than those to small laboratory animals.

   C. Wounds. Because of the size of these species, injuries from being stepped on,
      kicked or butted can result from improper handling and restraint. Bite wounds
      may also occur. Training in proper use of halters, ropes and other restraint
      equipment is recommended. Wounds occurring when handling ungulates
      should receive proper and immediate disinfection.

   D. Protective Measures. Table 6 outlines recommendations for specific activities
      associated with different risks of exposure to ungulate species.

15. Fish, Reptiles and Amphibians

   A. Zoonotic Disease. Zoonotic diseases associated with fish, reptile and
      amphibian research holding facilities are infrequent in incidence, but can
      occur. Table 7 lists some prevalent pathogens transmissible from fish and frog
      species to humans that can be of concern.

   B. Allergy. Aerosolized fish proteins can potentially be a source of allergic
      reactions for people and symptoms can range from allergic rhinitis to asthma.
      There are also reports of occasional reactions to frog skin and secretions that
      range from cutaneous to respiratory signs.

   C. Protective Measures. Table 8 outlines recommendations for activities
      associated with fish and frog species.

16. Bats

   A. Zoonoses. Although relatively rare, rabies is the most significant zoonotic
      disease associated with bats and is typically transmitted through bites and
      scratches. Aerosolization of the virus in feces is possible, though transmission
      to humans is rare. When housed indoors, contact with other pathogens is

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                                              Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

       unlikely. Wild-caught animals, however, can still harbor zoonotic pathogens.
       Vaccination against rabies is common practice, but vaccines are not approved
       for bats and 100% protection is unlikely. Table 9 lists some prevalent
       pathogens transmissible from bats to humans that can be of concern.

   B. Wounds. Besides rabies, bites and scratches from bats may be associated with
      bacterial infections that can cause significant morbidity. Facilities should
      have appropriate standard operating procedures for first aid of wounds.

   C. Protective Measures. Table 10 outlines recommendations for specific
      activities associated with different risks of exposure from bats.

17. Birds

   A. Zoonotic Disease. Birds housed at the University include chickens, turkeys,
      quail, ducks, pheasants, pigeons, budgies, lorikeets, canaries, finches and
      owls. Zoonotic diseases associated with birds are infrequent in incidence, but
      can occur. Birds are the main reservoir for human infections of Chlamydial
      disease. Salmonella is also relatively common. Table 11 lists some prevalent
      pathogens transmissible from avian species to humans that can be of concern.

   B. Allergy. Aerosolized feather dander can be a source of allergic reactions for
      people and symptoms can range from allergic rhinitis to asthma.

   C. Wounds. Training in proper handling and restraint of birds is the single most
      effective measure in protecting personnel from bites and scratches from these
      species. Bite protection gloves can be helpful when working with fractious
      species.

   D. Protective measures. Table 12 outlines recommendations for activities
      associated with different risks of exposure from birds. Bite protection gloves
      are required when handling birds of prey.




                                         11
                                                  Animal Handler Health and Safety Program



             Table 1 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Rodents and Rabbits


      Zoonosis                  Agent                 Species                Routes of
                                                                           Transmission
Rat Bite Fever           Streptobacillus              Rodents           Bites, fecal-oral (S.
                         moniliformes                                   moniliformis)

                         Spririllum minus                               Bites (S. minus)
Lymphocytic              LCM virus                    Rodents           Aerosol, bites, direct
Choriomeningitis                                                        contact, fecal-oral

Hantavirus pulmonary     Hantavirus                   Rodents           Aerosol
syndrome

Cheyletiellosis          Cheletiella                   Rabbits          Direct contact
                         parasitovorax
Ringworm                 Trichophyton sp.          Rodents/Rabbits      Direct contact,
                         Misrosporum sp.                                fomites
Tapeworm                 Hymenolepsis nana            Rodents           Fecal-oral




    Table 2 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Rodent and Rabbit
                                       Facilities

                   Activity                                   Requirements
                                              (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                              leaving all animal facilities)
Enter hallways or crossing thresholds         Shoe covers


Enter animal holding room for visual          Lab coat; shoe covers; mask recommended
inspection
Enter animal holding room for any reason      Lab coat; shoe covers; gloves; head cover,
when animals maintained pathogen free or      mask recommended
ABSL-2
Contact with animals or primary enclosures    Lab coat; shoe covers; gloves; mask
                                              recommended
Cage cleaning or change out                   Uniform; lab coat; gloves; head cover; mask
                                              recommended
Harvesting tissues from animals in            Lab coat or uniform (scrub top is acceptable);
procedure room or lab                         gloves




                                             12
                                                        Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

                    Table 3 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Carnivores


      Zoonosis                      Agent                    Species               Routes of
                                                                                 Transmission
                           Capnocytophaga                   Cat, Ferret      Direct contact
Bite and scratch           canimorsus
bacterial agents
                           Bartonella henselae                  Cat          Bite
                           (cat scratch fever)

                           Pasturella multocida             Cat, Ferret      Scratch
Rabies                     Rabies virus                     Cat, Ferret      Bite, scratch, fomite
                           (Lyssavirus)                                      Contact with saliva,
                                                                             brain
Dematomycoses              Microsporum sp.                  Cat, Ferret      Direct contact, fomite
(Ringworm)                 Trichophyton sp.

Acariasis                  Sarcoptes scabei                 Cat, Ferret      Direct contact


   Table 4 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Carnivore Facilities

                   Activity                                          Requirements
                                                    (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                                    leaving all animal facilities)
Enter into animal runs or pens                      Street clothes, lab coat or uniform
Cleaning procedures for caging                      Lab coat or uniform; gloves; mask
                                                    recommended
Direct contact with animals in animal facilities    Street clothes, lab coat or uniform; gloves;
or in the lab                                       mask recommended

Procedural manipulations in the lab                 Lab coat or uniform; gloves; mask
                                                    recommended




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                                                     Animal Handler Health and Safety Program


                    Table 5 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Ungulates

      Zoonosis                     Agent                   Species               Routes of
                                                                               Transmission
Q Fever                    Coxiella burnetti         Sheep, Cattle,        Aerosol or direct
                                                     Goats                 contact; especially
                                                                           when dealing with
                                                                           birth products
Tuberculosis               Mycobacterium             Sheep, Cattle,        Aerosol or direct
                           bovis, avium or           swine                 contact
                           tuberculosis
Contageous Ecthyma         Pox virus                 Sheep, Goats          Direct contact
(Orf)
Campylobacteriosis         Campylobacter jejuni      Cattle, Swine,        Fecal/oral
                                                     Sheep
Dermatomycoses             Trichophyton or           Cattle, Sheep,        Direct contact
(Ringworm)                 Microsporum spp.          Goats, Swine
Bovine Spongiform          Prion                     Cattle                Direct blood/tissue
Encephalopathy                                                             contact with infected
                                                                           tissue or
                                                                           contaminated
                                                                           material


Table 6 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Ungulate Facilities

                    Activity                                         Requirements
                                                     (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                                     leaving all animal facilities)
Entry into indoor or outdoor animal holding          Street clothes may be worn
areas
Direct contact with animals                          Street clothes covering or uniform; exam
                                                     gloves for clinical procedures; exam gloves
                                                     may not be required for socialization or
                                                     enrichment procedures
Cleaning animal holding areas (indoor or             Street clothes covering or uniform; exam or
outdoor)                                             other protective gloves. Dedicated shoes or
                                                     rubber work boots are recommended. Mask
                                                     recommended.
Contact with pregnant sheep\goats\cattle;            Street clothes covering or uniform; exam
during parturition, their birth products, bedding    gloves; mask recommended. Dedicated
and other wastes                                     shoes or rubber work boots are
                                                     recommended




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                                                      Animal Handler Health and Safety Program


         Table 7 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles


      Zoonosis                      Agent                 Species              Routes of
                                                                             Transmission
Mycobacteriosis             Mycobacterium                Fish, Frogs      Breaks in skin surface
                            xenopi, fortuitum,
                            marinum, chelonei
Salmonellosis               Salmonella spp.                 Frogs         Breaks in skin surface
Vibriosis                   Vibrio vulnificus                Fish         Breaks in skin surface



   Table 8 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Fish, Amphibians &
                                       Reptiles

                   Activity                                       Requirements
                                                  (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                                  leaving all animal facilities)
Direct handling of fish                           Exam gloves suggested; hand sanitizing
                                                  necessary
Direct handling of frogs                          Exam gloves suggested; hand sanitizing
                                                  necessary
Placing hands into the water for husbandry,       Exam gloves suggested; hand sanitizing
feeding, manipulating, etc.                       necessary




                          Table 9 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Bats

          Zoonosis                           Agent                  Route of Transmission
Rabies                            Rabies virus                  Bites
                                  (Lyssa virus)                 Scratches
                                                                Aerosol (rare)



       Table 10 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Bat Facilities

                   Activity                                        Requirements
                                                    (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                                             leaving all animal facilities)
Enter animal holding room for brief visual        Street clothes
inspection
Contact with outside of primary enclosures        Lab coat or uniform; exam gloves
Cleaning flight cages                             Lab coat or uniform; shoe covers; exam
                                                  gloves; head cover and mucous membrane
                                                  protection
Direct contact with animals                       Street clothes covering or uniform; exam
                                                  gloves; bite protective gloves as needed.




                                                 15
                                                    Animal Handler Health and Safety Program

                        Table 11 - Prevalent Zoonotic Diseases of Birds
      Zoonosis                    Agent                   Species                Routes of
                                                                               Transmission
Psitticosis               Chlamydia psittaci              Budgies          Aerosol
                                                                           Direct contact
Salmonellosis             Salmonella sp.                     All           Aerosol, bites, direct
                                                                           contact, fecal-oral
Pasteurellosis            Pasteurella multocida              All           Aerosol
Listeriosis               Listeria                           All           Direct contact
                          monocytogenes



      Table 12 – Protective Clothing Requirements for Personnel in Bird Facilities

                  Activity                                         Requirements
                                                    (Hand washing should be performed upon
                                                             leaving all animal facilities)
Enter animal holding room for brief visual        Street clothes
inspection
Contact with outside of primary enclosures        Street clothes, lab coat or uniform; exam
                                                  gloves
Cleaning flight cages                             Lab coat or uniform; shoe covers; exam
                                                  gloves; head cover; and mucous membrane
                                                  protection as appropriate
Direct contact with animals                       Street clothes, lab coat or uniform; exam
                                                  gloves; bite protection gloves for birds of prey




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